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Domestic Abuse: Information and Evidence-Based Practice
Domestic abuse is an issue that has plagued society since nearly the beginning of mankind. Even ancient societies and civilizations have dealt with and depicted those who engage in this behavior. There are few things that work for every person who gets involved in domestic abuse, even though there are many different treatment options. Some people respond to drug treatment when they are medicated for an underlying issue that might be triggering their anger. Others respond to medical interventions such as therapy or anger management courses. Still other individuals only respond to law enforcement and punishment - and even then there is no guarantee that person will not reoffend. Discussed here is domestic abuse from the standpoint of evidence-based practice. What researchers and therapists have said (and are still saying) about people who are domestic abusers is important to analyze, so that new and…
Buel, S.M. (1999). Family violence -- Fifty obstacles to leaving. The Colorado Lawyer, 28(10).
Dalton, C. (1999). When paradigms collide: Protecting battered parents and their children in the family court system. 37 Family and Conciliation Courts Rev. 273.
Ellis, J.M. (1999). Barriers to Effective Screening for Domestic Violence by Registered Nurses in the Emergency Department. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 22(1): 27.
Fighting Domestic Violence. (2001). Office of the Attorney General. State of California. Department of Justice.
The human services profession requires its members to be strong-willed, compassionate, energetic and empathetic. These skills are most in need when dealing with one of the most troublesome problems society faces today, domestic abuse. Domestic abuse has wide reaching effects, not only within the family construct, but in the large macrocosmic sense of society as well. Domestic abuse and its often vague and obscure symptoms provide the counselor or social worker with a unique problem that is mostly treated and addressed at the by the human services professional
Across socioeconomic backgrounds of all kinds, domestic abuse appears in many different forms and manifestations. This form of violence is unacceptable, and it seems baffling how people may resort to domestic violence against their wife or husband or even a child. Humiliation and intimidation, in my opinion, are not suitable ways of treating fellow humans. Domestic abuse is of great…
Babcock, J. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, p. 1023-1053.
Baldry, A. (2003). Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27, p. 713-732.
Dutton, D.G., A.J. Starzomski (1993). "Borderline Personality in Perpetrators of Psychological and Physical Violence." Violence and Victims 8: 327 -- 37.
Dutton, D. (2005). Domestic abuse assessment in child custody disputes; beware the domestic violence paradigm. Journal of Child Custody, 2, p. 23-43.
Domestic abuse [...] abuse directed toward women, and what can be done to help control this abuse. Domestic abuse is one of the most pervasive problems facing our society today. Often, the abuse is kept secret because of fear or threats from abusive partners. To understand domestic abuse, many studies have been conducted, but one thing remains clear. Domestic abuse is prevalent in all levels of society, and it must be controlled for our society to truly be successful and modern.
It is estimated that domestic abuse affects at least 2 million married Americans every year. The number rises further when adding in non-married and gay couples (Hamberger and enzetti, 1996, pg. xi). Clearly, the problem of domestic abuse is widespread, even out of control in America today. While domestic abuse happens in both sexes, it seems to affect women more than it does men. Women are often dominated so…
Brody, L. (1985). Gender differences in emotional development: A review of theories and research. In Gender and personality: current perspectives on theory and research, Stewart, A.J., & Lykes, M.B. (Eds.) (pp. 14-61). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Buzawa, Carl G., ed. (1992). Domestic violence: The changing criminal justice. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Chang, Valerie Nash. (1996). I just lost myself: Psychological abuse of women in marriage. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Davis, K. (2003, May). Dying for love: The epidemic of domestic abuse cases. Ebony, 58, 150+.
domestic violence and abuse.
Issues that are commonly thought to be the precipitating factors of domestic violence
Arguments that propose that domestic violence is not restricted to some susceptible social groups identified earlier Steps to prevent the malady
Domestic violence is one of the greatest threats to the life and health of women and to a lesser extent, men throughout the world and is a despicable phenomenon that is witnessed in all cultures and nations irrespective of the amount of social progress that a country has to its credit. In fact, it may be seen that the incidents of domestic violence is seen more in advanced countries than less developed nations. Studies which had been carried through many years suggest that there are many predisposing factors that precipitate domestic violence. Factors like lack of education, alcohol abuse, poverty, cultural restrictions etc. were thought to be factors that induced people to…
Author not known, "The Cypriot Family" 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/9722/family.html. Accessed on April 10, 2004
This author gives a detailed account of the role of the new age woman and how her role conflicts with that of men in the society
Seymour Anne. "Breaking the cycle of terror," State Government News, 1996, pp 22-25
The author explains a very important point: the effect of domestic violence on children and their potential to carry out violence in their lives when they become adults.
Advocacy Plan for Social Change AEA OF INTEEST -- DOMESTIC ABUSE
Social activist group:
The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV)
The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) is an organization devoted to raising awareness about the seriousness of the problem of domestic violence. It "includes coalition building at the local, state, regional and national levels" and also provides "support for the provision of community-based, non-violent alternatives -- such as safe home and shelter programs - for battered women and their children" (Mission, 2011, NCADV). Its aims are both political and practical -- it lobbies politicians to encourage them to pass legislation to protect the interests of battered women and it also engages in fundraising efforts for specific initiatives that can protect battered women and their children while they are transitioning from an abusive home.
The NCADV takes a specific position on the causes for domestic violence. "NCADV…
Mission. (2011). NCADV. Retrieved November 8, 2011 at http://www.ncadv.org/aboutus.php
State legislation. (2011). Futures Without Violence. Retrieved November 8, 2011 at http://www.futureswithoutviolence.org/content/features/detail/927/
Domestic violence is an umbrella term for a constellation of behaviors that inflict physical or emotional harm on members of a family or people living together as members of a family. Commonly used terms for domestic violence include domestic abuse, spousal battering, intimate partner violence, and family violence. sychologists define domestic violence as behavior that involves violence or other forms of abuse from one person against others in domestic settings, and that frequently follows a pattern of increased escalation over time. Intimate partner violence refers to domestic violence against spouses or other partners of both genders in an intimate relationship (Lowe, Humphreys, & Williams, 2007). Domestic violence can include behaviors that result in physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse. Domestic abuse can range from subtly coercive forms to marital rape to disfigurement and ultimately to death.
atterns of domestic abuse are often intergenerational, indicating that some of the behaviors…
Patterns of domestic abuse are often intergenerational, indicating that some of the behaviors are learned from observing abusive interactions between parents or other adults, or result from having been the target of domestic abuse or domestic violence while growing up (Black, et al., 2010; Lieberman, 2007). Indeed, the intergenerational transmission of domestic violence is believed to provide an avenue for therapeutic intervention as observed and learned behavior may be central to the dynamic of domestic violence (Bandura, et al., 1963). While providing therapy to those who commit domestic violence is important, the most pressing and immediate matter to address in a domestic violence situation is to ensure the safety of the victims. Following that, providing avenues for victims of domestic violence to rebuild their lives in safe and supportive environments is crucial to constraining the intergenerational transmission of domestic violence. This is precisely the work that The Second Step (http://www.thesecondstep.org/Home.aspx) and other organizations seeking to end domestic violence offers.
Domestic violence participants require attentive medical treatment including examination from family physicians and primary care providers as well as emergency room physicians. On the other hand, law enforcement should be held responsible in facilitating healthy intimate partnerships. Counseling is also a viable way of addressing domestic violence. Victim of abuse considers counseling as assessment of the extent, types, and presence of violence and abuse. Lethality assessment tools assist in the determination of best treatment courses for clients. It also includes helping such clients recognize the dangerous behaviors, as well as subtle relationship abuses. Studies about victims from attempted homicide related to domestic violence recognized that perpetrators had a capability of killing (Ergonen, Salacin, Karademir, & Musal, 2007). Most domestic violence victims focus on minimizing true severity of the situation. The other essential component in the equation is safety planning that allows victims to prepare for situations of danger as well as encounters of violence. The effectiveness scale depends on the decisions and the components diversely included in their perpetrators' decisions. Offenders use counseling as a way of minimizing future domestic violence risks.
