Dna Essays (Examples)

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Innocence Project Case John Kogut Analysis

Words: 3518 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40016343

DNA Exonerations: John Kogut

The Path To Exoneration: John Kogut

The Path to Conviction

When 16-year-old Teresa Fusco left work at 9:45 PM on November 10, 1984 she became one among several young girls reported missing over the past several years [Centurion Ministries, 2013; Innocence Project, n.d.(a)]. In contrast to her predecessors, however, her body was discovered a month later in a wooded area several blocks from the roller rink where she worked. According to the autopsy, Teresa had been raped and murdered. Semen and sperm were collected from her body and the marks on her neck revealed that she had been strangled with a rope or cord. Also found at the scene were her jewelry and the murder weapon. The coroner's office, however, failed to conduct a blood type analysis on the semen.

The Nassau County police were under tremendous pressure to solve these disappearances, especially Teresa's rape and…… [Read More]

References

Centurion Ministries (2013). Dennis Halstead, John Kogut, & John Restivo, Long Island, NY. CenturionMinistries.org. Retrieved 6 Oct. 2013 from  http://www.centurionministries.org/cases/dennis-halstead-john-kogut-and-john-restivo/ .

Drumm, David. (2013, May 11). Why the FBI doesn't record interrogations. JonathanTurley.org [blog]. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://jonathanturley.org/2013/05/11/why-the-fbi-doesnt-record-interrogations/.

Editors. (2013, Jan. 1). America's retreat from the death penalty. New York Times, A18. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from  http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/15/maryland-death-penalty/1989977/ .

Gootman, Elissa. (2003, Jun. 12). DNA evidence frees 3 men in 1984 murder of L.I. girl. New York Times, B1, B5. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from  http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/nyregion/dna-evidence-frees-3-men-in-1984-murder-of-li-girl.html .
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Transcription Is a Process That Genetic Information

Words: 3089 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29595548

Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.

Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…… [Read More]

References

Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.

Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.

Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
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Forensic Pathology

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22642945

Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA

DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…… [Read More]

References

Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.

Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body

Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com:  http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736 

Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com:  http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
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Discovery of the Structure of

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81223929

However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.

A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/

This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx

This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.

Ejelonu, A.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from:  http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx 

What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html
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Genes and Gene Environment Interaction

Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68812903

roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?

Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).

What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?

Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…… [Read More]

Reference

Cri du chat syndrome. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

http://www.genome.gov/pfv.cfm?pageID=19517558

DNA replication. (2002). VBS homepage. Retrieved:

http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/proteinsynthesis/dnarepli.html
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Programming Genetic Circuits Is Fundamentally

Words: 2235 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48470094

To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).

In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.

(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff

Wired. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/04/strange-computers/?pid=6598&viewall=true)

Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…… [Read More]

Sources

Brumfiel, G (March 29, 2013) Tiny DNA Switches Aim to Revolutionize 'Cellular' Computing. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2013/03/29/175604770/tiny-dna-switches-aim-to-revolutionize-cellular-computing

Lovgren, Stefan (2003-02-24). Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes. National Geographic.  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0224_030224_DNAcomputer.html 

Heaven D (02 April 2013) DNA transistors pave way for living computers Newscientishttp://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23337-dna-transistors-pave-way-for-living-computers.html

Strain D (June 2, 2011 ) Flexible DNA computer finds square roots Science News http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/330621/description/Flexible_DNA_computer_finds_square_roots_
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Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics

Words: 2012 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94040147

Genomes and Comparative Genomics

Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.

The Role of DNA

One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
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Human Genetics Inheritable Neuropathies Are Among the

Words: 2275 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69927185

Human Genetics

Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, W.M. (1980).Polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of humans as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 6, pp. 3605-3609.

Murphy, M.S. et al. (2012). CharcoteMarieeTooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 83, pp. 706-710

Orita, M et al. (1989). Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 86, pp. 2766-2770.

Saporta, S.D. A et al., (2011).Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) Subtypes and Genetic Testing Strategies. Ann Neurol, 69(1), pp. 22 -- 33
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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JD Watson

Words: 1917 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69450001

James Dewey atson

The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. hile many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James atson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/watson-bio.html

"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.

http://www.cshl.edu/gradschool/Non-Research-Faculty/james-d-watson
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]

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Genetic Privacy Can We or

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20794242

" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in order to use the DNA evidence without notifying the person. When these markers are removed, the evidence is considered public. Yet there are potentials for those markers to resurface and privacy can never be ensured. Even though Angrist is in favor of a public pool of DNA evidence for the lofty goals of science, he agrees, "de-identification is increasingly difficult." It is becoming hard to disconnect names, dates, and places from the hemoglobin and NA. Science appreciates access to DNA because it can link certain traits with others and thereby advance scientific knowledge.

