885 results for “Dna”.
DNA Finger Printing
Techniques to retrieve DNA and the development of DNA probes have come up and made it possible the matching of DNA molecules to other DNA molecules to serve purposes like identification. This process has been incorporated into what is known as DNA fingerprinting.DNA fingerprinting is therefore a test for identification and evaluation of genetic information i.e. ones DNA. This technique is referred to as a fingerprint because two people cannot have exactly the same DNA information as it applies to fingerprints. The DNA structure of everyone's DNA is same the only difference is on the base pairs and hence the development of the different DNA sequences. The same DNA fingerprint exists on every cell, tissue and organ of an individual. No alterations can be made on a DNA fingerprint by any treatment that is known. For this reason DNA fingerprinting is rapidly becoming a commonly used method…
Lieberman, K. & Brinton, k. (2004). Basics of DNA Fingerprinting. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://protist.biology.washington.edu/fingerprint/dnaintro.html
Web MD. (2012). DNA Fingerprinting. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/dna-fingerprinting
Betsch, F.D (2000).DNA fingerprinting in Human Health and Society .Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.biotech.iastate.edu/biotech_info_series/bio6.html
CliffsNotes.com.(2012).DNA fingerprinting. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/study_guide/DNA-Fingerprinting.topicArticleId-8741,articleId-8628.html?citation=true
DNA in Criminal Justice System
DNA in the Criminal Justice System -- DNA as Evidence
Justice and Science
Sources of DNA at Crime Scene
DNA Evidence on Trial
This paper addresses the use of DNA in criminal justice system. The research paper will cover the usage of DNA as evidence. The importance of DNA in any criminal case as forensic evidence will be discussed through case studies. The role of DNA in court rooms will also be discussed and it will also cover the role of DNA in making a case stronger for the victim. Advantages and disadvantages of DNA as evidence and DNA testing are also discussed in the paper.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is considered as one of the building blocks of the human body because it is present in the nuclei of the cell. Genes are the hereditary material of human…
Briody, M. (2004, Aug). The Effects of DNA Evidence on Homicide Cases in Court. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 37(2), 231.
Clarke, G. ." (2007). Justice and Science: Trials and Triumphs of DNA Evidence. New Brunswick: Rutgers Univerrsity Press.
Cohen, H. (2003). DNA Evidence on Trial. The Scientist, 17(16), 62.
Cole, B. (1997, December 22). Issue of DNA Evidence Comes Up in Martinez Case. Daily Herald, p. 11.
The Structure and Nature of DNA
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the basic system upon which life on Earth is constructed. In a very real sense, DNA is a kind of program for life that cells use to replicate themselves and transmit information from generation to generation. Over eons, as life changes and adapts to new environmental conditions, that information is stored in the genetic code of all life on the planet as DNA molecules evolve and are altered to meet those changing conditions. The result is the myriad of different kinds of life that is now present on the planet, a variety that is all the more remarkable because it is based on the same fundamental piece of biological software: DNA. Incredibly DNA is a relatively simple chemical compound, so simple in fact that early researchers were dubious that it could be considered the molecule of life ("The…
"The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The Double Helix." The Official Web Site of the Nobel Foundation. 2009. 5 Dec. 2009 .
Farabee, M.J. "Protein Synthesis." Estrella Mountain Community College. 6 June 2007. 5 Dec. 2009 .
"Replication/Transcription/Translation." Radboud University Nijmegen. 12 Feb. 2008. 5 Dec. 2009 .
DNA Technology in Law and Public Policy
The technologies of DNA science have revolutionized modern criminal law in every respect, from crime scene processing and case investigation to prosecutorial strategy and post-conviction appeals. The lightning speed of progress in the DNA sciences represents a public policy challenge to optimize its evidentiary value without violating established principles of constitutional protections, criminal procedure and statutory rules of evidence. Ultimately, projected developments in DNA science and technology will affect ordinary life far beyond the realm of the criminal justice system by eliminating genetic diseases and providing a cure (or preventative) for all forms of cancer as well.
Background and History:
Throughout the eighteenth century, medical science was still entirely ignorant of the reason that human blood transfusions succeeded sometimes, but failed other times, with deadly consequences. By the turn of the twentieth century, scientists realized that human blood could be differentiated by four…
References (Feb. 2002) Criminal Law and DNA Science: Balancing Societal Interests and Civil Liberties. American University Law Review, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 401-430
Retrieved Feb 29, 2004:
Eisner, R. (Feb 12, 2001) Analysis of Human Genome Shows Fewer Genes than Expected. ABCNEWS.com Retrieved Mar 1, 2004:
The true significance of a strand of DNA is that it is sure to house all of the necessary information that is the blueprint or code for various aspect of the body that it represents. Consider that in the majority of organisms, genetics is established by the breeding of pairs of parents which results in an off-spring that has a combination of each of the parents' genetic codes. "Despite the power of molecular biology to examine the information coded for by DNA, we have to know where in the DNA to look to find information of relevance to particular phenomena." (Cantor & Smith, 1999)
Advantages and Developments
There are many advantages to utilizing DNA fingerprinting. "The need to identify an individual arises in criminal and non-criminal situations, including identification of the perpetrator or victim of a violent crime, the victim of a natural disaster or the biological father in…
Cantor, Charles R., & Smith, Cassandra L. Genomics: The Science and Technology Behind the Human Genome Project. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1999.
Caro, Tim. Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.
Peterson, Rebecca Sasser. "DNA Databases: When Fear Goes Too Far." American Criminal Law Review Vol. 37 (2000).
Schacter, Bernice. Issues and Dilemmas of Biotechnology: A Reference Guide. Westwood: Greenwood P, 1999.
All samples must be properly collected, using gloves and other tools in order to prevent contamination, as well as properly stored until analysis can be performed. It is vitally important that this chain of evidence be maintained so that the evidence collected from using the samples can then be admissible in a court of law. This requires those collecting and storing samples not only to use gloves and tools to handle the samples, but also to avoid talking, sneezing, coughing, touching one's own body, as well as making certain samples are air dried before storing, using paper bags or envelopes instead of plastic containers, and to "tape, seal, initial, and date all paper bags or envelopes." (Catalin, p.7)
DNA is a useful tool in the identification of suspects involved in criminal cases, but there are some limitations to the use of DNA in forensics. First of all, forensic DNA use…
Catalin, Marian, Anghel Andrei, and Oana Mitrasca. (n.d.). "Modern Methods of Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for Human Identification
by DNA Analysis." Abacus Diagnostic. Retrieved from http://www.abacusdiagnostics.com/Modern_Methods_of_Collection.pdf
"DNA Forensics." (n.d.). Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml
"History of Forensic DNA Analysis." (n.d.). DNA Initiative. Retrieved from http://www.dna.gov/
DNA is the abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a complex giant molecule that contains, in chemically coded form, the information needed for a cell to make proteins (DNA Pp). DNA is a "ladderlike double-stranded nucleic acid that forms the basis of genetic inheritance in all organisms, except for a few viruses that have only RNA" (DNA Pp). DNA is organized into chromosomes, and, in organisms other than bacteria, is found only in the cell nucleus (DNA Pp). It is made up of two chains of nucleotide subunits, with each nucleotide containing a purine, (adenine or guanine), or pyrimidine (cytosine or thymine) base (DNA Pp). These bases link up with one another, the adenine links with thymine, and cytosine with guanine, to form base pairs that "connect the two strands of the DNA molecule like the rungs of a twisted ladder" (DNA Pp).
