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Dracula Through the Lens of Freud
Count Dracula is one of the most recognizable figures in the world today; his name has become synonymous with vampires and with the sexualization of horror. In fact, the sexual aspect of Dracula has become one of the most commented upon features of the figure and of his story. There is certainly a huge basis for such an emphasis in Bram Stoker's original novel. In Dracula, the first book in which the character of Count Dracula is introduced, the title character is a supreme example of the male ego, with his sexuality and his attitude towards and treatment of women characterized by an extreme imbalance of power in his favor. His ability to rob other men, most notably Jonathan Harker and Renfield, of their potency is also quite telling from a psychoanalytical viewpoint. All of these details make a psychoanalytic reading of the novel…
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. Accessed 17 April 2009. http://www.literature.org/authors/stoker-bram/dracula/index.html
There are numerous themes and motifs present in Bram Stoker's "Dracula," such as sexuality, femininity, Christianity, superstition, and ancestral bloodline, to name but a few. However, perhaps one of the most obvious themes surrounds sexuality and femininity.
Stoker's "Dracula" can be seen as a sort of Victorian male "Harlequin" novel, filled with adventure, intrigue, and damsels in distress. And much like the Harlequin type novels for women today, Stoker's novel has an underlying theme of dangerous sexuality, the forbidden fruit. Many of Stoker's passages actually read as erotica:
The girl went on her knees, and bent over me, simply gloating. There was a deliberate voluptuousness which was both thrilling and repulsive, and as she arched her neck she actually licked her lips like an animal, till I could see in the moonlight the moisture shining on the scarlet lips and on the red tongue ... Lower and lower went…
Croley, Laura Sagolla. "The rhetoric of reform in Stoker's 'Dracula": depravity, decline, and the fin-de-siecle residuum." Criticism. 1/1/1995; pp.
Stoker, Bram. Dracula.
I would not send them into Dracula's at the break of dawn; though Dracula was incapacitated during the day, he heard the cockcrow and saw the sun rise with Harker in the mornings. Instead, I would send the party to Dracula's home approximately two hours after sunrise. I would arm the hunting party with garlic, a large number of crucifixes, wild rose, wood ash, long swords, hatchets, guns, and knives. The members of the hunting party would include Harker, Van Helsing, Morris, Seward, and Mina.
In the book, there are many figures that would be willing to battle Dracula, and it would be important to utilize them in any fight against Dracula.
However, I would not use Holmwood to kill Dracula; Dracula recently killed Holmwood's fiancee, which I think would make Holmwood too distracted and personally invested to be an effective killer. In addition, though Holmwood gave Lucy his blood…
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. Mountain View, CA: Plain Label Books, 1897.
..almost entirely occur within the first sixty pages." If it is true that the best passages of Dracula are found in the early portions of the book, it would make sense that the first chapter (or was it to be the second?), which later became the short story, was not necessary. Perhaps the publisher / editor who handled the manuscript saw the chapter (short story) as overkill (no pun), since the provocative in-your-face un-Victorian themes were so potent there was little need for an additional chapter that stood well on its own.
In terms of that fact that some of the smoothest, most ambitiously graphic narrative was already in the succeeding chapters, it may have been a coldly objective decision to hold the "prefatory chapter" back for later publication.
Critic James B. Twitchell writes (Twitchell 1985) that Dracula's Guest is "...One of the best werewolf stories ever written." Initially believed…
Classic Literature Library. "Bram Stoker Dracula's Guest: Preface." Retrieved 6 Nov. 2006 from http://www.classic-literature.co.uk/bram-stoker/draculas-guest/
Stableford, Brian. St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost & Gothic Writers. Ed. David Pringle. New York: St. James Press, 1998, 573-75. (Preprinted in Novels for Students, vol. 18; article retrieved through INFOTRAC, Gale Group)
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1897.
Stoker, Bram. Dracula's Guest. New York: Hillman-Curl, Inc., 1937.
..which affects certain natures, as at times the moon does others?" (Stoker, 133). Here we have a clear reference to the power of the sun over Count Dracula who sleeps in his coffin during the day and rises after sunset. Thus, Renfield's reaction to the setting of the sun is to be expected, due to being under the control and domination of Dracula.
In Chapter 18 of Dracula, we discover that Renfield has undergone quite a radical change related to his overall demeanor. In fact, he is so changed that he holds an intelligent conversation with Miss Mina Harker, but soon after, he retreats into his old self and pleads with Dr. Seward to set him free from the sanitarium. hile on his knees with "tears rolling down his cheeks" (Stoker, 272), Renfield begs for his life, terrified that his soul will be forever damned to Hell for being in…
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. Koln, Germany: Konemann Publishers, 1995.
The girl is freed from her captor, but only at the cost of the life and soul of the young priest: the power of Christ merely served to anger the devil -- it did not subjugate him; such would have been too meaningful in the relativistic climate of the 70s.
The 70's sexual and political revolutions were intertwined to such an extent that hardcore pornography and Feminist politics appeared on the scene simultaneously. hile Betty Friedan opposed traditional gender codes in such works as the Feminine Mystique, Debbie was on her way to doing Dallas and Deepthroat was raking in the profits. The cinematic response to this was the slaughter of sexually-active teenagers by homicidal maniacs (evil incarnate), while virtuous and chaste maidens like Jamie Lee Curtis' character in Halloween remained alive just long enough for the evil to be driven away by a male authority figure. Horror films often…
Carpenter, John, dir. Halloween. Compass International, 1978. Film.
Cuaron, Alfonso, dir. Children of Men. Universal Pictures, 2006. Film.
Del Toro, Guillermo, dir. Mimic. Miramax, 1997. Film.
Friedkin, William, dir. The Exorcist. Warner Bros, 1973. Film.
Bram Stoker's Dracula represented for the Victorian reader the assault of the libertine on Victorian sexual morality. Dracula was a predator who stalked at night and had the capacity to transform himself into a beast in order to escape deduction. His method was seduction, which led to death, and in an age when propriety concealed all such discussions as sexual adventurism (which had to some extent characterized the preceding Romantic Era with another author of Gothic fiction Mary Shelley depicted her husband the poet Percy through the lens of Dr. Frankenstein, the man bent on using pure Reason to achieve his ludicrous aim), Dracula served up a hearty dish of danger and taboo that gave the Victorian audience exactly what it wanted -- a whiff of the underlying sexual tension that the moral code of the time disallowed in public. Prying open Dracula's coffin was like prying open the…
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. New York, NY: W.R. Caldwell & Company, 1897. Print.
Count Dracula and Hanibal Lector
to Offer Degree
The Analysis of Count Dracula and Hanibal Lector
Identities of Count Dracula and Hannibal
Gender and Sexuality
The relation between Dracula and his victims
Gender and Sexuality
Criminal Mind of Hannibal: Justification of Diagnosis
Hannibal's Relations with his Victims
The Power of Horror
Silence of the Lambs
Deployment- the arms and equipment with which a military unit or military apparatus is supplied.
Sentence: "I suggest that we add Winchesters to our deployment." (324).
Dexterously- dexterous; nimble; skillful; clever
Sentence: "He really continued then, quickly and dexterously, to carry out his intent." (128).
Disquietude - the state of uneasiness; discomfort.