Intervention and prevention include diversity in the ways of preventing domestic violence. The basic approaches include offering crisis intervention, safe shelter, advocacy, and prevention and education programs. Community domestic violence screening may include systematic cases for physical abuse, emergency departments, healthcare settings, court systems, and behavioral health settings. Tools that are developed towards facilitating screening of domestic violence allows for inclusion of mobile apps (Meltzer, Doos, Vostanis & Goodman, 2009). The intervention projects of domestic abuse are programs that are developed towards the reduction of domestic violence affecting women. This component allows multi-disciplinary programs to take the design of addressing domestic violence
New Technologies in Domestic Abuse Service Organizations
Author's note with contact information, more details on affiliation, etc.
The focus of this paper will be on the organizations that serve victims of domestic abuse. Domestic abuse victims can be women and men. Domestic abuse is when a spouse or domestic partner physically, emotionally, psychologically, verbally or otherwise abuses a his or her partner. Many victims of domestic abuse do not leave their domestic circumstances because the partner has made them financially or otherwise co-dependent, and many times, the abusive partner uses fear to coerce the abused partner to remain in the relationship. Organizations that service victims of domestic abuse provide services for the abused partner as well as any children or other dependents accompanying the abused partner. Therefore, human service organizations that cater to the needs of domestic abuse victims serve a great need in our culture. These organizations must attain…
In cases of physical violence and marriage, victims of domestic violence will further require the assistance of attorneys and other legal professionals. Abused partners may wish to take out restraining orders, file for divorce, file for sole custody of children, and file for other legal proceedings. Mazur and Aldrich believe the need for domestic abuse victims to have access instantaneously to legal advocates is paramount to independent living and personal safety. They write:
"Victim safety is the true cornerstone of domestic violence courts. Every victim should be given immediate access to an advocate who can provide safety planning and explain court procedures. Comprehensive victim advocacy should include long-term services as well as access to counseling, job training, immigration services, child services and other programs aimed at improving self-sufficiency." (Mazur, Aldrich, 2003)
One technology that could serve current victims of domestic abuse who seek services could be a mobile phone application for smart phones. This application could be akin to Google Maps, but for domestic violence service centers. An abused partner could use the application, input her or his residential address, and then the application could map out where
Legislation eform Domestic Abuse
Domestic violence legislation: Funding for vocational training for abused women
In 2010 President Obama signed the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which includes the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) within its provisions. "VPSA funds nearly 1,700 shelters and service programs for victims of domestic violence and their children. It also supports the National Domestic Violence Hotline, whose staff and volunteers answer more than 22,000 calls for help each month and link victims with the resources they need to rebuild their lives" (osenthal 2011). However, battered women need more than shelter. They also need hands-on support to change their lives and the lives of their families after they have emerged from shelters. That is why it is necessary to also include funding specifically earmarked for the vocational training of victims of domestic abuse, to enable women to economically 'free' themselves from their abusers.…
Help for abused and battered women. (2011). Help Guide. Retrieved September 19, 2011 at http://www.helpguide.org/mental/domestic_violence_abuse_help_treatment_prevention.htm
Rosenthal, Lynn. (2010). President Obama signs critical legislation to prevent child abuse and domestic abuse. The White House. Retrieved September 19, 2011 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/12/20/president-obama-signs-critical-legislation-prevent-child-abuse-and-domestic-violence
Challenges -- Domestic Abuse/Teen Violence
Domestic abuse takes place when one person in a close relationship or marriage attempts to govern and control the other person in the relationship. Domestic abuse that comprises physical violence is known as domestic violence. Domestic violence and abuse are utilized for one reason and one reason only and that is to get and continue total control over someone else. An abuser never plays fair. Abusers use terror, guilt, disgrace, and intimidation to wear a person down and keep them under their thumb. Domestic violence and abuse does not distinguish. It takes place among heterosexual couples and in same-sex relationships. It takes place within all age categories, ethnic backgrounds, and economic levels. And while women are more frequently mistreated, men are also abused, particularly verbally and emotionally, although sometimes even physically as well. The bottom line is that abusive actions are never…
Domestic Violence and Abuse. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/domestic_violence_abuse_types_signs_causes_effects .
Teen Violence. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.focusas.com/Violence.html
Domestic Abuse Affects Children
Children are exposed to violence in several ways. In some cases, it could be the surroundings, at school, at home or even within his/her family. There has been a recent study, using the ecological-transactional model, which aims to establish a link between these different types of violence and their effect on a child's development. Though it has been proved that exposing a child to general violent acts could affect the child's growth adversely, there is an even stronger indication that domestic violence has the highest negative effect on children and thus, we need to pay close attention to this (Manetaa, White and Mezzacappa, 2017).
The effects of domestic violence on children could be immediate or long-term. From research, children who were exposed to domestic violence have higher tendencies of being exposed to disturbing events, neglected, physically abused or in severe cases, getting bereaved. It is a…
Herrenkohl, T., Higgins, D., Merrick, M. and Leeb, R. (2015). Positioning a public health framework at the intersection of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 48, pp.22-28.
Jeevasuthan, S. and Hatta, Z. (2013). Behavioural Problems of Children Exposed to Domestic Violence in Rural Villages: A Micro Social Work Inquiry in Piranpattru Village at Chankanai Divisional Secretariat, Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 91, pp.201-207.
Maneta, E., White, M. and Mezzacappa, E. (2017). Parent-child aggression, adult-partner violence, and child outcomes: A prospective, population-based study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 68, pp.1-10.
McGarry, J. (2016). Domestic violence and abuse: an exploration and evaluation of a domestic abuse nurse specialist role in acute health care services. Journal of Clinical Nursing.
Coping With Domestic Abuse: The Strategies of Women
When it comes to dealing with an abusive spouse women truly have a tough road to deal with. Women are faced with both the sense of obligation from society to "make the marriage work" yet at the same time face the criticism of staying in a marriage with an abuser. Given these truly difficult circumstances, women have to turn to a variety of coping mechanisms in such cases. Before exploring the coping mechanisms that women turn to in these cases, it's also worth determining what qualifies as abuse. First, abuse is defined as "willful infliction of physical injury or mental anguish and the deprivation of the caregiver of essential services' (verwoerdt,1976…) and nurturing. Patterns of family maltreatment can take many forms including physical abuse, endangerment, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and economic abuse (Smith-Dijulio & Hozapfel, 1998)" (Carpenito-Moyet, 2006). Thus, what one…
Gass, J.D. (2010). Intimate partner violence, health behaviours, and chronic physical illness among South African women. SAMJ: South African Medical
Davhana-Maselesele, M. (2011). Trapped in the cycle of violence: A phenomenological study describing the stages of coping with domestic violence. Retrieved from http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JSS/JSS-29-0-000-11-Web/JSS-29-1-
The reason why law enforcement plays an important role in preventing and stopping domestic violence is that all types of violence against women signal human rights abuses.
One of the main reasons women do not leave abusive relationships is that they are accustomed to domestic servitude and have no feasible means by which to achieve financial or social independence. Therefore, the education and re-education of women must become a primary priority in all nations. Schools cannot stop at the delivery of equal educational services for boys and girls, doing away with the "home ec vs. shop class" model that has prevailed in the past. ather, schools need to stamp out signs of misogyny early by calling attention to sexist comments made in class, and by scrutinizing popular culture for media messages that perpetuate stereotypes about women. It may seem like a stretch to assume that gender stereotypes lead to domestic…
Jenkins, P., & Davidson, B.P. (2001). Stopping Domestic Violence: How a Community Can Prevent Spousal Abuse. Springer.
Marcelino, J.H. (2009). Domestic Violence: A Gender Issue? Strategic Book Publishing.
Mann, R.M. (2000). Who Owns Domestic Abuse? Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
McCue, M.L. (2008). Domestic Violence: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO.
Planning for Marta
Spousal abuse/violence victims are authorized to try for legal reparation, and formal assistance and support following abuse incidents. The myriad of impacts linked to spousal abuse and violence necessitate organized, all-round response from a number of players for ensuring the services listed below are at victims’ disposal: professional care and therapy, psychosocial assistance, justice/legal services, and physical security. First responders of spousal violence incidents ought to keep in mind the fact that punishing the abuser represents only a single element of spousal violence response. Concurrently, every possible effort should be expended, besides suitable referrals for guaranteeing victims’ needs and wants (which include professional medical examination and therapy, psychosocial aid, and security) are properly taken care of (United Nations Development Programme, 2010).
