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America is home to people with varied cultural backgrounds who have been confined into one political and geographical territory. These people may have issues and conflicts but still find themselves living together because of shared territorial borders (Zalman, 2013). The United States has managed for a very long time to contain multitude of people with diverse religious, political, and cultural views in relative harmony. Incidences of terrorist attacks that have been meted out on America domestically, exemplifies the distrust people have with the American ideal of democracy where people from backgrounds can all claim loyalty to and the benefits of the American system. Domestic terrorism is not something unique to the 20th and 21st century America (Zalman, 2013). It is something that dates back to the pre-independence period when the colonialists used violence to proclaim independence. Colonists staged rebellion to the British authorities to into changing its policy…
Ackerman, G.A. (2003). Beyond Arson? A Threat Assessment of the Earth Liberation Front.
Political Violence, 15(4), 155-156.
Barker, B. & Fowler, S. (2008). The FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force Officer. The FBI Law
Enforcement Bulletin, 77(11), 13.
Domestic Terrorism in the United States
Americans view terrorism as a form of art and science with higher complications. Particularly, the actions of, 9/11, prompted a new face for terrorism. The place of terrorist activity and the origin of terrorists give the distinction of the profile of domestic terrorisms and that of international terrorism. International terrorism entails the terrorist activities that are foreign-sponsored by institutions outside of the United States. On the other hand, domestic terrorism entails all terrorist activities directed on population and facilities with the United States. Prior to the 9/11 attack, domestic terrorisms seemed less dangerous, but after the attack, a new era of terrorism found its way in the U.S. The distinction between international terrorism and domestic terrorism does not solely refer to the place where terrorist activity takes place, but the origin of the perpetrators of terrorist acts. As a result, this brief overview highlights…
Borgeson, K., & Valeri, R.(2009). Terrorism in America. Texas: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Mark, R.(2009). Homeland security intelligence: Perceptions, statutory definitions, and approaches. International Journal of Terrorism & Political Hot Spots, 4(4):275-295.
Norwitz, J.(2008). Armed groups: Studies in national security, counterterrorism, and conmuterinsurgency: Studies in national security, counterterrorism, and counterinsurgency. New York: Government Printing Office.
Walter, M. (2005). America's unpatriotic acts: the federal government's violation of constitutional and civil rights. New York: Peter Lang.
Similarly, PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) -- another nongovernmental institution that militates for the rights of animals -- has also been accused of terrorism. On several occasions, PETA has granted funds to the Animal Liberation Front and the Earth Liberation Front, both of which are included on the list of domestic terrorist organizations (the Center for Consumer Freedom, 2004).
Looking at the matter with a critical eye and from a technical standpoint, it could probably be argued that the actions and the approaches used by PETA and Greenpeace could be perceived as terrorism. Yet, it would be morally wrong to convict these entities as their goals are much nobler. Unlike traditional terrorist groups who use violence to promote their own selfish goals, the two organizations implement more aggressive approaches to attain goals of making the world a better place.
Kaplan, D.E., Tharp, M., 1997, Terrorism threats…
Kaplan, D.E., Tharp, M., 1997, Terrorism threats at home, U.S. News and World Report, Edition of December, 29
Riley, K.J., Hoffman, B., 1995, Domestic terrorism: a national assessment of state and local preparedness, Rand Corporation
2004, PETA and Terrorism: The Real Deal, the Center for Consumer Freedom, http://www.consumerfreedom.com/news_detail.cfm/h/2339-peta-and-terrorism-the-real-deal last accessed on March 2, 2010
Terrorism, Florida International University, http://cj.fiu.edu/byrnesj/terrorweek8.htm last accessed on March 2, 2010
Further, these groups are not motivated by violence, but instead are still political groups trying to convince the mainstream political organizations of their views.
Thus, it is clear that identifying domestic terrorism is different in today's society, taking many forms. Understanding how domestic terrorism can often be difficult to pinpoint can help criminal justice scholars as they attempt to define what should be considered domestic violence and what can be simply labeled political.
Hsu, S.S. (2005). FBI Papers Show Terror Inquiries Into PETA; Other Groups Tracked.
etrieved June 9, 2009, from The Washington Post. Web Site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/19/A2005121901777.html
Huus, K. (2003, November 14). U.S. takes hard line on Greenpeace. etrieved June 9,
2009, from MSNBC. Web Site: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3475218/
McCauley, C.. (n.d.). The Psychology of Terrorism. etrieved June 9, 2009, from the Social Science esearch Council. Web Site: http://www.ssrc.org/sept11/essays/mccauley.htm
Neiwert, D. (2001, April 20). Threat from within: Origins of Domestic Terrorism.…
Hsu, S.S. (2005). FBI Papers Show Terror Inquiries Into PETA; Other Groups Tracked.
Retrieved June 9, 2009, from The Washington Post. Web Site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/19/AR2005121901777.html
Huus, K. (2003, November 14). U.S. takes hard line on Greenpeace. Retrieved June 9,
2009, from MSNBC. Web Site: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3475218/
There have been analyses made regarding this aspect and opinions are both for an easier gun regulation as well as against such a legislative initiative. On the one hand, it is considered that indeed legally allowing people to buy guns would automatically trigger a greater number of fire arms. (Workman, 2006) on the other hand however, Peter Hamm, spokesman for the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence, suggests that the government's activities is directed in the wrong place because "it's the guns that have been around a while that could wind up in criminal hands not the guy who's going out and buying a new $700 handgun.... The guns that cause the worst problems in this country are not selling for very high prices." (Workman, 2006) Therefore, it can be said that the most important issue is not exactly the restriction of expensive guns, but rather the restriction of cheap,…
Animal Liberation Front. (2007) Animal Rights Organizations. Retrieved 7 November 2007, at http://www.animalliberationfront.com/AR_Orgs/Organiza.htm
FBI. (2003). Testimony of Steven C. McCraw, Assistant Director, Office of Intelligence, FBI before the Senate Judiciary Committee. International Drug Trafficking and Terrorism. Retrieved 7 November 2007, at
Domestic terrorism is legally defined as activities that are "dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State," and which are intended to "intimidate or coerce a civilian population," "influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion," or "affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping," (Cornell University Law School n.d.). The central difference between domestic and international terrorism is that domestic terrorism that is orchestrated, organized, and occurring within the jurisdiction of the United States. Domestic terrorism from above is defined as that which is perpetrated by the state such as the Qadafi regime's current role in Libya; whereas domestic terrorism from below is that which is perpetrated by civilian or militia groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.
Mao Zedong, Che Guevara, Carlos Marighella, and Frantz Fanon each promoted a…
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU 2002). How the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act redefines "Domestic Terrorism." Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/national-security/how-usa-patriot-act-redefines-domestic-terrorism
Cornell University Law School (n.d.). Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/718/usc_sec_18_00002331-000-.html
Presley, S.M. (1996). Rise of Domestic Terrorism and Its Relation to United States Armed Forces. Retrieved online:
The Al-Qaeda group is probably the most popular terrorist group known this century for their very high-profile attacks; their most bold move was the destruction of the World Trade Center, now known today as 911, or September 11th. These motives are said to be of the religious sort, however there are arguments when it comes to the validity of these claims, as it may come off as to discriminate to other Islam who may not share the same views on terrorism (Emerson, 2002).
There are common beliefs in society nowadays which are fueled by a media, which generalize terrorists to be falling under one category (Nacos, 2009). This is of a religious category, Muslims in particular. There are two reasons for this, the main reason is basically ignorance of the Islamic religion, and the other is media sensationalism. There is an impression on a lot of people that…
Asthana, N.C., & Nirmal, A. (2009). Urban terrorism: myths and realities. Jaipur: Aavishkar
Barkun, M. (1997). Religion and the Racist Right. Charlotte: University of North Carolina.
