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DNA technology and how it has impacted the American criminal justice system. The research was conducted utilizing secondary resources, such as testimonies from DNA experts and published resources. It was discovered that, despite challenges faced by the technology, DNA has positively affected the criminal justice system by allowing for the successful capture and prosecution of criminals, as well as exonerating those who were wrongly imprisoned.
Overview of DNA
DNA as an Investigative Tool
Inception of the National DNA Index
ANTICIPATED ESULTS & CONCLUSIONS
This research is an investigation into the way DNA technology has affected America's criminal justice system by detailing its uses, as well as the challenges that still lay ahead. Utilizing secondary resources including the testimonies of several experts in the field, including the Director of the Virginia Division of Forensic Science, the Executive Director of the National Commission on the Future of DNA…
Adams, Dr. Dwight. "Use of DNA Evidence." FDCH Congressional Testimony 14 May 2002, MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. February 9, 2005 .
Asplen, Christopher H. "DNA Technology." FDCH Congressional Testimony 12 June 2001, MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. February 9, 2005 .
Bencivenga, Jim. "A Privacy Interest." Christian Science Monitor 92 (119) 11 May 2000: p. 15, Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. February 9, 2005 .
Coble, Harold. "Forensic Technology." FDCH Congressional Testimony 17 Jul. 2003. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. February 9, 2005 .
In 1866, Mendel discovered that there are "recessive" and "dominant" traits in plants, paving the way for understanding how genes work in predictable ways, and plowing the ground for later science, although his work wasn't "discovered" until 1900. In 1944, three scientists at the Rockefeller Institute in New York discovered that DNA is the carrier of the genetic information within the body.
In the early 1950s, scientists were by now aware that DNA was genetic material and that is was an acid made up of sugars, phosphate groups, and "equally matches bases," the Dolan center points out. That was all well and good, but the big question remained: HAT AS NATURE'S GENETIC CODE?
The man most responsible for "breaking the genetic code" was MARSHALL NIRENBERG in 1961; but "breaking it" (or identifying it) was only part of the puzzle. And then in 1965, NIRENBERG (working at the National Institutes of…
About.com. (2006). Definition for DNA. Retrieved 16 October, 2006, from www.about.com.
De Duve, Christian. (2006). The Origin of Life: chemistry and replicability imply that life
Is Likely to Arise wherever conditions mimic those that surrounded its birth on Earth.
Taipei Times. Retrieved 15 October, 2006, at http://www.taipeitimes.com .
Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual
Assault Cases. Journal of Forensic Science 9/2003 Vol.48, No.
The precision of DNA technology allows law enforcement authorities to definitively identify perpetrators of sexual assaults from microscopic amounts of their
DNA collected from victims using a cotton swab. It has enabled the FBI to establish the Combined DNA Index System ("CODIS"), a nationwide DNA data bank and identification system modeled in principle, after the AFIS automatic fingerprint identification system.
It is estimated that crucial DNA evidence collected in approximately half a million unsolved rape cases awaits scientific processing, partly because of the complexity and time consuming nature of technical aspects of the techniques involved. The U.S. House of Representatives has already passed legislation in the form of the DNA Sexual Assault Justice Act that would allocate a quarter of a billion dollars to the problem. The Senate is expected to do likewise.
Chief among the…
DNA Cold Case
Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases
Our federal, state and local law enforcement agencies are charged with the responsibility of bringing justice to every case that comes before them. Especially in the case of homicide, the importance of finding resolution through identification and prosecution (where possible) of perpetrators, is a top priority. This is true even as a considerable amount of time lapses since the emergence of a given case. hen an investigation reaches an impasse, exhausts its leads and ultimately finds itself without a trail to follow, it becomes a cold case. Cold cases typically find their way to the backburner as law enforcement agencies focus on solving crimes with more immediately available evidence. It is thus that cases go 'cold,' leaving investigators with no apparent directions to turn for resolution.
However, today, with the emergence and continued refinement in use of DNA evidence, many cold…
Gast, P. (2013). Cold-case murders of 4 females brought back to life by new images, DNA tests. CNN.com.
Goldstein, S. (2013). Arizona sheriff hopes DNA, facial reconstruction, will help crack 32-year-old cold case. New York Daily News.
National Institute of Justice (NIJ). (2012). Cold Case Investigations and Forensic DNA. NIJ.gov.
U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). (2011). Solicitation: Solving Cold Cases with DNA. NCJRS.gov.
Technology & CSR
Technological growth is fueled by a number of factors. The most important is changing conditions in the external environment. As new challenges arise, new technologies must be developed to meet those challenges. Another factor is competition. In many industries, business is so competitive that new technology is required to give companies competitive advantage, so they develop it. Another factor is increasing wealth in the world. Nations are contributing to the growth of technology that have not been able to make contributions in the past. All of this has an impact on corporate social responsibility. However you define CSR and whatever types of new technologies are created, companies must always keep in mind that they need to be ethical and remember their responsibilities to society.
Any number of corporate social responsibility issues can arise out of the use of technology and scientific research, since all three terms are…
Friedman, M. (1971). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
Volden, C. & Wiseman, A. (2009). A theory of government regulation and self-regulation with the specter of nonmarket threats. Ohio State University. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://polisci.osu.edu/faculty/cvolden/VW_nonmarkets.pdf
Allen is saying that all of the wonders of technology can never replace tow people connecting and trusting each other. I completely agree with these concepts and given Mr. Allen's wit and comedic sense, am thankful it was made. Finally any film made during a specific period of time can't help but reflect the values of society at the time. The open discussions about sexuality and sex make light of society's open and free attitudes about these areas of the human experience in 1973.
