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Divorce and Children
In the 21st century the society has undergone a change, for better or worse we cannot really say. Before the mid-60's divorce was rare. Family was integral to the life of individuals and above that children were the main force of society. Miserable couples remained together for the sake of children and held their marriage vows as sacred. For them liberation and freedom came second to the happiness and stability of their children. Then came the new era where, divorce was seen as liberation. As time passed divorce laws became easier and so divorce became common. Individuality became the focus in the marriage and the children were considered a secondary issue in the marriage. It became a common belief that if the parents are forever warring, the children would be adversely affected so it is better to be separated. Yet, this belief is erroneous. The fact is…
1. Wallerstein, JS.  Children After Divorce: Wounds That Don't Heal. The Psychiatric Times: Medicine and Behavior. 8: 8-11..
2. Wallerstein, JS. Corbin SB.  The Child and the Vicissitudes of Divorce.
3. Fagan, Pat & Rector, Robert  The Effects of Divorce on America Culture of Life Foundation & Institute accessed [ http://www.christianity.com/partner/Article_Display_Page/0,,PTID4211%7CCHID129421%7CCIID261607,00.html ]
4. Stanley, S.M., & Markman, H.J. (1997, June). Acting on what we know: The hope of prevention. Paper presented at the Family Impact Seminar, Washington D.C.
The child usually finds it difficult to unite with his or her friends and research shows that kids who have come from divorced families have a hard time trusting in relationships. (Chandler L., the Social and Educational Effects of Divorce on Children).
The Function of Parents Concerning Child Alteration during Divorce.
The way in which the parents handle the separation usually makes a difference in how the child adjusts from everything from the first report of divorce to the daily lifestyle changes that divorce does to a family. The way a parent adjusts to divorce also makes a difference on the relationship of the children. (L'Heureux-Dube, C. 1998). A parent who is having troubles dealing with the sensitive consequences of a division typically develops in more issued for the children. After the divorce is the time when the child will look for stability. When that safety is not there then…
Andersson, G. (1997). The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women. European Journal of Population, 13(2), 109-109-145. doi:10.1023/A:1005803001129
Duncan, S.W. (1994). Economic impact of divorce on children's development: Current findings and policy implications. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 23(4), 444-444.
L'Heureux-Dube, C. (1998). A response to remarks by Dr. Judith Wallenstein on the long-term impact of divorce on children. Family Court Review, 36(3), 384-384-391.
Sirvanli-Ozen, D. (2005). Impacts of divorce on the behavior and adjustment problems, parenting styles and attachment styles of children: Literature review including Turkish studies. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 42(3), 127-127-151.
Amato, P., Bruce, K. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-Being of children: A meta-
Psychological Bulletin, 110(1): 2-46.
The study shows how children of divorced parents demonstrate lower well-being when measured across various factors. The study is helpful because it provides more support for the thesis and gives an alternative explanation for why children fare poorly under divorced parents, including a discussion of other external variables, such as socio-economic, etc.
Farrell, A., Mays, ., Henry, D., choeny, M. (2011). Parents as moderators of the impact of school norms and peer influences on aggression in middle school students. Child Development, 82(1): 146-161.
This study shows that parents can have a positive impact on children when they make an effort to be part of their lives. It is helpful for this project because it gives an example of how parents can do something positive for children to overcome stress.
New Testament. BibleHub.…
Study shows that the effects of divorce on child can actually be seen "in advance of the actual event" -- which indicates that the stress that leads to divorce is already acting as a factor in the child's life. The study also shows, however, that uncertainty still exists about how a child's mental health is actually impacted by this stress. The study is helpful to this project because it gives evidence of how a child's mental health is much more negatively impacted by stressed parents who ultimately divorce than by parents who do not divorce.
Wallerstein, J. (1991). The long-term effects of divorce on children: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(3): 349-360.
This study gives an overview of the research from various fields on how divorce impacts children. The review indicates that children experience psychological as well as social problems for a long period of time following divorce. The study is helpful to my project because it gives support to the thesis, which is that divorce is negatively impactful on children.
Therefore, extra attention should be given to keeping promises and basic daily routines.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Effects of divorce on children." Talk of the Nation:
National Public Radio; 1/31/2002; Pp.
Neuman, Gary M. Helping Your Kids Cope ith Divorce the Sandcastles ay.
Random House Inc. 1999; pp.4, 6.
Lansky, Vicki. Vicki Lansky's Divorce Book for Parents: Helping Your Children
Cope ith Divorce and Its Aftermath. Book Peddlers.1996; Pp. 2.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene…
Winslow, Emily B.; Wolchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
In reality, such a parent would have difficulty raising a child on his or her own and the finances that he or she previously invested in providing the child with entertaining activities need to be directed at buying more important resources for the child.
A parent who is no longer in charge of his or her child's life has practically no problems buying a great deal of things for his or her child and thus influences the child in feeling that he or she is not receiving enough attention from the parent holding custody. Children can also be affected by the fact that parents often believe that there is a competition between themselves and their peers concerning who receives the most appreciation from the child.
IV. Children's development
hereas people are well-aware that divorce can be harmful for a large number of children who see their parents getting separated, the…
Amato, Paul R. "The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family 62.4 (2000)
DeBord, Carmen, "The Effects of Divorce on Children," Retrieved November 11, 2011, from the North Carolina State University Website: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs471.pdf
Leo, John, "The Sleeper Effect," Human Life Review Fall 2000.
Palosaari, Ulla and Aro, Hillevi, "Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood,"Adolescence 29.115 (1994)
I will also solicit from individual his or her basics demographics and personal information such as rough socio-economic status ('I make approximately ($-) per month); vocational occupation; characteristics of place that respondent lives in; details of children (amount, ages, etc.) and how respondent feels program impacted his children; age children were when divorce occurred: details of support system (if any) and of extended family (if any). I will also ascertain that I am targeting individuals who have been divorced once and not remarried and that they have not introduced any other significant partner in their lives at the moment. This is so as to control for possible confounding elements. Stakeholders and participants in this sense are participants of the online / forum / chatgroup / blog environment.