Copeland, Larry. "Domestic Terrorism: New trouble at home."
In the case of domestic terrorism however, the reason for reaction is relevant in terms of internal politics. Thus, the Klan's mission, under the 1915 Act was focused on even influencing the political decisions made for the presidency of the U.S., however based on religious considerations. Aside from the fact that they stood against the increasing influence of the Black people, they also supported supremacy of the protestant religion and therefore rejected any other particular religions. Thus, "stressing white Protestant supremacy, the Klan enjoyed a spurt of growth in 1928 as a reaction to the Democrats' nomination for president of Alfred E. Smith, a oman Catholic." (Ku Klux Klan, n.d.)
In their actions they followed the lines of a traditional domestic terror group because they undergone their activities on the territory of the U.S. More precisely, Arnold ice points out that at the peak of their development, by the time…
Horn, S. (1939) Invisible Empire: the story of the Ku Klux Klan, 1866-1871. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. (1996-1997) a Brief History of the Ku Klux Klan. Retrieved 4 November 2007, at http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1077-3711%28199624%2F199724%290%3A14%3C32%3AABHOTK%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I
Ku Klux Klan.(n.d.) Edited by R.A. Guisepi. History World International. Retrieve 4 November 2007, at http://history-world.org/ku_klux_klan.htm
he Continuing hreat of the Racial Right Wing:
he modern era of radicalism and domestic terrorism is less centralized and more dependent on independent groups, which complicates law enforcement infiltration and intelligence-gathering efforts. he use of high-tech technologies and the Internet widens the reach of such groups in propagandizing large numbers of potential new recruits. Increasingly, domestic terror groups have adopted apocalyptic philosophies that, in conjunction with the procurement of weapons of mass destruction and a disregard for their consequences, could threaten large population centers. he coordination between domestic terrorism and international terrorists further magnifies the potential risks.
he South Poverty Law Center:
he SPLC was instrumental in the first use of civil liability as a means of destroying domestic hate groups through monetary damage awards. he first such use was the $10 million civil suit filed in 1983 against the United Klans of America (UKA) by the family of…
The SPLC was instrumental in the first use of civil liability as a means of destroying domestic hate groups through monetary damage awards. The first such use was the $10 million civil suit filed in 1983 against the United Klans of America (UKA) by the family of Michael Donald who was lynched in 1981 by Henry Hays and James Knowles. That suit resulted in a $7 million award; even though only $50,000 was collected, that effectively bankrupted the UKA.
The Black Panther Movement and Terrorism from Below:
The Black Panther movement was a group dedicated to achieving civil equality for black people through the use of force against police and other instruments of government oppression. This clash initiated by the oppressed underclass against the established national government was a classic example of "terrorism from below."
We also work on a variety of other issues, including the cruel killing of beavers, birds and other "pests," and the abuse of backyard dogs." (PETA, 2007) However this organization as well uses methods which are sometimes considered to be illegal. In this sense, the FBI had monitored the activities of the organization and now it considered that "environmental and animal rights militants posed the biggest terrorist threats in the United States, citing more than 150 pending investigations." (Hsu, 2005) However, despite the fact that both Greenpeace and PETA sometimes make use of means that are not in accordance with the law, such as demonstrations with inappropriate behavior taking place, or molestation of cars and vehicles belonging to different environmentally unfriendly companies, these cannot be placed under the same label with organizations or groups that aim at destroying the state government such as the anarchists or promote an intolerant attitude…
Brazil Escola. (2007) Carlos Marighella. Retrieved 5 November 2007, at http://www.brasilescola.com/historia/carlos-marighella.htm
Clark, Major Jackie K. (1988) "Che Guevara: Fundamentals of Guerrilla Warfare." Global Security website. Retrieved 5 November 2007, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1988/CJK.htm
Franz Fanon. (n.d.) Retrieved 5 November 2007, at http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/fanon.htm
Greenpeace. (2007) About Greenpeace. Retrieved 5 November 2007, at http://www.greenpeace.org/international/about
They are seeing more and more of that in some of the militias.
The trend is that there's now a multitude of these groups out there -- the common-law courts, the sovereign citizens, the secessionists, the Republic of Texas -- that type of group. Even these particular groups, while they may profess anti-government sentiments, they've developed mature political agendas, and appear content to proceed within the bounds of legitimate political activity - recognizing that anything toward any type of violent activity will produce an overwhelming reaction by law enforcement. So what they have done is they've stayed within the bounds of legitimate political activity.
The trend the FI has seen also is "leaderless resistance" - the lone offender, or the lone wolf out there, who may go to meetings, who may attach to some particular group or ideology, that the FI doesn't know about. He's the one with the bomb-making…
ACLU. (2002, December 6). How the U.S.A. patriot act redefines "domestic terrorism." Retrieved February 19, 2009, from American Civil Liberties Union: http://www.aclu.org/natsec/emergpowers/14444leg20021206.html
Belt, D. (2006, March 27). Domestic security: The homefront and the war on terror. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from Public Broadcasting System: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/terrorism/homeland/patriotact.html
Fletcher, H. (2008, April 21). Militant extremists in the United States. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/publication/9236/#3
Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Congressional testimony. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from Federal Bureau of Investigation:
Domestic Terrorism Research Reports
Over the last decade, the threat of terrorist attacks within the United States has become more and more prominent, beginning with the destruction of the orld Trade Center in 2001 and continuing through the economic downturn and historical election of Barack Obama. However, the ideologies motivating the different terrorist threats are various and distinct, a fact that can be seen when comparing the New York Police Department's 2007 examination of radicalization in the est with the Department of Homeland Security's 2009 report regarding the increased threat from rightwing extremists. The NYPD's report focuses on the radicalization of U.S. residents or citizens motivated by jihadist or jihadi-Salafi ideology, and identifies four distinct phases of radicalization visible in a number of cases in which residents and citizens of estern countries became radicalized before continuing on to plan or participate in an attack on their home country. hereas the…
Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and Analysis. (2009). Rightwing
extremism: current economic and political climate fueling resurgence in radicalization
Silber, M. D, & Bhatt, A. New York City Police Department, Intelligence Division. (2007).
Terrorism and the Military (APA).
Domestic Terrorism and the Military
On Friday June 17th a member of the United States Marine Corps eserve was arrested for trespassing on the grounds of Arlington National Cemetery. In the man's car, police found Al Qaeda literature. What this Ethiopian-born American citizen was doing, and why he had Al Qaeda literature in his car has yet to be determined, but with the recent wave of attacks by Muslim soldiers against their country the question of terrorists inside the U.S. military has become an issue. Since the United States began it's war on terrorism 10 years ago, the number of incidents of U.S. soldiers committing acts of terrorism against their own country has increased, prompting many to worry about the possibility of more terrorist in the military. However, this is not the first time the possibility of terrorists being in the military has been an…
"Army: U.S. Soldier Acted out of Resentment in Grenade Attack" (2003) Foxnews.com. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,81898,00.html
"Arrest of military man in Pentagon bomb scare: Spotlight turns on serving Muslims." International Business Times. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/165360/20110618/arrest-of-military-man-in-pentagon-bomb-scare-spotlight-turns-on-serving-muslims-yonathan-melaku-res.htm
Black, Donald. (2004) "The Geometry of Terrorism." Sociological Theory. 22:1. Retrieved from http://22.214.171.124/scholar?q=cache:jpyECYKN9SwJ:scholar.
ccording to a sociological-based theory, perpetrators may be motivated because they desire to have a sense of belongingness with members of their own group. This can explain why hate crime perpetrators often belong to specific organizations promoting hatred such as the Ku Klux Klan and White ryan Resistance. Finally, a psychological-based theory states that perpetrators, due to having a poor self-image and a fear of the unknown, may be motivated to hate based on wanting to feel superior to their victims. Whatever motivations exist, all are based somehow or another on both the fear of and ignorance about the different types of people that live in the world.