Why Sleeper is a Classic
Sleeper will always be a classic because it combines Mr. Allen's slapstick and vaudevillian comedic approaches while integrating his favorite music, which is jazz and ragtime. In addition the triumph of the human spirit and human emotions, as chaotic and mercurial as they can be, will always be superior to technology. The use of technology as a means to coerce and…
George O'Har. "Technology and Its Discontents " Technology and Culture 45.2 (2004): 479-485.
Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection
Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.
Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…
Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf
"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms
Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.
United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources /Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
Change them often; (2) Use disposable instruments or clean them thoroughly before and after handling each sample; (3) Avoid touching the area where you believe DNA may exist; (4) avoid talking, sneezing, and coughing over evidence; (5) Avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth when collecting and packaging evidence; (6) Air-dry evidence thoroughly before packaging; and (7) Put evidence into new paper bags or envelopes, not into plastic bags. Do not use staples." (National Institute of Justice, 2007)
V. Future of CODIS
The work entitled: "Communication, Documentation and Information Services" states that in the future CODIS will "continue to place a major emphasis on upgrading technology in all areas of its responsibility." (Vest of Research, nd) in a National Institute of Justice report entitled: "The Future of Forensic DNA Testing: Predictions of the Research and Development Working Group" published in November 2000 states that "technology projections for 2010" include transition…
Combined DNA Index System CODIS (nd) Fast Facts from the DPS. Online available at http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Fast_facts/Codis.pdf
CODIS (2007) SAIC. Online available at http://www.saic.com/justice/codis.html
Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents. (2007) President's DNA Initiatives. Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/mass_fatalities/
Using DNA and Other Resources to Identify Missing Persons (2007) President's DNA Initiative Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/m_person/.
Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks
DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).
Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…
DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)
Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.dcjs.org/forensic/information/dna.cfm?menuLevel=1
Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html
Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…
Catalin, Marian; Andrei, Anghel, and Mitrasca, Oana (nd) Modern Methods of Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for Human Identification by DNA Analysis. Biochemistry Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Timisoara. Online available at: http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~k_aufderheide/Forensic_Science/Web_Documents/Catalin_Andrei_Mitrasca.pdf
Jones, Cynthia E. (2005) Evidence Destroyed, Innocence Lost: The Preservation of Biological Evidence Under Innocence Protection Statues. The American Criminal Law Review. 1 Oct 2005. Online available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/laws/1047368-1.html
Ladd, HC and Ladd, C. (2001) Preservation and Collection of Biological Evidence. Croat Med J. 2001 Jun;42(3):225-8. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11387627
Schiro, George (nd) Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence From Crime Scenes. Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory. Online available at: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html
Technology Decision Making
Effect of technology decision making
Technology has been growing over a period of years due to globalization. All individuals, organizations, and even the society as a whole have been affected by the information and communication uprising. This has even changed their lifestyles. The Information is readily available in the computers mostly through internet technology and telecommunications. The Organizations are able to build their information systems in a variety of formats. A System may be defined as a sequence of functional components which are connected by communication links showing or demonstrating purpose and objective directed performance (Kampov 2010). However, it is important to analyze and discuss systems, informatics theories and DIK model. The paper will also discuss the role of expert system in nursing care, use of decision aids and also the decision support systems. There will be discussion on how the effect of technology on decision making…
Bahamonde L., DuMouchel W, Shea S . (2003). A meta-analysis in16 randomized controlled trials for evaluating computer-based clinical reminder systems in preventive care for ambulatory setting. J Am Med Inform Asso. c;3:399-409
Greenes R.A. (2009). Informatics and a health care strategy for the future -- general directions. Studies In Health Technology AndInformatics [Stud Health Technol Inform], Vol. 149, pp. 21-8; PMID: 19745469
Hart J. K, Newton B. W, Boone S.E. (2010).University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic healthrecord and medical informatics training for undergraduatehealth professionals. Journal Of The Medical Library Association: JMLA [J Med Libr AssocVol. 98 (3), pp. 212-6.
Kampov J. (2010). Survey of biomedical and health care informatics programs in the United States. Journal of Medical Library Association.
technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…
About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml
Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/
Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
The one thing that clearly defines our modern world is technological revolution. People around the globe stand to benefit from manifold advantages of technologies in all realms of our personal and professional lives. While the opponents of this great technological revolution have some very valid and sound arguments in favor of their stance, I personally believe that no technology can ever be solely negative in nature, it all depends on the way we use it since technologies are primarily meant to benefit mankind. In my assessment of the impact of technologies, I have found that its advantages significantly outweigh its disadvantages.
Technologies have definitely had a positive impact on our personal lives. Internet, telephone, television and such other technologies have dramatically changed our lives so much so that a life without them is inconceivable. These technologies have enhanced quality of our lives by sharing our workload and helping us…
1) Albert, Harry. The Ins and Outs of buying online, Grounds Maintenance, 01-01-2001
2) Ellen Brockley, Amber Cai, Rebecca Henderson, Emanuele Picciola and Jimmy Zhang, The Next Technological Revolution: Predicting the Technical Future and its Impact on Firms, Organizations and Ourselves. A paper prepared for the MIT Sloan School's 50 thAnniversary Celebrations, Retrieved online 19th February 2004, http://mitsloan.mit.edu/50th/techrevpaper.pdf
3) Janaro, Richard Paul; Altshuler, Thelma Art of Being Human. HarperCollins Publishers December 1992
These breath-testers use a range of technologies including electrochemical fuel cells, infrared absorption, metallic oxide semiconductors and disposable color-change testers.
The disposable breath-testers are cheap to purchase and very useful in detecting alcohol in a person's system. When the test is positive, to check for other drugs in his system, the person is required to give a blood sample for confirmation by a laboratory. In addition his urine sample is also taken to test for the presence of other drugs in his system.
Breath testers have been in use in the United States since the 1940s. Then the machines used to detect alcohol were not as accurate as the ones used today. Nowadays mostly infrared absorption devices are used. They have a sample chamber from where the breath passes. This comes in contact with the infrared light, which counts the ions of alcohol thus measuring the alcohol level.