Two of the ethical precautions that I will take will include coding the respondent's genuine or pseudo online identity so that he…
Bowler, G.M., Jr. (2010). Netnography: A method specifically designed to study cultures and communities online. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1270-1275.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
Teens may be especially resentful of the way this disrupts their schedules and interferes with school, friendships, work, and other usual activities (Wallerstein, 2000). And further, especially in the case of a needy, now single parent, older children and teens in particular may now face a perceived necessity of their becoming the needy parent's new and often only source of emotional support (Wallerstein). At this same time, the older child or teen's own emotional needs begin to go (and often remain) largely or entirely unmet thereafter by one or both divorced parents (Fagan).
When this occurs, the permanently life-altering; long-term damaging psychological result is often that it effectively truncates childhood or adolescence prematurely and thereby causes older children or teens to feel that they must now act like adults themselves, thus suddenly forcing them to become more independent, self-confident, selfless and self-sufficient than they genuinely feel (Wallerstein). Older children and…
Fagan, P.F. (May 14, 2004). The social scientific data on the impact of marriage and divorce on children. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2007). The effects of divorce on America.
Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation, No. 1378. http:www.elsevier.com / retrieve/pii/S0194659504000061.html.
Of course, the amount of transitions (the amount of divorce in the family) greatly increases the risk for children to settle in satisfying marriages and divorce themselves when young adults.
Protective factors reducing impact of divorce on children
The research question here is whether there are any factors that may be considered that are empirically proved to be able to mitigate the effect of divorce in children.
Within the last decade, researchers have identified various such factors each having a range of associated variables themselves.
1. Competent custodial parents and parenting: One of the best protective factors is the quality of parenting following divorce and the psychological adjustment of the custodial parents. Effective parental behavior such as warmth, nurturing, emotional support, authoritative discipline, and age appropriate behavior demonstrate the best means for providing emotional support for children as compared to parents who are withdrawn, inattentive and provide coercive discipline (Sandler…
Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
Bausermann, R. (2002). Child adjustment in joint-custody vs. sole-custody arrangements: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 91 -- 102.
Kelly, J. (2007). Children's Living Arrangements Following Separation and Divorce: Insights From Empirical and Clinical Research. Fam Proc 46,35 -- 52.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
This article is of extreme importance in this research study. It adds to the other articles mentioned by discussing the importance of protective factors in detail and urging caution when espousing a correlative relationship between cause and effect in divorce and the reaction of children.
eon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, eon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), eon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. eon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, eon (2003) found…
Leon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, Leon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), Leon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. Leon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, Leon (2003) found results that were remarkably similar to Amato's, noting that children with divorced parents tended to be associated with developmental problems such as being withdrawn or having behavior problems. However, it would be easy to argue that other factors were responsible for these results. In addition, interpreting the results of these tests was made difficult by various factors that might lead to their invalidation, such as the fact that the data was collected from self-report surveys (Leon, 2003). Still Leon (2003) concludes that divorce certainly impacts the lives of young children very greatly and the developmental level of young children should determine how professionals such as psychologists respond to the issue of divorce in the child's home. Further, while parenting skills were important mitigating factors for both older and younger children after divorce, Leon (2003) points out that for younger children, it is most important that parents be warm and loving.
Impacts of Divorce on Children
a. While divorce can be the lesser of two evils, divorce nonetheless can affect any involved children in many ways.
II. Positive Effects
a. Children feel a sense of relief
b. They are happier if the parents thrive after splitting up
c. Happier but split parents mean happier kids
d. Shared custody can be much better than a volatile household
e. Modeling that leaving a dysfunctional relationship is a good thing
III. Negative Effects
a. Children might act out at school
b. Single parent families can be cash-strapped
c. The effects of the divorce can extend into the child’s adult life
d. The take offense to one parent verbally assaulting the other
e. Stress of some sort is normal and expected
a. Parents should work things out if possible, but some marriages should end if certain lines are cross or attempts…
Among the factors which this article elucidates are necessary to be considered, Hetherington et al. indicate that "the long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se." (Hetherington et al., 303)
From a clinical treatment perspective, the article by Konstam (2009) is particularly useful. This presents the view that for those verging on adulthood who experience the divorce of parents, there is a more sophisticated and thus more complex sense of loss which is difficult to interpret. This is experienced differently than the dissolution of a marriage for young children who may lack the wherewithal to have observed clear warning signs. Here, Konstam suggests that clinical assistance can be a valuable resource for contending with issues…
Amato, P. (2000). The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 11-26.
Amato, P. & Cheadle, J.(2008). Parental divorce, marital conflict and children's behavior problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children. Social Forces, 83
Baker, a. (2005). The Long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children:
Few people would say that divorce helps children except in cases of abuse. Divorce can create tremendous confusion in children of any age. One of the keys to preventing psychological, behavioral, or social problems is honesty. A non-profit group called Health Guide offers advice for parents going through a divorce. The organization recommends honesty and communication as keys to helping children cope and preventing mental or behavioral health problems. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry also recommends age-appropriate honesty and openness. The Health Guide also points out that many children "go through their parents' divorce with relatively few problems or permanent negative effects." Those children who experience acute stress require special care and attention.
Depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, and a lack of interest in those things that used to give the child pleasure are some of the psychological symptoms of childhood stress. A divorce could add to existing…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children and Divorce." May 2008. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_divorce
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Generation Ex." The Nation. Nov 27, 2000. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20001211/cherlin
Gallagher, Maggie. "The Divorce Thing." National Review Online. Aug 13, 2003. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-gallagher081303.asp
Help Guide.org. "Coping with Divorce." Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.helpguide.org/mental/children_divorce.htm
A good number of studies over the years have linked deviant behaviors such as juvenile delinquency and anti-social behavior to children living in broken homes (Bandura & Walters in Demo & Acock, 1988, p.636). Dornbusch et al.'s (in ibid.) nationwide study among 12-17 male and female children of divorced families found that adolescents living in household with only their mothers performing the sole parent role are more likely to engage in deviant acts while the presence of an additional adult lessens the likelihood of committing deviant acts.