Medoff, Marshall H. "llocation of time and hateful behavior: a theoretical and positive analysis of hate and hate crimes." merican Journal of Economics and Sociology. Oct. 1999. vailable at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_4_58/ai_58496768/pg_7, ccessed pril 25, 2007
Lewis, Gale R. "n economic analysis of hate…
According to a sociological-based theory, perpetrators may be motivated because they desire to have a sense of belongingness with members of their own group. This can explain why hate crime perpetrators often belong to specific organizations promoting hatred such as the Ku Klux Klan and White Aryan Resistance. Finally, a psychological-based theory states that perpetrators, due to having a poor self-image and a fear of the unknown, may be motivated to hate based on wanting to feel superior to their victims. Whatever motivations exist, all are based somehow or another on both the fear of and ignorance about the different types of people that live in the world.
Medoff, Marshall H. "Allocation of time and hateful behavior: a theoretical and positive analysis of hate and hate crimes." American Journal of Economics and Sociology. Oct. 1999. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_4_58/ai_58496768/pg_7 , Accessed April 25, 2007
Lewis, Gale R. "An economic analysis of hate crime." Eastern Economic Journal. Spring 2002. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3620/is_200204/ai_n9080088/pg_1 , Accessed April 25, 2007
Domestic Terrorism on Policing since 911
Criminal justice incorporates government institutional systems and practices that aim at combating and deterring crime, or sanctioning the law offenders through rehabilitation efforts or criminal penalties, all with a goal of upholding social control. The accused persons have entitlement to protection against any investigatory and prosecution power abuses, unless found guilty. Despite all these efforts, criminal activities within the globe has ever been at the peak of both national and international debates as law offenders continue multiplying and violating the laws. Nonetheless, no crime has ever been close to the terror activities or attacks of 9/11 in the dimensions of scope, impacts and loss of human lives. As a result, governments of diverse nations have been at the war front in fighting against terror activities within their areas of jurisdictions, as well as combating terror activities within the entire globe (Innes, 2006). This has…
Davis, L. (2004). When terrorism hits home: How prepared are state and local law enforcement?
Journal of National Corporations, 124(7), 37-49.
Innes, M. (2006). Policing uncertainty: Countering terror through community intelligence and democratic policing. Journal of Criminal Justice, 65(6), 1-20.
Pickering, S., McCulloch, J. & Wright-Neville, D. (2008). Counter-terrorism policing:
PEA is an animal protection group that often uses extreme measures and grotesque advertising campaigns to help fight to keep animals out of products like fur coats and make-up. PEA has been known to burn down laboratory facilities after releasing animals and also by famously throwing red dye and paint onto people's fur coats to ruin them. Both groups' tactics are often immoral or unethical, but their perspective proves that they think what the average consumer is doing with their animal tested products and fur coats in more unethical. hey have not resorted to killing people as a means of protests, as the right-wingers have, so the left wing of the environmental movement may hold the moral high ground but only slightly. hese groups' actions are often not seen as being on the same level as other terrorist actions, considering they do not often kill humans to get their point…
The American Economic Review, Vol. 96, No. 2. May, 2006, pp. 50-56.
Keefer, Philip. (2008). Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.
Valentino, B.; Huth, P.; Balch-Lindsay, D. (2004). "Draining the Sea": Mass Killing and Guerrilla Warfare." International Organization, Vol 58; Part 2, pp. 375-408.
DOMESTIC VS INTENATIONAL TEOISM: WHICH IS THE GEATE THEAT?
While many Americans today remember the events of September 11, 2001 when international terrorists flew aircraft into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and killed thousands, fewer will likely remember the largest domestic terrorism event in the nation's history which took place just a few years earlier when Timothy McVeigh bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, killing 168 people including 19 children. As these events fade in the national memory, the question whether international or domestic terrorism represents the largest threat to the nation's interests remains unanswered. Therefore, in order to provide a timely answer to this question, this paper reviews the relevant literature, followed by a discussion and analysis, to determine whether domestic terrorism or international terrorism represents the biggest danger to the American public. A summary of the research and important…
Enders, W., Sandler, T. & Gaibulloev, K. (2011, March). Domestic vs. transnational terrorism: Data, decomposition, and dynamics. Journal of Peace Research, 48, 319-339.
First strike: global terror in America. (2008). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from
Causes of Domestic Terrorism
Advocates for political change and social concern are at the forefront of domestic terrorism in the United States. Domestic terrorism references groups and individuals based in and operate within the United States. Terrorism is noted as the oldest form of solving human conflict and was historically to declare war.
The Federal Code of egulations defines terrorism, a relevant term, as "...the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (Federal Bureau of Investigation).
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) categorizes the types of domestic terrorism as right-wing, left-wing and special. ight-wing terrorist practice on the theory of free speech and constitutional rights. They adhere to a philosophy of racial supremacy and embrace anti-government and anti-regulatory beliefs. Left-wing terrorists are radical, in that they seek…
Americans warned of terrorist threats worldwide (2000, October 25). CNN U.S. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://articles.cnn.com/2000-10-24/us/mideast.alert.01_1_threat-condition-delta-uss-cole-specific-threat?_s=PM:U.S.
Navarro, Joe. (2009, December 31). Unmasking Terrorists: Two Critical Characteristics. Psychology Today. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/spycatcher/200912/unmasking-terrorists-two-critical-characteristics
The Roots of Resentment. (n.d). Business Week, (3751), 46. Retrieved March 17 from EBSCOhost.
Understanding Terrorism. (2001). National Journal, 33(39), 2984. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from EBSCOhost.
617). Certainly, it is one thing to mandate policies that apply to normal circumstances such as a warehouse fire where property should be protected but not at the expense of emergency responders' lives; by very sharp contrast, though, when human beings are in jeopardy and emergency responders believe they can make a difference in a life-or-death outcome, polices do not mean all that much. This relativistic view of what emergency responders should and must do became the focus of policymakers following the 1995 attack on the Murrah Building with a more reasoned approach to what emergency responders should and must do. In this regard, Lewis et al. conclude, "The experience in Oklahoma City demonstrates that a sense of proportion about human achievement in extraordinary situations simultaneously encourages realistic views about routine professional capacities and allows for normal human frailties and an appropriate reward structure. This proportionality thereby contributes to a…
El-Ayouty, Y., Galgan, G.J., Greene, F.J. & Wesley, E. (2004). Perspectives on 9/11. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping us safe: Secret intelligence and homeland security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W., Tenzer, M.J. & Harrison, T. (1999). The heroic response to terror: The case of Oklahoma City. Public Personnel Management, 28(4), 617.
Silke, a. (2003). Terrorists, victims, and society: Psychological perspectives on terrorism and its consequences. Chichester, England: Wiley.
Navy Yard Shooting and Domestic Tourism
In September 2013, suspected gunshots at the Washington Navy Yard attracted a serious reaction from the law enforcement. Aaron Alexis is shown to have entered the building with a disassembled gun. He later assembled and begun shooting and killing people in the fourth, third, and second floor of the building. He later used the gun of the building's security officer after killing him. He killed twelve people while eight had non-fatal injuries (Webster & Vernick, 2013). When a 911 call was made, various agencies including the Homeland Security, ATF, FBI, U.S. Park Police and the Metropolitan Police Department responded.