1. Jerry W. Kilgore - "DNA Samples Prove to Be Effective in Solving Crimes." Magazine Title: Corrections Today. Volume: 65. Issue: 4. July 2003. 28.
2. "DNA Money." Newspaper Title: The Washington Times. March 12, 2003. A06.
3. Richard S. Julie - "High-Tech Surveillance Tools and the Fourth Amendment: Reasonable Expectations of Privacy in the Technological Age." Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 37. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 2000. Page Number: 127
4. News Story: Camera detects concealed weapons in real-time. [ http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/463051 ] Accessed Aug 21, 2005
, 2007, p. 153).
The research showed that DNA evidence can be a valuable tool for the criminal justice system, but the effectiveness of such evidence depends on a number of factors. Among the more salient of these factors was the need to ensure that the DNA sample is collected and stored properly, and that it is transported to a testing facility in a timely and appropriate fashion. Other issues that emerged from the research included the need to maintain a strict chain of custody for all DNA evidence, as well as the need to ensure that the results of DNA testing were interpreted in an informed manner. Finally, the research was consistent in emphasizing that although DNA evidence can help prove innocence and guilt, the accuracy of such evidence depends on the type of DNA testing protocol that is involved and how these results are used in the…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bridges, a. (2007). Falsely accused: DNA evidence proves rape accusation was a lie. The Forensic Examiner, 16(4), 83.
Dann, B.M., Hans, V.P. & Kaye, DH (2007). Can jury trial innovations improve juror understanding of DNA evidence? Judicature, 90(4), 152-153.
Gahn, L. (2005, March). DNA evidence collection procedures. Law & Order, 53(3), 72-73.
The field is generally that of social control, informal and formal, and it sits in a surround, the larger political forces in a city or a nation (Manning 2008, p. 87).
The most prominent of these political pressures is a public, at least in the United States, that is ostensibly averse to constant monitoring as well as the continued militarization of the police force though the deployment of technologies such as those used in special operations. In their editorial regarding intersection cameras and automatic license plate scanners, the editors of McClatchy propose that, "somehow there has to be a way to take into consideration the uncomfortable feeling people get when they believe they are being spied on with the justifiable methods of making law enforcement more efficient" (McClatchy 2010). They suggest the place to start is the database where recorded video and license plate data is kept anywhere from a…
Editorial: balance public concerns, police technology. (2010, December 30). McClatchy
Tribune Business News.
Manning, P.K. (2008). The technology of policing: crime mapping, information technology, and the rationality of crime control. New York, NY: New York University Press, 87-88.
Moriarty, L.J. (2005). Criminal justice in the 21st century. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas
The subject of DNA fingerprinting has become a prominent issue on several fronts. The applicable paradigms involved include law enforcement, privacy concerns and immigration, just to name a few. A few questions and concerns about DNA will be included in this repot including what precisely DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, the step-by-step methods of fingerprinting, how DNA is compared on an electrophoresis (EPG), what precisely EPG is, whether the author of this report agrees with DNA fingerprinting everyone for medical reasons, why DNA is considered potential evidence in a court of law and whether the author of this report aggress with the government wanting to DNA-fingerprint everyone so that they can learn about disease propensity and other pieces of information. hile DNA fingerprinting has and will continue to render a large amount of benefit, the privacy and other rights of people to be fingerprinted are a…
Aarli, Ragna. "Genetic Justice And Transformations Of Criminal Procedure." Journal Of
Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 13.1 (2012): 3-
21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.
Ai, Bingjie, et al. "The Elimination Of DNA From The Cry Toxin-DNA Complex Is A
Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…
Alberts B, Johnson A., Lewis J, et al. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science.
Dunham, W. (2014). Ancient Russian's DNA sheds light on Neanderthal interbreeding. Reuters. Nov 6, 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-science-genome-idUSKBN0IQ2QK20141106
Technology and Criminal Justice System
The American prisons are known to be hosting some of the highest number of prisoners in relation to the entire population. The criminal justice system has over the years proven to be punitive and offenders have often found themselves incarcerated upon presentation of evidence. With the improvement of technology, there have been even more people getting convictions, increasing the number of people behind the prison walls. The overcrowding at the prisons has severally prompted the use of alternative means of correction rather than sending people to the prisons. This has seen increased paroles and offenders being put under probations as a means to decrease the congestion in the prisons.
The challenges that the criminal justice system has faced over the years have prompted the initiative towards inculcating the culture of more technology use within the criminal justice system. The use of technology in the criminal…
FBI, (2015). Next Generation Identification (NGI). Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/ngi
Lazer D., (2015). DNA and the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.davidlazer.com/sites/default/files/29%20DNA%20and%20the%20CJS%20chapt%201.pdf
Maureen Brown, (2000). Criminal Justice Discovers Information Technology. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_1/02e.pdf
National Institute of Technology, (2012). Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System Selection and Application Guide. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.justnet.org/pdf/IRRS-SAG-January-2013.pdf
The experiment was designed to first extract DNA, take it through the steps of amplification and detachment, and then prepare it for analysis. The question was what type of bacteria was being sequenced. The steps used were: 1) Extraction of genomic DNA, 2) Amplification of genetic region, 3) Verification, 4) Clean PC Products, 5) Quantify DNA concentration, 6) Cycle the sequence, and, 7) Precipitate cycle-sequenced products for analysis. In this case, a virtual laboratory was used, with the user being guided to the appropriate tools and equipment (Virtual Bacterial Identification).
Max ident gi|39295|Z11684.1
.henselae 16S rNA gene
Bartonella henselae 16S ribosomal NA, partial sequence
Discussion- The BLAST search displays the matching sequences in the database in descending order of the degree of the match. Most of the top scorers are either Bartonella henselae or ochalimaea…
Nobel, I. "Secret of Life Discovery Turns 50." 27 Feburary 2007. BBC News. August 2010 .