Long have we known about the negative effects of divorce, I believe it is high time to look at the under-acknowledged domain of the divorce literature, i.e. The positive effects of divorce. According to Hetherington & Kelly in Lyons (2002, p.1), three-fourths of the children from divorced families have actually grown to be resilient and lead lives with healthy…
Cooney, T.M. et al. (1995). Surviving the Break-Up? Predictors of Parent-Adult Child Relations After Parental Divorce. Family Relations, 44, 153-161.
Demo, DH & Acock, a.C. (1988). The Impact of Divorce on Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 619-648.
Henning, J.S. & Oldham, J.T. (1977). Children of Divorce: Legal and Psychological Crises. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 55-58.
Lyons, L. (2002). Gallup Tuesday Briefing. Kids and Divorce 1, 1-3.
One such area is how divorce affects the children of divorce once they are married and have children of their own. Do they have difficulty committing? Are they more likely to delay marriage? Answers to these types of questions may prove beneficial to examining further the long-term effects of divorce on children.
esources in Palm Spring California include family and individual counseling services throughout the city. Some of these resources include The Counseling Center located at 1111 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for the counseling center is (760) [HIDDEN] In addition, there is the Smoketree Counseling Services located at 2825 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for smoketree is (760) [HIDDEN] Additionally there are other counselors in the area specializing in therapy as it relates to divorce. One such therapist is Nancy Ackerman. She has more…
Jeynes, W.H. (2001). The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children's Consumption of Alcohol. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 305. Retrieved February 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lengua, L.J.,Wolchik S.A., Sandler I.N., West S.G.(2000) The Additive and Interactive effects of Parenting and Temperament in Predicting Adjustment Problems in Children of Divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 29 (2), p.232.
Love, K.M. And Murdock T. (2004) Attachment to Parents and Psychological well being: An Examination of young Adult College Student in intact Families and Step Families Journal of Family Psychology. 18 (4)
Nielsen, L. (1999). College Aged Students with Divorced Parents: Facts and Fiction. College Student Journal, 33(4), 543.
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
Data will be collected using a survey instrument. The instrument will be designed by researchers for the purposes of this particular study and will feature two sections. The first section will ask for some brief familial and biographical information. First and foremost, the survey will ask the life and marital status of the respondents' parents, accounting for single mothers, single fathers, legal non-biological guardians, divorced parents, remarried parents and married parents. This section will also ask for information regarding siblings and other particulars of the family living situation. Surveys will not ask for names or other individual identifiers, insuring anonymity and privacy for all respondents.
In the second section of the survey, aata will be collected using a Fixed Alternatives Likert Scale survey. Here, 20 statements will be presented to the respondent. The respondent will be asked to circle one of five numbered responses:
-2. Strongly Disagree
Ananat & Michaels (2008) concur with the emphasis on income being the deciding factor upon the divorced child's success. They found that divorce significantly "increases women's odds of having very high or very low income. In other words, while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal earnings through child support, welfare, combining households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly unsuccessful. e conclude that by raising both poverty and inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences" (Ananat & Michaels 2008). Some women use divorce as a vehicle of self-empowerment, for other women who are unable to compensate, poverty becomes more severe in a single-income household. Another interesting finding of Ananat & Michael's research is that "having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up," and this may account for the lower incomes of children with divorce, if women still tend to earn less than…
Ananat, E., & G. Michaels. (2008). The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of women with children. The Journal of Human Resources, 43(3), 611. Retrieved August
9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1521034461).
Steele, F., W. Sigle-Rushton, & Y. Kravdal. (2009). Consequences of family disruption on children's educational outcomes in Norway. Demography, 46(3), 553-574. Retrieved
August 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1799973811).
Divorce is one of the bitter truths of life and is taking place in innumerable families worldwide. It can prove to be an upsetting experience for the parents. However, both the parties should think of their children before taking any decision as divorce affects the lives of the children in a real bad way.
These days, it is totally impossible for people to ignore the substantial and extensive consequences of divorce. The social scientists believe that the ever increasing rate of parents separating or ending their marriages is not only bad for the society but is also an upsetting and destructive experience for the children. The divorce not only has the tendency to devastate a whole household or family life but it also affects the education acquirement process, job reliability, income likely, physical health, and emotional well-being of the family members. Children of divorced parents involve themselves in alcohol and…
Fagan, P.F., and Robert R. "The Effects of Divorce on America." World and I Oct. Questia. Web. 31 May 2012. .
Kelly, J.B., and R.E. Emery . "Children's Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives." Family Relations. (2003): 352-362. Print.
Koplewicz, H.S., and A. Gurian. "Divorce and Children." Child Study Center. September/October 2001: n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
McCoy, J. "Divorce Matters." Family Life. 3. (1996): n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
Divorce as an experience is never easy for anyone, not the adults and especially not the children, on which the effects of divorce can take a serious toll. However, there are some factors that play a significant role in determining the impact of that experience for the child. Age, the way the entire procedure of divorce is handled, how mature parents have behaved throughout it, how the environment of the home remained pre and post divorce all are instrumental in effecting the psychological well-being of the child, whose mind is still young enough to develop imprints that can last a lifetime (University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension, n.d).
The effects of the breaking up of a family can be very consequential for the growing up child, and can even result in effects like having sex before the age of 16, getting pregnant at a young age like 20, including the…
Alastair McPhee, F.C. (2009). Disruptive Behaviour within the classroom: an ecosystemic view of pupil behaviour. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from University of Glasgow: https://dspace.gla.ac.uk/bitstream/1905/805/3/McPhee_Craig.pdf
Ceridian Corporation. (n.d). Helping Children deal with Change. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from Georgia 4-H: http://georgia4h.org/omk/edresources/KidsAndChange.pdf
Pow, H. (2011, May 8th). Divorce's toll borne by Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from The Sunday Telegraph: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/divorces-toll-borne-by-children/story-fn6e0s1g-1226051650069
University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. (n.d). The Effects of Divorce on Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from UNH: http://extension.unh.edu/Family/Documents/divorce.pdf
They can go one of two ways, if they have social and emotional problems brought on by the divorce. They can spend their teenage years being wild and out-of-control, or they can spend them as a virtual recluse, rarely leaving their rooms except to go to mandatory functions such as school. Neither one of these options is very good, and both can lead to more problems later on in life.