The base sequence is preserved from generation…
"DNA." The Hutchinson Dictionary of Science. Helicon Publishing Ltd. 1998; Pp.
Poinar Jr., George. "Ancient DNA." American Scientist; 9/1/1999; Pp.
Sancar, Aziz. "DNA repair in humans." Annual Review of Genetics; 1/1/1995; Pp.
Hsieh, Peggy. "DNA mismatch repair: molecular mechanisms and biological function." Annual Review of Microbiology; 1/1/2003; Pp.
The blueprint for what every one of us will be like appears at the instant in which the gametes of our father and mother merge to form a single whole, called the zygote or the fertilized egg. The entire message is encapsulated in the nucleus of this single cell -- more precisely, in its DNA molecule. This molecule carries information about the color of our eyes and hair, about our stature, the form of our nose, whether or not we will be a virtuoso musician, and many other things. Of course, our future depends not only on DNA but also on the unpredictable vicissitudes of life. However, many, many thing in our individual destiny will be determined by the qualities built into us at birth by our genes -- that is, by the sequence of nucleotides in our DNA molecules. (Frank-Kamenetskii, 1997, p. 27)
This pairing, will determine the nature…
Frank-Kamenetskii, M.D. (1997). Unraveling DNA: The Most Important Molecule of Life (Liapin, L., Trans.) (Revised ed.). Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Carter, J.S. (2004) "DNA Structure and Function http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/dna.htm
Holt, Reinhardt & Winston, (ND) "Mendel's Conclusions" http://www.boiseschools.org/schools/north/hunicke/Bio/Review/Mendels_conclusions.htm
Petty, Y. (2005) "DNA Chromosomes and Genes. http://www.dnatutorial.com/DNAChromosomes.shtml
By purifying nucleotide DNA from donor bacteria, exposing recipient bacteria to that DNA, and allowing the recipient to divide, Avery showed that the daughter cells carried traits from the donors, thus the supposedly too simple substance DNA was the carrier of traits, not proteins. It was Avery who made the connection between DNA and heritable traits.
Like the DNA structure itself, Avery's experiment was one of elegant simplicity. By boiling down the nucleotide to its most basic element, Avery eliminated all other variables that could affect heredity living organism like proteins, and convinced his colleagues and the world that DNA is the carrier of a living being's genetic code. Avery's discovery and method should convince anyone that DNA carries traits. His work (and the work that his research spawned) may one day enable science to eliminate, or at least curtail the spread of genetically transmitted disorders. Even today we reap…
The Biggest Blunder." (2003). Nobel Prizefight. Retrieved 8 Jun 2007 at http://whyfiles.org/188nobel_mri/3.html
The privacy concerns form the bulk of the negative impact of DNA fingerprinting on United Kingdom society, and they are not at all unfounded. Several schools have implemented locks and record keeping mechanisms that depend upon a child's fingerprints (traditional, not DNA) (Edinformatics). These fingerprint mechanisms are used to track money for school meals, to replace library cards, and to alow access to school buildings and rooms in an attempt to cut down on the rate of skipping school -- and the British government is allowed to collect and maintain fingerprint records without parental consent (Edinformatics). There are serious concerns that the relatively new technology of DNA fingerprinting might also be implemented along the same lines, without the right of citizens to deny consent, leading to a DNA database that includes every child who attends school in the United Kingdom.
There are also many positive impacts that the technology has…
DirectGov. (2009). Accessed 6 August 2009. http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/index.htm
Callier, John Huss, and Eric T. Juengst make excellent points about the inherent intrusion into privacy and the lack of logical nexus between the act and its subjects, to wit, randomly screening the criminal background of every college faculty. By contrast, the Akron case should accentuate the close relationship between the objective of having convicted criminals become part of the DNA database for use when attempting solve subsequent crimes should quickly and the means by which it is carried out. After examining the Akron case, it appears that requiring a criminal to participate in a criminal database makes perfect sense and is quite logical and reasonable.
DNA analysis has forever transformed the nature of evidence in criminal prosecutions. It has made identifying and convicting a criminal much easier and more reliable. It does come with a cost, however, that being reduced expectation of the right to privacy. here convicted…
Callier, Shawneequa L., Huss, John and Juengst, Eric T. "GINA and Preemployment Criminal Background Checks." Hastings Center Report 40 (2010): 15-9
CODIS Combined DNA Index System. December 2008. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
26 June 2010. < http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/pdf/codisbrochure2.pdf >
Giannelli, P. "ABA Standards on DNA Evidence: Nontestimonial Identification
This in turn results in faster convictions and increases the probably of apprehending the culprit in a crime. It can also"... provide compelling evidence to support a conviction and, most importantly, reduce the chances of a wrongful conviction." (Can DNA Demand a Verdict?)
The above reasons are indicative of the usefulness and importance of compiling a DNA database from various profiles. Proof of the effectiveness of DNA databases can be seen in the fact that that the International Criminal Police Organization or Interpol uses DNA profiling and has established a DNA database in conjunction with other countries. The creation of the Interpol DNA Unit is intended to provide "...strategic and technical support to enhance member states' DNA profiling capacity and promote widespread use in the international law enforcement environment." (DNA Profiling) This database provides a model for other DNA Databases. The central advantage of databases like these is the storing…
Baden M. DNA Profiling. Retrieved December 31, 2006, at http://www.kathyreichs.com/dnaprofiling.htm
Can DNA Demand a Verdict? Retrieved December 31, 2006, at http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/features/forensics/
DNA Profiling. Retrieved December 31, 2006, at http://www.interpol.int/Public/Forensic/dna/default.asp
DNA Profiling (2). Retrieved December 31, 2006, at http://www.chemsoc.org/ExemplarChem/entries/2003/hull_barry/AG%20DNA%20Profiling.htm
CODIS links together local, State, and Federal DNA databases to one another, allowing law enforcement to compare crime scene and perpetrator information not only on a local level, but on a national level (FBI, 2000). Since many criminal activities are done by repeat offenders, this can assist law enforcement in determining possible suspects, even if those suspects live in States other than their own (NIJ, 2002).
While useful tools, these databases can also lead to a number of disadvantages. Primarily, as various States attempt to comply with mandatory DNA database management, a backlog of forensic evidence has developed. In some cases, as these pieces of crime scene evidence await processing, the integrity of such delicate information can be compromised (NIJ, 2002). Furthermore, the cost of DNA analysis can be high, and some smaller local governments cannot afford to process the crime scene information (NIJ, 2002).
In addition, even though DNA…
Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). (2000). The FBI's Combined DNA Index System Program. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
National Institute of Justice (NIJ). (2002). Using DNA to solve cold cases. Washington, D.C.: Office of Justice.