Generally, females attempting at a fresh start after fleeing the home of their abuser have unique special needs that go beyond a mere new home. The…
Alton, L. (2015, May 18). 6 Ways Women are Strong -. Retrieved September 05, 2017, from https://projecteve.com/6-ways-women-are-strong/
Center for Relationship Abuse Awareness. (2014). Barriers to Leaving an Abusive Relationship. Retrieved September 05, 2017, from http://stoprelationshipabuse.org/educated/barriers-to-leaving-an-abusive-relationship/
Citizens Advice. (2015). Domestic violence and abuse. Retrieved September 05, 2017, from https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/family/gender-violence/domestic-violence-and-abuse/
United Nations Development Programme. (2010). Guidelines on SGBV Case Management. A Reference Handbook for the FSU. Retrieved September 5, 2017, from http://www.sl.undp.org/content/dam/sierraleone/docs/focusareadocs/undp_sle_SGBVCaseManagementGuidelines.pdf
West Connect. (2015). Supporting Women in Domestic Violence and Relationship Abuse | West Connect Domestic Violence Services. Retrieved September 05, 2017, from http://www.wcdvs.org.au/how-can-we-assist-you/family-friends-how-to-help/
Objective: The purpose of this project is to present an annotated bibliography on select articles focusing on the ineffectiveness of batterer intervention programs are not effective in changing the attitudes and behaviors of the batterers. Methodology: We used the EBSCO and JSTOR databases to search for the articles included in the project. The keywords used for searching the articles were "Batterer Intervention Programs", and the focus was on original research only, which excluded review, editorials, and book reviews. Results: We found out that current batterer intervention programs are not effective in altering the attitude of the batterer and there is need to have alternative programs. The programs mostly have high attrition rates and most individuals will not complete the programs, making them less effective. Conclusion: Incorporating other methodologies into the batterer intervention program like neuroscience would be beneficial to the program. Having motivators for the batterers could also assist…
bibliography presented comprises of different studies all demonstrating that the programs have not been effective. The recommendation given in most of them is that there is need to revise and establish more effective programs, in order to reduce the cases of domestic violence. There is also need to increase research on batterers to ensure that others are able to understand why they are violent and abusive to their partners or children.
Buttell, F. P., Powers, D., & Wong, A. (2012). Evaluating predictors of program attrition among women mandated into batterer intervention treatment. Research on Social Work Practice, 22(1), 20-28.
Fernández-Montalvo, J., Echauri, J. A., Martinez, M., Azcarate, J. M., & Lopez-Goñi, J. J. (2015). Impact of a court-referred psychological treatment program for intimate partner batterer men with suspended sentences. Violence and victims, 30(1), 3-15.
Hamel, J., Ferreira, R. J., & Buttell, F. (2017). Gender and batterer intervention: Implications of a program evaluation for policy and treatment. Research on Social Work Practice, 27(4), 405-412.
Herman, K., Rotunda, R., Williamson, G., & Vodanovich, S. (2014). Outcomes from a Duluth model batterer intervention program at completion and long term follow-up. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 53(1), 1-18.
Holtrop, K., Scott, J. C., Parra-Cardona, J. R., McNeil Smith, S., Schmittel, E., & Larance, L. Y. (2017). Exploring factors that contribute to positive change in a diverse, group-based male batterer intervention program: using qualitative data to inform implementation and adaptation efforts. Journal of interpersonal violence, 32(8), 1267-1290.
The author further explains that even though there are similarities between heterosexual and homosexual relationships as it pertains to reaction and the victim remaining in the relationship. Again the author explains "homophobia does not allow mainstream service providers to have an adequate conceptualization nor the development of preventive and remedial strategies for the people involved (Toro-Alfonso and Rodriguez-Madera, 2004)."
Therapy for those effected by domestic violence
Both perpetrators, victims and children exposed to domestic violence may require some type of therapy. In many cases anger management is often required and used to assist perpetrators in dealing with anger issues. In addition to anger management some professionals also utilize Art therapy to assist hose effected by domestic violence. Art therapy involves the use of the arts (music, panting writing) to assist people in eliminating violence from the household. According to Panzer et al. (2000) places such as shelters for battered…
"About Art Therapy." American Art Therapy Associationhttp://www.arttherapy.org/aboutart.htm
"Domestic Violence." National Institutes of Health. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/domesticviolence.html
McClennen, J.C.. (2005) Domestic Violence Between
Same-Gender Partners. Journal of Interpersonal violence. 20 (2), 149-154.
Sternberg et al. (1993) is a secondary research source that described the effects of domestic violence on children's behavior. This source of information on the topic of domestic abuse is more expansive than the previous two sources discussed. Here the impacts of domestic violence are realized through the children of domestic violence victims. As this article also expands the idea of domestic violence, it also ignores those victims of domestic abuse with no children. The article and all of its data suggest that the research that can be done on domestic violence may be infinite and can be viewed through multiple lenses all giving new characteristics to the term and creating new and challenging relationships that researchers must figure out.
The article itself reaches interesting conclusions about its effectiveness. The authors proclaimed "the results of this study have several important implications for the design of research on…
American Bar Association. "Domestic Violence Statistics." Viewed on 1 April 2013. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/groups/domestic_violence/resources/statistics.html
Sternberg, K. et al. (1993). Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression. Developmental Psychology. 1993, 29, 1. 44-52. Retrieved from http://empower-daphne.psy.unipd.it/userfiles/file/pdf/Stemberg%20KJ_%20- %201993.pdf
Wilt, S. & Olson, S. (1996). Prevalence of Domestic Violence in the United States. Journal of Medical JAMWA 51, 3. 76-82. Retrieved from http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Prevalence%20of%20Domestic%20Violence%20in% 20 the%20US.pdf
World Health Organization (2005). "Landmark Study on Domestic Violence." WHO Media Center, 24 Nov 2005. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2005/pr62/en/
Domestic Violence Legislation
Federal and State Governments Fight Domestic Violence
Although numerous federal and state laws sanctioning domestic violence exist in the United States, the incidences of domestic violence remain substantial. The federal government has undoubtedly taken significant steps over the years to protect the victims of domestic violence through legislation. One such Act is the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). The Act, at the time of its enactment in 1994, focused on providing funding to victims, services to victims, and training to judges and law enforcement officers. Still, as the number of domestic violence cases remained constant, the Act was re-enacted in 2000 and once again in 2006. The latest re-enactment extends services to domestic violence victims by addressing the issue of domestic violence related homelessness. The 2006 re-enactment guarantees that victims will not be evicted from government funded housing. Still, the VAWA has drawn criticism due to its…
Barton, A and Bartol, C. (2007). Criminal Behavior and Psychosocial Approach. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
California Penal Code, section 273.5. Retrieved from: leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-
(Potter-Efron, 2007). Both alcoholics and domestic violence offenders seem to be out of control at times, especially to their victims. (Potter-Efron, 2007). Finally, both family violence and alcoholism create tension in families, which can lead to an increase in assaultive behavior or alcoholic binges, making both problems very self-perpetuating. (Potter-Efron, 2007).
In addition, the drinking behavior can be a catalyst for family assaults. This is rarely due to the fact that non-violent people become violent when drunk. However, alcohol use lowers inhibitions, making it more likely that an abusive person will resort to violence. Furthermore, many abusers may actively seek to become intoxicated prior to abusing, knowing that their victims, and the rest of society, are less likely to hold them accountable for their abusive behavior when they are intoxicated. Therefore, it is quite likely that drinking patterns will establish abuse patterns in a household. For example, children may "keep…
Dryden-Edwards, R. (2008). Domestic violence. Retrieved August 3, 2008, from MedicineNet.com
Web site: http://www.medicinenet.com/domestic_violence/article.htm
Jordan, C., Nietzel, M., Walker, R., & Logan, T.K. (2004). Intimate partner violence. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Potter-Efron, R. (2007). Anger, aggression, domestic violence, and substance abuse. In Hamel, J. & T. Nicholls. Family interventions in domestic violence: a handbook of gender-inclusive theory and treatment. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…
Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103
Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.
Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.
Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
Matters appear to be even worse for those who are in need for protection and shelter as a consequence of psychological or physical abuse at home since statistics also indicate that the percentages of those who are denied shelter are slightly increasing every year in Texas. If there were 16% of those who asked for shelter who were denied in 2001 in Texas "due to lack of space"(Texas HHSC, 2008), according to the same report, 22.63 were denied due to the same reason in 2008.
The ATP in Webster Texas does not only offer temporary shelter for women and children, but it also involves their residents in educational programs that help them rebuild their self-esteem and learn the basic principles necessary for them to change their lives and start all over again. The organization also offers "a weekly confidential self-help support group for victims / survivors of Domestic Violence and/or…
Bay Area Turning Point, Inc. Retrieved: Oct, 7, 2009. Available at:
2008 Family Violence Program Statistics. Texas Council on Family Violence. 2009. Retrieved: Oct 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.tcfv.org/
Domestic Violence & Alcohol
Role of Domestic Violence and alcohol in marriage
The Role of Domestic Violence and Alcohol
Evidence of Effective Treatment
The purpose of this work is to examine the relation of alcohol, specifically alcoholism in relation to domestic abuse perpetrated against one spouse by the other in marriage where alcohol plays a leading role in attributing to the abuse.
Most individuals are able to have a drink or two with their evening meal and simply relax with no event ensuing. However, there are individuals that cannot take even the first drink and it has been observed that there are those so sensitive to the effects of alcohol that merely opening a bottle and inhaling the fumes changes their personality immediately. Alcoholism is a volatile and dangerous mix in any marriage but within the marriage where issues already exist alcohol may progress toward the end of the spectrum…
Jennison, Karen & Johnson, Kenneth (2001)"Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication" The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, May, 2001
Stuart et al. Reductions in Marital Violence Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence J. Interpers Violence .2003; 18: 1113-1131[Online] located at: http://www .findarticles.com/p / articles/mi_m0978/is_2_27/ai_112083062/pg_1
Journal of Interpersonal Violence (2003) 2003 SAGE Publications, Vol.18, No 10, 1113-1131 DOI: 10.1177/0886260503255550 [Online] at: http://jiv.sagepub.com/cgi/content/ab stract/18 / 10/1113
Evidence that Treatment is Often Effective
From a national fiscal point-of-view, after the Clinton's Personal esponsibility and Work Opportunity reconciliation Act gave welfare control back to the states, there was a 60 per cent overall drop in welfare recipients, but critics point out that much of this was part of a reclassification from welfare to workfare during an unusually strong economic time (the late 1990s) (DeParle, 2009). Into the 21st century, the $16.5 billion that the states received as welfare rolls dropped were spent on block grants or other types of assistance, rather than saving for economic downturns or recessionary times (Goldstein, 2008).
Scholars point out that the perceptions of welfare also contribute to the cycle of underfunding. In America, one Political Science professor noted, "while Americans with the most exaggerated misunderstandings of the racial composition of the poor are the most likely to oppose welfare," which, in turn, perpetuates racial stereotypes and could increase Americans'…
The Burning Bed. (1984). Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved from: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/24570/Burning-Bed-The/
DeParle, J. (February 1, 2009). Welfare Aid Isn't Growing as Economy Drops Off. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/02/us/02welfare.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&pagewanted=all Dutton, D. (1994). Patriarchy and Wife Assault: The Ecological Fallacy. Violence and Victims. 9 (2): 167-82. Retrieved from: http://lab.drdondutton.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/DUTTON.-1994.-PATRIARCHY-AND-WIFE-ASSAULT-THE-ECOLOGICAL-FALLACY..pdf
Giles, M. (1996). Race and Poverty in America: Public Misperceptions and the American New Media. Public Opinion Quarterly. 60 (4): 515-41.
Goldstein, A. (December 17, 2008). Welfare Rolls See First Increase in Years. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/16/AR2008121602978.html
Domestic Violence Among Hispanics
olina, C.S., Gomez, J.R., & Pastrana, .C.V. (2009). Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children who are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence. Adolescence. 44(173). The paper is about symptoms which a child develops when he or she is exposed to domestic violence. This is a psychological survey, seeing the effects of children when they witness their mothers being beaten. It measures the dimesions of depression and anxiety which a child may develop. This study focuses on the Hispanic community and dysfunctional families within that community. The first author, olina, is a hold a Ph.D. In psychology and psychotherapy, this deems her credible for the study. Additionally, she is herself of a Hispanic background, therefore she is aware of most of the culture's traditions and dimensions.
urdaugh, C., Hunt, S., Sowell, R. & Santana, I. (2004). Domestic Violence in…
Molina, C.S., Gomez, J.R., & Pastrana, M.C.V. (2009). Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Language Child Depression Inventory with Hispanic Children who are Secondary Victims of Domestic Violence.
Murdaugh, C., Hunt, S., Sowell, R. & Santana, I. (2004). Domestic Violence in Hispanics in the Southeastern United States: A Survey and Needs Analysis. Journal of Family Violence. 19(2).
Saenger, S.A. (2000). Family Violence: A Review of the Dysfunctional Behavior Patterns. Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse.
Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (Domesticviolence.org, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.
Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.),…
Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011
CBS Interactive. (2010). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved September 4, 2011
Women tend not to disclose their partner's violent behavior out of fear of retaliation, embarrassment or economic dependence on the abusing partner. Pregnant women, in particular, require comprehensive healthcare and special services. Postpartum violence is a serious issue as it not only affects the mother but also poses serious danger for the life of the child. Policy makers should focus not only on providing funds for prenatal and post natal medical care but also ensure that domestic violence services and other support services are integrated with the healthcare services. A collaborative approach involving a collocation of interdisciplinary services is critical for providing optimal care for victims of intimate partner abuse. Nurses, as primary caregivers in the emergency department are ideally placed not only to provide medical care but also to co ordinate and to lead multidisciplinary interventions that are in place to address domestic violence against women.
1) The Clark County, ' Fast Facts on Domestic Violence', retrieved Apr 13th 2010, from, http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/domviol/facts.htm
2) Brian J. Biroscak. MA, MS, BS, Patricia K. Smith MS, BS & Helen Rosnowski MSN, BSN RN et.al (2006), 'Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Findings from one State's ED Surveillance System', Journal of Emergency Nursing, 32-12: 6
3) Christine Rubertsson, PhD, Ingegerd Hildingsson PhD & Ingela Radestad PhD, (2010), 'Disclosure and Police reporting of Intimate Partner Violence Postpartum: A pilot Study', Midwifery, 26 e1-e5
4) Rebecca J. Macy, PhD, Sandra L. Martin PhD & Lawrence L. Cupper PhD et.al (2007), ' Partner Violence among women Before, During and After Pregnancy: Multiple Opportunities for intervention', Women's Health Issues 17: 290-299
Although many women seeking Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
report domestic violence, few receive mandated services through the Family Violence Option (FVO). A study was made of interview transcripts to determine whether the breakdown in the system occurred because of lack of social worker engagement or because details of reports were vague or unsubstantiated. Review of interviews at eleven different sites and by dozens of welfare workers revealed that workers' interpersonal communication skills were lacking. orkers were noted to have preconceived notions of what constituted abuse. The study recommends that welfare workers receive additional training to respond more appropriately to victims of domestic violence.
McLeod, a., Hayes, D.G., & Chang, C.Y. (2010). Female intimate partner violence survivors experiences with accessing resources. Journal of Counseling and Development 88 (3),
Five survivors of domestic violence, three African-American and two Caucasian women, reported on survival strategies and exiting the abusive relationships.…
Wuest, J., Ford-Gilboe, M., Merrit-Gray, M., Wil, P., Campbell, J., Lent, B., Varcoe, C., & Smye, V. (2010). Pathways of chronic pain in survivors of intimate partner violence.
Journal of Women's Health 19 (9), 1665-1674.
Researchers found a correlation between severe chronic pain in women and lifetime abuse-related injuries, post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, and depression severity. The findings are important to clinical care workers, who should assess for history of child abuse, IPV, IPV-related injuries and/or depression when working with women who report chronic pain.