Sentence: "…it was not right in my heart to believe that I was really hoping to keep anything from her…
Bakhtin, M.M. "Discourse of the Novel." The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist, Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1981. 263. Print.
. Murray, Paul. "Dracula." From the Shadow of Dracula: A Life of Bram Stoker. London: Jonathan Cape, 2004. 168. Print.. Stoker, Bram. Dracula, London: Vintage Books, 2007. ii, 1,20, 31-32, 40, 46-47, 72-73, 75, 246-248, 254, 305, 313, 317-318, 421.
Dracula." Literature and Language. 48.2 (Summer 2006): 158-159. Project Muse. Web. 28/1
Dolar, Mladen. "I Shall Be With You on Your Wedding Night" Lacan and the Uncanny." Critical Evaluations in Cultural Theory. Ed. Slavoj Zizek. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. 64.
As Frost emphasizes, "Although there is no reason to believe that Stoker regarded Dracula as anything other than a straightforward story of Good vs. Evil, most commentators today interpret it as a sexual rather than a theological allegory, even going so far as to call it one of the most erotic novels ever written" (55). The legends of vampires that prevailed well into the 19th century throughout Europe were enough to give anyone nightmares, and the author consistently maintained that this was in fact the source of his inspiration for Dracula. As Frost points out, "Stoker, himself, always maintained that the genesis of his novel was a vivid nightmare; but following recent disclosures about his private life the book has taken on a new significance, and is now generally regarded as an expression of the author's frustrated sensuality" (55).
Although the novel is slightly flawed in places from a purely…
Frost, Brian J. The Monster with a Thousand Faces: Guises of the Vampire in Myth and Literature. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1989.
Glover, David. Vampires, Mummies, and Liberals: Bram Stoker and the Politics of Popular
Fiction. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1996.
Holte, James Craig. Dracula in the Dark: The Dracula Film Adaptations. Westport, CT:
Dracula's cultural impact
Dracula's Immortal Cultural Impact
Nearly five centuries after his death, Vlad "Tepes" Dracula's reputation continues to intrigue, inspire, and terrorize people. Vlad the Impaler, as he was often referred to as, was the Prince of Wallachia in Romania and a three time Voivode of Wallachia, and was born in 1431 and killed in action near Bucharest in 1476. Vlad the Impaler is known for his leadership as well as his extreme cruelty. It is this terrorizing historical figure, and the lore surrounding him, that inspired Bram toker to write Dracula. Dracula holds an important place in popular culture thanks to the literary work of Bram toker who published Dracula in 1897.
While toker's novel is not based upon the historical figure of Dracula, it does draw upon the legend surrounding the prince and provides an insight into Romanian culture, their superstitions, and the area surrounding Transylvania and…
Stoker's work was also adapted into a play and was subsequently used as inspiration, albeit without Stoker's widow's consent, for the German Expressionist masterpiece, Nosferatu. Despite a court order to have all copies of the German film destroyed, several copies escaped and have allowed for the once-forbidden film to be hailed as a cinematic masterpiece. Not only did the novel inspire others to interpret it cinematically, but also helped to influence the creation of horror cinema. What is more, the novel and Nosferatu, helped to influence the 1931 Hollywood film Dracula starring Bela Lugosi -- who, like the historic Dracula, was from present-day Romania. Christopher Lee in 1966's Dracula: Prince of Darkness played another memorable cinematic interpretation of Dracula. Lee's Dracula films helped to launch a Dracula franchise that lasted from 1966 to 1976. The latest Dracula film was released in 1992 and follows Stoker's novel the most faithfully. It can also be argued that Stoker's novel helped to influence
In addition to being a literary and cinematic icon, Dracula has served as an inspiration for television. The image, or concept of Dracula, can be seen on television shows such as Sesame Street in which a puppet called The Count has been designed to emulate Lugosi's Dracula, yet helps children learn to count. An interpretation of Dracula was also used on the cult television show Buffy the Vampire Slayer; moreover, the premise of the entire show is the destruction of vampires and other supernatural demons. Most recently, vampires on television can be seen on the CW television show The Vampire Diaries, which is based on a popular book series of the same name.
Stoker's Dracula not only provided insight into the Victorian conventions and fears, but also provided a terrifying and intriguing masterpiece of Gothic literature. Through the novel's success, Stoker has inspired and influenced other writers, influenced cinema and the horror genre, and has even had an impact on television programs and characters.
The novel "Dracula" was written by Irish author Bram Stoker in 1897. Set in nineteenth-century Victorian England and other countries of the same time, this novel is told in an epistolary format through a collection of letters, diary entries etc. The main characters include Count Dracula and a small group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing. Count Dracula is the antagonist character of the novel, and is a vampire. The group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing are the main protagonist characters. The novel talks about Count Dracula's endeavor to relocate from Transylvania to England, and his demise. The story begins with an English lawyer, Jonathan Harker, visiting Dracula's castle to assist him with some real estate issues. During his stay in the castle, Harker discovers that the Count is a vampire and barely escapes with his life. Then the narrative turns into…
Parsons, G. (1989). Religion in victorian britain. (Vol. 4)
Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula. United Kingdom: Archibald Constable and Company.
Wood, P. (2004). Science and dissent in England, 1688-1945 (science, technology and culture,
Dracula is a far more traditional Gothic novel in the classic sense than the four books of the Twilight series, in which Bella Swan and her vampire lover Edward Cullen never even fully consummate their relationship until they are married in the third book Eclipse, and Bella does not finally get her wish to become a vampire until the fourth and final book Breaking Dawn. Far from being Edward's victim, or used as a pawn and discarded, she is eager to leave her dull, empty middle class life behind and become part of the Cullen vampire family. When she nearly dies giving birth to their half-vampire daughter, Edward finally does 'turn' her to save her life, and to paraphrase the title of the old song, we can only hope that she is satisfied. Bella in fact is a very traditional and conservative character, including her religion and even…
Branch, L. 2010. "Carlisle's Cross: Locating the Past in Secular Gothic" in A.M. Clarke and M. Osburn (eds). The Twilight Mystique: Critical Essays on the Novels and Films. McFarland & Company Publishers: 60-79.
Byron, G. 2008. "As One Dead': Romeo and Juliet in the Twilight" in J. Drakakis and D. Townshend (eds) Gothic Shakespeares. Routledge: 167-86.
Meyer, S. 2005. Twilight. Little, Brown and Company.
Meyer, S. 2006. New Moon. Little, Brown and Company.
Troy Boone writes Van Helsing "affirms a utilitarian view of the vampire-fighter, whose role is to minimize human suffering by combating evil" (Boone). He goes on to explain how Stoker explores this notion by adding to his summation that Van Helsing realizes the different forces at work. Dracula is "finite, though he is powerful to do much harm" (Stoker 320-1) and he cannot be avoided or ignored, he must be stopped. Such a character leaves Van Helsing as a kind of "monster of righteousness" (Bloom), writes Harold Bloom. Van Helsing is the vampire's enemy and opposite and Stoke has situated him in the novel as the only person qualified to fight this evil.
Another way in which Stoker presents Van Helsing as a hero is through the different characters he must face when fighting evil. He is not simply after stopping Dracula. Dracula's women pose the same great threat Dracula…
Bloom, Harold. "Bloom on Dracula." In Bloom, Harold, ed. Dracula, Bloom's Modern Critical
Interpretations. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishing, 2002. Bloom's Literary
Reference Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 13 Apr. 2010. http://www.fofweb.com
Boone, Troy. "He is English and therefore adventurous': politics, decadence, and 'Dracula.'."