A common prescription given to children to quell symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) can have an impact on the height of growing children. Most cases of ADHD are treated with stimulants, such as the commonly prescribed italin. These stimulants are thought by researchers to have an impact increasing height in small variations (Goldman 2010). Thus, other factors help continue influence on height.
Extremes, like dwarfism and gigantism, present abnormal genetic situations which result in defects in normal height creation. These abnormalities make typical strategies for scientists to estimate the height of normal individuals obsolete. In cases of such defects, scientists have to examine skeletal growth and make a prediction based on prior growth patterns (Paley et al., 2005). Predicting height in androplastic dwarves can also conducted using the multiplier method, which uses the division of height at maturity by the eight at individual ages, this would then be…
Anitei, Stefan. (2007). Breakthrough: the first human gene linked to height ever discovered! Microbiology / Genetics. Softpedia. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://news.softpedia.com/news/Breakthrough-the-First-Human-Gene-Linked-to-Height-Ever-Discovered-64548.shtml
Connor, Steve. (2007). Newly discovered height gene has disease link. The Independent. Retrieved February 21, 2020 from http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/newly-discovered-height-gene-has-disease-link-401275.html
Goldman, Ran D. (2010). ADHD stimulants and their effect on height in children. Canadian Family Phsycian. 56(2):145-146.
Paley, Dror; Matz, Alexander L.; Kurland, David B.; & Bradley, M. (2005). Multiplier method for prediction of adult height in patients with Achondroplasia. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 25(4):539-542.
Much of the credit for these exonerations goes to teams of reporters, professors, students, and pro bono attorneys who were willing to listen to the claims of innocence from imprisoned defendants and who dedicated hundreds of hours of uncompensated time to proving these men innocent (Gould, 2008)."
In fact, in June of 2009 the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that prisoners do not have the right to DNA testing. This ruling came in the wake of a case involving an Alaskan man who was accused of rape and wanted DNA testing performed on materials that were found at the crime scene.
"Four Justices supported the man, illiam Osborne, but the court's majority said the decision whether to provide access to DNA tests is an issue for legislatures, not courts; 46 states and the Federal Government already mandate at least some access to DNA testing. "To suddenly constitutionalize this…
Gould, John B. (2008) Innocence Commission: Preventing Wrongful Convictions and Restoring the Criminal Justice System. New York, NY, USA: NYU Press,
James, Randy. A Brief History of DNA Testing Retrieved November 22 from: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1905706,00.html#ixzz0Xi8Pny1q
Lazer, D.(ed). (2004) DNA and the Criminal Justice System: The Technology of Justice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
McCartney, Carole. (2006) Forensic Identification and Criminal Justice: Forensic Science, Justice and Risk. Uffculme, Devon, GBR: Willan Publishing.
The WH domain was also identified as being important in this process as it also adds to the widening of the minor groove. Another region of the OC, the AAA+ region was also identified as contributing to the unwinding and bending of the DNA helix. The authors therefore concluded that both were crucial domains of the OC in DNA helix unwinding. The authors concluded that OC may also be involved in the higher order assembly processes which occur, but there was no such observation made in this study.
Although the study was effective in its purpose it would be prudent to conduct similar research into other archaea in order to establish whether the exact same processes do hold across species. The next appropriate step in the research would be to further study the higher order processes which occur after the DNA unwinding.
It should be possible for this particular study…
Gaudier, J.J., Schuwirth, B.S., Westcott, S.L. And Wigley, D.B. "Structural basis of DNA replication origin recognition by an ORC protein." Science 317 (1213), p. 1213-1216; 31 August 2007.
DNA in Trials
The use of DNA in solving crimes has become widely accepted. DNA is now routinely presented in courts as evidence. DNA evidence had helped to identify crime victims and has helped put criminals behind bars. Additionally, DNA is now helping lawyers in defending innocent clients. In many cases, DNA tests have proven the innocence of many prisoners who have been in jail for years. This includes prisoners who would otherwise have been executed.
This paper examines the growing role of DNA testing in the criminal justice system. The first part of this paper discusses the scientific merits of DNA testing, and how these tests contribute significantly to forensic tests and criminal prosecutions. The next part of the paper discusses the precautions that must be taken, to ensure that DNA testing is accurate.
In the conclusion, this paper discusses how DNA testing should be used as a tool…
American Civil Liberties Union. 2003. "DNA Testing and the Death Penalty." Death Penalty. 26 June 2002. American Civil Liberties Union. 11 March 2003 http://www.aclu.org/DeathPenalty/DeathPenalty.cfm?ID=9315&c=65 .
Cohen, Laurie P. 1997. "Inside the Cell: Innovative DNA Test Is an ID Whose Time Has Come for the FBI." The Wall Street Journal. December 19: A1+. ProQuest Database. www.proquest.umi.com.
Cohen, Hal. 2003. "DNA Evidence on Trial." The Scientist. 17(16): 62.
FBI lab under scrutiny for flawed DNA testing." 2003. available online at http://talkleft.com/new_archives/002375.html
"Unfortunately, the current Federal and State DNA collection and analysis system suffers from a variety of problems. In many cases public crime laboratories are overwhelmed by backlogs of unanalyzed DNA samples, samples that could be used to solve violent crimes if the States had the funds to eliminate this backlog…" (U.S. Representative Sue Myrick, arguing that federal funds should be appropriated to states to assist DNA cases; Congressional Record, 2004).
The technology that has led to the use of DNA in criminal cases has opened up a new field for investigators in the United States. In fact, some scholars have explained that the DNA technology has produced nothing short of a revolutionary breakthrough in criminal justice system. DNA technology has led to the prosecution of guilty suspects and it has also led to the exoneration of those wrongfully convicted of felonies. This paper reviews cases where DNA was…
Connors, Edward. (1996). Convicted by Juries, Exonerated by Science: Case Studies in the Use of DNA Evidence to Establish Innocence After Trial. Darby, PA: DIANE Publishing.
Dresser, Rebecca. (2011). Families and Forensic DNA Profiles. Hastings Center Report, 41(3),
Garrett, Brandon L. (2008). Judging Innocence. Columbia Law Review, 108(1), 55-142.
However, in the same way that DNA can help identify the perpetrator of a crime, it can also help eliminate people who have fallen under suspicion. In the example above of rape, it may be that an ex-boyfriend of the victim might be suspected of the crime. y taking a DNA sample from that suspect and by comparing it to DNA evidence gathered from the victim, this person can easily be ruled in or out as the perpetrator. This is crucial to the process of criminal investigation. As suspects are ruled out those facts guide the investigators to work more vigorously in other directions.
However, DNA can also serve justice after conviction has occurred. The Law School at Northwestern University has run a program for some years now serving selected people who believe they were convicted wrongly. y the year 2002, they had proven that 18 prisoners on Illinois' "Death…
Barry, Doug. "Cases in the News," in Truth in Justice. Accessed via the Internet 9/5/05. http://www.truthinjustice.org/inthenews.htm
Zolper, Thomas. 1996. "Court Upholds Murder Conviction Based on DNA." The Record (Bergen County, NJ), Oct. 18.