Over the years, researchers have invested adequate time and resources, studying violent video games. According to evidence from meta-analysis studies, violent video games have a causal relationship with violent behavior in some individuals like the Naval Yard shooter, Aaron Alexis. The cause of the…
Webster, D. W., & Vernick, J. S. (2013). Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy With Evidence and Analysis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Established in 1897 and traditionally held on Patriots’ Day, the third Monday in April, the Boston Marathon is the oldest and one of the most popular annual marathon events in the world today. The annual celebration of the Boston Marathon was disrupted on April 15, 2013, though, when two lone wolf terrorists, Chechen Kyrgyzstani-American brothers, Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, detonated two homemade bombs which killed three people and injured hundreds of others, including at least 14 limb amputations. This grisly chapter in the Boston’s Marathon’s history underscores the potential for terrorist groups to recruit and radicalize new aspirants. The purpose of this paper is to provide a discussion concerning the recruitment and radicalization process of lone wolf terrorists and an explanation why terrorists focus on soft targets. In addition, an analysis of the sociological and psychological impacts that these attacks have had on society is followed by a discussion…
Becker, M. (2016). A response to ‘key Issues and research agendas in lone wolf terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 39(5), 472–476.
Chidiac, M. & Chidiac, E. H. (2019, June). Digital media and freedom of expression: Experiences, challenges, resolutions. Global Media Journal, 17(32), 1.
Feldman, M. (2013, May). Lone wolf terrorism: Understanding the growing threat. Times Higher Education, 2099, 52-55.
Meleagrou-Hitchens, A., Alexander, A., & Kaderbhai, N. (2017). The impact of digital communications technology on radicalization and recruitment. International Affairs, 93(5), 1233–1249.
Miller, G. D. (2019). Blurred lines: The new ‘domestic’ terrorism. Perspectives on Terrorism, 13(3), 63–75.
Yusuf, I. U. (2019, June). Countering Boko Haram insurgency and terrorism: Assessment of media campaigns. Global Media Journal, 17(32), 1.
What is Terrorism?
Legacy in the 21st century
Based Terrorist Organizations
Ku Klux Klan
Counterterrorism and Prevention
Definitions and Structures
The very nature of terrorism, of course, is to engender fear and panic into the population base. Thus, targets are so numerous that complete protection of all is impossible. Targets could include any of the governmental buildings in Washington, D.C., courthouses or public buildings in major cities, malls, churches, and transportation centers in any town. Unless the materials are manufactured in the United States, though, the most likely targets are those that exist in coastal cities with larger port access (Smith, 2001).
Terrorists tend to target places that are media hyped, affect the lives of citizens, and are usually transportation, entertainment, or financially based in larger urban areas. Indeed, for greater efficacy, targets usually involve places where there are large non-combatant crowds,…
ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html
Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf
Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov
While both domestic and international terrorism pose a threat to America the threat of domestic groups is more serious.
The individuals in the domestic groups already live here and are able to mingle, plot, plan and carry out acts of violence with very little scrutiny until the act occurs.
International groups must deal with visa issues, customs and other things that make it more difficult to get into and attack the U.S.
There will never be a complete eradication of terrorism either on the domestic or the international level.
Each of them will live on and the nation is going to have to learn to live with the fact that they exist. Law enforcement and government will work together to minimize the threat of terrorist groups in America but they will never completely rid the nation of the threat because of the rights the U.S. constitution provides, the fact that…
Domestic terrorist groups (Accessed 4-18-07)
http://www.milnet.com/domestic/Dom-Terror.htm domestic terrorists and internet (Accessed 4-18-07) (http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:ScYT_)VYRcJ:ai.arizona.edu/research/terror/publications/DarkWeb-AMCIS2005_Zhou_Collection.pdf+%22domestic+terrorist+groups%22+internet&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
How does terrorism affect children?
Children are often the victims of terrorism, and sometimes die in terrorist attacks (Dyson, 2001). When children witness or survive a terrorist attack, psychological ramifications like post-traumatic stress disorder may result (Hall, 2003). In some cases, children lose their loved ones and their lives may be turned upside down by terrorist attacks as all that is familiar to them -- schools, family, homes, community -- are destroyed (FBI, 2007). The war on terrorism can also affect the lives of children, as the media perpetuates a culture of fear. Children may, for example, be raised to be suspicious of people of different races or ethnicities because their parents, teachers, and the media perpetuate stereotypes about who is and who is not a terrorist.
What makes "martyrdom" such an effective tool for terrorists? Discuss in terms of social construction.
Suicide bombings and other examples of terrorist…
Dyson, W.E. (2001). Terrorism: An investigator's handbook. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Retrieved March 25, 2007, from www.fbi.gov.
Gunaratna, R. (2002), Inside Al Qaeda: Global network of terror. New York: Berkley Books.
Hall, H.V. (2003). Introduction: Psychological study of terrorism. Journal of Threat Assessment 2(3), 1-8.
The left wing will considered the beggar to be at par with others on moral grounds, and will therefore demand the access of the beggar towards loans and welfare scheme. The right wing will condemn the free access of the beggar towards economic reforms, and will doubt that if access to these economic provisions will further involve the participation of the beggar into bad social habits. According to left wing the provided assistance to the beggar will make him contribute towards turning the world into better place for survival, where as the rightwing will consider such a measure as a threat to world peace.
Shane Harris. Domestic Counter-terrorism. 2007. National Journal ublications.
Kevin Jack Riley, Bruce Hoffman. Domestic Terrorism: A National Assessment of State and Local Law Enforcement reparedness. 1995. MIT ress.pp. 34
Jay . Farrington. Domestic Terrorism. 2001. HW Wilson. pp. 196
Robert a. Kilmarx, Yonah Alexander. olitical Terrorism…
Philip B. Heymann. Terrorism and America: A Commonsense Strategy for a Democratic Society. 1998. MIT Press. pp. 110
Col (Retd) Eas Bokhari. The Genesis of Terrorism. National Journal Publications
Philip B. Heymann. Terrorism and America: A Commonsense Strategy for a Democratic Society. 1998. MIT Press. pp. 274
Fire is inherently associated with fear, although a major aspect of the action is the financial cost to the manufacturers and dealers and gaining attention. The aspect of political content may be more subjective. While it may be argued that the vehicles are legal, environmentalists may take a more ethical stance, arguing that was something is legal it is not necessarily mean that it is right. While legislation may force vehicle manufacturers to adopt more fuel-efficient standards for SUVs, it is possible for the manufacturers themselves to choose this path, adopting what the environmentalist may perceive ethical behavior. By creating a cost associated with continuing producing inefficient vehicles there may be a desire to create a fear that more attacks will occur, with the of these attacks possibly creating a motivation for the manufacturers to change, and for dealers to put pressure on manufacturers to change. In effect, environmentalists are…
They now work together in what has become an ideological battle against the U.S. In this vicious battle against the terror outfits, our people have been robbed of their cherished freedom, which has always been the cornerstone of our constitution.
As history has time and again illustrated, 'power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. This can be extended to the patriot act, which has given absolute power to the law enforcers at the cost of the freedom and privacy of its citizens. Ethnic profiling and 'speculation without any accountability' have undermined the rule of law and overridden civil and constitutional rights of thousands of citizens. The much-touted 'preventive paradigm' of which the patriot act is an important tool has resulted in much wrongdoing. The former president's acceptance that Iraqi invasion was a 'terrible mistake' is enough proof of the strategic misadventure of a failed intelligence system backed by emergency terror…
1) David Weigel, (Nov 2005), 'When Patriots Dissent: Surprise: Standing up to the Patriot act can be good Politics', Reason, 37(6), pp. 32-38.