When children become wild and hard to control, parents are often at a loss as to how to help them. It is difficult enough to control a wild, unruly teenager when there are two parents in the house, but much more difficult when there is only one parent. To compound the problem, that single parent often works two jobs or long hours to provide food, clothing, and shelter for himself or herself and the children. This absence from the house…
Ahrons, C.R. & Tanner, J.L. (2003) Adult children and their fathers: Relationship changes 20 years after parental divorce. Family Relations, 52: 340-351.
Amato, P. & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital stability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63: 1038-1051.
Biblarz, T.J., & Gottainer, G. (2000) Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families. Journal of Marriage and Family. 62: 533-548.
Hetherington, E.M. (2003) Intimate pathways: changing patterns in close personal relationships across time. Family Relations, 52: 318-331.
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…
Others, however, have argued that children do not become familiar with the new spouse, seeing him or her as a stranger, which might suggest that stress is furthered rather than reduced in these children. According to Jeynes (1998), tension between biological parents can seriously impact the child, as can the fact that new, unstable marriages are likely to end in divorce (p. 25). Because of this tension and stress Jeynes (1998) points out that children can become angry, aggressive, and unhappy (p. 26). Thus, the body of literature regarding the effects of remarriage on children varies widely. One fact, however, remains. Divorce and remarriage causes stress in children, and this stress can explain many of the negative affects that they receive after remarriage. emarriage, in some cases, however, also brings stability, which can explain the positive affects, such as increased academic achievement, that these children exemplified.
Jeynes, William H.…
Jeynes, William H. (1998). A Historical Overview on the Research on the effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children. The School Community Journal. 8(1), 23-30.
Divorce on Children
Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…
5). While divorce can lead to safety for children and adults caught in violent and abusive relationships, it can also lead to increased violence down the line. Studies indicate that children who grow up in abusive situations often tend to become abusive themselves as adults, and this means that abuse and violence could continue to grow in our culture as these children grow up and continue the ongoing cycle of abuse and violence.
Another bedrock of American culture is religion, and divorce goes against many religious teachings. The freedom to worship any religion we please is a foundation of the country and our culture, and religious worship tends to go down in divorced families. Fagan and ector continue, "eligious worship, which has been linked to health and happiness as well as longer marriages and better family life, is less prevalent in divorced families" (Fagan, and ector). This means that…
Butler, Ian, et al. Divorcing Children: Children's Experience of Their Parents' Divorce. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2003.
Cozort, Larry a. "Is the Tax Court Becoming a Divorce Court? The Answer Could Change How the Innocent Spouse Rules Are Interpreted." Journal of Accountancy 195.2 (2003): 35+.
Doherty, William J., et al. "Why Marriage Matters: Twenty-One Conclusions from the Social Sciences." New York: Institute for American Values, 2002.
Editors. "Divorce Statistics." Divorce Magazine. 2005. 5 Nov. 2008. http://www.divorcemag.com/statistics/statsUS.shtml
More of them end up in mental health clinics and hospital settings. There is earlier sexual activity, more children born out of wedlock, less marriage, and more divorce. Numerous studies show that adult children of divorce have more psychological problems than those raised in intact marriages." (Kupelian, 2005) it is reported in the work entitled: "Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process" that the high divorce rate has caused family therapists to search for ways for families to make necessary transitions during divorce in what is termed a structural marriage separation. While this cannot assure happiness for couples or their children this method is clearly preferable to the chaos that often ensues when a couple separates. (Mize, Nelson, Sutter, and Mize, 2005)
Summary & Analysis
The factual evidence provided in this case which is under analysis was provided in a brief sketch only which…
Kupelian, D. (2005) How America Can End Its Divorce Epidemic. World Net Daily 7 April 2005. http://www.stolenvows.com/epidemic.htm
Waite, L.J.; Browning, D.; Doherty, W.J.; Gallagher, M.; Luo, Ye; and Stanley, S.(2002) Does Divorce Make People Happy? Findings from a Study of Unhappy Marriages. Institute for American Values. 2002, New York, NY http://www.americanvalues.org/UnhappyMarriages.pd
Mize, L.K.; Nelson, K.; Sutter, E.; and Mize, M.J. (2005) Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process.
Wallerstein, Judith S.; and Lewis, Julia M. (2004) the Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: Report of a 25-Year Study. Psychoanalytic Psychology 21:353-370. 2004.
The author notes that little research is accorded to children's diminished psychosocial behavior following divorce. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (n=10,061), he examines the associations between divorce and children's outcome and suggests that divorce is associated with diminished psychosocial well-being in children thereby explaining the connection between divorce and lower academic achievement.
The study is useful for my research since it mentions psychosocial factors. Nonetheless, I find author's conclusions shaky for at least three reasons: firstly, author limited his study to children of kindergarten age therefore conclusions cannot be generalized to children of all ages; secondly, many more variables must taken into consideration regarding resulting low academic achievement; thirdly, children's academic level prior to divorce must be considered too.
. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my…
3. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my research since it connects past and present material on divorce concluding with gaps and research questions that still need to be addressed.
The author observes that research on divorce during the past decade focused on a range of topics that included associations between divorce and the well being of children and former spouses, interventions for divorcing couples, and predictors for divorce. Methodology generally employed longitudinal studies, genetically informed designs, and statistical models that controlled for possible confounding variables. Current trends are to focus on the number of family transitions (e.g. quantity of divorce, remarriage etc.). The author concludes with description of existent gaps in the literature and suggestions for new directions in research.
The break-up of a marriage involving children in the middle childhood stage is an increasingly frequent occurrence in modern society. Children experience these divorces in a variety of ways, depending on the quality of the relationship between the parents and children. Either way, the effect upon self-esteem could be significant. Children learn behavior patterns from parents. When parents face self-esteem issues from being unable to make their relationship work, this will undoubtedly affect children as well. Children might also blame themselves for the break-up of the marriage, and thus carry this often unnamed burden with them until adulthood. A divorce could therefore be a devastating thing for children, and careful attention should be paid to possible therapy options.