Zwerdling, Daniel. 1998. "All Things Considered." National Public Radio (NPR), Nov. 15.
Capital Punishment & DNA
DNA Evidence, Capital Punishment, & the Criminal Justice System
Capital Punishment is an issue of great contention. There are many people who strongly favor the use of capital punishment; there are also a great number of people that are adamantly against the use of capital punishment. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) evidence has become a crucial factor in the criminal justice system and the issue of capital punishment. Since the advent and use of DNA evidence as part of criminal proceedings, there have been many prisoners and alleged criminals who have been exonerated because of DNA evidence specifically. The use of DNA evidence has illuminated overarching problems in several areas of the criminal justice system, including law enforcement and the penal system. DNA is used to overturn wrongful criminal charges and ultimately to right an injustice to both the victim of the crime and to the person wrongfully…
Bedau, Hugo Adam, Michael L. Radelet, & Constance E. Putnam. "Convicting the Innocent in Capital Cases: Criteria, Evidence, and Inference." Drake Law Review, Volume 52, 2004.
Findley, Keith A. "Learning from Our Mistakes: A Criminal Justice Commission to Study Wrongful Convictions." California Western Law Review, Volume 38, No. 2., The H.W. Wilson Company, Spring 2002.
Proctor, Greta. "Reevaluating Capital Punishment: The Fallacy of a Foolproof System, the Focus on Reform, and the International Factor." Gonzaga Law Review, Volume 42, No. 2, 2006/2007.
Vollum, Scott, Dennis R. Longmire, & Jacqueline Buffington-Vollum. "Confidence in the Death Penalty and Support for Its Use: Exploring the Value-Expressive Dimension of Death Penalty Attitudes." Justice Quarterly, Volume 21, No. 3, Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, September 2004.
This paper provides an overview of the use of DNA in criminal investigations. It shows how DNA can be helpful and harmful in terms of validating a narrative, how it has been used to exonerate inmates and used to wrongfully convict others. It shows how juries view it as 95% accurate while Israeli scientists show that DNA evidence can be manufactured simply by scientists obtaining access to a DNA profile. It discusses the role that states play in allowing for DNA usage in criminal cases, and it examines how criminal investigators must be concerned about ethical issues when using DNA profiling in their investigation. It concludes that DNA usage in criminal investigation should neither be wholly accepted as flawless nor wholly rejected as useless. Every piece of evidence matters, and with DNA evidence it is no less—the way it is handled and understood is what matters most.
human DNA sequence composed of a series of letters such as 'accagacagt' and the objective was to decipher this jumble of letters and interpret the results. I suppose I should report that the process went smoothly and that after a bit of research I now consider myself an expert in regard to the new science of DNA Sequencing. However, I have a thousand more questions now than before I began and even the answers I came up with may or may not be correct. I do know for a fact that this is a pretty new art or science and its potential seems limitless. "DNA itself has thus far shown only modest evidence of possessing any intrinsic catalytic activities, although the prospect that more will be discovered in the future is surely plausible." (Cantor & Smith, 1999, xv)
The internet has made so many sites and processes available to the…
Obviously, enterokinase gene being tied to this chromosome entails a great deal of research interest into the biological functions of the gene and the manner by which it contributes to disease. Defects in PRSS7 therefore are a direct cause of enterokinase deficiency which is a life-threatening intestinal malabsorption disorder. The disorder can be characterized by severe bouts of diarrhea and failure to thrive and thus create a situation of initiating activation of pancreatic proteolytic proenzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase a).
Animals, like humans, have to handle digestion of exogenous macromolecules without destroying endogenous constituents so the serine protease or enterokinase seems to be a fundamental digestive system requirement. In other words, all vertebrates such as mice or dogs have adapted a two step enzymatic cascade that is used to change pancreatic zymogens over to active enzymes in the lumen of the gut as discovered by researchers in Pavlov's laboratory in the early 1900's. "Extracts of the proximal small intestine were shown strikingly to activate the latent hydrolytic enzymes in pancreatic fluid. Pavlov considered this intestinal factor to be an enzyme that activated other enzymes, or a 'ferment of ferments' and named it enterokinase." (Stone, 2002)
In 1866, Mendel discovered that there are "recessive" and "dominant" traits in plants, paving the way for understanding how genes work in predictable ways, and plowing the ground for later science, although his work wasn't "discovered" until 1900. In 1944, three scientists at the Rockefeller Institute in New York discovered that DNA is the carrier of the genetic information within the body.
In the early 1950s, scientists were by now aware that DNA was genetic material and that is was an acid made up of sugars, phosphate groups, and "equally matches bases," the Dolan center points out. That was all well and good, but the big question remained: HAT AS NATURE'S GENETIC CODE?
The man most responsible for "breaking the genetic code" was MARSHALL NIRENBERG in 1961; but "breaking it" (or identifying it) was only part of the puzzle. And then in 1965, NIRENBERG (working at the National Institutes of…
About.com. (2006). Definition for DNA. Retrieved 16 October, 2006, from www.about.com.
De Duve, Christian. (2006). The Origin of Life: chemistry and replicability imply that life
Is Likely to Arise wherever conditions mimic those that surrounded its birth on Earth.
Taipei Times. Retrieved 15 October, 2006, at http://www.taipeitimes.com .
Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual
Assault Cases. Journal of Forensic Science 9/2003 Vol.48, No.
The precision of DNA technology allows law enforcement authorities to definitively identify perpetrators of sexual assaults from microscopic amounts of their
DNA collected from victims using a cotton swab. It has enabled the FBI to establish the Combined DNA Index System ("CODIS"), a nationwide DNA data bank and identification system modeled in principle, after the AFIS automatic fingerprint identification system.
It is estimated that crucial DNA evidence collected in approximately half a million unsolved rape cases awaits scientific processing, partly because of the complexity and time consuming nature of technical aspects of the techniques involved. The U.S. House of Representatives has already passed legislation in the form of the DNA Sexual Assault Justice Act that would allocate a quarter of a billion dollars to the problem. The Senate is expected to do likewise.
Chief among the…
, 2007, p. 153).
The research showed that DNA evidence can be a valuable tool for the criminal justice system, but the effectiveness of such evidence depends on a number of factors. Among the more salient of these factors was the need to ensure that the DNA sample is collected and stored properly, and that it is transported to a testing facility in a timely and appropriate fashion. Other issues that emerged from the research included the need to maintain a strict chain of custody for all DNA evidence, as well as the need to ensure that the results of DNA testing were interpreted in an informed manner. Finally, the research was consistent in emphasizing that although DNA evidence can help prove innocence and guilt, the accuracy of such evidence depends on the type of DNA testing protocol that is involved and how these results are used in the…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bridges, a. (2007). Falsely accused: DNA evidence proves rape accusation was a lie. The Forensic Examiner, 16(4), 83.
Dann, B.M., Hans, V.P. & Kaye, DH (2007). Can jury trial innovations improve juror understanding of DNA evidence? Judicature, 90(4), 152-153.