2) Ken Olsen, (2007), 'Patriot Act's Wide Net', Nation, p. 8, 2007, September 24
3) Cole D & Lobel J, (2007) ' Why are we Losing the War on Terror', Nation, 285, 11-18.
4) Dalgaard -- Nielsen A (2004),'Civic Liberties and Counter Terrorism: A European Point-of-View', Center for Transatlantic Relations, 2004
Intentions of the Group
Profiling terrorists can be helpful for counter-terrorism efforts. While there is no one terrorist profile, there are "risk factors for involvement," (Kershaw, 2010). One of the risks that has been most explored in scholarly research is the need for a collective, shared identity in the terrorist organization (Post, Ali, Henderson, Shanfield, Victoroff & Weine, 2009). This is true for the Aryan Nation, recognized as a top domestic terrorism threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The Aryan Nations Group dubs itself a "Premier Christian Identity Church Organization," with the word "identity" featuring firmly (Aryan Nations, 2013). Members of the Aryan Nation also emphasize the "nation" part of their identity, creating an artificial in group-out group status that enforces personal and collective identities.
Although Vaisman-Tzachor (2006) claims that race is not a necessary component in the profile of a terrorist, it certainly is with the…
Aryan Nations (2013). Website retrieved online: http://www.aryan-nation.org/
Aryan Nations. (2012). Terrorist Organization Profile, University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29
Kershaw, S. (2010). The terrorist mind: An update. The New York Times. 9 Jan, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/weekinreview/10kershaw.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Post, J., Ali, F., Henderson, S., Shanfield, S., Victoroff, J., and Weine, S. (2009). The psychology of suicide terrorism. Psychiatry, 72(1), 13-31. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from ProQuest. (Document ID: 1683378291).
Terrorism in ussia on an International Level
[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]
Terrorism in ussia has existed since the ussian Empire. Its long history has brought violence against countless civilians in order to accomplish ideological or political objectives through the generation of fear and panic. Tactics so often seen in terrorism such as hostage taking saw extensive use in Soviet secret agencies. The greatest example of this was during the Great and ed Terror campaigns against their own countrymen as stated by historians like Karl Kautsky. As the end of the 20th century approached, major terrorist activity took place in the capital of ussia, Moscow. These events involved the Moscow theater hostage crisis as well as apartment bombings. Aside from Moscow, Dagestan, Chechnya, and other areas of the nation experienced terrorism. The worst part of it all is that scholars and journalists believe some of these…
Cavaliero,, C. (2011). PROTECTING ITS OWN: SUPPORT FOR RUSSIA'S FEDERAL LAW ON THE COUNTERACTION OF TERRORISM. George Washington International Law Review, 43(4), 663. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/77480580/protecting-own-support-russias-federal-law-counteraction-terrorism
Cohen, A. (2002). Russia, Islam, and the War on Terrorism: An Uneasy Future.Demokratizatsiya, 10(4), 556.
Cross, S. (2006). Russia's Relationship with the United States/NATO in the U.S.-led Global War on Terrorism. The Journal Of Slavic Military Studies, 19(2), 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518040600697738
Omelicheva, M. (2010). Russia's Counterterrorism Policy: Variations on an Imperial Theme. Perspectives On Terrorism, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/61/html
Communities are silent as well; people are still reluctant to intervene in domestic violence situations, assuming that adult victims have the ability to leave abusive scenarios and that parents should have the right to parent their children without intervention. In addition, neighbors and other potential interveners oftentimes fear the possible consequences of intervening in a violent situation. Finally, American society refuses to publicly condemn domestic violence; Michael Vick received more negative press for dog fighting than did Warren Moon, an even more famous football player, for his domestic violence behavior. With this permissive atmosphere, it is no wonder that women and children still suffer from domestic violence in fear and silence.
Question One: What individual changes can you make to create a society that is more condemning of domestic violence?
Question Two: Can you think of four reasons that a domestic violence victim would be reluctant to leave his or…
It is reported that there are two typical organizational structures that terrorist groups use: (1) networked; and (2) hierarchical. (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) the hierarchical structure organizations are those with a "well defined vertical chain of command and responsibility. Information flows up and down organizational channels that correspond to these vertical chains, but may not move horizontally." (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) a network structure is a "variation of several basic nodal concepts, a node being an individual, a cell, another networked organization, or even a hierarchical organization." (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) a terrorist network may be comprised by parts of other organizations including governments which act in a manner that can be exploited to achieve the goals of the organization. Three basic types of network structures exist: (1) chains; (2) hub; and (3) channel. In the hub structure the outer nodes are reported to communicate "with one…
Counter-Terrorism (2005) Joint Chiefs of Staff publication 3-26.
According to the Oxford ibliographies research, there is not one specific definition of "nonstate actors" that fits all situations. Nonstate actors are defined in relation to international law, because they are "…often able to impact legal values and must accordingly be regulated" (Santarelli, 2005). Throughout history, nonstate actors have "impacted international law" and they have also participated in "international legal processes," which is why Santarelli believes there should be more study of nonstate actors. One scholar claims that nonstate actors include "all entities" that are different from states; or are entities that are operating outside the legal jurisdiction of the government. That definition would include think tanks in the U.S. On the one hand and violent, bloodthirsty extremists such as ISIS, the Taliban and al Qaeda on the other hand (Fisher, 2014).
A typical nonstate actor can also be viewed as a nongovernmental organization (NGO); examples of NGOs…
Arquilla, John. "Of Networks and Nations." The Brown Journal of World Affairs. (2009).
XIV (1). Accessed December 27, 2014, from EBSCO.
Axworthy, Thomas, and Dean, Ryan. "A Scan of Existing Arms Control Treaties with Lessons Learned. Interaction Council. (2011). Accessed December 27, 2014, from http://www.interactioncouncil.org .
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code." (2006):
John I respectfully disagree with your opinion on the definition of terrorism. For me, it seems a mistake to label crime as terrorism because of the vagueness of the word. The U.S. Code appears to be flawed. As a personal victim of violent crime, I do not lesson my fear or pain. I was terrorized for months after. For you and other supporters of the U.S. Code, since the government was not victimized, this is a crime of a different nature. What you fail to realize is that the government itself is not a real or material construct, but imaginary based on the actions of its constituents. Any attack on an individual is a proxy attack on the government. In my humble opinion, the government is an extension of myself and not the other way around. Regardless, terrorism is flawed concept that is used to incite violence and rage against…
nomadic tribes wreaking havoc on each other to Zealots of Judea and the original Assassins, terrorism has been a part of human political strategy since the origin of the species. Whether it reflects the innate bellicosity of human beings or simply reveals the effects of class or religious conflict, terrorism is an unfortunate part of life -- even daily life for some people. Advanced weaponry and communications technology has made terrorism more widespread, more sinister, and far deadlier than ever before but terrorism is nothing new. The first recorded use of the word "terrorism" occurred during the French evolution and its eign of Terror ("Early History of Terrorism," n.d.). Yet terrorism precedes the eign of Terror by millennia. Many terrorist groups like the Zealots and the Assassins of the past or Al Qaeda and ISIL of today have some kind of religious ideology wrapped up in their politics, but religion…
"Al Qaeda: Constitutional Charter, Rules and Regulations," (2002). Retrieved online: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Al-Qaida-Constitutional-Charter-Translation.pdf
"Charter of the Syrian Islamic Front," (2013). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved online: http://carnegieendowment.org/syriaincrisis/?fa=50831
"The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement," (1988). Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/hamas.asp
Gray, J.M. (2010). Holy terror. History Net. Retrieved online: http://www.historynet.com/holy-terror-the-rise-of-the-order-of-assassins.htm
The Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009) identity theory model of terrorism has merits. However, it also presents problems that can hinder understanding of the terrorism phenomenon. The primary problem with Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman's (2009) assessment of terrorism as a function of personal, social, and cultural identity variables is that the variables used to predict terrorism also exist in a non-terrorist framework. Collectivist societies often promote strong in-group/out-group binaries, and those binaries foment a "foreclosed and authoritarian" sense of personal identity. These cultural and social variables are not necessarily rare in the world, but terrorism is rare -- which seems to disprove the generalizability of the theory (Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman, 2009, p. 537).