"Virtual Bacterial Identification." January 2010. The Virtual Bacterial ID Lab. August 2010 .
Walker and Jones. Genes and DNA. Kingfisher, OK: Kingfisher Press, 2003.
APPENDIX A -- Genetic Map of
advances in technology. The Internet has brought the idea of instantaneous global communication to a reality; smaller and smarter chips are now included in inexpensive Smart Phones, and our ability to understand and manipulate data has vastly increased. New technologies can certainly offer law enforcement a number of new tools that aid in their job. Essentially, these can be divided into different segments, all of which are useful during different situations:
Aviation Technology -- Helicopters and light planes have both improved and become more cost effective, although they are still more appropriate for larger urban areas. They are able to help with traffic issues, and with the addition of cameras and nigh vision, help track suspects or increase surveillance on large events or potential gang related activities. They are also able to be equipment with special weapons (SWAT), firefighting, and emergency medical equipment (Langton, 2009).
Biometrics -- Biometrics is a…
Communications Technology. (2007, November 13). Retrieved from National Institue of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/topics/technology/communication/welcome.htm
Types of Less Lethal Devices. (2008, July 11). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/less-lethal/types.htm
Body Armor. (2012, September 13). Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/technology/body-armor/welcome.htm
Harries, K. (1999, December). Mapping Crime: Principles and Practices. Retrieved from NCJRS.GOV: https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/nij/mapping/ch1_18.html
Okanagan Specialty Fruits is a small company that has invented a new technology which has enabled them to genetically engineer apples in such a way that they do not turn into a brown color when cut or sliced. Okanagan is trying to bring this product in the market given the fact that they believe the non-browning apple will be accepted by food companies and consumers. It will also help increase the number of apple sales since retailers can now sell sliced apples. However, the company has received different receptions regarding bringing the genetically engineered apples in the market. There are those who oppose the Arctic Apple as Okanagan named it, while there are those willing to give them a chance to sell the product in the market. Despite the fact that American family has been consuming genetically engineered foods, Arctic Apple will be the first version of genetically…
Andrew, P. (2012, July 12). That Fresh Look, Genetically Buffed. The New York Times.
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/13/business/growers-fret-over-a-new-apple-that-wont-turn-brown.html?pagewanted=all
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…
Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2
McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.
Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php
Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
Ethics of Society, Technology, And the Environment
Ethics of Society, Technology and Environment
Being the member of the human society in 21st century is like to be the witness of the breathtaking technological revolution. Society, technology and environment are the three vertices of a same triangle and hence connected to each other. As a result they tend to have inter-related influences and affects. With the advancements and immense developments in the fields of science and technology, the life particularly in 21st century has taken an almost new turn. The glance on the ancient or earlier times would prove that, the life then, was completely different.
By ethics we mean, those specific standards which determine the functioning of the system for which they are defined. Ethics of society, technology and environment are thus those set generalized standards for the safety and preservation of the environment and nature along with the technological…
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The problems and future of DNA Testing
The scientific soundness of the DNA test has not been doubted at all. Courts have increasingly relied on the outcomes of DNA tests. The common man is at a loss to understand the complexities of the method, and as a result in jury trials it is not taken as standard proof but approached with hesitancy. Jurors are ignorant of science and the 'principles of modern genetics' and can get quite confused by all the jargon and confusing tactics of lawyers who are more interested in their cases rather than scientific truth. ("DNA Fingerprinting and Forensics," 2006) Thus the very process that can throw light on the proceedings and produce unfaultable evidence gets mired in sticky debates. The actual concern about the DNA test is not a confused jury but the process of collecting the data and analyzing it. There is no…
Aronson, Jay. D. (2007) "Genetic Witness: Science, Law, and Controversy in the Making of DNA" Rutgers University Press.
Champod, Christophe. (2004) "Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions"
Lazer, David. (2004) "DNA and the Criminal Justice System: The Technology of Justice"
U.S. technology in Thai hospitals will have a positive, negative or neutral effect on the mortality rate of patients in Thailand. U.S. hospitals currently offer patients some of the most modern and complex technology available. Patients whether at private or public facilities are very often afforded modern urgent care that reduces the likelihood of mortality from common and less common illness. The mortality ratio, or comparison of patients admitted vs. discharged in most U.S. hospitals is close to or less than 1.00 (Comaro, 2003).
In Thailand hospitals, modern technology used in community hospitals is somewhat limited and typically consists of the use of X-ay technology and ultrasound for imaging and diagnosis (Dionson, 2003). Many community hospitals currently lack the advanced technology available in U.S. hospitals that has been proven to save lives. There are several private institutions within Thailand however, that do offer more advanced technology.
However, Thai hospitals historically…
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Andrews, Charles G. (2003). Comparative Analysis of Management. Retrieved November 16, 2003, at http://www.coe.unt.edu/allen/Dissertation-Example/CharlieAndrewsdissertation.pdf
Boyer, K.K., Olson, J.R., Calantone, R.J., & Jackson, E.C. (2002). Print vs. electronic surveys: A comparison of two data collection methodologies. Journal of Operations Management, 20 (4), 357-373.
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
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McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…
Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te
Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04
Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm
NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf
2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
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The efficiency gains from PM and PR must be oriented towards a specific strategic objective to be effective (Attaran, 2004).
While processes are often continually monitored to see how they can be made more efficient to save on costs, it is has been shown that re-orienting processes to be more customer-centric can transform entire companies. The concept of a Demand-Driven Supply Network (DDSN) (O'Marah, 2004) specifically focuses on this level and focus of interprocess integration and re-orientation. As with the Toyota Production System (TPS) the concept of a DDSN in the context of any organization is to create higher levels of transparency and trust through shared process ownership. From this context both the Toyota Production System and DDSN model share the attribute of collaborative workflows that ensure higher levels of adoption and higher levels of accuracy as well (O'Marah, 2004).
Like the Toyota Production System, DDSNs are capable of becoming…
AMR Research (2003) -- Configuration is the Heart of Customer Fulfillment for Complex Product Manufacturers. AMR Research Report. Monday March 31, 2003.
Mohsen Attaran. (2004). Exploring the relationship between information technology and business process reengineering. Information & Management, 41(5), 585-596.
Ganesh D. Bhatt. (2000). Exploring the relationship between information technology, infrastructure and business process re-engineering. Business Process Management Journal, 6(2), 139.
Marianne Broadbent, Peter Weill, Don St. Clair. (1999). The implications of information technology infrastructure for business process redesign. MIS Quarterly, 23(2), 159-182.
Kodak's Slow Adoption Of Information Technology
Corporate history reveals only a few blunders that are as confounding as Kodak's wasted digital photography opportunities; what's more, Kodak was, in fact, the inventor of digital photography technology. The company's strategic failure stemmed directly from its decades-long weakening, with digital photography destroying Kodak's film-based model of business. For several decades, management was unable to realize that digital photography constituted a disruptive new technology, at the same time company researchers extended that technology's boundaries (Mui, 2012). Kodak had a head start into digital technologies and could manufacture industry-leading digital cameras and technologies ahead of competitors. But it took a whole decade for digital cameras to dominate the market for cameras. It was only in 2002 that total digital camera sales finally exceeded analog camera sales. In hindsight, the company possessed over two valuable decades' time for responding to a threat to its existence. Considering…
Chopra, A. (2013). How Kodak and Polaroid fell victim to the dark side of innovation. Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://betanews.com/2013/12/12/how-kodak-and-polaroid-fell-victim-to-the-dark-side-of-innovation/
Kotter International. (2012). Barriers to Change: The Real Reason Behind the Kodak Downfall. Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/johnkotter/2012/05/02/barriers-to-change-the-real-reason-behind-the-kodak-downfall/#76104ac63698
Mui, C. (2012). How Kodak Failed. Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2012/01/18/how-kodak-failed/#2ba088c2bd6a
The Economist. (2012). The last Kodak moment? Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://www.economist.com/node/21542796
Role of HIT in Healthcare Planning
Healthcare information technology (HIT) is one of the greatest disruptive forces that will affect vision and planning over the next decade. However, regardless of the technology that is developed, it must be supported and executed by hospital leadership to be successful. Currently, research is underway for the use of artificial intelligence, supercomputing, and clinical support systems in the healthcare environment. This research will explore how these technologies are likely to change healthcare in the future, and the role of readership in making the integration of these technologies a success.
Currently, information technology is an integral part of the healthcare system. HIT refers to a variety of technologies that collect, transmit, store, and display patient data electronically (Hemmat, Ayatollahi, Maleki, and Safhafi, 2017). This makes it easy to send, review, and update patient information quickly and easily. The current list of technologies includes remote…
Contemporary Biotechnology has produced considerable contribution to the global farming and health sector. Advancement of several medicines, numerous pharmaceuticals, vaccines making use of recombinant DNA technology has made biotechnology a multibillion dollar global industry. Additionally, PCR centered diagnostics has additionally materialized as a crucial element of the health industry. Because vast majority of the Islamic nations have their economies centered on farming, biotechnology has therefore enormous potential to improve efficiency. The need of meals in Islamic nations over the last 2 decades is predicted to improve by nearly half. That boost is going to have to come via changes in agricultural efficiency in marginal, fertile, salt affected as well as rainfed areas. There will probably be much less workforce, arable land and water offered to the agriculture sector. This particular scenario is actually a consequence of reduced rural populace, poor management of water reserves and supplies, environmental degradation…
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
While black men can be incredibly diverse-looking, she may focus on those features that tend to differentiate them from white men. This is a risk in any cross-racial identification, where someone may notice differences from their own ethnic group, but fail to look beyond those features that stand out as "other" in his mind, which makes any person in that racial group a possible suspect.
In fact, it is impossible to overplay the role that misidentification has played in so many wrongful convictions. It is difficult for many people to realize that DNA evidence did not play a role in older convictions; the technology simply was not available. Furthermore, when DNA evidence first became available, it was a new technology that was not fully understood by all of the actors in the criminal justice system. In those early times, there were investigators, prosecutors, and fact finders who would believe a…
Innocence Project. (2011, October 21). New Orleans man wrongfully incarcerated for 30 years exonerated of rape that new DNA evidence proves he didn't commit. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/New_Orleans_Man_Wrongly_Incarcerated_for_30_Years_Exonerated_of_Rape_that_New_DNA_Evidence_Proves_He_Didnt_Commit.php
Safi Rania Diamond Cell Youth Booster is a new skincare product for women aged 40 years and above who are seeking to prevent and lessen signs of aging. The paper provides a strategic marketing mix analysis that is geared towards successful marketing and advertising the product. This marketing mix analysis is to be presented to the Board of Directors of Graffiti Group, Inc., which has just purchased an operating facility in Malaysia that manufactures the product. The analysis is geared towards influencing the decision of the board in an attempt to have them approve investment and marketing of this product in Canada. Upon approval, the company will market this product to target market of women aged 40 years and above, especially those who want to prevent and lessen signs of aging, under the brand name PureBeauty Diamond Cell Youth Booster. The analysis includes an overview of the product,…
(Human Genome Project, DNA Forensics, 2006) Examples of genetic testing use of DNA in forensic identification are: (1) identification of potential suspects from DNA left at crime scene; (2) exoneration of those wrongly accused of crimes; (3) identification of crime and catastrophe victims; (4) establishment of paternity and other family relationship; (5) identification of endangered and protected species in aiding wildlife officials and in prosecution of poachers; (6) detection of bacteria and other organisms that may be pollutants of air, water, soil and food; (7) matching of organ donors with recipients in transplant programs; (8) determination of pedigree for seed or livestock breeds; and (9) authentication of consumables such as caviar and wine. (U.S. Department of Justice, 2003; DNA Forensics, 2006) DNA typing is accomplished through obtaining DNA samples through designing "small pieces of DNA probes that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the…
Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology (2003) Using DNA to Solve Crimes. U.S. Department of Justice. Executive Summary. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_exsum.htm
DNA Forensics (2006) Human Genome Project. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Online available at
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…
Butler, J.M. (2015). U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 18: 4 -- 20.
Goulka, J.E. Matthies, C. Steinberg, P. (2010). Toward a Comparison of DNA Profiling and Databases in the United States and England. Technical report (Rand Corporation).
House of Common (2013). Forensic Science. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.
Mallett, X. & Evison, M.P. (2013). Forensic Facial Comparison: Issues of Admissibility in the Development of Novel Analytical Technique. J Forensic Sci, 58 (4):859-865.
e should be thankful for this amazing technological development," (Hatch, 2000).
The death penalty must be altered, not abolished. In all new cases, if DNA evidence is not provided as conclusive for the conviction of the arrested, then capital punishment should not even be a consideration. There are already appeals processes in place for those who presently serve on Death Row, and in many of these cases, the inmates have pleaded for DNA testing. This should be executed on a case-by-case basis, pending the jurisdiction of the local judicial system. It was found in the research for this analysis that many of the authors who approve of using DNA testing for exoneration, oppose DNA evidence that has been presented during the time of trial. Much like those who oppose the death penalty and those who support it, there will be continued debate over this new science, which is offering legendary…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2010). DNA Testing and the Death Penalty. Retrived April 16, 2010, from www.aclu.org.
Banner, Stuart. (2002). The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA:
Hatch, Orrin G. (June 13, 200). Post-Conviction DNA Testing: When Is Justice Served?
Sinclair Billy Wayne, & Sinclair, Jodie. (2009). Capital Punishment: An Indictment by a Death-Row Survivor. New York, NY: Arcade Publishing.
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
With the advent of technology, there are other tests apart from Blood Type present to rule out a crime. If today, the assailant's blood type does not match the blood on the crime scene, it does not necessarily prove him guilty. Forensics studies have indicated that there are two types of people on this planet regarding secretion of ABO proteins in body fluids. There are the secretors, and then there are nonsecretors. In cases of rape, the fluid usually tested is semen. The thing to note is that if that person is a secretor, only then his blood antigens will be present in the semen. If the semen is negative for any antigen that can either mean that the person is type O or is a non-secretor (Lyle, 2011) Furthermore, there are thousands and millions of people who have the same blood type. Due to this reason, DNA testing…
Flaherty, C. (2013). Cops: black mob kidnaps, rapes teen girls. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.wnd.com/2013/11/cops-black-mob-kidnaps-rapes-teen-girls / [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Gross, S.R., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D.J., Montgomery, N. & Patil, S. (2005). Exonerations in the United States 1989 through 2003. The journal of criminal law and criminology (1973-), 95 (2), pp. 523 -- 560.
Innocenceproject.org. (2014). The innocence project - know the cases: browse profiles:bennett barbour. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Bennett_Barbour.php [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Johnson, S. (1984). Cross-Racial Identification Errors in Criminal Cases. CORNELL L. REV., 69 (934), 935-36.
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…
"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004
Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food
Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…
43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
Rubin "Hurricane" Carter has become a symbol, both negative and positive, for American's judicial system.
Rubin carter's case has had a profound impact on accused and convicted criminals today. The advent of DNA technology has helped to reduce the number of wrongful convictions, and has also been instrumental in exonerating a number of convicted prisoners. hile DNA technology has had an important impact on the criminal justice system, experts argue that the number of wrongful convictions is an increasing problem in the United States. One website lists 22 potential wrongful convictions on Texas' death row alone. Racism played an important role in Carter's original conviction, and today allegations of racism continue to plague the criminal justice system. The legal damage to the right of habeas corpus by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 has reduced the ability of prisoners to demand the right to be brought before…
Bos, Carole. RUBIN "HURRICANE" CARTER. Law Buzz. 23 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=584&url= http://www.lawbuzz.com/justice/hurricane/hurricane.htm
Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty (CUADP). 22 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=6132&url= http://www.cuadp.org/pris/pot.html
Hurricane. 2000. Starring: Denzel Washington, Vicellous Reon Shannon, and Deborah Kara Unger. Director Norman Jewison.
Roberts, Paul Craig. From Blackstone to Bentham: Why Wrongful Conviction Is On The Rise. 22 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=6424&url= http://www.lewrockwell.com/roberts/roberts4.html
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…
Johns, L.G., Downes, G.F., Bibles, C.D. (2005). Resurrecting Cold Case Serial Homicide Investigations; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 74 No. 8). Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Markey, J. (2007). After the Match: dealing with the New Era of DNA;
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10). Yost, J., Burke, T. (2007). Veterinary Forensics: Animals Curtailing Crime; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10).
On one hand he was portrayed by the Cornwell was the killer of the prostitutes while on the other Sickert was a staunch defender of the sanctity of marriage and reportedly even fired one of his most important dealers for dumping his wife of 25 years for a younger woman. Sickert's wife even gave evidence that the last thee killings by the ipper were committed in London in a time when Walter had gone to France while Cornwell did not agree. Alibis have important place in criminal investigation cases. Similarly, eye witnesses also have their importance. The eye witnesses in case of Jack the ipper gave a different description of the killer as compared to the appearance of Sickert while Cornwell dismissed such accounts with the point-of-view that he must have created a different appearance using different materials like dark grease paint, hair dye etc.
In most criminal investigations the…
Jack the Ripper, the Dialectic of Enlightenment and the Search for Spiritual Deliverance in White Chappell Scarlet Tracings. Contributors: Alex Murray - author. Journal Title: Critical Survey. Volume: 16. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 2004. Page Number: 52+.
Nickell, J. (March-April, 2003). The strange case of Pat the Ripper - Portrait of a Killer: Jack the Ripper, Case Closed by Patricia Cornwell - book review. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2843/is_2_27/ai_98252936/pg_1
DECISION -- S & MAPE vs. UNITED KINGDOM
The cases of S & Marper v United Kingdom involved the claims of two individuals that their rights had been violated by the retention of their fingerprints and identifying DNA material by police after their exoneration from the criminal charges against them. The bases of their claim was that: (1) Section 1 of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human ights (ECH) guarantees that "Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence" and that Section 2 of Article 8 prohibits any "interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the…
The Economist (December 4, 2008). DNA and human rights -- "Throw it out: A court decision limits the scope of police DNA databases." Accessed online:
Animal Production: Biotechnology
Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…
Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).
Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)
Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
Live Without Science?
The vast improvements in the quality of life modern humankind has been experiencing are due in large part to the developments and innovations in science. These are not only confined to one or two branches of science but all branches thereof have made significant contributions. Whether it is in the biological, physical, technological, medical or other science, each branch has provided breakthroughs that resulted in having a better life for each of us. For instance, "new technological advances lead to new scientific discoveries [such as] developing DNA copying and sequencing technologies [that] led to important breakthroughs (University of California Museum of Paleontology et al., 2011). Diseases that used to be dreaded in the past and caused several deaths are now curable because of our knowledge in DNA technology.
On the personal level, science has tremendously improved how I live my everyday life. Technology for that matter enabled…
Jessa, T. (2011, February 4). Importance of science. Universe Today. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://www.universetoday.com/83736/importance-of-science/
University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, and the Regents of the University of California. (2011). Benefits of science. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/0_0_0/howscienceworks_18
Wagner, W. (2007). Vernacular science knowledge: its role in everyday life communication. Public Understanding of Science, 16 (1): 7-22. Retrieved June 3, 2011 from http://www.brown.uk.com/brownlibrary/wagner.pdf
Ted Bundy: America’s Most Infamous Serial Killer
While Ted Bundy is neither the most prolific nor the most horrific serial killer in America, he is one of the best known of American serial killers. This essay explores the reasons for Bundy’s infamy. It will explore Bundy’s normal guy persona and how that not only helped him gain his victims’ trust, but also helped foster public fascination with Bundy. Bundy committed crimes across multiple states, which helped create national awareness of his crimes at a time when crime reporting was still often confined to local areas. He had multiple successful escapes, which not only created news while authorities searched for him, but also helped support the mythology of Bundy as a genius. His antics during the trial, where he represented himself, were focused on engaging the press in an attempt to win public support. Finally, after he was convicted, he…
Policing in the U.S.A., UK, and Germany
The way law enforcement and the criminal justice system does its work in the United States has more similarities than differences with the way in which law enforcement and criminal justice is conducted in the UK and in Germany. This paper points to the similarities and the differences in approaches to policing and criminal justice in those three countries.
Criminal Justice in the United States
The USA has a presidential system of government, with one federal constitutional institution (with three branches, judiciary, legislative and executive), and 50 separate states with their own constitutions. In terms of the criminal justice system in the U.S. -- and law enforcement's role in that system -- there are four kinds of policing: a) federal policing (U.S. Dept. f Justice -- and several agencies within the DJ -- the Dept. f Homeland Security (Secret Service, Immigration, and the…
On pages 47-50, the author emphasizes the growing number of violent sex crimes that have been committed against children. About one-third of the "organized pornography rings around the world" are located in the United States and hence, since the 1990s, several pieces of legislation dealing with child molesters / sex offenders. Along with the "Wetterling Act" (the law that mandates sex offenders must be included on the national registry of sexual predators) and the Adam Walsh Protection and Safety Act (2006), the federal government provides funds for states to upgrade law enforcement and to provide sex offender information and registries. In the UK, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (VISOR) is very much like the National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) in the U.S. The Sex Offences Act of 2003 describes more than 60 different kinds of sex crimes -- including possession of "indecent photographs of children" and the trafficking of children for sex purposes -- and like the U.S., sex offenders must register their residences and notify the government within 3 days (60-61).
In conclusion, there are many similarities between the criminal justice systems in the UK, the U.S., and in Germany. The similarities can be explained because all three democratic countries basically face the same kinds of criminal issues -- terrorism, white color crime, crimes against children, violent crime, among other aspects of criminal activity -- and in all three countries police and federal agents are ultimately accountable to the citizens who pay the taxes to keep law enforcement well staffed and up-to-date vis-a-vis technology. In the UK, there is a movement to decentralize police services away from total federal control, but decentralization is already reflected in the U.S. And Germany.
Thomas also addresses what he perceives to be shortcomings in the modern approach to advance medical education provided to medical students. Specifically, he argues that substantial portions of the contemporary medical school curriculum of the first two years of medical school should be replaced by courses detailing the many fundamental gaps in medical knowledge of human disease. Second, Thomas recommends that much more medical research should be devoted to diseases that are still insufficiently understood to be prevented despite the impressive ability of modern medicine to treat their symptoms.