Gahn, L. (2005, March). DNA evidence collection procedures. Law & Order, 53(3), 72-73.
The subject of DNA fingerprinting has become a prominent issue on several fronts. The applicable paradigms involved include law enforcement, privacy concerns and immigration, just to name a few. A few questions and concerns about DNA will be included in this repot including what precisely DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, the step-by-step methods of fingerprinting, how DNA is compared on an electrophoresis (EPG), what precisely EPG is, whether the author of this report agrees with DNA fingerprinting everyone for medical reasons, why DNA is considered potential evidence in a court of law and whether the author of this report aggress with the government wanting to DNA-fingerprint everyone so that they can learn about disease propensity and other pieces of information. hile DNA fingerprinting has and will continue to render a large amount of benefit, the privacy and other rights of people to be fingerprinted are a…
Aarli, Ragna. "Genetic Justice And Transformations Of Criminal Procedure." Journal Of
Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 13.1 (2012): 3-
21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.
Ai, Bingjie, et al. "The Elimination Of DNA From The Cry Toxin-DNA Complex Is A
Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…
Alberts B, Johnson A., Lewis J, et al. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science.
Dunham, W. (2014). Ancient Russian's DNA sheds light on Neanderthal interbreeding. Reuters. Nov 6, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-science-genome-idUSKBN0IQ2QK20141106
DNA Cold Case
Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases
Our federal, state and local law enforcement agencies are charged with the responsibility of bringing justice to every case that comes before them. Especially in the case of homicide, the importance of finding resolution through identification and prosecution (where possible) of perpetrators, is a top priority. This is true even as a considerable amount of time lapses since the emergence of a given case. hen an investigation reaches an impasse, exhausts its leads and ultimately finds itself without a trail to follow, it becomes a cold case. Cold cases typically find their way to the backburner as law enforcement agencies focus on solving crimes with more immediately available evidence. It is thus that cases go 'cold,' leaving investigators with no apparent directions to turn for resolution.
However, today, with the emergence and continued refinement in use of DNA evidence, many cold…
Gast, P. (2013). Cold-case murders of 4 females brought back to life by new images, DNA tests. CNN.com.
Goldstein, S. (2013). Arizona sheriff hopes DNA, facial reconstruction, will help crack 32-year-old cold case. New York Daily News.
National Institute of Justice (NIJ). (2012). Cold Case Investigations and Forensic DNA. NIJ.gov.
U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). (2011). Solicitation: Solving Cold Cases with DNA. NCJRS.gov.
The purified DNA is then prepared using a PC like procedure that is described in detail by Innis and then can be automatically sequenced using standard methods (Hirashi). The resulting DNA sequence can then be entered into the NCBI database to search for a bacterial match. The database can be found at the following web address: http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi.
Using PC and DNA sequencing techniques it was determined that the bacteria isolated from a patient sample was Bartonella henselae. The results of the DNA sequencing can be seen in figure one. This is the output that was inputted into the NCBI database to search for a bacterial match. The top five results of the NCBI database search for the DNA sequence can be seen in table one. The results indicate that the bacterium was likely Bartonella henselae. ochalimaea is an old genus name for Bartonella.
PC and DNA sequencing was…
Hiraishi, A. "Direct automated sequencing of 16S rDNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction from bacterial cultures without DNA purification." Applied Microbiology15(5) (2008): 210-213. Web. 11 Aug. 2010.
Innis, M.A., Myambo, K.B., Gelfand, DH, Brow, M.D. "DNA sequencing with Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase and direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85 (1988): 9436-9440. Web. 11 Aug. 2010.
Liang, Q., Chen, L., Fulco, A.J.. "An efficient and optimized PCR method with high fidelity for site-directed mutagenesis." PCR Methods and Applications 4(5) (1995): 269-274. Web. 11 Aug. 2010.
Mullis, K.B.. Target amplification for DNA analysis by the polymerase chain reaction. Annals of Clinical Biology (Paris) 48(8) (1990): 579-582. Web. 11 Aug. 2010.
In 1953, the true structure of DNA and the mechanisms by which it passes on genetic information from one generation to the next was discovered by Crick and Watson at the University of Cambridge who proposed that DNA was structured as a double helix which could unwrap itself and thus create exact copies. Undoubtedly, "This was the culmination of a brilliant piece of detective work" and turned out to be the biological key to molecular biology and modern biotechnology. Exactly how Watson and Crick managed to unravel the mysteries of DNA is still not clear, yet they did manage to "assemble the information like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle to produce their model of the structure of DNA" (2009, "The Search for DNA," Internet). Following the work of Watson and Crick in 1953, the genetic code itself was revealed between 1961 and 1965 and in 1972, the first successful DNA…
"James Watson & Francis Crick." (2009). Time. Internet. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/watsoncrick.html .
"The Search for DNA -- The Birth of Molecular Biology." (2009). Internet. Retrieved May
13, 2009 from http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Search_for_DNA.php.
Afterwards I poured the liquid through a strainer, just as it had been done with the peas in the given demonstration and I noticed that the poor substance was even thinner than the one obtained at the blender. I added 35 ml of liquid detergent and then I swirled. I waited around 9 minutes and then I moved the object of my research into three test tubes, being aware of the fact that the detergent had continued the task of the blender and has broken the sacks of the cells, allowing the DNA to be found. I poured the substance in such a way that only 1/3 of each test tube would be filled, and then I added pineapple juice, which played the role of the enzymes cutting the proteins.
After that I started to stir the mixture, making sure that my action would detain the success of my experiment…
DNA, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
Hershey a, Chase M (1952). www.jgp.orgJ Gen Physiol, pp. 36
Alberts, Bruce; Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walters (2002). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=mboc4.TOC&depth=2Molecular Biology of the Cell; Fourth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science
DNA Forensics, at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml
atson and Crick
The fact that James atson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it had become clear that the riddle of DNA's structure would be solved through X-ray crystallography, while atson admits in the fourth chapter of The Double Helix that "I knew nothing about the X-ray diffraction techniques that dominated structural analysis" (atson 31). Moreover, some of the best scientists who did have a knowledge of X-ray crystallography -- like Linus Pauling in America and Rosalind Franklin in the UK -- were consciously working on the structure of DNA at the same time that atson and Crick got involved. Additionally, atson was extraordinarily young at the time of the discovery. Although Crick was "thirty-five, yet almost totally unknown" at the time of their collaboration (atson 7) but atson was born in 1928 and in…
Smith, Hal. Lecture Notes, Humanities 4317. University of Houston-Victoria, 2014.
Watson, James D. The Double Helix. New York: Scribner Classics, 1998. Print.
The experiment was designed to first extract DNA, take it through the steps of amplification and detachment, and then prepare it for analysis. The question was what type of bacteria was being sequenced. The steps used were: 1) Extraction of genomic DNA, 2) Amplification of genetic region, 3) Verification, 4) Clean PC Products, 5) Quantify DNA concentration, 6) Cycle the sequence, and, 7) Precipitate cycle-sequenced products for analysis. In this case, a virtual laboratory was used, with the user being guided to the appropriate tools and equipment (Virtual Bacterial Identification).