Domestic Violence Against Men
Domestic violence, domestic abuse, dating abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) or battering refers to a behavioral pattern in which one partner abuses another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, cohabitation or within a family setup. Domestic violence takes different forms, the most common being physical assault i.e. hitting, shoving, kicking, biting, slapping, shoving objects and general physical violence. It can also take the form of threats including sexual and emotional abuse, intimidation, controlling or domineering, stalking, covert abuses as well as economic deprivation (Siemineiuk et al. 2010). It can be inflicted on or by both men and women (Adebayo, 2014).
Male domestic violence targets men inflicted by their partners. Though rare and hardly vocalized like its counterpart, violence against women, domestic violence against men is real. It occurs in every society though at varied degrees. The challenges faced when trying to collect statistics is…
Adebayo Anthony A. 2014. "Domestic Violence against Men: Balancing the Gender Issues in Nigeria." American Journal of Sociological Research, 4(1): 14-19
Chan, Ko Ling. 2011. "Gender Differences in Self-Reports of Intimate Partner Violence: A Review." Aggression and Violent Behavior (Elsevier) 16 (2): 167 -- 175.
Cook, P.W. 2009. Abused Men -- The Hidden Side of Domestic Violence (Preager second edition 2009).
Kevin Smith (Ed.), Kathryn Coleman, Simon Eder and Philip Hall 2011. "Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence 2009/10." Home Office.
Domestic violence is popular as domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse, or family violence. The behavior involves brutality or another abuse by one person in a domestic behavioral context where people rise against others in marriages or similar unions. The intimate partner causes violence to their spouses making it domestic violence. Spouses and partners within intimate relationships are expected to live in harmony without elements of discomfort. Domestic violence takes place where heterosexual and same-sex relationships are involved (Edelson, 2011). The issue of domestic violence takes various forms such as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse ranging from subtle to coercive forms of marital rape and violent physical abuse resulting in death or disfigurement (Tolman, 2010).
Domestic violence occurs where abusers believe that their actions are justified and acceptable. The implication is that there is production of intergenerational abuse cycles of condoning violence. Perception, awareness, documentation, and definition…
Breines, W., and L. Gorden. (2013). "The New Scholarship on Family Violence." Signs: AJ. Woman in Cultural and Society 8(3):490-531.
Edelson, J.L. (2011). Social Workers' intervention in women abuse: A study of case records from 1907 to 1945. Social Service Review, 65, 304-313.
Ehrensaft, M.K., and D. Vivian. (2009). "Is Partner Aggression Related to Appraisals of Coercive Control by a Partner?" Journal of Family Violence 14(3):251-266.
Garbarino, J., & Sherman, D. (2011). High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk families: The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development, 51, 188-198.
Domestic Violence and Abuse: Ethical Issues
Domestic violence is an epidemic in the U.S., but it is frequently a hidden one: many women are afraid to report what they are suffering to the authorities. "Over two-thirds of violent victimizations against women were committed by someone known to them: 31% of female victims reported that the offender was a stranger. Approximately 28% were intimates such as husbands or boyfriends, 35% were acquaintances, and the remaining 5% were other relatives…In 2003, among all female murder victims in the U.S., 30% were slain by their husbands or boyfriends" (Domestic violence statistics, 2011, AADVAC). Some of these battered women may still harbor genuine affection for their partner, given that they associate violence with 'caring.' Others may genuinely want to separate themselves from their attacker but may fear they cannot economically survive on their own. Counselors and social workers dealing with victims of domestic violence…
Amaral, Richard. (2011). Explaining domestic violence using feminist theory.
Knowledge for Growth. Retrieved August 11, 2011 at http://knowledgeforgrowth.wordpress.com/2011/03/21/explaining-domestic-violence-using-feminist-theory/
Code of Ethics. (2008). NASW. Retrieved August 11, 2011 at http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp
Domestic violence statistics. (2011). An Abuse, Rape, and Domestic Violence Aid and Resource
Domestic violence poses serious mental and physical health risks. In fact, it is estimated that" more than 1.5 million women nationwide seek medical treatment for injuries related to abuse each year" (Stark, 2001, p. 347(Tomison, 2003)). Those who are abused can experience mental health issues, such as anxiety attacks, posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic depression, acute stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts and ideation (Tomison, 2003)."
Domestic violence in America comes with an annual $44 million price tag with more than 20,000 hospital stays and 40,000 doctor visits each year (Tomison, 2003).
One of the issues that literature has uncovered is a lack of services or resources for women who are the victim of abuse by their domestic partner.
Shelters and batterer's intervention programs are often geographically inaccessible and not community based (Asbury, 1987; Williams & Becker, 1994; Williams-Campbell, 1993). Inaccessible services are less likely to be used despite the need. Transportation…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.(2004) Perceptions of domestic violence: a dialogue with African-American women. Health and Social Work
Tomison, Adam M (2003)an analysis of current Australian program initiatives for children exposed to domestic violence. Australian Journal of Social Issues
Sharron M. (2005) Dating violence prevention in middle school and high school youth.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
domestic violence laws. The writer defines domestic violence on a federal level as well as a Michigan state level. The author also provides insight to the Michigan state laws and programs when it comes to domestic violence issues. It wraps up with suggestions about how to change and improve the current domestic violence laws so that they offer even more protection. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Domestic violence is a topic that draws heated debates in many circles. Before one can understand all of the ramifications of domestic violence one needs to have a general knowledge of what it entails. The most violent type of domestic violence ends in the death of the victim. This is called femicide. Femicide is the murder of a woman at the hands of her current or former lover. Femicide as well as other aspects of domestic violence have become a…
Overview of Legislative Issues http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32671
Addressing the Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
Domestic Violence Laws in Michigan
Though the potential for difficulty with the policy is there the standard is set for the concrete results of removing individuals from positions of physical power who do not have the skills to utilize the power in a safe and effective manner to protect and serve without further victimizing the community.
Though some would argue that such tactics do not take into account anomalous actions, such as in cases where individuals show little sign of abuse potential before incidences occur, but it is clear that these are anomalous and should not be regarded as the most significant risk of the program. Another concern would be that the program will deter officers from performing important tasks as a result of the fear of association with a permanent mark on ones record, as a result of a use of force incident. This may be a real fear, as the system may result…
Up to this point many technology-based systems and programs have been supplemented by federal funding, but even in the face of increased threats such funding may run out and leave the individual, especially small police forces in jeopardy of the loss of technology or the inability to upgrade to meet the demands of the changing face of crime or even quickly communicate between individuals and departments. (Schwabe, Davis & Jackson, 2001, p. 46) the foundational issues with regard to the utilization of technology and its cost to departments have yet to be answered fully, but likely they will, slowly and with many changes.
Lastly the society demands for technological policing, coupled with the collective fear of loss of rights of privacy is a puzzle the law enforcement community has yet to fully respond to. The public wishes for police to rely on servaialnce, both private and public to prevent and solve crimes and yet does not wish to be recorded and watched through the same system. This is an issue that will likely escalate in the coming years, partly as a result of terrorism prevention and response.
Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Combating Domestic Abuse in the United States
In the United States, intimate partner violence afflicted nearly 4 out of 1,000 persons aged 12 or older in 2010, down from 1 in 100 in 1994 (Catalano, 2012). This translates into 0.9 million victimizations for the most recent year in which data were available. Females are victimized more often than males, however, with one male victimized for every six females. The crimes include rape, robbery, and assault against spouses and girlfriends/boyfriends, current or former. Family violence victimization rates were similar, with about 2.1 victimizations per 1,000 citizens aged 12 years or over in 2002, the most recent year with for which data is available (Durose et al., 2005). To put this statistic in perspective, approximately one in ten violent victimizations within the U.S. is the result of family violence. The gradual decline in domestic violence rates could be due to…
Catalano, S. (2012). Intimate partner violence, 1993-2010. NCJ 239203. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ipv9310.pdf .
Domestic Assault by an Habitual Offender, 18 U.S.C.Z. § 117 (2011).