A second problem with the Schwartz, Dunkel, & Waterman (2009) argument is that the authors define terrorism too narrowly. Schwartz, Dunkel & Waterman (2009) offer a two-part definition of terrorism that is crafted to meet…
Ruff, K.D., Sandole, D.J.D. & Vasili, E. (n.d.) Identity and apocalyptic terrorism. Retrieved online: http://scar.gmu.edu/sept11/Identity%26Apocolypic_Terrorism.pdf
Schwartz, S.J., Dunkel, C.S. & Waterman, A.S. (2009). Terrorism: An identity theory perspective. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32:537 -- 559, 2009
Domestic Terrorism Incident
With the sale of the mortgage business in the plan within the ABC Inc., there are a good number of people who will be affected and lose their jobs. Smith is one of the employees noted to have a history of violent behavior tough none of this has been noted in the historical background during employment. Once these details of utter secrecy are handed over to the Emergency Response Crisis Team, the team needs to immediately call Mr. Smith for further probing and see if they can get more details from him on the accusations. There is need for the Human Resources department to further find out the family ties that Smith has and the network of friends he maintains outside the work place. These are details that can help pint to possible links with groups with covert ill intentions or just a normal loner by character.…
Description of the issue and its global reach;
Bachmann, S., & Gunneriusson, H. (2014). errorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid hreats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century hreats to Global Risk and Security. he Journal On errorism and Security Analysis, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2252595
his article discusses cyber terrorism and its growing threat in the digital age. he author present finding covering a continuous Hybrid hreat experiment undertaken by researchers at the Swedish Defense College focusing on cyber-attacks and its role in asymmetric conflict.
Graham, M., & Ramiah, V. (2012). Global terrorism and adaptive expectations in financial markets: Evidence from Japanese equity market. Research in International Business and Finance, 26(1), 97-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2011.07.002
his article examines five terrorist attacks and the impact they had on Japanese industries. he information provides an indicator of how terrorist attacks affect global markets and economies.
Source 3: Pain, R. (2014). Everyday terrorism: Connecting domestic violence…
This article discusses the variations in NGOs' responses to post-2001 variances in counterterrorism regulation in various parts of the world like the United States and the United Kingdom. They present various type responses such as shirking, hiding, and vocal opposition.
Source 3: Cole, J. (2013). 9/11 and the design of counterterrorism institutions. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 8(1), 99-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/18335330.2013.790123
This article highlights the design of counterterrorism institutions after the 9/11 attacks. It discusses the Karlsson theoretical framework and how it might aide in define differences as well as the drivers behind them.
Del O'Conner, head of the British chapter of the Hammerskins, carried out a nail-bomb attack on a gay pub in England that injured several; he was hidden for years in Texas by his Hammerskins brethren (Reynolds, 2002).
All of these crimes by Hammerskins leaders meet the definition of terrorism for the following reasons: the violence was repeated; the violence was criminally and politically motivated (the crimes were committed against groups like gays and blacks that the Hammerskins politically oppose); and the victims were targets of opportunity or symbolic, such as black or gay people who happened to be using a park or having a drink at a pub at the wrong time. Further, the acts of terrorism committed by Hammerskins leaders have the effect of encouraging terrorism among rank-and-file members. The average member would be right to deduce that those who practiced violence would be protected by the group and…
Corcoran, P. (2004, April 3). Hammerskin Nation member arrested. Pioneer Press, p. B-4.
Gibbs, J. (2006, July 27). Jury convicts Rowlett carjacker on 8 federal offenses. The Courier-Gazette, p. 1.
Hall, J. (2001, November 22). Two found guilty in 1999 hate crime attack. North Country Times, p. 1.
Lejtenyi, P. (2003, January 30). Hate under the sleeve. The Montreal Mirror.
Terrorism and Democracy
Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.
Definition of Democracy
Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…
Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003. http://web2.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510442002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA
Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97
Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
Americans' views of terrorism were forever established on September 11, 2001, when terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Towers in New York, collapsing them both, and one plane into the Pentagon, causing severe damage. A fourth plane crashed into the countryside in Pennsylvania instead of hitting its target, probably in Washington, D.C., only because passengers challenged the hijackers and fought back. Over 3,000 people lost their lives that day.
Until that day, terrorism had been a somewhat distant concept to most Americans. We heard about terrorism in srael, and perhaps some of us had friends or family to worry about, and we heard about .R.A. attacks in Great Britain, but September 11 was the firsts time international terrorists had done major damage on U.S. soil. Virtually everyone in the United States became vocally opposed to terrorism on that day even if they hadn't given it much thought…
In fact, it is difficult to think anything positive about terrorism, especially in the era of smart bombs, when our military is able to bomb with such precision that civilians are rarely killed and injured, and only the target is taken out. The fact that our military is able to conduct war with a precision never before achieved is one reason why terrorism seems more shocking than ever before. There's a jarring difference between warfare and terrorism in 2004. When the United States wages war we go to great lengths to protect the civilian population as much as possible. The opposing forces have taken advantage of that fact in Iraq, storing weapons in mosques and allowing combatants to use them as a staging arena for their efforts.
The truth is that terrorism has changed since its beginnings. The United States was born out of terrorism and revolution. If the American Revolution were taking place today, the British would describe the Boston Tea Party as a terrorist act, and the guerilla-like tactics used by small bands of civilian men against British encampments during that time would be viewed as crimes. In more recent times, many French citizens were outraged at how easily their country gave up and surrendered to the Nazi German army, and even more distressed to see how completely the Vichy government cooperated with those who had defeated them in war. The French resistance movement was one result. Private citizens who were determined to continue to fight for their country. At great risk to themselves and their families, they worked under cover of darkness to blow up bridges so the German army could not use them, snuck British spies into the country and reported troop movements to the Allies. Because the Allies won the war and France was liberated, they are called heroes, but if Germany had won, they would have been terrorists. The victors write history.
However, it's a poor analogy. American revolutionaries of the 18th century never deliberately harmed thousands of civilians to make a point. They did not blow up civilian public transportation. The members of the French resistance, while they dealt swiftly with people who gave away their secrets, worked very hard to avoid any harm to innocent citizens. On September 11, the attackers defined anyone who disagreed with them as the "enemy" and had no problem with the fact that nearly all the people they killed or maimed had no quarrel with them. Comparing today's terrorists to Revolutionary War heroes or the French resistanceis a little like comparing a cobra with a garter snake. The only thing terrorism can accomplish is to draw attention to a group's cause. People so passionate about their causes ought to be able to think up better ways to express it.
People everywhere wish to rationally use, rather than misuse their lives. Were I to have unlimited expense, I would absorb much personal research into investigating and creating an insightful, practical, and scientifically based theory of human behavior (based on, although not necessarily limited to integration of cognitive psychology / sociology of knowledge / epistemology / sociology of brainwashing -- but certainly multi-disciplinary). This cognitive model would present a new way of thinking demonstrating how, despite the fact that you are brought up in a certain environment you can separate yourself from that environment and obtain an objective mindset. The benefits of doing so are basic: they center around the fact that we may be unknowingly 'mentally contaminated' by personal experiences or by the society that we grew up in and are, therefore compelled to act in certain self-destructive manner. We live only one life. How would we feel if, at…
Resources would then go to advertising and marketing the book on an unlimited global and public scope with lecturing and TV opportunities established and with positive reviews of book presented in local media in countries where terrorism occurs.