Though the Monster tries to refrain from interfering; "hat chiefly struck me was the gentle manners of these people, and I longed to join them, but dared not…[remembering] too well the treatment I had suffered the night before from the barbarous villagers" (142). The Monster learns how society behaves through the observation of the family, and through the reading of books. Much like Frankenstein, the Monster is greatly influenced by what he reads including Plutarch's Lives, Sorrow of erter, and Paradise Lost. The Monster's innocence and ignorance, at this point, does not allow him to fully understand or relate to any of the characters in the books (166). The Monster eventually relates to Adam in Paradise Lost, not considering himself a monster, because even "Satan had his companions, fellow devils, to admire and encourage him" (169). As Adam was created in God's own image, the Monster is a "filthy type…
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus. Project Gutenberg. Web. Retrieved
from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/84 .
Stoker, Bram. The Annotated Dracula. Ed. Leonard Wolf and Satty. Ballantine Books, New
York: 1975. Print.
Lucy and Mina
In Victorian England, when Bram Stoker wrote Dracula, the vampire was used as a symbol for, among other things, society's sexual taboos, including overt female sexuality. Nowhere is this idea better explored than in the characters of friends Lucy estenra and Mina Murray. In Stoker's book, Lucy is symbol of the improper female, the one who is coquettish and flirtatious and sparks sexual interest in the male. Mina is her opposite. She is the ideal Victorian woman whose function is to be chaste and supportive of her future husband. Mina's attraction to men is always one of potential wife or mother. These ideas were somewhat diluted in the 1931 film version to make a horror story with less moral and more thrill, although the flirtatious girl still dies and her less sexual counterpart still survives. In the novel, the line between good and evil tends to be…
Dracula. Dir. Tod Browning. Perf. Bela Legosi. Universal, 1931. DVD.
Stoker, Brahm. Dracula. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. Print.
He writes, "Lucy Westenra, but yet how changed. The sweetness was turned to adamantine, heartless cruelty, and the purity to voluptuous wantonness" (Stoker 225). It is clear that wantonness is not a characteristic to be admired in Victorian times, because he compares her wantonness to cruelty, as well. Clearly, both these novels echo the time they were written and society's views on women. Women play insignificant and "wanton" roles in both books, and they are a source of motherly love and distress. One critic, however, feels the novel may be a beacon of change, too. He writes, "Dracula is not only a threat but also imaginative and physical vitality, a catalyst for change. The novel suggests that a new understanding of sexuality and decay is necessary for any attempt to attain social order and growth" (Boone). What is most interesting about these two novels is that they portray relatively like…
Boone, Troy. "He Is English and Therefore Adventurous: Politics, Decadence, and 'Dracula." Studies in the Novel 25.1 (1993): 76+.
Nitchie, Elizabeth. Mary Shelley: Author of "Frankenstein." Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1970.
Hoeveler, Diane Long. "3 Frankenstein, Feminism, and Literary Theory." The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley. Ed. Esther Schor. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 45-60.
Schor, Esther, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…
marketing recommendations, one must first point out towards the fact that Romania (1) lacks a true branding campaign, such as the ones that Spain, Finland or even ulgaria have undergone during the past years and (2) because it has no branding policies to promote its values abroad and make positive connections in foreigners' minds with Romania, the first things that a foreigner will be able to say about Romania are related to thieves, Ceausescu or the stray dogs in ucharest.
This report will aim at discovering some of the positive elements that Romania has to offer and the adequate means by which these elements can be promoted to the audience we are addressing. The report contains two essential parts: image and branding recommendations, where positive elements about Romania are listed and analyzed, while the marketing approaches describe the channel of communication to be used in order to be able to…
1. Bird, Michael. Bucharest Garden City. July 2005. On the Internet at www.brandingromania.ro
2. Clinton, Bill. How to build the reputation of a country. June 2005. On the Internet at http://www.brandingromania.com/?author=16
Bird, Michael. Bucharest Garden City. July 2005. On the Internet at www.brandingromania.ro
I was reluctant to join them at first, but then I realized I had nothing to lose (they seemed ok). The exhibition was completely different from what I expected. DJs mixing on top of mattresses, loud electric/classic/pop music playing, and people having fun watching art shown in a variety of ways, each more fantastic than the other.
Romania was definitely not what I expected it to be! Matters got hotter as I mingled into the group and I was no longer a stranger. It seemed I was part of a bad comedy movie where a bunch of westerners are quickly assimilated in a third-world country culture and the locals are all friendly but they actually want to rob and kill you. Well, considering that I am still able to type these words, nothing bad happened to me and I really enjoyed my time in Romania. The people (who were mostly…
Giaour is cursed to be a vampire as punishment, while Ruthven seems to revel in the power and the role this gives him. He also describes women as adulteresses and worse and treats them as fodder for his needs on every level. Aubrey notes this and does not like it, but he also does not manage to escape from the man or his way of life. In the end, his own sister is destroyed by this man, just as was Ianthe and countless others.
Of course, Giaour also indulges in illicit sex with Leila, certainly illicit in the Muslim social order, though it would be in Europe as well. Leila's relationship with Hassan would also be seen as illicit in Europe, though, which is why Byron makes the point of noting that this sort of arrangement was more common in the past than it is in his own time. In…
Byron, Lord. "The Giaour." In Three Oriental Tales, Alan Richardson (ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.
Polidori, John. "Vampyre." In Three Gothic Novels, E.F. Bleiler (ed.). New York: Dover, 1966.
Sound in Cinema
The end of the era of silent film and the movement to sound effects was an inevitable occurrence in cinema. As the viewers clamored to identify a more realistic portrayal of subjects in the film, the worldwide industry of cinema transitioned quickly from rudimentary sound effects to the prospect of "talkies" by the 1930s. However, even with the vanguard and innovation of synchronized sounds at the peak of Golden Age cinema, many critics and directors alike were uneasy with this rapid movement from silence to sound.
The beginnings of silent film era produced motion animation based on black and white still photography. The idea of montage became a further artistic expression in the industry, popular amongst experimental photographers and directors of the early 1890s to 1920s (Alexandrov). Once life and movement became achievable in films, however, viewers and filmmakers saw the opportunity to include sound within the…
Bottomore, Stephen. "An International Survey of Sound Effects in Early Cinema." Film History 11.4 (1999): 485-498. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
Alexandrov, Grigori, Sergei Eisenstein, and Vsevolod Pudovkin. "Statement on Sound." Film Theory and Criticism. Seventh ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. 315-17. Print.
Spadoni, Robert. "The Uncanny Body of Early Sound Film." Velvet Light Trap: A Critical Journal of Film & Television 51 (2003): 4. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 7 Apr. 2011.
Doane, Mary Ann. "The Voice in the Cinema: The Articulation of Body and Space." Film Theory and Criticism. Seventh ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. 318-30. Print.
record player, which was known in its original inception as a phonograph. This instrument was originally created in 1877 by Thomas Alva Edison 1. This fact is extremely important because it indicates that the record player was invented at the end of the Industrial Revolution 2 and prior to modernity, which began in earnest during the 20th century. The historical context of the record player is important in terms of its design, which primarily reflected functionality. The record player is the first invention that could ever record information outside of conventional writing. Its principal importance is that it signaled the shift in which society stopped collecting physical objects as much as it began collecting information, which influenced its design and its evolution to this very day.
The initial design of the very first phonograph was extremely pragmatic in nature. To truly understand the way it was designed it is necessary…
Beals, Gerald. "The Biography of Thomas Edison." Accessed March 31, 2016. http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html#phonograph
Montagna, Joseph. "The Industrial Revolution." Accessed March 31, 2016. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1981/2/81.02.06.x.html
Rutgers. "Tinfoil Phonograph." Last Modified February 20, 2012. http://edison.rutgers.edu/tinfoil.htm
Stoker, Bram. Dracula. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Cinema as art serves several functions, not least of which is visual impact. Yet because motion pictures are inherently multimedia, soundscape, theater, and writing converge with the elements of visual cinematography and mis-en-scene. Film is often dichotomized, placed into an artificial binary of art films versus films made for a popular audience and designed for entertainment. However, many movies in the history of cinema prove that the line between art and entertainment is at its blurriest with filmmaking. Some films have also reached the level of being considered "classics," either in their specific genre or in the gamut of filmmaking. One of those films is the original 1922 version of Nosferatu. Directed by F.. Murnau, the 1922 film Nosferatu exemplifies surreal and haunting cinematography, deft use of timing, pacing, and editing, as well as integration of sonic elements.
Murnau's Nosferatu has been called the "best and most artistically-realized" film about…
Ebert, Roger. "Nosferatu." Retrieved online: http://www.ebertfest.com/three/3nosferatu_rev.htm
Leavy, Bill. "Nosferatu: Murnau's use of expressionism in his film. SUNY Albany. 24 April 1985. Retrieved online: http://www.academia.edu/2205991/NOSFERATU_Murnaus_Use_of_Expressionism_in_his_Film
Murnau, F.W. Nosferatu. [Film]. Available: https://archive.org/details/Phantasmagoriatheater-Nosferatu1922909
Vacche, Angela Dalle. Cinema and Painting. University of Texas Press.
One cannot build the right sort of house -- the houses are not really adequate, "Blinds, shutter, curtains, awnings, were all closed and drawn to keep out the star. Grant it but a chink or keyhole, and it shot in like a white-hot arrow." The stare here is the metonymic device -- we assume it is stranger, the outside vs. The inside, but for some reason, it is also the authority involved, and one that is able to ensure adequacy. In a similar vein, the "churches were freest from it," but they offer only an homage' to safety, and use their power to shut people out from the light that "made the eyes ache" and had been inhumanly oppressive. The prison, though, is "so repulsive a place that even the obtrusive star blinked at it and left it to such refuse of reflected light as could find." The stare is…
Labor in Little Dorrit." Journal of the Novel. 31 (1) 21+.
Young, Arlene. (1996). "Virtue Domesticated: Dickens and the Lower Middle
Class." Victorian Studies. 39 (4): 483+.
ystems of income and financial position would superimpose standards of normalization upon everyone within the firm. Accounting, thereby, had achieved Foucault's definition of knowledge as power over people per excellence. By the 1950s, however, person as decision-maker replaced this vision of person as machine, and accounting still has power in our society, but a different sort of power. Likewise, accounting still possesses its constructivism (i.e. manner of perceiving a certain stranglehold on reality by emphasizing certain construct and demoting others), although its constructivist paradigm may have differed from that of, say, a century ago. Individuals are viewed, measured, and criticized within programmatic frameworks, and Miller and O'Leary (1987) suggest that accounting today can still be viewed as part of the heritage and structure (albeit slightly changed) of the traditional mode of power that it was in the early decades of this century. In other words, the slanted domination of accounting…
Armstrong, P. 2002, "Management, Image and Management Accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 13, pp. 281-295
Bryer, R. 2006, "Accounting and control of the labour process" Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 17, pp 551-598.
Chwastiak, M. & Young, J.J. 2005, "Silences in Annual Reports, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 14, 533- 552
Ezzamel, M., Lilley, S. & Willmott, H. 2004, "Accounting representation and the road to commercial salvation." Accounting, Organizations and Society, 29, pp. 783- 813.
Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.
For Victorians, control was part of…
Sander, David. The Fantasic Sublime: Romanticism and Transcendence in Nineteenth-Century Fantasy Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Thacker, Debora and Jean Webb. Introducing Children's Literature. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Walker, Stan. "Novels for Students: Alice in Wonderland." 1999. Enotes.com. .
A team member was to hide behind the sheet and grab at or scare people as they walked by. This was extremely effective because the sheet looked like the wall and nobody expected anything to come from behind the wall.
We decided to have a table of gross things in our hall of horrors, which consisted of the typical peeled grapes, spaghetti, and squishy Jell-O. Underneath the tables team members would grab at the legs of people as they made their way through the hall of horrors. This was also very effective because no one thought to look underneath the tables.
It took days to get the sheets cut and pieced. Then we had to find tables. We also had to come up with the ideas for what we were going to put on the tables. Everyone on the team had a specific project. Someone had to make sure all…
The "Halloween" films that continue to be so popular are prime examples, but just about any horror film made within the past three decades follows basically the same formula, they have just gotten increasingly sexual and violent, as society has continued to embrace the genre. There are literally hundreds of other graphic examples, such as "Saw," an extremely violent film that has spawned six other films, and the examples of so many films being released in 2009. These films do not celebrate the woman, they demean her, and the fact that they are celebrated by society is troubling and agonizing at the same time.
Some of the films that empower women into the hero roles include "Terminator 2," the "Alien" series, "Misery," and other films glorify or at least acknowledge the female predator or warrior, offering up a different view of women as successful anti-heroes. However, most of these films…
England, Marcia. "Breached Bodies and Home Invasions: Horrific Representations of the Feminized Body and Home." Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography; Apr2006, Vol. 13 Issue 4, p353-363.
Graser, Marc. "Production Houses Pump Out the Horror." Variety. 2008. 10 March 2009. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117994266.html?categoryid=1019&cs=1&query=horror+films .
Iaccino, James F. Psychological Reflections on Cinematic Terror: Jungian Archetypes in Horror Films. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Lally, Kevin. "For the Love of the Movies." Film Journal International. 1999. 10 March 2009. http://www.filmjournal.com/filmjournal/esearch/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1000692252 .
However, he lives in fear, a fear not much different from his original, impoverished circumstances in a war-torn city as a thief. His morality is equally as questionable as it was so long ago -- Whitehead is just as much of a robber as an industrialist as he was when he was a petty criminal in Warsaw. He is also just as arrogant, as he arranges for another criminal Marty Strauss, to act as his bodyguard, believing that human agents can protect him against the will of Mamoulian, even though Mamoulian can control the undead and control the minds of the living. Whitehead's incestuous relationship with his drug-addicted daughter Carys makes it even more difficult to the reader to sympathize with this character who seems morally unredeemable from beginning to end.
The shadowy figure of Mamoulian who wishes to possess Whitehead seems less realistic and clearly defined than Whitehead the…
The Gambino crime family began to fall apart after the head of its founder died. It had split into two factions. This book centers on the more ruthless Brooklyn faction. Away from the scrutiny of the Manhattan police, for many years it could do what it wished. Gene Mustain and Jerry Capeci spare no details in detailing the cruel jokes these men told to one another while they engaged in their killing spree, nor the callousness of their attitudes towards their victims. The reason that these criminals were so effective at getting rid of bodies was because they were willing to do the unthinkable -- maim the corpses, and bury them piecemeal to avoid discovery. Some of the maiming they engaged in was gruesome without even a practical point to the violence. One of Roy's cousins was called Dracula, because he specialized in training the blood from the bodies.
Mustain, Gene & Jerry Capeci. Murder Machine. New York: Onyx, 1993.
hen a greater variety of representatives were
present, the term zemskii sobor or assembly of the land was applied to the
group. This group did not really have any political power as a legislative
body. However, it was a way for Ivan's administration to gather support
amongst a wide range of people.
Ivan felt that he needed the support of the people and of the church
to accomplish his reforms. Consequently, one of his early and important
reforms involved changes in the church. ith Ivan's blessing, the Stoglav
Council made many revisions in church policy ranging from ways of worship
to church court to monastic life to Christianity for the average person.
All of these new policies were documented in a book called Stoglav.
Ivan was a pious person himself and he saw the necessity of bringing the
church on board with the various changes that he intended to make.…
Crummey, Robert O. The Formation of Muscovy: 1304-1613. London: Longman,
De Madariaga, Isabel. Ivan the Terrible: First Tsar of Russia. New Haven:
University Press, 2005.
Pavlov, Andrei and Maureen Perrie. Ivan the Terrible: Profiles in Power.
Pearson Longman, 2003.
His neck, a mechanical part of him, has become so overwrought by the pressures and complexity of technology that it has stopped working. Whole segments of the American nation have become powerless by the overwhelming pomposity of the new inventions that, unable to keep up with the new dialect, they have surrendered to the more youthful marchers and have become trodden underfoot. The old American not only becomes defunct; worse still, he becomes extinct.
The pre-electric era was relatively benign to the present and future potential terrors. Those "earlier stages of progress" were "simple and easy [for humans] to absorb" 7 and beneficial in that they helped him do his work without overwhelming him and attaching his esteem.
as the mind of man enlarged its range, it enlarged the field of complexity, and must continue to do so, even into chaos, until the reservoirs of sensuous or supersensuous…
Even in shots that might be steady, such as the sheriff is standing and talking to his men, frequent cuts are used in place of slow zooms or pans to shift the eye's focus.
Ramero uses scale to great advantage in this sequence to help build a sense of detachment from all the humans character. his detachment of course feeds into the audience's ability to accept the lesson that "we're them." his sense of scale begins with the very distant helicopter, which is so small and isolated on the screen. his proceeds to showing the hunters as tiny, wrong-ways-up specks on the ground. It is impossible to tell from the air whether the hunters are men or zombies, because they are so distant. his distant scale cuts into a close shot of the hunters walking, with the helicopter in the background. At this point the shots begin to become more…
This is the moment at which the audience is most strongly drawn in as a force to observe the historical horror and recognize that "we're them." Not only has the audience's favorite character been killed by humans instead of by zombies, but additionally he is being treated like "meat" even by the humans. This is the deep significance of the hunters carrying meat hooks rather than (for example) crowbars: humans just like zombies consider those they have destroyed to be nothing more than meat. Humans, like zombies, kill and eat living beings, and the meat hooks which pull out Ben would otherwise be used for other carcasses of other beings humans had killed. Of course, this is not just a message about vegetarianism. It is a message about the way in which humans objectify each other and this leads to racial violence and holocausts.
This movie very bravely dares to go against the racial conventions of its day in casting a black lead, and dealing subtly and metaphorically with the damage done to him. This sequence in particular, which shows white men dragging a brave and noble black man through the fields to be burned surely had strong connotations in 1968 in the middle of civil rights battles and race riots. That George Ramero claims the casting was totally color-blind may indicate either that this subtext was created after the casting, or that somehow evolved unnoticed by the director himself. However, it is certainly present for the audience in this scene. If nothing else, the audience must face its own racial position in its feelings regarding the life and death of Ben, and the very recognition of such human violence reinforced the central message that zombies and humans are more alike than they are different.
In conclusion, this sequence is probably the single most important one in the movie, though of course it cannot stand alone without all the foreshadowing and characterization that proceeds it. In this scene, through plot and genre twists, through tricks of technique and lighting, and through the careful manipulation of the audience, Ramero creates what is probably the single most memorable and influential sequence in zombie film history.
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
To truly appreciate the greatness of the short psychological thriller and science fiction novel by Robert Louis Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, one must approach this 19th century novel with new eyes, unfettered by the recent film versions of the tale, and of the common cultural knowledge of what transpires over the novel's last few pages. Even people who have never read the book or seen a film version of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 'know what happens' at the climax and 'know' the truth or spoiler ending, that the two protagonists or adversaries are the same man, both warring for one body. Even people whom have watched Looney Toon cartoons and seen other parodies of Stevenson have become aware of the novel's cultural significance -- to say someone has a Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde personality means they are of a divided self,…
One of the most unique performances of Karloff's career was narrating the Dr. Seues cartoon "How the Grinch Stole Christmas."
In his personal life, Karloff enjoyed playing Cricket, and was actually quite good at it. Karloff was the coach of the UCLA cricket team. He also liked to hike. His wife was not an actress, and they had one daughter together, Sara Jane born in 1938. Karloff was kind-spiritied and generous, donating large amounts of money to charities for children. He was also a charter member of the Screen Actor's Guild, and was quite active in the movement to get safer working conditions for movie actors in the 1930s. After many successful films, he returned to theatrical acting on roadway in 1942, when he starred in the first production of "Arsenic and Old Lace." He also appeared in live performances of "The Linden Tree" and "Peter Pan," in 1951, and…
Skidoo et al. "Boris Karloff." Wikipedia. 6 November 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boris_Karloff
The lack of rights within marriage that makes women basically "property" to the man is obviously central to this story, as indicated by the way in which Maria is imprisoned. There are a variety of ways in which this most disturbing of issues is addressed in the book. Women who are married loose control over their own bodies, and are required to submit to caresses to which their soul does not consent. One woman in the madhouse is, in fact, there specifically because she could not tolerate her husband's caresses. "she had been married, against her inclination, to a rich old man,... In consequence of his treatment... she had... lost her senses." (1.39) Not only is a woman prone to institutionalized rape, but she also has no right to require the man to remain as he was before they wed. Maria declaims bitterly of how her husband deteriorates into a…
hile the winner gets a huge amount of money for supposedly being the strongest human, in fact, the strongest human is merely the one that uses the greatest amount of self-centered cunning and brute strength. If one is going to define humanity, especially in the post-Darwinian age, then it would seem that humanity, to be set apart, would depend on altruistic feelings and use of intelligence rather than selfish feelings and use of brute force alone. In this respect, there is little to separate the producers of TV reality shows from Dr. Moreau, and, by extension, little to separate the participants from the man-beasts. hile it is certainly a cynical viewpoint, it would seem that those who participate in the reality shows might be assumed to be as dimly aware of their condition as the man-beasts after their reversion to the more animal state.
Graff compares Dr. Moreau to Mary…
Bergonzi, Bernard. The Early H.G. Wells: A Study of the Scientific Romances. Manchester, Eng.: Manchester UP (1961).
Graff, Ann-Barbara. "Administrative Nihilism': Evolution, Ethics and Victorian Utopian Satire." Utopian Studies 12.2 (2001): 33+. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001049071 .
Hillegas, Mark. The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians. New York: Oxford UP (1967).
Sirabian, Robert. "The Conception of Science in Wells's the Invisible Man." Papers on Language & Literature 37.4 (2001): 382. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000917120 .
movie industry in America has been controlled by some of the monolithic companies which not only provided a place for making the movies, but also made the movies themselves and then distributed it throughout the entire country. These are movie companies and their entire image revolved around the number of participants of their films. People who wanted to see the movies being made had to go to the studios in order to see them. They made movies in a profitable manner for the sake of the studios, but placed the entire industry under their control and dominated over it. The discussion here is about some of those famous studios inclusive of that of names like Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Culver, RKO, Paramount Studios, Warner Bros, 20th Century Fox, Walt Disney Studios, Universal Studios, Raleigh Studio, Hollywood Center Studio, Sunset Gower Studio, Ren-Mar Studios, Charlie Chaplin Studios and now, Manhattan Beach Studio.…
"What better way to annoy the Hollywood liberals than to remind them every single day that
George W. Bush is STILL the President?" Retrieved from https://www.donationreport.com/init/controller/ProcessEntryCmd?key=O8S0T5C8U2 Accessed 15 September, 2005
"What's interesting about the business is that it's no longer the movie business" Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/hollywood/picture/corptown.html Accessed 14 September, 2005
Today, more than forty years later, the special effects for a film are still in an evolutionary stage, and the Star ars one was the first films to use the 3 dimensional Computer Generated Images technique in a feature film. Today, visual and special effects are even more popular than they were a few years back, and when Luxo, which was the first computer generated film to be nominated for an Oscar, was created, with the subject of the film being a desk lamp, which would talk and walk, it was indeed a landmark for the film world in the development of technique.
The 'Toy Story' was produced in 1995, and this film used both computer generated images as well as hand drwan ones throughout the movie. In 'Lord of the Rings', the character of Gollum was a computer generated one, and when this image was used in conjunction with…
Art in Cinema. Accessed 2 October, 2005; available at http://tiki.mk.psu.edu/~art002/index.php/Art_in_Cinema#Important_Inventions_in_Film
Early Color Motion Pictures, a film technology history. Accessed 3 October, 2005; available at http://www.widescreenmuseum.com/oldcolor/oldcolor.htm
Dirks, Tim. Film History before 1920. Accessed 2 October, 2005; available at http://www.filmsite.org/pre20sintro.html
Film History. Accessed 2 October, 2005; available at http://www.radnetcafe.com/filmhistory.html
While I do not believe that Narnia exists, I do believe it exists and can be reached through a wardrobe while reading that book. In contrast, while most modern romance novels are set in modern-day, realistic settings, the events within them are so obviously contrived that it detracts from, rather than enhances, the storyline. Therefore, I think that fiction writing teachers need to concentrate on teaching students how to write about the fantastic in a plausible manner.
Examining my own conclusions about the tradition of writing, I have come to the conclusion that the separation of genres hinders good writing. Whatever the genre, my favorite writing tends to feature conversational and engaging writing. The plot scenarios, even when wildly fantastic, are presented in a believable manner. Furthermore, the author uses elements of writing that make the reader feel as if they are a part of the story being told. While…
The basic story of "The Most Dangerous Game," both the short story and the 1932 film are about a big game hunter who finds himself at the mercy of an even more dedicated hunter than himself, the mad Cossack General Zaroff who chases and kills human beings for sport. In transferring the story from print to film, the screenwriters, producers, directors, and actors make certain changes to the story in order to heighten action or in some way appeal to their audience which the story in and of itself does not allow. Sometimes such changes improve the story, but in many cases, the changes damage the integrity and in this case the suspense of the story. In the film version of Zaroff, the choices of the filmmakers tend to create an intense, but far less frightening characterization of an obsessed hunter willing to destroy anything and anyone for…
Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game." Collier's Magazine. 1924. Print.
The Most Dangerous Game. Dir. Irving Pichel. Perf. Joel McCrea and Fay Wray. RKO Radio
Pictures, Inc., 1932. DVD.
Edgar Allan Poe and Hannibal
Edgar Allan Poe was more than a horror storywriter. He was a person that delved into the human psyche and created a psychological thriller that haunted the reader's mind well after the conclusion was made.
Poe has delved into the human spirit at a time when the idea of the unconscious mind had probably either not evolved, or had just been described and was not commonly known. In his stories of horror, Poe explored in depth the human psyche. Poe was a critic of rationalism but at the same time he was a master in the art of constructing, logically, the irrational 'rationale' for crime committed by his characters. Poe lived a difficult and rather impoverished life, and was himself often given to alcoholism in his private life and the narrator's fears and contradictions that the author describes are something he might have experienced himself.…
DeNuccio, Jerome, History, narrative, and authority: Poe's "Metzengerstein.' (Edgar Allan Poe's novel "Metzengerstein"). Vol. 24, College Literature, 06-01-1997, pp 71(11).
Arthur H. Quinn Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography by (1941)
Author not available, Hannibal Lecter, Superstar., The Toronto Star, 06-20-1999.
THOMPSON Douglas, Moral with a twist., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), 03-29-1998, pp 5.
Dark Spirituality as a Symbol of Female Frustration:
Voodoo Gothic and the Mill on the Floss
George Eliot's The Mill On the Floss is arguably one of the most widely read novels of the Victorian period. Although many differ as to just why this is the case, one thing is clear -- what was once a rather straightforward tragic tale, tinged with the time's popular romantic/gothic influence, has become a bastion of feminist criticism. Although many readers, especially those contemporary to the work's publication, expressed strong disappointment with the fate of Maggie -- especially at the end of the novel, the advent of feminist criticism brought many readers to begin to strongly identify with the fate, and the message, George Eliot was trying to convey. (Jacobus 62) Maggie Tulliver's representation of the tragedy of intellectual womanhood mired in the doom of repressive Victorian society -- is particularly satisfying. For these…
Ashton, Rosemary. "The Mill on the Floss: A Natural History." Twayne's Masterwork Studies. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co. 1990
Byatt, A.S. "The Placing of Steven Guest." Appendix, the Mill on the Floss, Middlesex, Blays Ltd., St. Printing; Penguin Classics. 1979
Carlisle, Janice. "The Mirror in the Mill on the Floss; Toward Reading of Autobiography Discourse." Studies in the Literary Imagination. Vol 23:Issue 2. [EBSCO] Masterfile
Eliot, George, Christ, Carol T. (ed.) The Mill on the Floss: the Norton Critical Edition. Berkley: University of California Press, 1994.
Night Mother play that portrays suicide as a solution for life's pain, Marsha Norman's "Night Mother" does not seem like school drama material. However, the poignant play permits teens to perceive the impact that their decisions have on their loved ones, and through the intense dialogue enables them to understand family dynamics. The entire play consists of a conversation between a mother and her daughter, who is in her late thirties. Jesse's age shows students that adults have similar feelings of depression and despair, of hopelessness and exasperation, as they do. "Night Mother" does not glamorize suicide or convey the message that suicide is a valid way out of troubling times. Rather, the play displays a harsh truth: many people seriously consider and often carry out suicidal plans. In fact, students who have suicidal tendencies may find some solace in the play's message and may reconsider their decisions. Other students…
Norman, Marsha. "Night, Mother."
Movie: Interview with a Vampire
Before the modern infatuation with vampire, werewolves, and other supernatural things, stories that dealt with the supernatural were often relegated not only to the fantasy genre, but also considered beneath consideration. However, the genre shifted with Anne Rice's 1976 publication of Interview with the Vampire, a novel that told the sweeping story of an vampire Louis, his life as a human being, his transformation into a vampire, and his troubled relationships with his sire, Lestat, and their child, Claudia. The novel, which is often considered the second most influential vampire novel after Bram Stoker's Dracula, did much to change the modern image of the vampire. Rather than being viewed as monstrous and evil, Anne Rice's portrayal of Louis characterized him as a victim who did not understand his immortality when he received it, and, as a result, simultaneously feared and embraced death. The book developed…
Ebert, Roger. "Interview with the Vampire." RogerEbert.com. N.p. 11 Nov. 1994. Web. 24
Interview with the Vampire. Dir. Neil Jordan. Perf. Tom Cruise, Brad Pitt, Christian Slater, and Kirsten Dunst. Geffen Pictures, 1994. Film.
Maslin, Janet. "Interview with the Vampire (1994)." The New York Times. N.p. 11 Nov.
Culture of Global Political Events
Global political events are certainly affected by culture. The very conception of politics itself is widely predicated on cultural concerns, especially when considering international politics. Perhaps the ultimate manifestation of international politics is the instance of war, which occurs when differing countries are engaged in belligerent encounters with one another. Intercultural communications plays a large part in the various images and messages disseminated through the media regarding the cultural phenomenons that affect how these images and messages are portrayed. A better understanding of the various cultures and their phenomenon could definitely improve the different intercultural communications and perceptions of martial events; a dearth of such understanding can lead to polarization and obfuscation of what these events truly mean to others. There are a number of examples that are indicative of the veracity of such a thesis, including the launch of the War on Terror, the…
Abbas, M., Riaz, S. (2014). Peculiar nature of the global war on terror and the dilemma of unlawful enemy combatants. Hamdard Islamicus. 37(4), 69-103.
Kapoor, P., Testerman, A., Brehm, A. (2016). Entrapment as a threat to community peace in the global war on terror: an analysis of discourse in local press. Journal of International and Global Studies. 7(2), 40-65.
Penslar, D. (2011). The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim. German History. 29(3), 423-444.
In Chapter III, Douglass explains how some of the positive paternal thoughts have come about: Fear of retaliation. Slaves know that acting in any negative manner can possibly bring beatings or even death. Therefore, it is not surprising that "slaves, when inquired of as to their condition and the character of their masters, almost universally say they are contented, and that their masters are kind." Further, many swayed by this prejudice, actually begin to believe that their masters are better than others. Sadly, added Douglass, this often leads to slave against slave, where each thinks he is the better because he has the "better" and kinder master.
Douglass condemns those blacks who foolishly believe they are better because of their master's status. While there is mostly natural connection among slaves, he notes, the system leads to disagreement among slaves. Masters promote one slave to betray another: For example, a traitor…
One cannot write about Douglass' autobiography without mention of his comments on religion. Those who most closely follow such Scripture as "He that knoweth his master's will, and doeth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes" or the likes of Master Thomas who "was one of the many pious slaveholders who hold slaves for the very charitable purpose of taking care of them" (Chapter IX) believe that they are indeed doing something "in the best interests" of their slaves. The greatest fraud of positive paternalism notes Douglass are the religious holidays. "They do not give the slaves this time because they would not like to have their work during its continuance, but because they know it would be unsafe to deprive them of it" (Chapter 10).
Based on Douglass' book, it does not appear that there is much difference between the two forms of paternalism. Some people may see that one is more positive than the other -- that one type of paternalism is acting on behalf of the slaves or, as it is said, in their best interests. However, it does not seem that either of these forms of paternalism is right. They both see slaves as second-class citizens who cannot form their own opinions or live without the support of others. Why bother to debate which approach is better, when paternalism is not wrong, regardless of how it is defined?
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Berkley SunSite. Retrieved from website June 16, 2006. http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Literature/Douglass
Recognizing that the film's title functions on both of these levels is important because it reveals how Alfredson deploys common vampire tropes in novel ways which serve to elevate the emotional content of the film, so that the "rules" surrounding vampires become metaphors for the emotional development both characters undergo. Thus, following Hakan's death, Eli goes to Oscar and he invites her into his room at the same moment that she implicitly invites him into her life, revealing to him the first explicit hints that she is something other than a twelve-year-old girl. From this point on, the two work to protect and comfort each other while providing each other with the confidence and companionship they need in order to be happy. Oscar confronts his bullies, and after a period of initial unhappiness, Eli gains a friend who accepts her as a vampire.
Though Eli initially has far more agency…
Anderson, John. "A Boy and His Ghoulfriend: Beyond the Genre." Washington Post 07 Nov
2008, n. pag. Print. .
Ebert, Roger. "Let the Right One In." Roger Ebert. Sun Times, 12 Nov 2008. Web. 7 Dec 2011.
Because of the differences in their social status to Robert/Travis', they cannot conceive of Harriet/Tai's attraction to and ultimate love for him, the one due to his wealth and the other due to his habits. This change is necessary for the sympathies of the audience to remain intact. Had Cher objected to Travis simply on the grounds of his financial standing, the audience would not have any sympathy for her. But because he is a stoner and somewhat stupid, her desire to find Tai someone better makes some sense. In Austen's time, class and money were everything; people could be cut off for marrying beneath them, so such a seemingly shallow stance on Emma's part would have been not only understood, but expected.
Character is by no means the only -- or even the most important -- adjustment that Heckerling made in adapting Emma into the movie Clueless. The entire…
Austen, Jane. Emma. New Milford: Toby Press, 2003.
Green, Lindsay. Emma, by Jane Austen, and Clueless, Directed by Amy Heckerling. Sydney: Pascal Press, 2001.
Guney, Ajda and Yavuz, Mehmet Ertug. "The Nineteenth Century Literature and Feminist Motives in Jane Austen's Novels." New World Sciences Academy, Vol 3, Iss. 3 (2008). 523-31. Accessed via Ebsco Host 9 November 2008. http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=11&hid=6&sid=49eaeb54-778c-4498-ba7a-4cd389bb44d2%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&an=33019184
Macdonald, Gina and Macdonald, Andrew. Jane Austen on Screen. Boston: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Jim Henson -- Career and Influence
Jim Henson is one of the most famous originators of children's entertainment in history; at the same time, he remains one of the most underrated and under-appreciated artists (Collins, 1998; Eide & Abrams, 2005). That is largely because he is primarily regarded as an entertainer when, in fact, he actually contributed much more than merely entertainment to the world. On one hand, his recognition as the creator of The Muppets and Fraggle ock have endeared him to generations of children and parents for the joy and humor he contributed to children's entertainment; on the other hand, it is ironic that the tremendous success of his genre may have obscured his more substantial contributions to child development and welfare precisely because of the success of his entertainment media and initiatives (Collins, 1998; Eide & Abrams, 2005).
In fact, Jim Henson was as much as educator,…
Cluhane, J. "Unforgettable Jim Henson." Reader's Digest. (November 1990): 124-129.
Collins, J. Jim Henson: The TV Creator. Time Magazine, (June 08, 1998).
Retrieved April 14, 2011, from:
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Conspiracy theory or terrorism? -- The 2012 London Olympics
There has been a lot of controversy in the recent years regarding conspiracies and how some of the world's most influential individuals are actively engaged in a plot to exploit mankind. False flag attacks are believed to be attempts performed by these individuals with the purpose of justifying their intervention in particular areas that they are interested in. This year's London Olympics represents one of the most intriguing opportunities for certain actors to put their strategies into work, considering that the world's attention is focused on the event and that the number of people present there would surely draw significant responsiveness from an international public concerned in penalizing individuals and groups…
Donald, Brooke, "Q&A: Stanford terrorism expert Martha Crenshaw on Olympic security," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Stanford University Website: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2012/july/terrorism-expert-olympics-072712.html
Jennings, Will, "London 2012: Olympic Risk, Risk Management, and Olymponomics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the University of Southampton Website: http://soton.academia.edu/WillJennings/Papers/132752/London_2012_Olympic_Risk_Risk_Management_and_Olymponomics
Joseph Watson, Paul, "Whistleblower Reveals Plan To Evacuate London During Olympics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the InfoWars Website: http://www.infowars.com/whistleblower-reveals-plan-to-evacuate-london-during-olympics/
Nieuwhof, Adri, "UK security firm G4S provides services to Israeli prisons, police and army," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Open Democracy Website: http://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/adri-nieuwhof/uk-security-firm-g4s-provides-services-to-israeli-prisons-police-and-army
Paine is broken and reveals the entire scheme.
Similarly, Dumbo suggests that a belief in one's self can accomplish anything, even in the face of the most seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Dumbo is the story of an elephant with enormous ears. Dumbo is a freak and the mockery of the circus. His mother is taken away after she tries to protect him. The circus is a cruel and judgmental environment that put animals on display for the public's entertainment. However, Dumbo proves that with gumption, unrecognized talents can be honored. This is was typical of the Disney style -- much like during the Great Depression, the third little pig was celebrated as someone who "exhibits old-fashioned virtues, hard work, self-reliance, self-denial" (Sklar 204). The social prejudice that hurts Dumbo does not have to be cured; he merely needs to try harder to use his disability in service of society.
Dumbo. Directed by Walt Disney. 1941.
Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. Directed by Frank Capra. 1939.
Skylar, Robert. Movie-Made America. Vintage, 1994.
Monstrosity in Frankenstein
Mary Shelly's Frankenstein; Or, the Modern Prometheus, which is considered by many to be one of the first science-fiction novels that was ever written, is full of anti-Enlightenment sentiments, many of which are still present in society today. Shelley's novel, published first in 1818 and then edited and republished in 1831, takes a look at the conflicts between science and religion. Through this examination, Shelley provides insight into the dangers of playing God and taking the forces of nature into one's own hands. Seeing as Mary Shelley was the daughter of two well-known Enlightenment intellectual figures, it can be posited that Shelley understood the arguments and beliefs of the movement and could provide a well thought out argument against the movement. Shelley's anti-Enlightenment stance takes a look at the dangers that may arise through unsupervised educational pursuits, which include the unharnessed exploration of science and denunciation or…
Kant, Immanuel. Was ist Aufklarung? Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University.
Web. 3 May 2012.
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus. Project Gutenberg. Web. 3 May
Victorian literature was remarkably concerned with the idea of childhood, but to a large degree we must understand the Victorian concept of childhood and youth as being, in some way, a revisionary response to the early nineteenth century Romantic conception. Here we must, to a certain degree, accept Harold Bloom's thesis that Victorian poetry represents a revisionary response to the revolutionary aesthetic of Romanticism, and particularly that of ordsworth. The simplest way to summarize the ordsworthian child is to recall that well-known line from a short lyric (which would be appended as epigraph to later printings of ordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality, from Recollections of Early Childhood") -- "the child is father of the man." Here, self-definition in adulthood, and indeed the poetic vocation, are founded in the perceived imaginative freedom of childhood.
Thou little Child, yet glorious in the might
Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height,
Arnold, Matthew. "The Forsaken Merman." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.bartleby.com/101/747.html
Arnold, Matthew. "William Wordsworth." In Steeves, H.R. (ed.) Selected Poems of William Wordsworth, with Matthew Arnold's Essay on Wordsworth. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1921. Print.
Arnold, Matthew. "Youth's Agitations." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/12118/
Bloom, Harold. "Introduction." In Bloom, Harold (ed.). Bloom's Major Poets: A.E. Housman. New York: Chelsea House, 2003. Print.
Iago in Othello
Othello is one of the most important and popular Shakespeare tragedies where the playwright highlights the maliciousness of human nature and the way it can destroy some naive souls. Iago is the villain in this play who is presented as an epitome of deceit and malice. However this has been done while keeping the character wrapped in thick clouds of honesty and truthfulness. This is a strange paradox as the on the surface we are repeatedly told that Iago is an honest man and he also considers himself to be so, while beneath all this fake honesty, he is always trying to stab someone in the back.
Because of his crafty nature, this character can also be considered a true Machiavellian figure. Close reading of Machiavelli's work reveals certain link between Iago and Machiavellian prince. Yet despite all his slyness, the character repeatedly claims to be an…
W.H. Auden on Iago, Accessed online on 11th May 2003:
Othello-Entire Play- Accessed online on 11th May 2003:
All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge iographia IX)
To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia arbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…
By mid-century, however, these forces in the use of grotesque in prose were fully integrated as a matter of style. We can contrast two convenient examples from mid-century England, in Dickens's 1850 novel David Copperfield, compared with Carlyle's notorious essay originally published in 1849 under the title "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question." Dickens is, of course, the great master of the grotesque in the Victorian novel. Most of Dickens' villains -- the villainous dwarf Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, the hunchback Flintwinch in Little Dorrit, the junkshop-proprietor Krook who perishes of spontaneous combustion in Bleak House -- have names and physical characteristics that signpost them as near-perfect examples of the grotesque. The notion that this grotesquerie is, in some way, related to the streak of social criticism in Dickens' fiction is somewhat attractive, because even the social problems in these novels are configured in ways that recall the grotesque, like the Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, Boffin's mammoth dust-heap in Our Mutual Friend, or the philanthropist and negligent mother Mrs. Jellaby in Bleak House who proves Dickens' polemical point about charity beginning at home by being rather grotesquely eaten by the cannibals of Borrioboola-Gha. We can see Dickens' grotesque in a less outlandish form, but still recognizable as grotesque, in the introduction of the villainous Uriah Heep in Chapter 15 of David Copperfield:
When the pony-chaise stopped at the door, and my eyes were intent upon the house, I saw a cadaverous face appear at a small window on the ground floor (in a little round tower that formed one side of the house), and quickly disappear. The low arched door then opened, and the face came out. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person -- a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older -- whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony's head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise. (Dickens, Chapter 15)
We may note the classic elements of