Parents that stay together regardless of endless conflict could be equally damaging for the development of self-esteem in middle childhood. Constant hostility and tension between parents could badly affect the growth…
Kim, Lauren S. (April, 1997). "Locus of control as a stress moderator and mediator in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Lengua, Liliana J. (December, 1996). "Self-regulation as a moderator of the relation between coping and symptomatology in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Wolchik, Sharlene A. (August, 2002). "Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…
In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…
Belland, B.G. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech Research Dev., 21(9), 79-89.
Bodrova, E. & . (1998). Scaffolding emergent writing in the zone of proximal development. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 21(8), 1-18.
Clay, M.M. (2005, June 6). Literacy lessons designed for individuals: Teaching procedures. NH: Heinemann. Atlanta, Georgia.
Rodgers, E.M. (2004). Interactions that scaffold reading performance. Journal of Literacy Research, 12(7), 23-67.
The Significance of Present-Day Changes in the Institution of Marriage:
Today, it is a fact that more and more marriages are becoming impermanent and less long lasting than they ever have been before. What is the cause for this phenomenon? Levi-Strauss maintain that today, there is an equal division of labor, and as a direct consequence, what happens is that the rights and responsibilities between both the partners of opposite sexes becomes equalized, and as a result, there is less dependence of one partner on the other. Perhaps the so called 'woman's movement' may have also contributed to this type of occurrence, and various other changes in society, including a considerable lessening of housework, and also the sexual revolution that took place during the sixties may also have contributed to the upsetting of the balance of the equation between men and women. Consider housework, for example, today. (Nazzari, pp:…
Coughlan, W.G. Marriage Breakdown. In A.P. Elkin (ed) Marriage and the Family in Australia. Angus and Robertson, 1957.
Eekelaar, John. Regulating Divorce.
Clarendon Press, 1991.
Glendon, Mary Ann. The Transformation of Family Law: State, Law and family in the United
Divorce and Communication
In the past few decades, divorces have become much more common than they traditionally were. Lack of communication has been identified by psychologists, marriage counselors, and clergy members as the main reason why families end in divorce. The last-reported U.S. divorce rate for a calendar year, available as of May, 2005, was .38% divorces per capita per year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). Since every divorce involves two people, the percentage becomes somewhat more meaningful if you double it; for example, .74% of the entire population gets divorced every year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). This paper will first analyze the divorce statistics in the United States, along with a discussion of the issue of communication as it relates to the reasons behind divorce, family breakups, conflict in marriage caused by different cultures, lack of friendship in a marriage, and what can be done to…
Boland, J.P. & Follingstad, D.R. (1987). The relationship between communication and marital satisfaction: a review. J Sex Marital Ther. 13(4), 286-313.
Dreyfus, Edward. (2002). Making your Marriage Work. Retrieved June 28, 2005 from http://www.planetpsych.com/psychology101/relationships/making_marriage_work.htm .
National Center for Health Statistics. (2005). Divorce Rates in the United States. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from http://www.divorce.rates.reform.com
Segrin, Chris; Taylor, Melissa; Altman, Julie. (2005). Social cognitive mediators and relational outcomes associated with parental divorce. Journal of Social and Personal
Child abuse and all of its aspects, affect not only the child and his immediate family, but society as a whole pays the price by this maltreatment of our youngest and most important resources. The purpose of this essay is to present two differing hypotheses on this interesting and important topic. In examining these two proposals, I'm attempting to reach new understanding and preventive measures to reducing and hopefully eliminating child abuse in the near future.
H1: Child sexual abuse incidence and future substance abuse incidence is positively correlated.
Determining risk factors for substance-abuse is often difficult with the amount of information available to the authorities today. Psychological and physiological variables certainly affect one's tendency to drift towards substance abuse and dependence. When looking at those who do abuse drugs or alcohol the upbringing and treatment of that person as a child may hold certain keys to understanding this dreaded…
Appel, A. & Holden, G (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: a review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-579.
Putnam, F. (2003). Ten-year research update review: child sexual abuse. ACAD Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42-3,268-278.
here are the articles if you want to read them:
All of the couples shared the following conditions: both living in Israel, divorced for at least 1 1/2 years, at least one child between 2 and 16 years of age, and the mother having custody (Nehami, 2003). Furthermore, the fathers all had contact with their children after the divorce, which is not universal (Nehami, 2003). This is a very specific sample. It would be difficult to suggest that the study would generalize to all people. It might generalize to all divorced people in Israel sharing the same characteristics, which would be a significantly large population. However, different legal systems are going to show bias towards fathers or towards mothers, which changes the nature of the divorce process. In fact, in some areas, men must be the initiators of divorce, so that would not even be a variable. Therefore, in many ways, this study simply cannot be generalized to different populations.…
Nehami, B. (2003). Divorced process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents. Family Process 42, a (1): 117-31.
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.
Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.
The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…
Business Wire (2000). McLean Researchers document brain damage linked to child abuse and neglect. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on April 16,
2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2000_Dec_14/ai_68013850/?tag=content;col1
Lapp, K.G.; Bosworth, H.B.; Strauss, J.L.; Stechuchak, K.M., et al. (2005). Lifetime
sexual and physical victimization among male veterans with combat-related Post-
As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.
These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).
Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…
Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family
Journal, 13(4), 452-455.
Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Children cope with Divorce
In today's world, people are increasingly becoming independent as well as less compromising. There was a time when people used to value marriage, children and were understanding towards each other and had the capacity to work their differences in order to live together in harmony and peace. The case today is quite the opposite. We see a hike in the statistics of divorce and separations for various reasons.
People tend to argue that women are now more independent and do not need a man to complete them. This may be so but this freedom is definitely making them more focused on themselves which sometimes leads to a stubborn, uptight attitude and leads to a divorce. Men on the other hand, tend to still have those dominating attitudes where they want to be the head of the household and can simply not tolerate any interference towards that…
Butler, Ian. Divorcing Children: Children's experience of their parent's divorce. Jessica Kingsley Publications, 2003.