Max ident gi|39295|Z11684.1
.henselae 16S rNA gene
Bartonella henselae 16S ribosomal NA, partial sequence
Discussion- The BLAST search displays the matching sequences in the database in descending order of the degree of the match. Most of the top scorers are either Bartonella henselae or ochalimaea…
Nobel, I. "Secret of Life Discovery Turns 50." 27 Feburary 2007. BBC News. August 2010 .
"Virtual Bacterial Identification." January 2010. The Virtual Bacterial ID Lab. August 2010 .
Walker and Jones. Genes and DNA. Kingfisher, OK: Kingfisher Press, 2003.
APPENDIX A -- Genetic Map of
ole Z-DNA Binding Vaccinia Virus Pathogensis
The work of Yang-Gyun Kim, et al. entitled "A ole for Z-DNA Binding in Vaccinia Virus Pathogenesis" (2003) reports a study on Vaccinia, reported to be a poxvirus that contains DNA with less than 200 genes and which undergoes replication in infected cells and specifically in the cytoplasm. When a strain adapted from vaccinia was given to a mouse, the mouse died in less than one week stated to be dependent upon the route of infection and dosage given to the mouse. Kim, et al. (2003) reports that the viral E3L gene product "has been extensively characterized and is essential for virulence." A 25-kDa protein is encoded by E3L and is stated to have to primary domains: (1) an N-terminal domain with a sequence that is comparable to the vertebrate Zol family of Z-DNA-binding domains; and (2) a C-terminal domain with a typical double-stranded…
Kim, YG, et al. (2003) A Role for Z-DNA Binding in Vaccinia Virus Pathogensis. PNAS Vol 100, No. 12. 10 June 2003.
Decoding DNA Toyota Production System
Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System
In the article Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System (Spear, Bowen, 1999) (NOTE: this is OK per Harvard citing conventions to put this citation here, after the article) the authors provide a thorough analysis of what differentiates Toyota from other auto manufacturers specifically, and all manufacturers in general terms. The analysis includes key findings with regard to the Toyota Production System (TPS) lean manufacturing best practices including the findings from Black (2007, p. 3663 which states "lean manufacturing calls for redesigning the mass production system" which is exactly what Toyota did in the development of their TPS. Toyota was also able to instill a very strong reliance on the scientific method of learning and instruction as part of the leadership process while also defining an innate ability of this production system to support the foundational…
Black, J.T. 2007, "Design rules for implementing the Toyota Production System," International Journal of Production Research, vol. 45, no. 16, pp. 3639.
Dyer, J.H. & Nobeoka, K. 2000, "Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case," Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 345-367.
Liao, N.N.H. 2008, "Performance of Suppliers Logistics in the Toyota Production System in Taiwan," Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 195-200.
Spear, S. & Bowen, H.K. 1999, Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System, Boston, United States, Boston.
The problems and future of DNA Testing
The scientific soundness of the DNA test has not been doubted at all. Courts have increasingly relied on the outcomes of DNA tests. The common man is at a loss to understand the complexities of the method, and as a result in jury trials it is not taken as standard proof but approached with hesitancy. Jurors are ignorant of science and the 'principles of modern genetics' and can get quite confused by all the jargon and confusing tactics of lawyers who are more interested in their cases rather than scientific truth. ("DNA Fingerprinting and Forensics," 2006) Thus the very process that can throw light on the proceedings and produce unfaultable evidence gets mired in sticky debates. The actual concern about the DNA test is not a confused jury but the process of collecting the data and analyzing it. There is no…
Aronson, Jay. D. (2007) "Genetic Witness: Science, Law, and Controversy in the Making of DNA" Rutgers University Press.
Champod, Christophe. (2004) "Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions"
Lazer, David. (2004) "DNA and the Criminal Justice System: The Technology of Justice"
Chromatin Lab Report
The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to contribute to learning and understanding is great and powerful. DNA is found amongst chromatin which is found in certain types of fatty cells. Chromatin is key to the design of cells as it provides blueprints on how individual cells can be constructed. Since the packing structure of DNA is very dense this chemical reaction provides an understanding of how cellular relationships unfold and manifest.
DNA must be removed from the Chromatin which is stored as nucleosomes as the DNA strands wrap around these cellular structures. Saline provides an excellent solution to help separate these bonds and provide the isolating power to extract DNA for further examination. To salinize the targeted substance a constant and increasing amount of saline solution is added…
In addition, this process will enable
scientists to accurately determine how a particular bird species like a
sparrow is genetically similar to and/or different from a finch or perhaps
Furthermore, the authors point out that this DNA process know as COI
barcoding can also be applied to insects and other arthropods and that it
will also help with identifying food remnants found in the stomachs of
predatory birds. Thus, when a library of DNA barcodes is finally created,
it will become a very effective system and perhaps even serve as the "new
master key to the encyclopedia of life" which could potentially create
"widespread scientific and practical benefits" for human society.
Hebert, Paul D.N., Stoeckle, Mark Y., Zemlak, Tyler S. and Charles M.
of irds Through DNA arcodes." PLOS iology. October 2004. Vol. 2
Change them often; (2) Use disposable instruments or clean them thoroughly before and after handling each sample; (3) Avoid touching the area where you believe DNA may exist; (4) avoid talking, sneezing, and coughing over evidence; (5) Avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth when collecting and packaging evidence; (6) Air-dry evidence thoroughly before packaging; and (7) Put evidence into new paper bags or envelopes, not into plastic bags. Do not use staples." (National Institute of Justice, 2007)
V. Future of CODIS
The work entitled: "Communication, Documentation and Information Services" states that in the future CODIS will "continue to place a major emphasis on upgrading technology in all areas of its responsibility." (Vest of Research, nd) in a National Institute of Justice report entitled: "The Future of Forensic DNA Testing: Predictions of the Research and Development Working Group" published in November 2000 states that "technology projections for 2010" include transition…
Combined DNA Index System CODIS (nd) Fast Facts from the DPS. Online available at http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Fast_facts/Codis.pdf
CODIS (2007) SAIC. Online available at http://www.saic.com/justice/codis.html
Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents. (2007) President's DNA Initiatives. Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/mass_fatalities/
Using DNA and Other Resources to Identify Missing Persons (2007) President's DNA Initiative Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/m_person/.
Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks
DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).
Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…
DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)
Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.dcjs.org/forensic/information/dna.cfm?menuLevel=1
Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html
Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…
Catalin, Marian; Andrei, Anghel, and Mitrasca, Oana (nd) Modern Methods of Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for Human Identification by DNA Analysis. Biochemistry Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Timisoara. Online available at: http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~k_aufderheide/Forensic_Science/Web_Documents/Catalin_Andrei_Mitrasca.pdf
Jones, Cynthia E. (2005) Evidence Destroyed, Innocence Lost: The Preservation of Biological Evidence Under Innocence Protection Statues. The American Criminal Law Review. 1 Oct 2005. Online available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/laws/1047368-1.html
Ladd, HC and Ladd, C. (2001) Preservation and Collection of Biological Evidence. Croat Med J. 2001 Jun;42(3):225-8. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11387627
Schiro, George (nd) Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence From Crime Scenes. Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory. Online available at: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html
DNA Exonerations: John Kogut
The Path To Exoneration: John Kogut
The Path to Conviction
When 16-year-old Teresa Fusco left work at 9:45 PM on November 10, 1984 she became one among several young girls reported missing over the past several years [Centurion Ministries, 2013; Innocence Project, n.d.(a)]. In contrast to her predecessors, however, her body was discovered a month later in a wooded area several blocks from the roller rink where she worked. According to the autopsy, Teresa had been raped and murdered. Semen and sperm were collected from her body and the marks on her neck revealed that she had been strangled with a rope or cord. Also found at the scene were her jewelry and the murder weapon. The coroner's office, however, failed to conduct a blood type analysis on the semen.
The Nassau County police were under tremendous pressure to solve these disappearances, especially Teresa's rape and…
Centurion Ministries (2013). Dennis Halstead, John Kogut, & John Restivo, Long Island, NY. CenturionMinistries.org. Retrieved 6 Oct. 2013 from http://www.centurionministries.org/cases/dennis-halstead-john-kogut-and-john-restivo/.
Drumm, David. (2013, May 11). Why the FBI doesn't record interrogations. JonathanTurley.org [blog]. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://jonathanturley.org/2013/05/11/why-the-fbi-doesnt-record-interrogations/ .
Editors. (2013, Jan. 1). America's retreat from the death penalty. New York Times, A18. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/15/maryland-death-penalty/1989977/ .
Gootman, Elissa. (2003, Jun. 12). DNA evidence frees 3 men in 1984 murder of L.I. girl. New York Times, B1, B5. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/nyregion/dna-evidence-frees-3-men-in-1984-murder-of-li-girl.html .
Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.
Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…
Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.
Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.
Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA
DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…
Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.
Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body
Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736
Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.
A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.
20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/
This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.
The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx
This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.
20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/
The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx
What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna
Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html
roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?
Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).
What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?
Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…
Cri du chat syndrome. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
DNA replication. (2002). VBS homepage. Retrieved:
To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).
In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.
(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff
Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…
Brumfiel, G (March 29, 2013) Tiny DNA Switches Aim to Revolutionize 'Cellular' Computing. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2013/03/29/175604770/tiny-dna-switches-aim-to-revolutionize-cellular-computing
Lovgren, Stefan (2003-02-24). Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes. National Geographic. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0224_030224_DNAcomputer.html
Heaven D (02 April 2013) DNA transistors pave way for living computers Newscientishttp://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23337-dna-transistors-pave-way-for-living-computers.html
Strain D (June 2, 2011 ) Flexible DNA computer finds square roots Science News http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/330621/description/Flexible_DNA_computer_finds_square_roots_
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…
Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56
Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist
Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist
TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…
Brown, W.M. (1980).Polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of humans as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 6, pp. 3605-3609.
Murphy, M.S. et al. (2012). CharcoteMarieeTooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 83, pp. 706-710
Orita, M et al. (1989). Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 86, pp. 2766-2770.
Saporta, S.D. A et al., (2011).Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) Subtypes and Genetic Testing Strategies. Ann Neurol, 69(1), pp. 22 -- 33
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
James Dewey atson
The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick. Their discovery of the structure of DNA allowed scientists to begin to understand the mechanism behind inheritance. hile many scientists over the years had studied heredity, beginning with Gregor Mendel, no one had been able to discover the exact mechanism for how heredity actually works. It was not until the technology of the time advance to a point where scientists could determine the structure of molecules that the discovery of the structure of genetic material could be determined. After much research, and some failures, two scientists, working together, finally determined the molecular structure of the genetic molecule, allowing for the study of the exact mechanism to begin. James atson was one of the scientists responsible for the discovery of the DNA…
"Biography James Watson." Nobelprize.org. Nobel Prize Organization. 1964. Web. 14 April 2011.
"James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus" Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Web. 15 April 2011.
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…
" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in order to use the DNA evidence without notifying the person. When these markers are removed, the evidence is considered public. Yet there are potentials for those markers to resurface and privacy can never be ensured. Even though Angrist is in favor of a public pool of DNA evidence for the lofty goals of science, he agrees, "de-identification is increasingly difficult." It is becoming hard to disconnect names, dates, and places from the hemoglobin and NA. Science appreciates access to DNA because it can link certain traits with others and thereby advance scientific knowledge.
Although it is important to protect a person's privacy regarding DNA, it is too difficult to do so given the rampant greed in the biomedical industry and the…
Angrist, Misha. "Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach." Nature. 6 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-needs-a-more-nuanced-approach-1.12363
Nature. "Genetic Privacy." 17 Jan 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238
The Washington Times. "Editorial: Preserving Genetic Privacy." The Washington Times. 21 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/feb/21/preserving-genetic-privacy/
consent? When you consider this, consider the two senses referenced in the lecture notes (slide 49). Were both senses of informed consent met?
In the case of the Havasupai, informed consent was given, and approval received, but only to study the blood samples of tribe members for diabetes. All the IB and the individual researchers had to do was to rephrase the informed consent agreement to read something like, "Your blood sample and DNA material may be used for scientific research in a range of fields." As Harmon (2010) points out, "Studies have estimated that most individuals -- perhaps more than 90% -- are willing to allow their data to be used for a range of biomedical research. It is when they are not asked that problems arise," (Harmon). Based on the standard definitions of informed consent, as outlined in slide 49, informed consent was not properly achieved in the…
Harmon, A. (2010b). Indian tribe wins fight to limit research of its DNA. The New York Times. April 21, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/22/us/22dna.html?pagewanted=all
Harmon, A. (2010). Where'd you go with my DNA? The New York Times. April 24, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/25/weekinreview/25harmon.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
He smiled and nodded his head when I first explained that to him.
One day when atson was doing his research in Copenhagen working on his DNA discoveries, he received some journal articles that I had written, that were sent over from the U.S. He later told me when we met in London that he did not understand everything I was saying in the language of lab chemistry, but that he liked some of my interesting sentences. He said that when he writes his book to tell the world how he discovered the DNA secrets, he would write it in a way that would be fun to read even for a person not up to speed in deep math and chemistry. e exchanged letters in Europe in 1952 and agreed to meet.
During our meeting at a coffee house in London, atson and I were joined by atson's sister Elizabeth.…
Watson, James D. (1980). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York W.W. Norton & Company.
While black men can be incredibly diverse-looking, she may focus on those features that tend to differentiate them from white men. This is a risk in any cross-racial identification, where someone may notice differences from their own ethnic group, but fail to look beyond those features that stand out as "other" in his mind, which makes any person in that racial group a possible suspect.