It is my assumption, based on experience and research, that people growing up in terrorist countries are frequently unhappy with their lives and are great consumers of self-improvement literature. Money, too, would be put into conducting research on results of the project and to expand the subject from self-improvement to business and other applications.
Bargh, J.A. (1997). The automaticity of everyday life. In Robert S. Wyer (Ed.), The automaticity of everyday life. (pp. 572-583) Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
International Encyclopedia of Terrorism, (1997). Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn
There is strength in numbers, and a larger, better funded organization can often accomplish more than a smaller, splinter organization ever could. It seems that there are so many terrorist factions in the world, they are too far divided to ever join forces, and perhaps that is the only thing that is helping keep much of the world relatively free from terrorist activity.
Thus, the partnership makes sense for both parties who are intent on attacking a country or people more effectively. They also make sense for small groups who may not have enough power or influence on their own. Terrorist alliances may become more common in the future, creating more danger for everyone on the planet.
Gardner, Hall. "Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers?" Harvard International eview 24, no. 4 (2003): 56+.
apoport, David C., ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations. New…
Gardner, Hall. "Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers?" Harvard International Review 24, no. 4 (2003): 56+.
Rapoport, David C., ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
These are designed to be confusing for terrorists who attempt to circumvent them. The unpredictability is enhanced by varying them for location to location. What makes the threat especially insidious is the fact that current full body scanners used in airports across the world cannot detect items concealed inside the body with great accuracy. However, improving existing technology can change this capability for the better, according to aviation security experts.
The main likely reaction to the latest intelligence is to expand and improve security at airport checkpoints. As security measures after 9/11 have expanded and improved, terrorists have responded by creating innovative evasion measures to avoid common screening practices at airports.
The publication Today Online (2011) refers to the surgically implanted devices as "belly bombs." The report quotes Transport Security Administration spokesman Kawika iley in asserting that there has been a trend among terrorist groups to respond to increased security…
Center for HealthCare Emergency Readiness (2011). Homeland Security Presidential Directives. Retrieved from: http://www.chcer.org/Post_DHS_HSPDs.html
Homeland Security (2009, Feb 25). Homeland Security Presidential Directive 19: Combating Terrorist Use of Explosives in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/gc_1219260981698.shtm
Homeland Security.com (2011, Feb 11). Homeland Security Outlines Evolving Terrorist Threats. Retrieved from: http://www.homelandsecurity.com/2011/02/11/homeland-security-outlines-evolving-terrorist-threats/
Kress, J. And Grogger, S. (2008). The Domestic IED Threat. JFQ, Iss. 48, 1st quarter. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA518754
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
In the first instance an attack of this nature usually serves a symbolic purpose from the terrorist's point-of-view in that he or she is seen to be attacking the bastion of global Western commerce. Secondly, many business concerns are more vulnerable to attack as they are usually not as heavily secured as military or energy installations. There is also the factor that American financial institutions are invariably identified with the international polices and political stances of the U.S. government, making them a prime target for terrorists and radical groups. (Kirkpatrick, 1983, p. 94)
American multinational Corporations (MNCs) in particular are an increasing focus of terrorist attention. As Harvey (1993) states, "If the trends of the past are any indication of the future strategies of terrorists, United States MNCs will continue to be their primary targets" (Harvey, 1993 p. 465). In this regard studies have found that financial and commercial institutions…
Bayles, W.J. (2001). The Ethics of Computer Network Attack. Parameters, 31(1), 44. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437
Beard, J.M. (2002). America's New War on Terror: The Case for Self-Defense under International Law. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 559+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424066
Beebe, J.L. (2006). Inherently Safer Technology: The Cure for Chemical Plants Which Are Dangerous by Design. Houston Journal of International Law, 28(1), 239+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021769883
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html ?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
The government has authority to impose a civil penalty on a domestic entity or organization, and may bring charges pursuant to the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act based on predicate crimes that "include the offenses of providing material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization, or intentionally or knowingly collecting or providing funds for use in carrying out terrorist activities, as well as money laundering" (Crimn 2004). Moreover, the Internal Revenue Service may suspend the tax-exempt status under the Internal Revenue Code of any organization that is identified or designated as a terrorist organization (Crimn 2004).
The attacks of September 11th were a wake-up call to authorities to the need for cooperation between the various agencies. The Patriot Act provided American local, state and federal agencies an arsenal of tools to investigate, prosecute, and deter terrorist activities.
Bulzomi, Michael J. (2002, July 01). Investigating international terrorism…
Bulzomi, Michael J. (2002, July 01). Investigating international terrorism overseas:
constitutional considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Crimn, Nina J. (2004, March 01). High alert: the government's war on the financing of terrorism and its implications for donors, domestic charitable organizations, and global philanthropy. William and Mary Law Review. Retrieved November 10, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Donohue, Laura K. (2006, March 22). Anglo-American privacy and surveillance.
" (IST, 1)
Nonetheless, India holds that Pakistan has both a significant motive to see attacks on Indian soil carried out without proper retribution and that its commitment to eroding the forces of terrorism generated by its own people may be regarded as nominal at best. Quite indeed, the political pressure imposed by the United States may be matched or even overshadowed by the political pressures instigated by its own populace. One may deduce in fact that there are substantial sectors of the population which if not supportive of extremism or participating and funding in any such activities, may nonetheless find some sympathy for the idea that political and economic causes are the primary impetuses for acts of 'terrorism.'
Nonetheless, Pakistan's opportunity for growth and improvement does hinge on these efforts, at least according to the United States. Even under new leadership, the U.S. has continued to make its Pakistan…
Associated Press of Pakistan (APP). (2009). Pakistan Dealing With Challenges Courageously: Governor Sindh. Associated Press of Pakistan Corporation. Online at Dawn Media Group (DMG). (2009). 'U.S. Forces Not to Be Allowed to Operate Inside Pakistan. Dawn.com.
Hitti, P. (1943). History of the Arab People. Princeton University Press.
IST. (2009). Pakistan wants Unconditional Talks With India. The Times of India. Online at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/india/Pakistan-wants-unconditional-talks-with-India-Qureshi/articleshow/5022368.cms
Kronstadt, K. Alan. (Jan. 2005). Pakistan-U.S. Relations. CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Online at <
Terrorism is a global problem that most Americans only vaguely recognized prior to September 11th. We had been aware of the occasional international flight hijacking or a bombing at an embassy far removed from our everyday lives. It also fell low on the Bush administration priority list during the president's first year in office, as Attorney General John Ashcroft favored an agenda far more active in the war on drugs and domestic criminal prosecution than threats of fundamentalist violence. However, when the World Trade Center came tumbling down, the fact that America has enemies became inescapable. Moreover, these enemies were not the bumbling camel jockeys we had been persuaded to dismiss. Rather, they were units of a network both diabolical and sophisticated enough to orchestrate an attack that simultaneously froze the world in shock, shattered the American economy, devastated a cocky culture and did so all in the space of…
4. Goodenough, Patrick.
Philippine Group Believed to Be Funding Al- Qaeda" CNSNews.com. Apr. 2, 2002.
5. Oscapella, Eugene. "The Links Between Drug Prohibition and Terrorism" Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy. Oct. 29, 2001.
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…
Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.
Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.
Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
National security and intelligence policy focus on offices that the federal government controls. These policies have gained the support of the communities who have the resources used in implementing such policies. Therefore, the national security and intelligence policy aims at re-organizing homeland security and intelligence systems for different national entities and private sector. However, these policies do not stipulate the activities the communities will implement in an effort to provide national security (McCormack 57). hile the national security and intelligence policy call for local and state entities to be linked to the efforts of national security and intelligence, the policies have failed to envision that national security and intelligence are being controlled by federal entities. This means that local, state, and federal intelligence officials must share information amongst themselves for the purpose of attaining national security and maintaining intelligence at all levels (Cumming 69).