Hetherington, E. Mavis. Coping with Divorce, Single Parenting, and Remarriage: A Risk and Resiliency Perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum Associations, 1999.
Isaacs, Marla Beth. The Difficult Divorce: Therapy for Children and Family. Basic Books, 1986.
Kelly, Joan B. Surviving the Breakup: How children and parents cope with divroce. Basic Books, 1996.
Divorce Affects Children and Teenagers
This paper presents a discussion about how divorce affects children and teenagers. The writer takes a sociological path in exploring the long-term affects on the individuals and then how that related to society. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
During the last four decades the divorce rate began to climb not only in America but also across the globe. As families began to live in separate houses researchers took on the task of studying the affects of the divorce on children and teenagers (Dunn, 1999). Now, four decades later the results are in and the experts agree divorce has an undeniable negative impact on children and teenagers. This is not to say the negative impact cannot be counterbalanced but it must be recognized as a given for groups of people affected by divorce if the world wants to correct the affects from…
Karen Thomas, On the Adolescent Hot Line: The sensitive issues Parents' divorce can compound the tough teen years., USA Today, 10-12-1998, pp 04D.
Ross Dunn (VOA-Jerusalem), Study: Children Affected by Divorce., Israel Faxx, 02-11-1999.
Author not available, CHILDREN DO SUFFER MOST FROM A DIVORCE., USA Today, 01-22-1996.
Wheaton, Blair. 1990. "Life Transitions, Role Histories, and Mental Health." American Sociological Review 55:209-23.
The objective of this study is to answer the question of whether the popular argument that children are better off when divorce makes one or both of the child's parents happier is true as argued by arbara Defoe Whitehead.
The work of arbara Dafoe Whitehead gained attention when she wrote the book 'The Divorce Culture'. Whitehead speaks of 'expressive divorce' or the notion that "divorce is an instrument for self-development, self-actualization, self-expression -- that is a way to be a new and better me. That is, one is obligated to pursue divorce if it seems to promise greater personal happiness and that obligation comes before other obligations in the marital commitment." (Miller, 1997) However, Dafoe additionally states divorce has "…hurt children…has created economic insecurity and disadvantage for many children who would not otherwise be economically vulnerable. It has led to more fragile and unstable family households. It has…
Whitehead, Barbara Dafoe (nd) The Making of a Divorce Culture.
Baskersville, Stephen, Ph.D. (2004) Strengthening Marriage Through Divorce and Custody Reform. The Family in America. The Howard Center for Family, Religion and Society. May 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.profam.org/pub/fia/fia_1805.htm
Gallagher, Maggie (1997) First things: End No-Fault Divorce?. Leadership University. Aug/Sept 1997. Retrieved from: http://www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9708/articles/gallagher.html
Smiley, Jane (2010) Divorce! It's Good for the Children! The Huffington Post. 12 Nov 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jane-smiley/divorce-its-good-for-the-_b_782469.html
Couples might do everything that they are required to do and follow all the rules. They will never work if one's personal standpoint with regards to marriage is defective. They need to work on solving their marital issue because they believe in and want to cherish its value. It will never produce the same effect if a couple is seeking out ways to make it seem valuable. A majority of therapists who work on the problems of others might have been divorced themselves and are in the business just for the money. They are just professionals who are certified as a therapist based on their education. They are far from being perfect and can even induce couples to actually go through with divorce when they find themselves hopelessly ineffective in a particular situation. A lot of couples still go for marital therapy even though they are aware of such occurrences.…
Ambert, A.M (2009). Divorce: Facts, Causes & Consequences Contemporary Family Trends, 17 -- 25.
Gardner, J. & Oswald, A.J.(2005) Do Divorcing Couples become happier by breaking up ? Journal of the Royal Statistical Soceity
Waters, T.(2003) Premarital Counseling in the Church. Retrieved from http://www.tiu.edu/cmx/seniors03/waters.pdf
Erlangsen, A. & Andersson, G.(2001) The impact of children on divorce risks in the first and later marriages.
Rising Divorce Rates
The Need for and Purpose of the Project
Impact of Divorce on Children
Chapter 5-Conclusions, Summary and Recommendations,
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Divorce has become popular throughout the many years it has existed and divorce rates continue to increase. More than a million people a year get a divorce (Tucker-Ladd 35). Young couples are more commonly known to get a divorce, than those who have been married for two or three years (35). Forty percent of men and fifty percent of women are divorced before that age of thirty (35). About fifteen to twenty percent of people ages 35 to 55 are now currently divorced (35). About twenty percent of marriages last less than fifteen years (35). Recent statistics say that sixty-five to seventy percent of new marriages will fail (35).
There is one thing in…
Berry, Dawn Bradley. "The divorce recovery sourcebook." Los Angeles: Lowell
House, c 1998
Bienenfeld, Florence Ph. D, M.F.C.C. "Do It Yourslef Conflict Resolution for Couples." Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press, 2000.
Cavin, Shelly Smith. "Personality Types and Interpersonal Communication."
oth death and divorce are extreme experiences in a child's life and both can have a wide range of native psychological and developmental repercussions. Divorce is seen by many experts to be a potentially extremely traumatic experience in the life of the child. This of course does not mean to say that the impact of death is not equally traumatic. However, while the very young child may not be aware enough to be impacted by the death of parent, the effects of divorce are often felt over a longer long period and can be extremely traumatic for the child's sense of identify and self-worth. As an expert states, " divorce undermines this nurturing atmosphere. Children are very much affected by the disruption and absence of a unified two-parent home environment." (Dueck)
In essence this means that any traumatic event, whether it be death or divorce, that destroys or…
Generation At Risk. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.rainbows.org/statistics.html
Dueck, Ami. DIVORCE AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD. 2004. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:fjUsSic3ZV8J:www.fotf.ca/tfn/family/PDF/Divorce_impact.pdf+%22contact+with+a+non-custodial+parent+should+not+be+taken+lightly%22%22&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en
SELF TYPES & THEIR DIFFERENCES ACROSS GENERATIONS
AND THE LIFE-CYCLE. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/socpsy-6.html
We are essentially powerless to prevent all dysfunctions - but, the mental health and social support structures within communities have the responsibility to do as much as they possibly can to promote healthy family life for all. This support often involves early identification of dysfunctional families, counseling, disruption of negative patterns. The schools, churches, hospitals and any other institution both public and private have a responsibility to reach out and try to help those who are suffering - and often that suffering must be alleviated at the source, the dysfunctional family.