Durose, M.R., Harlow, C.W., Langan, P.A., Motivans, M., Rantala, R.R., & Smith, E.L. (2005). Family violence statistics: Including statistics on strangers and acquaintances. NCJ 207846. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
Kolpack, D. (2012, September 19). ND man sentenced in pivotal domestic violence case. Native American Times. Retrieved from http://www.nativetimes.com/index.php/news/crime/7841-nd-man-sentenced-in-pivotal-domestic-violence-case .
Evolution of Domestic Violence to Today: What it Is, and How We See It
Domestic violence has become a very important issue to be tackled in today's society. Fortunately, over the years, many have recognized the need to address this issue, which can grow to quite serious proportions. In order to provide a context for the following paragraphs, I would like to include some statistics on domestic violence here. Though upsetting, these statistics are necessary to see just how much of a problem this issue can be. According to Strengthen Our Sisters, an organization that aims to help domestic violence victims by providing them with information and a hotline which to call in times of trouble, women suffer greatly under this issue, with a woman being physically assaulted nearly every 15 seconds. Battery also contributes to the single major cause of injury for women, and exceeds any other…
By doing so right now, we are not only making a societal and human investment in today's citizens and today's crime rate, but we are improving the quality of life of entire families as well as working toward the reduction of future perpetrators of violence against women since the sons will see appropriate models of behavior and wil not be apt to become violent in the future.
A programme for action. (2008). etrieved May 5, 2010, from Care Against Domestic Violence, http://www.cadv.org.uk/points.html.
Coy, M., Kelly, L., & Foord, J. (2009). Map of gaps: The postcode lottery of Violence Against Women support services in Britain (United Kingdom, End Violence Against Women and Equality and Human ights, London, England). London: End VIolence Against Women.
Giles-Sims, J. (1985) a Longitudinal Study of Battered Children of Battered Wives. Family elations, 34 (2), 205- 210.
Great Britain., Home Office., Crime in England and Wales…
A programme for action. (2008). Retrieved May 5, 2010, from Care Against Domestic Violence, http://www.cadv.org.uk/points.html .
Coy, M., Kelly, L., & Foord, J. (2009). Map of gaps: The postcode lottery of Violence Against Women support services in Britain (United Kingdom, End Violence Against Women and Equality and Human Rights, London, England). London: End VIolence Against Women.
Giles-Sims, J. (1985) a Longitudinal Study of Battered Children of Battered Wives. Family Relations, 34 (2), 205- 210.
Great Britain., Home Office., Crime in England and Wales 2008/2009. (2009). The Home Office departmental report 2009. London: TSO.
Domestic Violence Abusers
The purpose of the study by Etter and Birzer was to characterize defendants in case of protection from abuse (PFA) orders in one Kansas county. The results of the study were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Both researchers are affiliated with universities and cited extensively from academic literature on this topic. As they pointed out, domestic violence is a widespread problem in the U.S., occurring every eighteen seconds (Paisner, 1989, cited in Etter and Birzer, 2007, p. 113) and across all socioeconomic classes and racial groups (Gilbert, 2001, cited in Etter and Birzer). A PFA order, unfortunately, does not necessarily stop the abuse.
The researchers reviewed data collected from PFA court filings for a period of approximately one year from Sedgwick County, Kansas, a metroplex with a population of over half a million and the largest urban area in the state. The study was descriptive in nature;…
Etter, G.W., and Birzer, M.L. (2007). Domestic violence abusers: A descriptive study of the characteristics of defenders in protection from abuse orders in Sedgwick County, Kansas.
Journal of Family Violence 22(3), pp. 113-119.
Parental influence on domestic violence: An analysis of "Domestic violence across generations: findings from Northern India" by Sandra Martin et. al.
Martin et. al.'s (2001) report on the study of domestic violence in India provided insightful facts about the nature of the issue when applied in the context of collective societies such as India wherein cultural and social norms play a vital role in determining the behavior and attitude of individuals. Of particular interest of the study are the attitude and behavior of Indian males, in order to ascertain the role that parental influence play in perpetuating violent behavior against women, especially to their wives, whether this violent behavior be physical, sexual, or both.
The researchers offer the thesis, in the article, that apart from Indian culture, males have the greater propensity to abuse their wives if they have been exposed to previous episodes of domestic violence from…
Martin, S., K. Moracco, J. Garro, A. Tsui, L. Kupper, J. Chase, and J. Campbell. (2001). Domestic violence across generations: findings from northern India. International Journal of Epidemiology.
Domestic Violence, Child Abuse and Neglect
Child abuse is normally characterized in physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Physical abuse is the non-accidental injury of a child. Sexual abuse entails any act of sex upon or with a child for the perpetrator's sexual gratification (Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 2011). Emotional abuse entails engaging in chronic acts that interfere with a child's psycho-social health.
A classroom teacher can easily identify a child who has been abused or neglected because signs of abuse are observable in a classroom setting. Teachers also easily identify these children because of the significant time they spend with them (Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, 2011). The teachers can be sensitive to the chronic occurrence of the signals or sudden changes in a child's behavior which would point to a shift in this child's family environment. The frequency of repetition of these…
Besharov, D. (1990). Recognizing Child Abuse. New York: The Free Press.
Ohio Department of Job and Family Services (2011). Child Abuse and Neglect: Reference for Educators. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.odjfs.state.oh.us/forms/file.asp?id=398&type=application/pdf
Ferguson wrongly assumes that the one who initiates violence must also be worthy of it. This is a way of saying that domestic violence can be justified as long as the partner who initiated has enough reasons to do so. In my opinion, domestic violence is always wrong and can never be justified. If one partner has transgressed or if one of them fails to earn or usually squanders money, then alternatives to violence must be sought. In our times, many alternatives are available including marriage counseling, couple therapy, intervention of family and friends and then of course divorce which should be seen as the last resort. To use violence in order to maintain authority is a sign of weakness and also indicates a weak, lopsided marriage. Marriage or any relationship for that matter must be based on two people's willingness to stay with each other. If one partner is…
Like alcohol and tobacco, marijuana has been consumed in human societies for thousands of years, and likely since before recorded history. Also like alcohol and tobacco products, marijuana is associated with certain dangers that warrant appropriate government paternalism in the form of legislation prohibiting its use by minors, regulating its manufacture and sale to ensure its relative safety and quality, and preventing the use of any substances capable of altering human perception in connection with the operation of motor vehicles. However, there is no logical basis whatsoever for distinguishing between alcohol and marijuana in terms of criminal legislation, and both substances are considerably less harmful to human health in the manner of their typical consumption than tobacco products.
Instead of subjecting marijuana users to criminal prosecution, government authorities should simply apply the same approach to marijuana as has been traditionally applied to alcohol and tobacco. The Prohibition era…
Brecher, E.M. (1972). Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.
Drug Policy Alliance. (2008). Medicinal Marijuana. Retrieved February 17, 2009 from the Drug Policy Alliance website, at http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana/medical/
Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
What appears to explain their shared high rates of violent behavior is their increased interpersonal dependency. They are socially withdrawn and entertain a negative view of themselves. These difficulties with trust are common in the two disorders. They are thus more personally dependent on their partners. Furthermore, veterans with a major physical health problem are likelier to commit domestic violence than the other veterans surveyed. The physical problem tends to increase their irritability and dependence on their partners. Other studies found this characteristic high partner-specific dependency among physically abusive men who exhibit personal inadequacy, low social self-confidence and increased reliance on those nearest them. Many of these physically abusive men greatly fear abandonment and are anxiously attached. They are thus hypersensitive to rejection and often show anger in their intimate relationships. Veterans often display excessive coercion to which the partners respond by distancing themselves. The veterans' fear and dependencies can…
Blasko, K. et al. (2007). Therapists' prototypical assessment of domestic violence Situations. 13 pages. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy: Blackwell Publishing
Brammer, a. (2006). Domestic violence crime and victims act 2004. 4 pages. Journal of Adult Protection: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.
De la Hey, M. (2006). Gender differences seen in consequences of domestic violence. 2 pages. Cross Currents - the Journal of Addiction and Mental Health: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Kelly, K.a. (2004). Working together to stop domestic violence. 14 pages. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work
Moreover, most of the police officers believed that criminalization was not an appropriate or effective method to deal with batterers because it "leads to the break-up of the family" (Ganapathy).