In fact, it is impossible to overplay the role that misidentification has played in so many wrongful convictions. It is difficult for many people to realize that DNA evidence did not play a role in older convictions; the technology simply was not available. Furthermore, when DNA evidence first became available, it was a new technology that was not fully understood by all of the actors in the criminal justice system. In those early times, there were investigators, prosecutors, and fact finders who would believe a…
Innocence Project. (2011, October 21). New Orleans man wrongfully incarcerated for 30 years exonerated of rape that new DNA evidence proves he didn't commit. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/New_Orleans_Man_Wrongly_Incarcerated_for_30_Years_Exonerated_of_Rape_that_New_DNA_Evidence_Proves_He_Didnt_Commit.php
Annunaki Mystery: Are Homo Sapiens the Result of an Alteration of Homo Erectus DNA Mixed with Unspecified Cells of the Ancient Sumerian Gods Known as the Annunaki?
The objective of this study is to examine the creation of Adam and Eve which is related in the Holy Bible account of the Garden of Eden and to examine other ancient texts which relate the creation of mankind and to determine if homo sapiens are the result of an alteration of homo erectus DNA mixed with unspecified cells of the ancient Sumerian gods known as the Annunaki.
It has been posited by some researchers that the real event that took place in the Garden of Eden was not in actuality something that was eaten by Adam and Eve but instead was a genetic altering of the DNA of humankind. This present study entails a review of an exhaustive amount of literature that…
Royce, M. (2012) Theory: Blood of the Gods. Rh Negative Registry. 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.rhnegativeregistry.com/blood-of-the-gods-by-mabel-royce.html
Boulay, RA (1990) Flying Serpents ad Dragons. Poloneus Library. (Ed) Roberto Solarion (1997). Retrieved from: http://poloneum.com/FLYING%20SERPENTS%20AND%20DRAGONS.pdf
Alford, Alan A. (1999) Gods of the New Millennium: The Shattering Truth of Human Origins.
Human Origins -- Creation and/or Evolution? Science (Fossils & Genetics, Age of the Earth) and Theology (Death & Sin, Image & Soul, Adam & Eve) (2008) ASA Education. Retrieved from: http://www.asa3.org/ASA/education/origins/humans.htm#adam-eve
Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…
McCardle, WD, Katch, F, and Katch, VL (2009). Exercise physiology. 7th ed. New York: LWW.
Murphy, K. (2011). Janeway's immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science.
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single stranded nucleic acid known as the messenger ribonucleic acid or mRNA. This implies that we have an exact copy of the gene base in the mRNA except that Urasil (U) replaces the T. base and deoxyribose is replaced by ribose. Translation on the other hand is the actual process of protein synthesis from the mRNA strands. Ribosomes work with the mRNA for protein synthesis within the cells. [the State University of New York]
4) Mutation, Gene Migration, Genetic Drift, Non-random Mating and Natural Selection are the five processes that can affect the frequency of genes in a population. [CMGS]
5) Kindom Protista is considered to be the ancestor of all eukaryotic kingdoms and includes algae, plant like, animal like and fungus…
Cherie Dimaline, "Inheriting Sickness When Finding Your Roots is a Matter of Life or Death" Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.metisnation.org/metisVOYAGEUR/MVcurrent/disease.html
Dr. Joseph F. Smith, "Genetic Counseling," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00049280.html
IBAC, "The Basics of Life," Accessed on 15th December 2004, http://www.ibac.org.nz/booklet/basics.html
CMGS, "Disturbance of Gene Frequencies in a Population," Accessed on 15th December 2004 http://www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/cmgs/genefreq.htm
DNA Finger Printing Techniques to retrieve DNA and the development of DNA probes have come up and made it possible the matching of DNA molecules to other DNA molecules…Read Full Paper ❯
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A common prescription given to children to quell symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) can have an impact on the height of growing children. Most cases of ADHD…Read Full Paper ❯
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However, in the same way that DNA can help identify the perpetrator of a crime, it can also help eliminate people who have fallen under suspicion. In the example…Read Full Paper ❯
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Abstract This paper provides an overview of the use of DNA in criminal investigations. It shows how DNA can be helpful and harmful in terms of validating a narrative,…Read Full Paper ❯
human DNA sequence composed of a series of letters such as 'accagacagt' and the objective was to decipher this jumble of letters and interpret the results. I suppose I…Read Full Paper ❯
In 1866, Mendel discovered that there are "recessive" and "dominant" traits in plants, paving the way for understanding how genes work in predictable ways, and plowing the ground for…Read Full Paper ❯
Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual Assault Cases. Journal of Forensic Science 9/2003 Vol.48, No. The precision of DNA technology allows law enforcement authorities to definitively identify perpetrators of sexual…Read Full Paper ❯
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The purified DNA is then prepared using a PC like procedure that is described in detail by Innis and then can be automatically sequenced using standard methods (Hirashi). The…Read Full Paper ❯
In 1953, the true structure of DNA and the mechanisms by which it passes on genetic information from one generation to the next was discovered by Crick and Watson…Read Full Paper ❯
Afterwards I poured the liquid through a strainer, just as it had been done with the peas in the given demonstration and I noticed that the poor substance was…Read Full Paper ❯
atson and Crick The fact that James atson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it…Read Full Paper ❯
The experiment was designed to first extract DNA, take it through the steps of amplification and detachment, and then prepare it for analysis. The question was what type of…Read Full Paper ❯
ole Z-DNA Binding Vaccinia Virus Pathogensis The work of Yang-Gyun Kim, et al. entitled "A ole for Z-DNA Binding in Vaccinia Virus Pathogenesis" (2003) reports a study on Vaccinia,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
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Chromatin Lab Report The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to…Read Full Paper ❯
In addition, this process will enable scientists to accurately determine how a particular bird species like a sparrow is genetically similar to and/or different from a finch or perhaps…Read Full Paper ❯
Change them often; (2) Use disposable instruments or clean them thoroughly before and after handling each sample; (3) Avoid touching the area where you believe DNA may exist; (4)…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA…Read Full Paper ❯
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Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins…Read Full Paper ❯
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we…Read Full Paper ❯
However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the…Read Full Paper ❯
roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated? Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Computers
To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Genomes and Comparative Genomics Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly…Read Full Paper ❯
Human Genetics Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare…Read Full Paper ❯
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between…Read Full Paper ❯
James Dewey atson The Discovery of DNA was one of the most important discoveries in the history of Humanity, and it was accomplished by James atson and Francis Crick.…Read Full Paper ❯
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through…Read Full Paper ❯
" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in…Read Full Paper ❯
consent? When you consider this, consider the two senses referenced in the lecture notes (slide 49). Were both senses of informed consent met? In the case of the Havasupai,…Read Full Paper ❯
He smiled and nodded his head when I first explained that to him. One day when atson was doing his research in Copenhagen working on his DNA discoveries, he…Read Full Paper ❯
While black men can be incredibly diverse-looking, she may focus on those features that tend to differentiate them from white men. This is a risk in any cross-racial identification,…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Annunaki Mystery: Are Homo Sapiens the Result of an Alteration of Homo Erectus DNA Mixed with Unspecified Cells of the Ancient Sumerian Gods Known as the Annunaki? The objective…Read Full Paper ❯
Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered…Read Full Paper ❯
During the gene decoding process the double stranded DNA splits up to reveal a single strand from which the base sequence of the gene is copied onto a single…Read Full Paper ❯