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant irthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk ehaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning…
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant Birthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning Perspectivesq 33.5 (2001): 206(5).
Martin, Don and Maggie Martin. "Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the at-Risk Adolescent." Adolescence 35.140 (2000): 785(4).
Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).
The eligious Theory
The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…
Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.
Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.
Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Meantime, the Hetherington and Kelly study that Portnoy references tracked 1,300 families over a twenty-year period and their results showed that children of divorce "do less well than other children" and they do "struggle to cope with the divorce" (p. 127). However, the Hetherington / Kelly results showed that by two years following the divorce "80%" of the children in those 1,300 families "are not significantly different on measure of adjustment" -- when compared to children from intact families (Portnoy, p. 127).
Portnoy summarizes some of the problems that children of divorce suffer through during their adolescence: they show "conduct disorders, antisocial behaviors" and difficult with "authorities" (p. 128). They are also "two to three times more likely to engage in adolescent delinquent behavior" than their peers from families that stayed together.
Meanwhile Julie Ensign and colleagues present a slightly different picture of what happens to the children of divorce.…
Ensign, Julie, Scherman, Avraham, and Clark, Jennifer J. (1998). The relationship of family
Structure and conflict to levels of intimacy and parental attachment in college students.
Adolescence, 33(131), 575-583.
Portnoy, Sandford. M. (2008). The psychology of divorce: a lawyer's primer. American Journal
Are Social Networking and Sites Increasing the Rate of Divorce?
The first element of this hypothesis is: are divorce rates really increasing? Generalized references to divorce seem to consistently say "the divorce rate is increasing" and "50% of all U.S. marriages end in divorce." However, if 50% of all U.S. marriages ended in divorce in 1980, and the same percentage in 1990 and the same in 2000 and the same in 2010, then at least in that respect, the rate of divorce is not increasing. According to "Divorce Rates," the per capita rate of divorce in the U.S. was: "1991, 0.47%; 1992, 0.48%; 1993, 0.46%; 1994, 0.46%; 1995, 0.46%; 1995, 0.43%; 1997, 0.43%; 1998, 0.42%; 1999, 0.41%; 2000, 0.41%; 2001, 0.40%; 2002, 0.38%; 2005, 0.36%" (Americans for Divorce Reform, 2006), and according to the "Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog," the divorce rate in 2010 was 0.36% (Divorce Statistics…
Americans for Divorce Reform. (2006). Divorce Rates - Divorce Statistics. Retrieved from divorcereform.org: http://www.divorcereform.org/rates.html
Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. (2011, July 1). Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. Retrieved from familylaw.typepad.com: http://familylaw.typepad.com/stats/
Kendall, T.D. (2010). The Relationship Between Internet Access and Divorce Rate. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Volume 32, Number 3, 449-460.
Live Science Staff. (2010, January 26). College-Educated Women More Likely to Stay Married. Retrieved from livescience.com: http://www.livescience.com/8049-college-educated-women-stay-married.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Livesciencecom+ (LiveScience.com+Science+Headline+Feed)
Also, given the new family set-up that will be brought about by the divorce, it is then considered important to provide financial assistance to the children and/or spouse (if needed). An impending divorce can be submitted to mediation before starting a court action. In this process, a neutral party shall be known as the Mediator will assist the couple in working out and settling their divorce issues. Through this process, the husband and wife will be given an opportunity to amicably settle their financial and marital differences and come up with divorce solutions such as financial assistance (aab, 2001).
Again, let me reiterate that this paper has taken the mediation route whereby the process of working out a couple's marital differences with the help of a mediator is suggested. Why have we taken this route, you may ask. Again, note that mediation proceedings help the husband and wife…
Raab, H. (2001). Alternatives to Litigation. Retrieved from http://www.collaborativefamilylawfl.com/raab-divorce-in-florida.html on May 22, 2009.
SFLK (2006). Dealing with Divorce Depression. Retrieved from http://www.sfla.co.uk/divorcedepression.htm on May 22, 2009.
Tesler, P.H. & Thompson, P. (n.d.). The Emotional Roller Coaster of Divorce. Retrieved from http://www.womansdivorce.com/emotional-stages-of-divorce.html on May 22, 2009.
"Is Reconciliation an Option" (n.d). Retrieved from http://savemarriagetips.com/is_reconciliation_option.php on May 22, 2009
divorce, which by definition is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties and the legal process has to be followed, The research aims at bringing out the causes and the impact or effects of divorce by so doing the paper will highlight some causes and effects about the topic and then arguments supporting the ideas will be spell based on supporting references.
Divorce is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties, many at times the approval of court of law and in some cases other legal authorities are needed to authenticate this process. This process features many issues like spousal support, where children are involved we have child support and custody and finally we have distribution of property.
Subsequently to the refinement, marriage came to be well thought-out as a common bond that is among the non-Catholic expanses based on this ground civil authorities…
Blackstone (1984), "Commentaries on the Laws of England" p. 435 (Legal Classics Library spec. ed.
Pamela J. Smock, (1993) "The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young Women over the Past Two Decades." Demography 30: 353-371.
Robert Coombs (1991), "Marital Status and Personal Well-Being" A Literature Review," Family Relations 40:97-102; I.M. Joung, et al.
Rowd, Alisha (2011), "Common Causes of Divorce." 3 Jan. 2008 EzineArticles.com. 8 Feb.