The national security and intelligence policies…
McCormack, Wayne. Understanding the Law of Terrorism. New York: Lexis Nexis, 2007. Print
Marting, Gus. Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. California: Sage,
Cumming, Alfred. Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives. New York: Henry Holt,
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:
Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN
Politics.Com. Cited in:
Chapter 10 of Jonathan . White's Terrorism and Homeland Security focuses exclusively on terrorism in Israel and Palestine. However, the author begins the chapter with the Six Day War to immediately discuss the rise of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Factionalism in Palestinian terrorism, the rise and function of Hezbollah and Hamas, Jewish fundamentalism, and the controversial counterterrorism policies in Israeli domestic and foreign policy comprise the bulk of this chapter. Especially given the paucity of space dedicated to this complex topic, White does a good job addressing both sides of the conflict and does so fairly, accurately, and with a minimum of bias.
One of the only faults with Chapter 10 is that the author does not have enough space with which to properly engage the reader in the multilayered complexity of the issue. The chapter begins as if in media res, with the 1967 war as…
Barhoum, K. (n.d.). The origin and history of the PLO. Trans-Arab Research Institute. 17 May, 2014. Retrieved online: http://tari.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10:the-origin-and-history-of-the-plo&catid=1:fact-sheets&Itemid=10
"Hezbollah: History and Overview." Retrieved online: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/hizbollah.html
White, J.R. (2012). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Wadsworth Cengage.
Law Enforcement Practice, Procedure, Training, and Administration Standards:
Local police departments range in size from those employing fewer than ten officers to those employing over 30,000 officers, as in the case of New York City's
NYPD, the largest local police agency in the country. With absolutely no existing national standardization for police training, state and local police department training ranges from six-month long, live-in police academies such as those of the largest state police agencies and much smaller, independent local police academies with much shorter training programs. At some of the smallest local sheriff departments, officers may still be sworn into their positions by direct Sheriff's appointment, without prior training of any kind. In between those two extremes, police training and certification in different states range from four-week long, self-sponsored community college certification programs to independently run police academy training programs run by municipal police departments themselves.
Just as pre-employment…
Chase, H.W. And Ducat, C.R. (1978) Corwin's the Constitution and What it
Means Today. Princeton: Princeton University Press
German, M. (3/6/05) an FBI Insider's Guide to the 9/11 Commission
Report GlobalSecurity.org; Retrieved February 26, 2007, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2005/guide-iii.htm
Terrorism in elation to International Governance
The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States highlighted the global threat of terrorism since it changed the ways in which the world views terrorism. Actually, the attacks demonstrated the evolution of the threat of terrorism that has become a major security threat across the globe. Given the global dimension of terrorism, state actors and the international community has become increasingly concerned and developed various ways to deal with the threat of terrorism from a national and international level. Domestic and international law has altered policy towards terrorism, leading to an evolution of counterterrorism efforts. However, the effectiveness of these counterterrorism efforts requires an understanding of what terrorism is, its impact on countries, and international laws. Since terrorism is a global concern, international response may be crucial to resolving such a troubling issue.
Description of the Issue
Terrorism has continued to evolve in recent…
Bachmann, S. & Gunnerisson, H. (2014). Terrorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid Threats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century Threats to Global Peace and Security. The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, 1-37.
Bogdanoski, M. & Petreski, D. (2010). Cyber Terrorism -- Global Security Threat. International Scientific Defense, Security, and Peace Journal, 59-72.
Ervine, P. (2010, November 15). Does Terrorism Pose a Real Threat to Security? Retrieved May 14, 2016, from http://www.e-ir.info/2010/11/15/does-terrorism-pose-a-real-threat-to-security/
Gaibulloev, K., Sandler, T. & Santifort, C. (2011). Assessing the Evolving Threat of Terrorism. Retrieved from Homeland Security Center -- University of Southern California website: http://create.usc.edu/sites/default/files/publications/assessingtheevolvingthreatofterrorism_2.pdf
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
Henry Holt: New York
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat,
Responding to the Challenge. Yale University Press: New Haven
The authors report that such an event would cause flooding and could kill many people (Copeland & Cody 2003).
The authors further assert that Bioterrorism or chemical threats could deliver massive contamination by small amounts of microbiological agents or toxic chemicals, and could endanger the public health of thousands. While some experts believe that risks to water systems actually are small, because it would be difficult to introduce sufficient quantities of agents to cause widespread harm, concern and heightened awareness of potential problems are apparent. Characteristics that are relevant to a biological agent's potential as a weapon include its stability in a drinking water system, virulence, culturability in the quantity required, and resistance to detection and treatment. Cyber attacks on computer operations can affect an entire infrastructure network, and hacking in water utility systems could result in theft or corruption of information or denial and disruption of service (Copeland &…
Anderson R. (September 29, 2003).
Mayors Meet in Chicago to Discuss the Nation's Water Problems. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.usmayors.org/uscm/us_mayor_newspaper/documents/09_29_03/UW_water_summary.asp
Coleman K. (Jan 16, 2005). Protecting the Water Supply from Terrorism. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=735&trv=1
Copeland C. And Cody Betsy. (2003) Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector: Resources, Science, and Industry Division. Report For Congress.
Combating Future Terrorism
The Continuing Threat Posed by Islamic Terrorists
Brinkley. J. (2013). Islamic Terror: Decentralized, Franchised, Global. World Affairs, 176(2),
Professor of Journalism Joel Brinkley explains that many countries around the world have been attacked by Muslim radicals (he includes Tanzania, where extremists beheaded a Christian pastor because he was training to become a meat butcher and the radicals asserted this trade was "theirs alone"), and that "…jihadist atrocities" have become a "status quo to be lived with" in many parts of the world. His point? There is violence all around the world due to the hatred and intolerance by radical groups, most of them Islamic, and Americans may as well get used to this chaotic and bloody situation. And indeed, he sees that more terrorist attacks against the U.S. are likely. He doesn't offer any way to avoid those attacks, however.
Loss of Some Civil Liberties and Americans'…
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…
Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.
Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
Discussion Questions on International Terrorism
Explain the origins and evolution of long-term separatists and ethnic and nationalistic terrorism. Also, provide group names and their respective parts of the world.
Ethno- separatist/nationalist terrorism is not specifically a modern phenomenon. Historically, two Jewish movements in Judaea that desired to provoke the local population to rise against the oman occupiers used ethno-racial terrorism. However, it was only in 60s and 70s that terrorism came to be associated with ethnic- separatist/nationalist movements (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). During that time, terrorism was seen as paying off on the reasons for effective, aggressive campaigns launched and won. The Palestine Liberation Organization's terrorist movement between 1968 and 1980 confirmed to other nationalist groups that internationalizing their cause could be valuable. The variety of ethnic-national/separatist terrorist movements effective worldwide, therefore, increased from three in 1968 to 30 in 1978 (Cassara, 2006).
Psychologists argue that the…
Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2013). Law enforcement in the United States. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cassara, J.A. (2006). Hide and seek: Intelligence, law enforcement, and the stalled war on terrorist finance. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.
Dintino, J.J., & Martens, F.T. (2003). Police intelligence systems in crime control: Maintaining a delicate balance in a liberal democracy. Springfield, Ill: C.C. Thomas.
Fijnaut, C., & Paoli, L. (2004). Organized crime in Europe: Concepts, patterns, and control policies in the European Union and beyond. The Netherlands: Springer.