According to a 2004 study of 1,200 women in Bangladesh, some 67% reported having experience domestic violence, and 35% during the past year (Islam). Domestic violence was higher among women with a dowry agreement, and was also higher among women with a registered marriage and women who cover at least some of their expenses (Islam). Khairul Islam reports, "The proportion experiencing domestic violence was non-significantly lower among women with more than five years of education than among less educated or non-educated women" (Islam).
However, in the United States, much progress has occurred during the past thirty years regarding the recognition of domestic violence as a major problem, resulting in the development of numerous services by different professional disciplines to address…
Forgey, Mary Ann. "Evaluation study of an interdisciplinary social work and law curriculum for domestic violence." Journal of Social Work Education. March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Ganapathy, Narayanan. "Between the devil and the deep-blue sea: conceptualising victims' experiences of policing in domestic violence in the Singaporean context." Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology. April 1, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Hart, Sandra J. "Domestic violence: legal, practice, and educational issues."
MedSurg Nursing. June 1, 1998. Retrieved September 28, 2006 from HighBeam Research
At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence. In 1979, the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2,000 shelters and crisis centers dot the North American landscape. Some are funded through private donations and staffed by volunteers but most are sustained by a combination of public and private monies and are run by a mix of professional and nonprofessional, paid and unpaid staffs. Thus we see that contemporary efforts to address domestic violence are characterized by a pattern of service provision and problem definition that from the outset has involved a reliance on state and community measures.
The dual focus on the development of both…
Ellsberg, Mary, et al. "Researching Domestic Violence against Women: Methodological and Ethical Considerations." Studies in Family Planning 32.1 (2001): 1. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001004940 .
Feather, N.T. "Domestic Violence, Gender and Perceptions of Justice." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 35.7-8 (1996): 507+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000451409 .
Kelly, Kristin A. "Working Together to Stop Domestic Violence: State-Community Partnerships and the Changing Meaning of Public and Private." Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 31.1 (2004): 27+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970923 .
Kurz, Demie. "Women, Welfare and Domestic Violence." Social Justice 25.1 (1998): 105+. Questia. 7 Nov. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001359170 .
Domestic violence has been around for as long as many cultures can remember, however, that's not an excuse for its continuance. Although some see women and children as mere property, their rights and safety should be protected. Whether they suffer from physical, sexual or emotional abuse, thankfully there are an increasing number of programs for these victims to turn to. These programs work hard to take the steps necessary for America to become a domestic violence-free society.
Stopping Domestic Violence in America
Although domestic violence is often thought of in terms of physical violence or even sexual violence, it goes beyond that, beyond the cuts, the bruises, the scrapes, the broken bones; it's a control issue. "Domestic violence is a pattern of coercive control that one person exercises over another in order to dominate and get their way." ("Voices Set Free," n.d.) In addition to physical and sexual abuse, it…
Get the Facts - Domestic Violence in the United States. (2003). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://endabuse.org/resources/facts/
Victim Support. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://www.awoscentral.com/victim_support/victim_support.html
Voices Set Free. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2003, at http://www.awoscentral.com/domestic_violence/domestic_violence.html
Stopping Domestic Violence in America
Domestic Violence in the Latina Community
Domestic violence is an ongoing issue that experienced worldwide. Many of the victims of domestic violence are women. Although women experience domestic violence regardless of culture or societal norms, certain populations may experience a higher incidence of domestic violence than others. Latinas exist in a culture that values male dominance. Such a culture places women as having to serve the man and behave in an obedient and submissive manner. By adhering to these ideas of masculinity and femininity, the imbalance of power can lead to increased occurrence of domestic violence. Although Latinas have made strides in recognizing and fighting domestic violence, many still do not recognize domestic violence when they encounter. This essay aims to help identify why Latinas may not recognize or report domestic violence, why domestic violence occurs in the Latina community, and greater recognition of domestic violence amongst Latinas.
Ahrens, Courtney E., et al. "Talking about interpersonal violence: Cultural influences on Latinas' identification and disclosure of sexual assault and intimate partner violence." Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, vol. 2, no. 4, 2010, pp. 284-295.
Edelson, Meredyth G., et al. "Differences in Effects of Domestic Violence Between Latina and Non-Latina Women." Journal of Family Violence, vol. 22, no. 1, 2007, pp. 1-10.
Kulkarni, Shanti J., et al. "Examining the Relationship Between Latinas' Perceptions About What Constitutes Domestic Violence and Domestic Violence Victimization." Violence and Victims, vol. 27, no. 2, 2012, pp. 182-193.
Maker, Azmaira H., and Terri A. DeRoon-Cassini. "Prevalence, Perpetrators, and Characteristics of Witnessing Parental Violence and Adult Dating Violence in Latina, East Asian, South Asian, and Middle Eastern Women." Violence and Victims, vol. 22, no. 5, 2007, pp. 632-647.
Communities are silent as well; people are still reluctant to intervene in domestic violence situations, assuming that adult victims have the ability to leave abusive scenarios and that parents should have the right to parent their children without intervention. In addition, neighbors and other potential interveners oftentimes fear the possible consequences of intervening in a violent situation. Finally, American society refuses to publicly condemn domestic violence; Michael Vick received more negative press for dog fighting than did Warren Moon, an even more famous football player, for his domestic violence behavior. With this permissive atmosphere, it is no wonder that women and children still suffer from domestic violence in fear and silence.
Question One: What individual changes can you make to create a society that is more condemning of domestic violence?
Question Two: Can you think of four reasons that a domestic violence victim would be reluctant to leave his or…
Economics of Alchohol Abuse
Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).
In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…
Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/
Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run
Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill
Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.
Awareness about psychology behind domestic violence has been greatly enhanced in recent years, as have legal protections for victims. However, the courts' major decisions on domestic violence cases have been somewhat equivocal. For example, in the case of Castle ock v Gonzales, the abused woman filed a complaint against the police department, arguing that it violated her right to Due Process when "acting pursuant to official policy or custom" the police "failed to respond to her repeated reports over several hours that her estranged husband had taken their three children in violation of her restraining order against him. Ultimately, the husband murdered the children" (Castle ock v Gonzales, 2012, Cornell). In the case, the woman had a restraining order against her husband, prohibiting him from coming near her or her children. However, ultimately the court did not find favor with the defendant since a restraining order is not a property…
Castle Rock v Gonzales. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved:
Hiatt, Heidi. (2011). Landmark domestic violence legislation: Tracey Thurman vs. Torrington,
CT. Time's Up. Retrieved: http://timesupblog.blogspot.com/2011/10/landmark-domestic-violence-legislation.html
Shelter Service Utilization of Domestic Violence Victims.
Shelters have proven to be useful for women who have been domestically abused and for their children in numerous capacities. Yet it has been found that only approximately one out of four women use them. The question then is why some women choose to use them and others not even though, by not using them, they will be harmed further. The ecological model (or systems theory) is used for understanding this conundrum.
Systems theory posits that people operate within a system of interacting spheres that affect one another. These spheres operate on the individual, family, and societal level. These spheres also have their boundaries which impact how open or closed they are as well as influencing the mode of the individual's behavior.
An open system means that individuals have extended contact to people (and organizations) in the outside world through the resources within…
One group will consist of those with childhood abuse experience while the other group will consist of respondents who do not have childhood abuse experience. This grouping is done to achieve the objective of assessing whether respondents with abusive histories really posses a starkly different view of the family. Both groups shall consist of male and female adults, aged 26-55 years old. For the purpose for this research, those belonging to the abused groups will be those have experienced childhood sexual and/or physical abuse.
In terms of the research ethics, the respondents will be assured of their anonymity through verbal and written means. Before the start of the interview, the author will present to them a letter assuring them that all the information that they will be disclosing will solely be used for academic purposes. They will also be asked to choose a name or alias that will…
Baker, L.L. et al. (2002). Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Retrieved from ttp://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:sWf-p3OsUz4J: www.lfcc.on.ca/ece-us.PDF+domestic+violence&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=16&gl=ph-on Dec. 11, 2008.
Coid, J. et al. (2001). Relation between childhood sexual and physical abuse and risk of revictimisation in women: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, 358, 450-454.