In that regard, Thomas makes a cryptic reference to the fact that, in some respects, medical science has now progressed to the point where it sometimes causes pain by virtue of its extensive focus on symptoms: he suggests that extending our life expectancy into our eighties may, in fact, be "for the worse" as much as for the better. Likewise, Thomas…
(Drug Creation Process: Learn and Confirm, a new Paradigm for Clinical Development at Wyeth)
Pharmaceuticals - a knowledge driven industry:
Pharmaceuticals happen to be one of the most extremely 'Knowledge Driven' industries that is always in a state of change. Human, animal, and environmental health remains the topmost interest of the society. Diversities in life form and infections render grave challenges to the formulation of particular and targeted solutions. Drug discovery is an elaborate process needing almost a decade at a cost of 300 million U.S. dollars to get a new drug to the market. Hence the long waiting period in between 'learning', knowledge generation' and its changeover to 'value added knowledge' requires the building of Proprietary Knowledge' that is of immense value in setting up and maintaining a worldwide creative gesture. One of our major competitors Merck and Co holds expertise in medicinal preparations & chemistry of N-Heterocyclics liquid…
Drug Creation Process: Learn and Confirm, a new Paradigm for Clinical Development at Wyeth. 2007. Retrieved 14 October, 2007 at http://www.wyeth.com/research/drugprocess
Ganguli, Prabuddha. Global Pharmaceutical Industry: Intellectual Wealth and Asset
Protection. Retrieved 14 October, 2007 at http://www.sristi.org/mdpipr2005/other_readings/or%2026.doc
Global Pharmaceutical Contract Manufacturing Markets. Retrieved 14 October, 2007 at http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/report-brochure.pag?id=A918-01-00-00-00
Immigrants and Discrimination
DuBois, in his "The Conservation of the Races" described racial prejudice as "the friction between different groups of people." (Dubois, 12) If one accepts this definition, then the United States contains a great deal of racial prejudice, as this nation is filled with different groups of people who are constantly experiencing friction. Considering that the United States of America is a country founded by immigrants, populated by immigrants, and built by immigrants, from a variety of nations, it is no wonder that the history of America is filled with incidents of racial prejudice and intolerance. Not only is there the friction between different groups of immigrants coming to America, but also between immigrants in general and those considered "natural-born" Americans. Natural-born Americans are those persons who ancestors were immigrants, but now enjoy the privileges of calling themselves "natural-born" Americans. Dubois wrote his book in the late 1890's,…
Borjas, George. "The Earnings of Male Hispanic Immigrants in the United States." Harvard Kennedy School. Web 16 May 2011.
Cristancho, Sergio, et al., "Listening to Rural Hispanic Immigrants in the Midwest: A Community-based Participatory Assessment of Major Barriers to Health Care Access and Use." Sage Publications. (2008) Web. 16 May 2011. http://www.udea.edu.co/portal/page/portal/bibliotecaSedesDependencias/unidades
Since males of all sexually reproducing species are naturally drawn to signs of fertility in females (Zuk 2002), they naturally express more interest in females when they ovulate, or come into heat in the vernacular applied to non-human animals. In many other species that do not rely as much on a monogamous pair bond for the survival of the fetus (Barash & Lipton 2001), females exhibit very clear external signals corresponding to their ovulation. This system is very well suited to species where a single male (or several) mate with many females, such as among lions and many mammals; in fact, it probably reduces any potential for conflict among harem females for male attention.
Human females replaced the outward signals of ovulation and fertility by evolving a suppression of any outward manifestation, precisely, to ensure that males provided for, guarded, and protected them continually rather than only that portion of…
Ackerman, Diane. (1995) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage
Angier, Natalie. Birds Do it. Bees Do it. People Seek the Keys to it; the New York Times (Apr. 10/07)
Barash, David, P. And Lipton, Judith E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, Nathaniel (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Whereas it remains true that African-Americans and other racial minorities continue to be overrepresented in the American prison population, both common sense and the general consensus of the criminal justice community and sociological experts suggest that this hardly a direct function of race. ather, it merely reflects the unfortunate correlation between poverty, comparative lack of educational and employment opportunities in the American urban centers where many minorities reside, as well as of the social values that tend to prevail in many of those impoverished communities (Schmalleger 1997).
First, the quality of public school facilities and programs is directly related to the economic realities of their surrounding areas; second, within many segments of minority urban social culture, education is not valued the way it is in middle class and upper class communities and students who make the effort to apply themselves academically are more likely to be targeted for ridicule by…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.
This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…
Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.
Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."
The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
Likewise, I believe that statutes of limitations might need to be lengthened or even eliminated so that older sex offence cases can be brought to trial.
In Florida, as in other states, death row inmates spend inordinate amounts of time awaiting their final sentence: execution. The average wait time in the Sunshine State is fourteen years; many inmates will wait even longer than to meet their final day on earth. Remaining in prison for so long is not only costly for taxpayers; it poses an emotional and psychological trauma for any potentially innocent death row inmates. One way that appeals processes can be sped up is by channeling further funds into the public defense system. Monies freed up by housing the innocently convicted in jail could be better spent on improved appeals processes. hen attorneys have all the resources they need, appeals processes will be far faster and more likely…
Becker, Jo. "Limits to death row appeals rejected." St. Petersburg Times. 15 April 2000. http://www.sptimes.com/News/041500/State/Limits_to_death_row_a.shtml .
DNA Technology Will Stop the Clock on Statute of Limitations In Sexual Assault Cases." NYC.gov. http://home.nyc.gov/portal/index.jsp?epi_menuItemID=c0935b9a57bb4ef3daf2f1c701c789a0&epi_menuID=13ecbf46556241d3daf2f1c701c789a0&epi_baseMenuID=27579af732d48f86a62fa24601c789a0&pageID=mayor_press_release&catID=1194&doc_name=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.nyc.gov%2Fhtml%2Fom%2Fhtml%2F2003b%2Fpr217-03.html&cc=unused1978&rc=1194&ndi=1 .
Justices refine rules for old death row appeals." CNN.com. 25 Mar 2003. http://edition.cnn.com/2003/LAW/03/25/scotus.scotus.death.penalty.ap/.
Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. "Supreme Court Upholds Law That Speeds Up Death Row Appeals." New Abolitionist. May 2000. http://www.nodeathpenalty.org/newab015/sCourt.html .