Although it is important to protect a person's privacy regarding DNA, it is too difficult to do so given the rampant greed in the biomedical industry and the…… [Read More]

References

Angrist, Misha. "Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach." Nature. 6 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-needs-a-more-nuanced-approach-1.12363 

Nature. "Genetic Privacy." 17 Jan 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238 

The Washington Times. "Editorial: Preserving Genetic Privacy." The Washington Times. 21 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/feb/21/preserving-genetic-privacy/
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Consent When You Consider This Consider the

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61592315

consent? When you consider this, consider the two senses referenced in the lecture notes (slide 49). Were both senses of informed consent met?

In the case of the Havasupai, informed consent was given, and approval received, but only to study the blood samples of tribe members for diabetes. All the IB and the individual researchers had to do was to rephrase the informed consent agreement to read something like, "Your blood sample and DNA material may be used for scientific research in a range of fields." As Harmon (2010) points out, "Studies have estimated that most individuals -- perhaps more than 90% -- are willing to allow their data to be used for a range of biomedical research. It is when they are not asked that problems arise," (Harmon). Based on the standard definitions of informed consent, as outlined in slide 49, informed consent was not properly achieved in the…… [Read More]

References

Harmon, A. (2010b). Indian tribe wins fight to limit research of its DNA. The New York Times. April 21, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/22/us/22dna.html?pagewanted=all

Harmon, A. (2010). Where'd you go with my DNA? The New York Times. April 24, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/25/weekinreview/25harmon.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
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Double Helix the Book the

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94830406

He smiled and nodded his head when I first explained that to him.

One day when atson was doing his research in Copenhagen working on his DNA discoveries, he received some journal articles that I had written, that were sent over from the U.S. He later told me when we met in London that he did not understand everything I was saying in the language of lab chemistry, but that he liked some of my interesting sentences. He said that when he writes his book to tell the world how he discovered the DNA secrets, he would write it in a way that would be fun to read even for a person not up to speed in deep math and chemistry. e exchanged letters in Europe in 1952 and agreed to meet.

During our meeting at a coffee house in London, atson and I were joined by atson's sister Elizabeth.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Watson, James D. (1980). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York W.W. Norton & Company.
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Innocence Project on October 21

Words: 1395 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19812359

While black men can be incredibly diverse-looking, she may focus on those features that tend to differentiate them from white men. This is a risk in any cross-racial identification, where someone may notice differences from their own ethnic group, but fail to look beyond those features that stand out as "other" in his mind, which makes any person in that racial group a possible suspect.

In fact, it is impossible to overplay the role that misidentification has played in so many wrongful convictions. It is difficult for many people to realize that DNA evidence did not play a role in older convictions; the technology simply was not available. Furthermore, when DNA evidence first became available, it was a new technology that was not fully understood by all of the actors in the criminal justice system. In those early times, there were investigators, prosecutors, and fact finders who would believe a…… [Read More]

References

Innocence Project. (2011, October 21). New Orleans man wrongfully incarcerated for 30 years exonerated of rape that new DNA evidence proves he didn't commit. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/New_Orleans_Man_Wrongly_Incarcerated_for_30_Years_Exonerated_of_Rape_that_New_DNA_Evidence_Proves_He_Didnt_Commit.php
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Anunnaki Mystery Homo Sapiens the Result of an Alteration of Homo Erectus

Words: 2809 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3065404

Annunaki Mystery: Are Homo Sapiens the Result of an Alteration of Homo Erectus DNA Mixed with Unspecified Cells of the Ancient Sumerian Gods Known as the Annunaki?

The objective of this study is to examine the creation of Adam and Eve which is related in the Holy Bible account of the Garden of Eden and to examine other ancient texts which relate the creation of mankind and to determine if homo sapiens are the result of an alteration of homo erectus DNA mixed with unspecified cells of the ancient Sumerian gods known as the Annunaki.

It has been posited by some researchers that the real event that took place in the Garden of Eden was not in actuality something that was eaten by Adam and Eve but instead was a genetic altering of the DNA of humankind. This present study entails a review of an exhaustive amount of literature that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Royce, M. (2012) Theory: Blood of the Gods. Rh Negative Registry. 2012. Retrieved from:  http://www.rhnegativeregistry.com/blood-of-the-gods-by-mabel-royce.html 

Boulay, RA (1990) Flying Serpents ad Dragons. Poloneus Library. (Ed) Roberto Solarion (1997). Retrieved from:  http://poloneum.com/FLYING%20SERPENTS%20AND%20DRAGONS.pdf 

Alford, Alan A. (1999) Gods of the New Millennium: The Shattering Truth of Human Origins.

Human Origins -- Creation and/or Evolution? Science (Fossils & Genetics, Age of the Earth) and Theology (Death & Sin, Image & Soul, Adam & Eve) (2008) ASA Education. Retrieved from:  http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/origins/humans.htm#adam-eve
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B Cells T-Cells Hemoglobin

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47138901

Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…… [Read More]

References

McCardle, WD, Katch, F, and Katch, VL (2009). Exercise physiology. 7th ed. New York: LWW.

Murphy, K. (2011). Janeway's immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science.