Position -- Against Divorce
Audience -- a couple that is in the danger of getting divorce
Marriage comprises of many changes and challenges and is the largest step that anyone makes. It is considered that the marriage of a Christian with great care and it is an occasion of great celebration. Marriage between two individuals is an event of great public celebration of God's grace and blessing. (Before you marry) Divorce is an event of failure and is considered as an individual disaster. Most religions consider divorce to be involving in sinful violation of God's law. (Bible Solutions to Divorce Problems) The present day's problem is the prevalent support for divorce and the common occurrence of divorce. Today, it is a fact that more and more marriages are becoming impermanent and less long lasting than they ever have been before. I am against the issue of getting divorced in…
Before you marry. Retrieved from http://www.stjudeparish.com/growth/prep/marriage/default.asp
Accessed on 12 October 2005
Champion, John. The Engine of a Matrilineal Society: Alternative Routes. Retrieved from http://www.ukmm.org.uk/publics/flj.htm Accessed on 12 October 2005
Hicks, Olan. Bible Solutions to Divorce Problems. Retrieved from http://www.theophilus.org/divorce.html Accessed on 12 October 2005
Marriage and the Bible: Understanding the Concept
In ancient Israel, marriage was largely a social construct arranged between parents for their children -- divorce was possible but largely for the very rich, and even the Old Testament presumption was that marriage was a lasting, lifelong covenant (Elwell 1996: 346). The custom of marriage was often that of a "family" affair, with the parents governing the union rather than the personal will of the participants (Elwell 1996: 740). Today, marriage is largely considered a matter of personal choice without theological significance, much less an analog to the relationship of humanity and God (Elwell 1996:743). Although some aspects of the modern conception of marriage may seem to have positive benefits, in terms of its stress upon the spiritual bonds between individuals rather than social needs, the Biblical concept of marriage as that of a permanent union that cannot be dissolved because of…
Elwell, W. (1996). Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Baker Publishing Group.
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
Child Sex Trafficking
Human Trafficking is occurring all around the world and also in the United States. This is not just a crime that is committed in other countries. There have been cases reported by the authorities in every single state. Those victimized are at every age from adults to young children of both genders. Based on federal reporting it is estimated that the number of persons exploited sexually for money or trafficked are in the thousands (DOJ, 2007). Some are brought into the U.S. from other countries and the number of citizens that are trafficked in the U.S. are unknown officially. The primary sex crimes being includes child exploitation, prostitution, and pornography (Keane, 2006).
The age range of children involved in sexual trafficking is as early as 12 years old. Those of school age that do not live with their biological parents are often targeted. Children are often targeted…
Carr, B. (2009). Sex trafficking: an American problem too. CNN. Nov 25. TBS.
Department of Justice DOJ (2005). Report on state human rights. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/united_states_of_america
Eisenmenger, L. (2011). Sex trafficking in the U.S., What really goes on. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://goodmenproject.com/ethics-values/child-sex-trafficking-in-the-usa-what-really-goes-on/
Freyd, J.J, Putnam, F.W, Lyon, T.D, BeckerBlease, K. A, Cheit, R.E, Siegel, N.B, and Pezdek, K. (2005). The science of child sexual abuse. Science, pp. 501.
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
Divorce / Counseling
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2009 in the United States there were approximately 1,077,000 marriages. That is 6.8 people per 1,000 citizens got married. On the other hand, 3.4 persons per 1,000 were divorced. That includes data from the U.S. Census, and 44 of the 50 states were included in the data. Using data from an earlier Census, the CDC reports that in 2002, the "probability of a first marriage ending in separation or divorce" within 5 years after the couple was married is 20% (CDC). The probability of a "premarital cohabitation" (that is, people living together but not joining in matrimony) ending in separation within 5 years is 49%. And after ten years, the probability "…of a first marriage ending is 33%, compared with 62% for cohabitations" (CDC). These statistics, especially relating to the high percentage of people who get…
Bernard, Janine M. (1981). The Divorce Myth. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 60(2), 67-72.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). New Report Sheds Light on Trends and Patterns in Marriage, Divorce, and Cohabitation. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/02news/div_mar_cohab.htm .
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Marriage and Divorce. Retrieved November
22, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/fastats/divorce.htm .
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
divorce affects the personality of Latino children
Family normally indicates to a group of persons directly associated with kinship, wherein the adult members are liable for the care of their children. The kinship involves genetic ties or ties coming out of marriage. Marriage is considered to be a sexual union between two adults, socially recognized and approved. Marriage and therefore the family in western societies are related to monogamy. A major change has emerged in the common structure of family life during the post-war periods. A high proportion of women participated in the paid labor force, which has a direct impact on growth of divorce and considerable numbers of children are forced to reside either in single parent households or with stepfamilies. Cohabitation has progressively become normal in many of the industrial nations. Many other forms of social and sexual relationship are about to flourish in the future. Still marriage…
"Chapter 15: the Family and Intimate Relationships" Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter15/welcome.htm
Accessed 8 November, 2005
"Child Psychology Lesson 1. Issues in Child Development" Retrieved from http://www.kuce.org/isc/previews/psyc/psyc333_lesson.html
'Children in the Middle" Retrieved from http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/print.cfm?pkProgramid=207
deduce the effects of parenting on the process of coping for a child, as parents take divorces or get separated. The data sample includes children aged between 9 to 12 years. These effects are being reviewed by studying the changes induced by intervention in a mother-child relationship quality and discipline (Ve'lez, Wolchik, Tein, & Sandler, 2011).
The article explains that children are more prone to the risk of getting mental health problems if they suffer from psychosocial stressors. In the presence of these stressors, such mental health problems can be avoided if the coping efforts are more active and engaging. Coping efficacy or the belief in one's self of being able to positively negotiate with the effects of emotional traumas and situations also plays a positive part in keeping at bay the development of mental health problems. It is mentioned that several factors can aid in developing an effective coping…
Ve'lez, C.E., Wolchik, S.A., Tein, J.-Y., & Sandler, I. (2011). Protecting Children From the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes. Child Development, January/February, Volume 82, Number 1., Pages 244 -- 257.
Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents
I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)
II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)
II Hypothesis #2
I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's
II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's
Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships
IV Protective Factors For Resiliency
Children of Alcoholics Screening Test
Are You an Alcoholic?
Intimate ond Measure
Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale
The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…
Velleman, R. (2002). The Children of Problem Drinking Parents.
Institute of Health & Medicine, University of Bath.
1996). Children of Alcoholics. Alcohol Health.
Common Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.