Domestic Violence Resource Center. (2008). Domestic Violence Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.dvrc-or.org/domestic/violence/resources/C61/on Dec. 9, 2008.
Family Health International Website. (n.d.) Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector's
Domectic Violence in the United States
Domestic Violence in the United States: A esearch Proposal
Domestic Violence in the United States:
Domestic violence is not a new phenomenon associated with modern times. It has been a common occurrence throughout history. From a social/cultural point-of-view, the woman was considered the property of the man and his duty was to discipline her and the children (and slaves/servants) with thorough beatings. Consistent with eighteenth-century English common law, the only concerns about this related to the thickness of the stick that the law allowed for the beatings. Although there were some earlier unenforced laws against spousal abuse, it was only as recently as the 1970s that the U.S. justice system began to view the problem with any seriousness and consideration of domestic violence as a crime. Until that time, social services for the victims of domestic violence were almost nonexistent (Bronfman, et al., 2005).…
Bronfman, Lois Martin, David Butzer, and Brian Stipak. (2005). The role of police in combating domestic violence in the United States: A case study of the Domestic Violence Reduction Unit, Portland police bureau.
Ellison, Louise. (2002). Prosecuting domestic violence without victim participation, Modern Law Review 65 834-858.
Karmen, Andrew. (2010) Crime victims: An introduction to Victimology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole Publishing Co.
Rennison, Callie M. (2003) Intimate Partner Violence, 2000-2003. U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 197838.
male entering a domestic violence/battered women's shelter, I was not immediately made to feel welcome. No one embraced me warmly, and more than a few faces revealed not a little bit of suspicion as to what my motives were for being there. However, I was given the opportunity to explain myself. After I registered, received my guest pass, and received a short tour with one of the volunteers, I was able to share why I wanted to observe the shelter for a few hours as a component of this school assignment. I told the volunteer assigned to me that I was no stranger to abuse, as I witnessed my mother being abused by men she trusted. Sharing my story with the women at the shelter helped them to trust and understand me. After a short while, the people in the shelter opened up and warmed up to me.
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…
Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Mental Health Effects of Family Violence. American Medical Association Web Site.
McClendon, Patricia D. November (1991). MSSW candidate. Incest/sexual abuse of children. Internet. p.23. Available: http://www.clinicalsocialwork.com/incest.html
National Association of Social Worker News. (1997, February). States eye domestic abuse welfare option. NASW News, Volume 42, #7, pp11.
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
Love Got to Do with It? (1993): Tina Turner
BEHS 453 (section)
The movie, 'What's Love Got to do with it?' is a biography of pop/&B singer Anna Mae Bullock (stage name- Tina Turner). It records the struggle she underwent to escape the clutches of her violent husband, Ike (played in the movie by Laurence Fishburne). The first few scenes of the movie portray young Tina's (played by Angela Bassett) initial singing career in Nutbush, Tennessee, before Ike Turner discovered her. By the time they met, Ike had already become a household name in the music industry, as a guitarist, record producer, and songwriter. Under Ike's guidance, Tina became a star; however, he soon got jealous of her fame and began abusing her; Tina had to struggle hard to escape his control (MASLIN, 1993; What's Love Got to Do With It , n.d).
The movie introduces a shy…
Brady B. (1995)- Review of What's Love Got To Do With It - JCJPC - Volume 3, Issue 3. (1995). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.albany.edu/scj/jcjpc/vol3is3/love.html
Coventry Domestic Violence and Abuse Partnership. (2011). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.safetotalk.org.uk/professionals/good-practice-guidelines-when-supporting-a-victim-of-domestic-violence-and-abuse/
Domestic Violence Assessment and Intervention provided by the Family Violence Prevention Fund. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18, 2015, from Jackson, N. A. (Ed.). (2007). Encyclopedia of domestic violence. Taylor & Francis.
MASLIN, J. (1993, June 9). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9F0CE4D71539F93AA35755C0A965958260
Dolores Claiborne, directed by Taylor Hackford [...] abuse and victimization as portrayed in the movie, and determine if murder is a justifiable action in the context of a domestic violence situation. Domestic violence is an enduring problem in our society, and this film graphically shows how horrible abuse can be, and how people react to it differently. Some make themselves victims, and some stand up to the abuse. Domestic abuse is never right, and neither is murder, but sometimes, murder is the only way to protect oneself from an abusive situation.
Dolores Claiborne" is a disturbing film about the after effects of domestic abuse and victimization, and both leading women in the film are clearly suffering from living and growing up in a dysfunctional family. Dolores is not a "nice" woman at all, "Sometimes being a ***** is the only thing a woman has to hang onto in…
Buzawa, Carl G., ed. Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal Justice Response. Westport, CT: Auburn House, 1992.
Davis, Richard L. Domestic Violence Facts and Fallacies. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
Dolores Claiborne. Dir. Taylor Hackford. Perf. By Kathy Bates, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Judy Parfitt, Christopher Plummer. Columbia Studios, 1995.
Life Scenario -- Decision to Divorce
Lot of Life Scenario
Setting the Scene
Because you and I have always been so close, I wanted to let you know about an impending event in our family's lives. Because of our past conversations, you are aware that Mario and I have had many disagreements about how to raise Dominic. The situation has not improved much, although I know that Mario is trying to be a better parent. But I can no longer ignore the impact that Mario's interactions with Nicky are having. Mario continually loses his temper with Nicky and is now swatting Nicky on the head, in addition to smacking him on his bottom. Nicky now flinches whenever Mario comes near him.
Your brother is usually on his best behavior when his family or when friends are around, but I know you have seen Mario lose his temper with…
Chang, J.J., Theordore, A.D., Martin, S.L. And Runyan, D.K. (2008 August). Psychological abuse between parents: associations with child maltreatment from a population-based sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32(8), 819-929. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.11.003. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18752849
Gerlock, A.A. (2004). Domestic violence and post-traumatic stress disorder severity for participants of a domestic violence rehabilitation program. Retreived http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3912/is_200406/ai_n
Martin, S.L., Gibbs, D.A., Johnson, R.E., Clinton-Sherrod, M., Walters, J.L., and Sullivan, K. (2009). Male soldier family violence offenders: spouse and child offenders compared to child offenders. Violence and Victims, 24(4), 458-68. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19694351
Newton, C.J. (2001, April). Child Abuse: An Overview" Mental Health Journal. Find.Counseling.com. Retrieved http://www.findcounseling.com/journal/child-abuse/emotional-abuse.html
interventions for cases of spousal abuse, estimates place yearly cases of women beaten by husband at nearly 2 million (Rue, 1996). Improved records on such incidents have documented the connection between domestic violence and cases severe enough to cause an arrest for either assault of homicide in recent years. y some reports, cases of domestic assault or homicide followed police calls to the address for reports of spousal abuse in 85% of the cases. In addition, in 50% of the cases, threats of violence were made before the incidents (Egan, 2001).
Although a small number of cases of spousal abuse are wife against husband (Rue, 1996), the great majority involves the wife as victim. Experts on spousal abuse believe that in such marriages, the relationship begins as a loving relationship but that gradually the definition of "love" is distorted and includes emotions of jealousy and suspicion. As the marriage progresses,…
John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Accessed via the Internet 11/17/02. http://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/research/spouse.html
Rue, Tom. 1996. "Exploring options for victims of spouse abuse." The River Reporter. Accessed via the Internet 11/17/02. http://www.riverreporter.com/news/rue/860320.htm
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
In a study of the prevalence of elder abuse in the United States, financial difficulties on the part of the abuser did appear to be an important risk factor (Krug, 2002, pp. 130-131).
elationship factors - in the early theoretical models, the level of stress of caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder abuse with care of an elderly relative. While the accepted image of abuse depicts a dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver, there is growing evidence that neither of these factors properly accounts for cases of abuse. Although researchers do not deny the component of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider context in which the quality of the overall relationship is a causal factor. Today, the belief is that stress may be a contributing factor in cases of abuse but does not by itself account for the entire phenomenon.
Brandl, Bonnie. (2000). Power and Control: Understanding Domestic Abuse in Later Life.
Generations. 24(2), p. 39-45.
Elder Abuse and Neglect. (2009). Retrieved February 11, 2010, from Helpguide.org Web site: