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This category can further be divided into six subgroups namely; short-range, medium range, long-range, close range, endurance, Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The long-range UAVs are technologically more advanced as they use satellites in order to overcome the communication problem between the UAVs and the ground stations. This communication problem is generally caused by the curvature of the earth. The medium, short and close range UAVs can operate in limited space majorly because of the lack of satellite communication systems. The Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) can be used for forty hours at a distance greater than three thousand kilo metres. They can also be used to fire precision guided missiles. An example of the Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) is 'Predator'. (Cavoukian 2012, 6)
c. Strategic Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
With the increase in altitude the weight, flight range and endurance of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles…
Birch et al. Drones the physical and psychological implications of a global theatre of war, 1-11. London: Medact, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.medact.org/content/wmd_and_conflict/medact_drones_WEB.pdf (accessed June 27, 2013).
Bone et al. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress, Washington, D.C: Congressional Research Service, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31872.pdf (accessed June 29, 2013).
Boyle, Michael. "The costs and consequences of drone warfare." International Affairs 89 (2013), http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/International Affairs/2013/89_1/89_1Boyle.pdf (accessed June 30, 2013).
Cavoukian. Privacy and Drones: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Toronto: Information and Privacy Commissioner, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.ipc.on.ca/images/Resources/pbd-drones.pdf (accessed June 27, 2013).
International Law and Drone Strikes
Drone attacks in Pakistan
Drone Strikes in Yemen
Drone Strikes in Somalia
The legality of the drone strikes is a disputed matter. A major challenge to the international law and the international system is the U.S. policy of using drones aerially to carry out target killings. According to some reports U.S. drone strikes have killed almost 4,000 people since 2002 in Pakistan, Yemen and other countries. The Congress of United States of America reviews their policy of drone strikes, which had increased to a great deal under the Obama regime, every month. The main problem of using the drone strikes is that it has not been able to stop terrorism. Instead of stopping it, it has given rise to the terrorist activities. This study is a research based on the topic of drone attacks and the legality of…
Abraham D. Sofaer (March 26, 2004). "Responses to Terrorism / Targeted killing is a necessary option." The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 16TH August 2012
Ahmad, Jibran (28 October 2011). "Suspected U.S. drone kills 13 Pakistani Taliban." Reuters. Retrieved 16TH August 2012
Bergen, Peter (26 April 2012). "Warrior in Chief." The New York Times. Retrieved 16TH August 2012
Coghlan, Tom, Zahid Hussain, and Jeremy Page (18 February 2009). "Secrecy And Denial As Pakistan Lets CIA Use Airbase To Strike Militants." The Times (London): p. 1. Retrieved 16TH August 2012
Preliminary Analysis of Drones
Drones have become increasingly popular among the U.S. army and the reason is that they have ability to transform (has already transformed to quite an extent) the way America has been fighting and the way it has been thinking about its wars. According to the intelligence officials of the United States, these unmanned aerial vehicles that are commonly called drones have proved to be one of the most effective weapons against the terrorist organization, the Al Qaeda. These planes are piloted through remotes and the Central Intelligence Agency has been using these for surveillance over Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan since videos are recorded and then transmitted with these vehicles. These vehicles are also used conduct attacks where America thinks are potential places for the residence of terrorist groups. According to statistics and reports drone attacks that have been conducted during the presidency of Obama are…
Anonymous (2011)."Tom Cotton About." www.cottonforcongress.com.
Anonymous (2013).Predator Drones and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The New York Times.
Baumann, Nick (2012). "The GOP Candidate Who Wants Journos Jailed." Mother Jones.
Boo, Katherine (2007). "Expectations - Can the students who became a symbol of failed reform be rescued?." The New Yorker.
As mentioned earlier, innocent men women and even children have become victim of these strikes. It was believed that in between 2004 and 2009, there have been a total of 344 strikes done. This number of strikes was under President Bush. Following that, under President Obama's presidency there were a total of 292 air strikes till 2012. It is quite obvious that the numbers have increased after President Obama came into power. This number of air strikes is not what it really is. The numbers have been cut down not only by the government of the United States but also the Pakistani government as well. The government under President Musharaff wished to hide many of the actual strikes that happened. (Priest, 2005) They mentioned it either as Pakistani military operations, accidental explosions or car bombs. A person on Musharaff's side reported saying that the President thought it would be less…
Aljazeera.com (2013). U.S. legal argument for drone strikes revealed. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2013/02/20132517311796860.html [Accessed: 18 Mar 2013].
Bergen, P. (2012). A dangerous new world of drones. CNN News, [online] October 8th. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/01/opinion/bergen-world-of-drones [Accessed: 16th March 2013].
Bowcott, O. (2010). UN to examine UK and U.S. drone strikes. theguardian, [online] January 24th. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/24/un-examine-uk-afghanistan-drone-strikes [Accessed: 18th March 2013].
Drew, C. (2010). Drones Are Playing a Growing Role in Afghanistan . The New York Times, [online] February 19th. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/20/world/asia/20drones.html?_r=0 [Accessed: 18th March 2013].
Using drones to monitor these areas might deter the use of such roadside devices by simply minimizing the number of targets available to them.
By contrast, we must also consider the theory of Just ar, which asserts that any tactic used in the military setting must be cognizant of the demands imposed by this model. here the use of the military drone is concerned, it is appropriate to make appropriate efforts to acknowledge and adhere to the principles of just war. In this context, the use of the Predator must be tempered by efforts to assure its fairness, its precision and its proper usage. Indeed, while the deterrence theory -- in its sometimes inevitable appeal to preemption -- would seem largely contrary to the theory of just war. However, if deterrence is executed properly so as to minimize the need for engagement, it may actually be a substantial benefit in…
Bird, S.J. (2006). Research Ethics, Research Integrity and the Responsible Conduct of Research. Science and Engineering Ethics (12), 411-412.
Hahn, N.G. (2012). Time for a Just Drone Theory. Real Clear Politics.
Moore, W.H. (2001). Evaluating Theory in Political Science. Florida State University.
ould observational field research efforts contribute data for your course research project?
Field research could be conducted in a specific context where military drones are used. Here, the research could directly observe the manner in which drones are used and could make count of the proportion between causalities and roadside bombings through that duration.
b. here would you conduct the observational field research?
For the present research, this could best be accomplished by placing the research in Afghanistan for a period of observation.
c. List your dependent and independent variables from your course research project's hypothesis and provide a short explanation for what you would observe that would measure this variable and contribute to your course research data collection.
The dependent variable is the number of roadside bombings occurring in Afghanistan during a measured duration. The observational field research described above could provide an opportunity to make count…
Coppedge, M. (2002). Theory Building and Hypothesis Testing: Large- vs. Small-N Research on Democratization. Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois.
United States General Accounting Office (GAO). (1992). Quantitative Data Analysis: An Introduction. Program Evaluation and Methodology Division.
Oversight The Use of Drones
Should agencies like the CIA or DoD be able to use drones – outside of warfare – with little or no Presidential oversight?
No person, organization or even government agency should be able to use drones with no (or little) oversight. This is more so the case given that it has been established that although they could be used for a wide range of beneficial and positive missions, drones could also be used for illegal surveillance activities. Further, when used out of a structured framework, they could interfere with other aviation activity, i.e. with regard to airport operations. It should, however, be noted that the greatest concern with regard to CIA or DoD utilization of drones relates to breach of privacy (McNeal, 2014). According to McNeal (2014), there are those who are concerned that without legislative oversight, the government could actively deploy drones and engage…
EPIC (2020). Domestic Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Drones. Retrieved from https://epic.org/privacy/drones/#privacy
McNeal, G. (2014). Drones and aerial surveillance: Considerations for legislatures. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/drones-and-aerial-surveillance-considerations-for-legislatures/
Yaacoun, J., Noura, H., Salman, O. & Chehab, A. (2020). Security analysis of drones systems: Attacks, limitations, and recommendations. Internet of Things, 2(4), 31-42.
Drones CRAAP Evaluation -- Drones Wikipedia - Unmanned combat aerial vehicle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_combat_aerial_vehicle Currency -- Unknown Wikipedia updates material randomly Relevance - The website is relevant to my topic and provides a good overview of some of the important considerations related to drones, or as they are known as unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV). It provides sections on the history of development, some future models, how they are being used, and some information about the politics, legal aspects, and the ethics related to their use. The content is highly relevant to the study of drones and the issues associated with it and a wide range of different topics that are related to their use in combat. C. Authority -- Wikipedia does not have any authority. Any user can modify its content and much of the information could potentially be wrong or unverified. However, although the website itself is thought to have…
Brewster, M. (2015, February 11). Arctic spy drones a defence concern as Russia expands reach. Retrieved from CBC News: http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/arctic-spy-drones-a-defence-concern-as-russia-expands-reach-1.2953027
Wikipedia. (2015, February 4). Unmanned combat aerial vehicle. Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_combat_aerial_vehicle
Ethics of Drone Strikes
The increasing use of drones in combat has raised a number of different ethical issues. Drones are typically used to bomb foreign territory. The operators control the drones remotely, often from locations in the United States. Working with equipment not unlike a video game, they fly the drones into combat or ambush situations, where they then carry out their missions, often from thousands of miles away. Some of the ethics issues that arise are the impacts on the operators, the impacts on the territories where the drones are being used, and the morals of war in general, which may be altered by the use of weaponized drones.
Weaponized Drones and War
In an op-ed in the New York Times, Michael Hayden (2016) argued that drones play an important role in modern warfare. His position essentially argues that while there are flaws with the program, the program…
Becker, J. & Shane, S. (2012). Secret kill list proves a test of Obama's principles and will. New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2016 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/29/world/obamas-leadership-in-war-on-al-qaeda.html
Coll, S. (2014). The unblinking stare. The New Yorker. Retrieved April 23, 2016 from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/11/24/unblinking-stare
CCIC (2012). The civilian impact of drones: Unexamined costs, unanswered questions. Center for Civilians in Conflict. Retrieved April 23, 2016 from http://civiliansinconflict.org/uploads/files/publications/The_Civilian_Impact_of_Drones_w_cover.pdf
Fair, C., Kaltenthaler, K. & Miller, W. (2014). Pakistani opposition to American drone strikes. Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 129 (1) 1-33.
Acquisitions and Technology
Drone technology is going to impact numerous industries and fronts in the coming years. Amazon is developing drones for last mile delivery (Oswald, 2017) and has a concept plan that resembles a beehive, with drones emerging from it to deliver packages to customers (Yurieff, 2017). The military has drone technology too, except it is not delivering consumer goods but conducting surveillance and dropping bombs on targets (Military, 2019). What all this shows is that drone technology has come a long way from being a concept to a reality, and they will likely continue to develop and play a major role in the acquisition of goods in the future.
Currently, last minute deliveries and last mile deliveries require drivers who must navigate the roads and traffic, all of which requires, time, manpower, energy and resources to do. With drones, however, a last minute delivery could be made by…
Drones vs Manned Aircraft: Recent Close Calls
In this essay, the author discusses manned (piloted) and unmanned aircraft (drones). The essay explores the differences between the two types of aircraft. It includes a brief exploration of the history of both types of aircraft, with a focus on the history of unmanned aircraft. It also looks at the wide variety of types of drones, which can run the gamut from small drones meant to fly at low altitudes to military-level aerial vehicles. The author then goes on to discuss the challenges of having manned aircraft and drones in the same airspace, beginning with a discussion of the use of drones in uncontested airspace. Finally, the essay focuses on recent close calls between drones and manned aircraft and the implications of those close calls on aviation safety in both military and civilian contexts.
Exploring how drones and manned aircraft…
Chopra, A. “Manned vs Unmanned.” SP’s Aviation. August 2013. http://www.sps-aviation.com/story/?id=1278 . Accessed 30 November 2020.
Federal Aviation Administration. “Unmanned Aircraft Systems.” FAA.gov. 23 November 2020. https://www.faa.gov/uas/ . Accessed 30 November 2020.
Turrell, B. “Up, Up, and Away: Prosser Balloon Rally.” Yakima Herald. 4 November 2019. https://www.yakimaherald.com/magazine/outdoors/up-up-and-away-prosser-balloon- rally/article_cb0609ac-d661-5bf6-8eb9-93e506f88548.html. Accessed 30 November 2020.
Van Osdol, P. “Near Misses between Planes, Drones on the Increase.” WTAE.com. 14 November 2018. https://www.wtae.com/article/near-misses-between-planes-drones-on-the-increase/29800897 . Accessed 30 November 2020.
Vyas, K. “A Brief History of Drones: The Remote Controlled Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.” Interesting Engineering. 29 June 2020. https://interestingengineering.com/a-brief-history-of-drones-the-remote-controlled-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-uavs. Accessed 30 November 2020.
Wikipedia Editors. “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.” Wikipedia. 27 November 2020. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle . Accessed 30 November 2020.
The use of remote-controlled airplanes known as drones has become increasingly common. Although surely not the only country to use them, the United States has gotten the most attention. The attention is due mostly because of the Hellfire missiles those drones have been dropping in areas of Pakistan and other countries in the greater Middle East area. While the legal grounds for these strikes in general is not on firm footing in the eyes of many people, there are those that assert emphatically that drone strikes on people who are United States citizens is too much and should not happen. Such was the case with Anwar al-Awlaki and his fate. While the United States' stated reasons for assassinating al-Awlaki are fairly straightforward, some suggest his status as a United States citizen afforded him due process and thus the drone strike should never have happened.
If Osama bin…
Ackerman, S. (2014). 41 men targeted but 1,147 people killed: U.S. drone strikes -- the facts on the ground. the Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/nov/24/-sp-us-drone-strikes-kill-1147
Greenspan, J. (2013). Remembering the 1988 Lockerbie Bombing - History in the Headlines.
history.com. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.history.com/news/remembering-
The current use of drones to fight terrorism appears to be yielding negative results to U.S. administration. The recent drone attack on families and friends heading to a wedding in Yemen just cements the worrying trend on the negative effects of current drone policy adopted by the government. Worse still, the Obama administration is drastically escalating targeted killings by using drones as a core attribute of its counterterrorism policy (Wojtanik, 2014). ecently, the government started revealing much of its drone policy like in public statements by various top officials. Although the public has welcomed this information, it has failed to address completely public concerns. The number of civilian casualties coupled with a dearth of clarity about whom the government considers a civilian in these circumstances has painted the drone policy a negative image. These concerns, together with the absence of public information revolving around the policy, demand the…
Cortright, D., Fairhurst, R., & Wall K. (2015). Drones and the Future of Armed Conflict: Ethical, Legal, and Strategic Implications. University of Chicago Press
Dworkin, A. (2013). Drones and Targeted Killing: Defining a European Position. European Council
Mohammadi, M., Shahri, A. M., & Boroujeni, Z. M. (2012). Modeling and Adaptive Tracking Control of a Quadrotor UAV. International Journal of Intelligent Mechatronics and Robotics (IJIMR), 2, 4, 58-81.
Rogers, A. & Hill, J. (2014). Unmanned: Drone Warfare and Global Security. Peter's Ear Press
Although unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or more commonly, drones, have been used by the military since World War II, the United States began to use drones in earnest following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the prosecution of the global war on terror. Today, drones are used for aerial surveillance of combatants, of course, but they can also, purportedly, project military might far into the battlefield without exposing friends force to danger. While military drones therefore appear to be a perfect weapon for waging war against non-state actors that have no qualms about inflicting civilian casualties, their use has actually backfired and a growing number of critics argue that their continued use is only exacerbating already heated tensions in the world’s hot spots. Moreover, military drones are expensive weapons and critics also charge that they are a waste of taxpayer resources that are failing to achieve the…
Abbott, S. & Ahmed, M. (2013, October 31). Pakistan says 3% of drone deaths civilians. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2013/10/31/pakistan-done-deaths/3322539/
Coyne, C. J. & Hall, A. R. (2018, Summer). The drone paradox: Fighting terrorism with mechanized terror. Independent Review, 23(1), 51-55.
Dalziel, N. (2014, May-June). Drone strikes: Ethics and strategy. New Zealand International Review, 39(3), 2-5.
Rosenthal, D. J. & Schulman, L. D. (2019, August 10). Trump’s secret war on terror: Drone strikes continue and spread—away from public scrutiny or congressional oversight. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2018/08/ trump-war-terror-drones/567218/.
Sadat, L. N. (2012, Fall). America\\'s drone wars. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 45(1-2), 215-222.
Sterio, M. (2018, Summer). Lethal use of drones: When the executive is the judge, jury, and executioner. Independent Review, 23(1), 35-39.
Terrill, W. A. (2013, Winter-Spring). Drones over Yemen: Weighing military benefits and political costs. Parameters, 42, 17-21.
Yolcu, F. H. (2019, Winter). We kill because we can: From soldiering to assassination in the drone age. Insight Turkey, 21(1), 225-234.
Risk of Drones encounters with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System
The research problem identified is analyzing the risk factors of incorporating unmanned piloted aircraft into the National Airspace to the United States and the manned aircraft, which operates in the National Airspace. The methodology employed was quantitative statistical analysis using hypothesis testing for concluding whether there is a risk factor associated with unmanned aircraft or not. The sample is chosen randomly from three communities; Queens, Long Island, and Brooklyn, close to the New York district airports JFK & LaGuardia. The findings concluded that there is no risk factor associated with the unmanned aircraft's incorporation, which shows that its various applications and purposes can be utilized for military missions adding more value and saving costs in this technologically advanced era.
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones) are revolutionizing data acquisition in the fields of firefighting, precision agriculture surveying, construction,…
Bati, F., Smiley, G., & Walton, M. (2018). The Acceptable Level of Risk and Its Application to Commercial
Clarke, R. (2014). The regulation of civilian drones\\' impacts on public safety. Computer Law and Security Review.
Dourado, E. (2016, March 14). Do Consumer Drones Endanger the National Airspace? Evidence from Wildlife Strike Data. Mercatus Centre.
Flying Drones in NYC – Drone Laws Explained-Retrieved from https://www.thedroneu.com/blog/flying-drones-in-nyc-drone-laws/
Introduction to Drone/UAS/UAV Safety and Use -Retrieved from https://extension.ucmerced.edu/programs-and-courses/personal-development/introduction-droneuasuav-safety-and-use
Lim, Y. (2018). Avionics Human-Machine Interfaces and Interactions for Manned and Unmanned Aircraft. Progress in Aerospace Sciences.
Monitoring Risk Associated with Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System: Models for Analysis of Mandatory Occurrence Reports involving UAS-Manned Aircraft Encounters-Retrieved from https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/37058
Paul, T. (2013). Operational Considerations for Teaming Manned and Unmanned Helicopter. J. Intell Robot Syst.
Vector Cal Drone Financials
Drones navigation systems are some of the most promising technologies whose effective utilization can make the world a safer place. This is because proper application of this technology can help planners around the world to planner our cities and localities better than before, help emergency responders get fast precise and real-time data, law enforcement officers with better surveillance capabilities, and utility companies around the globe. This paper proposes an new service oriented company to compete in the growing industry of drone navigation system. The proposed company will seek to be leaner, more efficient, and cost effective.
Description of the New Company
The company will operate under the name uickResponse Drones. The company will be headquartered at New York with branches across strategic points in the United States. uickResponse Drones will seek to provide surveillance services to Law enforcement agencies, utility companies, real estate developers, the media,…
QuickResponse targeted clientele range from governments, news agencies, marine and shipping industries, the media and utility companies such as oil, electricity and gas companies. considering the need to deliver in the areas of operation for each clients, our solution is tailored to assist them offer the best possible services irrespective of the challenges.
Critique of VectorCal's forcasting method
VectorCal' utilizes quantitative models for forecast particularly the associative causal forecast methodologies. VectorCal combines regression analysis with econometric modeling to forecast to predict trends and develop new products. According to Shim (2000), quantitative models work superbly as long as there is little or no systemic change in the environment. When patterns or relationships do change, the objective models by themselves are of little use. It is here that the qualitative approach based on human judgment
Utilitarian Viewpoint of Drones
The topic discussed within this document is "Uncharted Territory: When Innovation Outpaces egulation for Private Use of Drones." What is interesting about this topic is that the crux of it revolves about the fact that quite frequently in technological applications, innovations and availability outstrips regulation and user consistency. For the sake of this document, however, this phenomenon will be explored solely through the usage and ramifications pertaining to drones.
The ethical issues pertaining to drones primarily involve privacy. Drones are a means of remotely achieving physical objectives by utilizing small, highly maneuverable objects that are controlled from vast distances. These objects first gained notoriety with their deployment in the United States military, in which they were used to conduct assaults and to obtain intelligence. Although it is highly unlikely that drones will become available for commercial use for the aforementioned purpose, it is worth…
Belfiore, M. (2015). Drone makers seek traffic control. www.bloomberg.com Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-09/drone-makers-seek-traffic-control
Deloitte. (2014). Live from SXSW: The truth about drones. http://deloitte.wsj.com / Retrieved from
Robotic drones have been in use by the United States as a strategy of attack against terrorist groups for several years now, beginning in the administration of George . Bush. They have been effective and yet there is and has been controversy with the use of these robotic technologies. This paper will point to the criticisms and the supportive positions as well. In this paper the writer uses opinion articles by Daniel Byman and Kenneth Anderson to point to how drones actually work and to arguments against the continued use of drones as well as arguments in support of the policy of using drones.
This paper supports the use of drones as a very successful way to combat and kill certain key terrorist leaders who use violence to kill innocent people as they push their twisted Islamic ideologies on society. There is no doubt that innocent people have been killed…
Anderson, Kenneth. "The Case for Drones." Commentary. Retrieved February 23, 2015,
From http://www.commentarymagazine.com . 2013.
Byman, Daniel. "Why Drones Work." Foreign Affairs, 92.4 (2013): 32-43.
Marine Biology & Drones
Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up dramatic images of studies underway, for example of orca populations off the coast of British Columbia, but there are many studies around the world that are using drones. The advantage of drones is that they can fly above marine environments, providing an overhead view of those environments. This can be valuable in terms of counting animal populations for example, because with drones animals typically do not change their behaviors (Schiffman, 2014). Drones have become a popular tool for field biologists in part because drone technology is improving and the cost of these devices is falling (Schiffman, 2014).
In some fields, such as the observation of marine life in Antarctic sea ice, it has been noted that the normal observation is…
Gremillet, D., Puech, W., Garcon, V., Boulinier, T. & Maho, Y. (2012). Robots in ecology: Welcome to the machine. Open Journal of Ecology. Vol. 2 (2) 49-57.
Kelly, N., Murase, H., Kitakado, T., Kock, K., Williams, R., Herr, H. & Walloe, L. (2012). Appraisal of methods and data used to estimate abundance of Antarctic minke whales within sea ice covered areas of the Southern Ocean. CSIRO/Australian Marine Mammal Centre. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http://www.marinemammals.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/135615/SC-64-IA10.pdf
Schiffman, R. (2014). Drones flying high as new tool for field biologists. Nature. Vol. 344 (6183) 459
Vas, E., Lescroel, A., Duriez, O., Boguszewski, G. & Gremillet, D. (2015). Approaching birds with drones: First experiments and ethical guidelines. Biology Letters. Vol. 11, 1-4.
Security during a large political setting is paramount to establishing a safe forum in which opinions can be expressed. As evidenced by the case, security, particularly during election years can become a very contentious issue. This is particularly true during the DNC as the current political environment is notoriously quarrelsome. Aspects such as unprecedented government shutdowns, looming budget debates, rising inequality, and other issues are all very combative subjects. As such, individual groups or factions tend to be very aggressive in these views or opinions. These groups often resort to violence in order to gain momentum, media attention, or other means to gaining a desired outcome. Security is therefore needed to help prevent, detail, and otherwise curtail acts of violence. The drone proposal therefore within the context given in the case, seems as a viable option in protecting the well-being of participants of the DNC and the surrounding community.…
1) Gal-Or, Benjamin (May 1990). Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability & Robot Aircraft. Retrieved from Springer Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97161-0
2) Owens, Hudson L.; Flannes, M. ( Feb 2011). "Drone Warfare: Blowback from the New American Way of War." Retrieved from Middle East Policy 18: 122 -- 132.
3) Martin, Rachel (Dec 19, 2011). "Report: High Levels Of 'Burnout' In U.S. Drone Pilots." Retrieved from NPR
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…
Aljazeera.com. (2013, October). U.S. 'drone strike' kills senior Shabab members. Retrieved from aljazeera.com: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/10/drone-strike-kills-senior-shabab-members-20131028184651994308.html
BBC. (2013, October). Pakistan says drones killed 67 civilians since 2008. Retrieved from BBC.co.uk: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-24742037
FAS.org. (n.d.). Military Intelligence Satellites. Retrieved from Fas.org: https://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Intro/Part2_26e.html
Galbraith, P. (2013, October). NSA spying on Europe gives the U.S. more intelligence, but not better. Retrieved from Theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/29/nsa-spying-europe-us-intelligence
technological innovations have had the greatest impact on this area in the last 100-200 years?
Technology and air war fare-
Originally, warfare was mainly perpetrated on ground due to the challenges in perpetrating war form the air. Within the last 100 years, however, huge progress has been made in technology that has led to a radical change in the field of air warfare in general leading to huge developments in that field. Three of the greatest inventions have been stealth technology, Rapture, and the drone.
tealth technology, also known as LO technology (low observable technology) involves a range of techniques that camouflages factors of air war such as personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, and missile and helps make them more invisible to preceptors on the ground. It also makes them more immune to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. (Rao & Mahulikar, 2002). tealth technology was first developed…
Calo, M. (2011). The Drone as Privacy Catalyst. Stanford Law Review Online. 64 Stan. L. Rev. Online (29)
Mahulikar S.P., Sonawane H.R., & Rao G.A. (2007). "Infrared signature studies of aerospace vehicles." Progress in Aerospace Sciences 43 (7-8): 218 -- 245.
Rao G.A., & Mahulikar S.P. (2002). "Integrated review of stealth technology and its role in airpower." Aeronautical Journal 106 (1066): 629 -- 641.
Richelson, J.T. (2001). Science, Technology and the CIA. The National Security Archive. The George Washington University
these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…
1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf
2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx
3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/
4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
conflict which has repercussions in the present time or one that is indeed actual. The following chosen conflict can actually be regarded as conflictive on two grounds which makes it all the more so important. First, hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated to have severe environmental consequences on a negative scale which subsequently affect people's well-being. Second, as a technological development of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracturing, provided that the aforementioned is indeed true, would constitute reasonable grounds to estimate that the effects of industrialization have been detrimental to the common interest of the mere population while it has only boosted more financial benefits for the rich. The two grounds mentioned before make hydraulic fracturing a very current dangerous conflict which is why it has been chosen here. Moreover, certain companies seem to be given the right to drill internationally while the population is not made aware of the consequences, especially…
This has allowed for the U.S. To fight effectively in the guerilla type fighting that is occurring overseas near civilian populations.
The future warfare will undoubtedly continue to be changed by technology developments. One arena that has just begun to be explored is space. Many have expressed the idea that space is "perhaps the battlefield of the future" (oland, 2009). In reality, it is already happening, thanks to changes in technologies. There are designs for destructive satellites that take out enemy communications (McCoy, 2012). Moreover, "the age of space warfare dawned in April 2010 when the Pentagon quietly launched the X-37B space drone, an unmanned craft just 29 feet long, into orbit 250 miles above Earth" (McCoy, 2012). Thus, technology is continuing to shape the way we see and fight modern wars.
Gao, Peter. (2011). Law and technology: The changing face of war and its legal ramifications. The Triple…
Gao, Peter. (2011). Law and technology: The changing face of war and its legal ramifications. The Triple Helix. Web. http://triplehelixblog.com/2011/01/law-and-technology-the-changing-face-of-war-and-its-legal-ramifications/
Jin, Xin. (2006). The strategic implications of changes in military technology. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(2), 163-193.
McCoy, Alfred W. (2012). Space warfare and the future of U.S. global power. Mother Jones. Web. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2012/11/space-warfare-and-future-us-global-power
Michaels, Jim. (2012). U.S. military snipers are changing warfare. USA Today. Web. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/military/story/2012-04-23/snipers-warfare-technology-training/54845142/1?csp=34news
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
normal I offer. hy? Because I potential a false flag attack London Olympics worth researching. Okay,'s deal. You write a paper length normal extra credit assignment explained Extra Credit Unit.
Conspiracy theory or terrorism? -- The 2012 London Olympics
There has been a lot of controversy in the recent years regarding conspiracies and how some of the world's most influential individuals are actively engaged in a plot to exploit mankind. False flag attacks are believed to be attempts performed by these individuals with the purpose of justifying their intervention in particular areas that they are interested in. This year's London Olympics represents one of the most intriguing opportunities for certain actors to put their strategies into work, considering that the world's attention is focused on the event and that the number of people present there would surely draw significant responsiveness from an international public concerned in penalizing individuals and groups…
Donald, Brooke, "Q&A: Stanford terrorism expert Martha Crenshaw on Olympic security," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Stanford University Website: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2012/july/terrorism-expert-olympics-072712.html
Jennings, Will, "London 2012: Olympic Risk, Risk Management, and Olymponomics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the University of Southampton Website: http://soton.academia.edu/WillJennings/Papers/132752/London_2012_Olympic_Risk_Risk_Management_and_Olymponomics
Joseph Watson, Paul, "Whistleblower Reveals Plan To Evacuate London During Olympics," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the InfoWars Website: http://www.infowars.com/whistleblower-reveals-plan-to-evacuate-london-during-olympics/
Nieuwhof, Adri, "UK security firm G4S provides services to Israeli prisons, police and army," Retrieved August 6, 2012, from the Open Democracy Website: http://www.opendemocracy.net/ourkingdom/adri-nieuwhof/uk-security-firm-g4s-provides-services-to-israeli-prisons-police-and-army
Execution of al-Awaki:
The Obama Administration has increased the use of killer drones in lieu of putting the country's boots on the ground. In one of the most debatable issues, the Obama Administration killed, Anwar al-Awaki, a suspected al-Qaeda member, in 2011. The suspected al-Qaeda member had been accused of being a significant organizer in various terrorist attacks, and was identified as one of the main al-Qaeda leaders. The controversy associated with this murder is attributed to whether the Obama Administration had the right to sanction the execution of the suspect without a court trial. This issue is further complicated with various set of factors that surround the case including the fact that al-Awaki was an American citizen before his death. As an American citizen, he was granted due process rights by the U.S. Constitution. According to the provisions of the due process, a suspect has the right to a…
Goldberg, Jonah. "Goldberg: Obama's Terrorist Dilemma," Los Angeles Times, April 4, 2013.
Gorman, Siobhan & Perez, Evan. "Obama Relents on Secret Drone Memo," The Wall Street
Journal, April 4, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324906004578288411143973612.html
Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.
Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…
Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.
Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing
Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.
Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
Colleen -- but then again, when you're dealing with food services, every day's a long day. As she made her way toward the stairs and away from the brooding purgatory that is the HUB (name of cafeteria), shutting off the lights behind her like a row of fluorescent dominoes, the clock on the wall read "10:45." The sound of the door shutting at the top of the stairwell signaled the end of another day at the HUB.
Actually, perhaps this was not true. Just as the door was shutting above, the lights down below flickered on once again to reveal a ghostly line of customers stretching from the "Pizza Hut" station to the cash register. Near the end of the line, Mohandas Gandhi stood with a cup of tea and a veggie wrap balanced on his tray. Martin Luther King stood next to him, his tray empty except for a…
(a) Technology is "the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science" (Dictionary.com, 2014). 1)(b) High-technology is "scientific technology involving the production or use of advanced or sophisticated devices especially in the fields of electronics and computers" (Merriam-Webster, 2014). 1)(c) A can opener, an electric can opener, and a radio are all examples of technology. They involve mechanical parts and some simple electronics or electronics that have been in use for a substantial period of time, and are not considered advanced or sophisticated. A 3D printer, a drone, a satellite radio, and a 3D TV all rely upon advanced computer technology to work and would be examples of high technology because they would be unable to work without supporting advanced technology and,…
Apple. (2014). Watch. Retrieved October 1, 2014 from: https://www.apple.com/watch/
Dictionary.com. (2014). Technology. Retrieved October 1, 2014 from:
Kurzweil, R. (2001, March 7). The law of accelerating returns. Retrieved October 1, 2014
The technology market is one of the most competitive landscapes. Without constant innovation and introduction of new products, it may be quite difficult for technology firms to thrive in the long run. Nevertheless, introducing a new product presents a significant moment for an organization as shifts in strategy, organizational structure, business units, and processes are often involved (Hill & Jones, 2012). Accordingly, the process must be carefully managed to ensure the desired outcomes are achieved, especially in terms of stakeholder involvement and communication (Thompson & Martin, 2010). These two aspects will be particularly important as Tex Technologies Limited (Tex) introduces a new product in the increasingly promising consumer drones market. This paper provides a plan for the introduction of the new product, specifically focusing on the strategy for the new product launch, key internal stakeholders to be involved, and communication strategy.
Company Background: Name, Mission, and Vision
Established in 2000,…
Political Issues Based on the Film "Eye in The Sky" In Which Government Attitude, Which Decides Who Lives and Who Dies for The Cause of The Nation Is Examined
The film "Eye in the Sky" is somewhat a literal depiction of war fare between the drones. This is a flagrantly contrived film that examines the ethics of using remote control to kill. The subject was dramatized a year ago in Andrew Niccol's film "Good Kill." In this film, there is a simplistic device of the little girl in which it is made clear that the new ones have no chance of winning hearts. The debate is getting awful to change any mind; even though, there is no attempt to try and change the mind. That is where its strength lies. In the film "Eye in the Sky" the case is argued on all fronts: the merits and the perils of…
The counter-terrorism speech given by president Obama came with a couple of messages. His first address touched on the restrictive policy strikes using drones; of course this was not new or restrictive according to prior experience. His second focus was directed at the need to close down Guantanamo Bay detention center. The latter was also not a new stand taken by the president but it surely opposed a long standing position by the powers that be. Here are the major highlights of President Obama's speech.
esponding to the Threat: Leveraging Effective Partnerships and Targeting Terrorists
Effective response to terrorism needs a lot more than just military response and law enforcement. There is need for a concerted effort to be directed towards winning the war of ideology and the battle of will. The first item should be to complete the task of defeating the Al Qaeda forces.
Hudson, J. (2013, May 23). The 4 key points of Barack Obama's counterterrorism speech. Retrieved from Foreign Policy: http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/23/the-4-key-points-of-barack-obamas-counterterrorism-speech/
O'Connell, M. E. (2013, May 24). Obama's Speech May Have Made His Drone Problem Worse. Retrieved from New Republic: https://newrepublic.com/article/113297/president-obama-and-drone-warfare-his-speech-wasnt-good-enough
The White House. (2013, May 23). Facts on President Obama's Speech on Counterterrorism. Retrieved from Office of the Press Secretary: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/texttrans/2013/05/20130523147928.html#axzz49PJsZCMv
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
Predators has led to Decrease in Road-Side ombings in Afghanistan
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) started firing drones missiles in Afghanistan in order to reduce civilian casualties and reduce roadside bombings. These missiles known as Predators incorporate accuracy, wide efficient surveillance and precision target meant to reduce roadside bombings. To minimize civilian casualties, the Predator targets mobile insurgents as opposed to focusing on residential areas. The use of Predator has minimized roadside bombings and civilian as a result of increased surveillance.
Roadside bombing casualties represent a reduction from a 10% casualty level in 2009, 7% in 2011 to almost 3% in 2012. In line with this, rook (2012 ), adds that improvised explosive devices were a major cause of troop deaths untill the introduction of the Predator.
The most important feature of the predator is the detection of all types of improvised explosive devices. Data indicate that from January through…
Abbot, S. Study: Militants, not Civilians, are Primary Victims of Drone Attacks. Associated Press, 2012.
Brook, Tom Vanden. "Drones detection cutting into IEDs in Afghanistan."
www.theleafchronicle.com. July 16, 2012 . (accessed July 22, 2012).
Drew, C. "Drones Are Playing a Growing Role in Afghanistan ." The New York Times, February
Control and the Media
The media is an incredibly powerful force which has the ability to manipulate the minds and hearts of the American people. This type of "mind control" which is employed by news organizations in the United States is nothing less than propaganda.
Noam Chomsky writes that, "propaganda is to a democracy what violence is to a dictatorship." Indeed, nowhere is this more clear than in recent debates over the impending war with Iraq. On one side of the fence, the conservative Right argues that war is essential and that Iraq is in league with Al Qaeda. They argue that Saddam Hussein is developing weapons of mass destruction which he would like to unleash on the free world. On the other side of the fence, the liberal Left argues that such a preemptive war is "unjust," and that there is no definitive proof that Hussein was ever in…
Corn, David. "Bush's Irrelevant Case for War." The Nation. 7 March 2003. http://thenation.com/capitolgames/index.mhtml?bid=3&pid=468
Price, Niko. "Iraqis Reject Deadly Drone Claim by U.S." The Village Voice. 12 March 2003. http://apnews.myway.com/article/20030312/D7PNJ4D80.html
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. "Iraqi Officals Proudly Exhibit a Disputed, Dinged-Up Drone." The Washington Post. 13 March 2003. http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-dyn/articles/A17650-2003Mar12.html
Associated Press. "Powell Decries New Iraq Weapon Discovery." U.S.A. Today. 13 March 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-10-us-iraq_x.htm
product name? Describe the product
The product discussed in this essay is "drone delivery'. This service, as the name suggests, achieves delivery of packages and bought goods through a drone in a span of about half an hour. The consumer, through this prospect, uses geographical position system (GPS) data and information from the mobile device, such as phone or iPad; the drone tracks it and delivers the package to the desired or designated location (Marsh, 2015). In addition, subsequent to placing an order for delivery, the consumer is not obligated to remain in one location. The package delivery system can be designated to a particular location, not obligatory to the location of the client. The packages to be delivered will have an average weight of 86 pounds, which is basically the normal weight of products that are delivered to households (Marsh, 2015).
Identify and explain which market segmentation variable you…
Marsh, Rene. Amazon drone patent application imagines delivery that comes to you with one click. CNN, 2015. Retrieved 22 January, 2016 from: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/05/12/politics/amazon-patent-drone-delivery/
Notes Desk. Product Life Cycle (PLC), 2009. Retrieved 22 January, 2016 from: http://www.notesdesk.com/notes/marketing/product-life-cycle-plc/
Smith, Cooper., BI Intelligence. Amazon's delivery drones could make 30-minute deliveries a reality. Business Insider, 2015. Retrieved 22 January, 2016 from: http://www.businessinsider.com/delivery-fee-for-amazon-prime-air-2015-4
Or, as Saletan points out, those three elements "by deduction, are the due process test" (2011).
But this ought to leave a bad taste in one's mouth because all three of these elements can be manipulated to violate one's due process right.
"hich leaves us with an awkward bottom line. If the target is a suspected terrorist, "imminence" can be redefined to justify killing him. If the weapon is a drone, feasibility of arrest has already been ruled out -- that's why the drone has been sent to do the job. So in any drone strike on a U.S. citizen suspected of terrorism, only one of the three questions we supposedly apply to such cases is really open: Has he been fighting alongside al-Qaida? If he has, we can kill him. That's the same rule we apply to foreigners. In effect, citizenship doesn't matter. The "due process" test is empty"…
Cornell University Law School. (n.d). Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law
School. Retrieved from:
Lithwick, D. (2011, July 14). Murder Conviction Most Foul: What Justin Wolfe's case in Virginia tells us about death row cases everywhere. Slate.com. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2011/07/murder_c
Transportation logistics field has experienced a number of significant changes in recent years due to innovations in technology, and there are a number of emerging concepts that have surfaced over the past 1 to 2 years as a result. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify several of these emerging concepts, including a detailed discussion concerning their respective importance in the transportation logistics management (TLM) field. An analysis concerning the direction these emerging trends will take in the future and their potential future impact within the TLM field is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
The concepts that are emerging in the TLM field today may have appeared as so much science fiction just a few years ago, but concepts such as 3D printing, drone deliveries and driverless vehicles…
Frey, T. (2012, December). Creating cars that talk to the roads. Journal of Environmental Health, 75(5), 38-40.
Grace, J. (2014, Fall). The end of post-sale confusion: How consumer 3D printing will diminish the function of trademarks. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 28(1), 263-271.
Robinson, A. (2015, January 14). The future of logistics: Are 3PL companies ready to adopt these four emerging technologies? Cerasis. Retrieved from http://cerasis.com/2015 / 01/14/future-of-logistics/.
Rule, T. A. (2015, January). Airspace in an age of drones. Boston University Law Review, 95(1), 155-160.
Unmanned Aircraft Systems and Deconfliction
The global aviation community has experienced significant advancements in the recent past. Following these developments, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have attained a critical mass in this community. Consequently, UAS operations have becomes a critical component and part of today’s global aviation community. According to Fern et al. (2011), UAS is increasingly used in combat zones, which has, in turn, generated mounting pressure and demands on airspace operations. As UAS become more common, their civil and military applications are faced with the need for decreasing levels of human involvement and supervision. This implies that there is an increased need for autonomy of UAS operations. In this regard, deconfliction has emerged as a suitable strategy for promoting the autonomy of UAS. This paper provides an overview of UAS and deconfliction in relation to the growing need for autonomy of UAS operations in civil and military applications.
Castillo-Effen, M. & Visnevski, N.A. (2009, March). Analysis of Autonomous Deconfliction in Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Testing and Evaluation. IEEE Aerospace Conference. DOI: 10.1109/AERO.2009.4839599
Congressional Research Service. (2016, June). Unmanned Aircraft Systems Overview – Outlook for the Domestic Drone Industry. Congressional Digest, 95(6), 2-32.
Fern, L., Flaherty, S.R., Shively, R.J. & Turpin, T.S. (2011). Airspace Deconfliction for UAS Operations. 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 451-456. Retrieved from https://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=isap_2011
Gambold, K.A. (2011, November). Unmanned Aircraft System Access to National Airspace. Retrieved December 7, 2020, from https://www.airpilots.org/file/917/uas-access-to-national-airspace-paper.pdf
Press. (2019, November 5). Altitude Angel Launches the Second Phase of it’s ‘Game Changing’ Conflict Resolution Service – Tactical Deconfliction. Retrieved December 7, 2020, from https://www.suasnews.com/2019/11/altitude-angel-launches-the-second-phase-of-its-game-changing-conflict-resolution-service-tactical-deconfliction/
Rios, J. (2018, July 31). Strategic Deconfliction: System Requirements. Retrieved from National Aeronautical and Space Administration website: https://utm.arc.nasa.gov/docs/2018-UTM-Strategic-Deconfliction-Final-Report.pdf
UK Civil Aviation Authority. (2019, December). A Unified Approach to the Introduction of UAS Traffic Management. Retrieved December 7, 2020, from https://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1868UTMInnovationHub.pdf
Unmanned Airspace. (2020, September 15). NASA Releases Report on Strategic Deconfliction Following Flight Tests at UAS Test Sites. UAS Traffic Management News. Retrieved December 7, 2020, from https://www.unmannedairspace.info/latest-news-and-information/nasa-releases-report-on-strategic-deconfliction-following-flight-tests-at-uas-test-sites/
-29 and -26 bombers were used by U.S. forces to decimate Korean cities through round-the-clock air war using incendiary bombs, delayed demolition explosives and an "infernal jelly" called napalm.[footnoteRef:38] Created secretly during World War II, napalm was basically a mixture of petroleum and a thickening agent, designed to fiercely adhere to the target and severely burn it. Though first used against enemy structures and humans in World War II, napalm was used in the Korean War to devastating effect.[footnoteRef:39] the results of the U.S. air war against North Korea were intentionally catastrophic: at the commencement of the War, North Korea had 22 major cities, 18 of which suffered at least 50% obliteration.[footnoteRef:40] Furthermore, the U.S. government seriously considered using the atomic bombs that had so decisively ended World War II in the Pacific Theater. Particularly in September and October of 1951, -29 bombers were used for multiple runs to drop…
Bizony, Piers. The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA's First Space Plane. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press, 2011.
Blight, James G., and Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Wild and Blue: A History of the United States Air Force, 1947-2007, Second Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
Chant, Christopher. The World's Greatest Aircraft. New York, NY: Crescent Publishing, 1991.
The author of this report has been asked to select a firm and answer two of the provided questions as it relates to that firm. The questions that will be answered relate to price strategy and governmental concerns about market power. Indeed, Wal-Mart is in the thick of both of these phenomenon and it shows as one looks at political reactions and news stories in the media. Wal-Mart has grown from a small chain of stores to a global juggernaut and the amount of power that they wield given the size of their operations, how many people they employ and the market power they wield is hard to ignore or miss. It has gotten to the point that the government and other sources are attributing social problems to Wal-Mart and what they do. While it is perhaps a bridge too far to assert that Wal-Mart is creating social…
Hess, A. (2016). The 10 largest employers in America. USA TODAY. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2013/08/22/ten-largest-employers/2680249/
Jansen, B. (2015). FAA approves Amazon drone research again. USA TODAY. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2015/04/09/faa-amazon-drone-approval-prime-air/25534485/
Neff, J. (2016). Why Walmart's Great Value Changes the Game. Adage.com. Retrieved 27 March 2016, from http://adage.com/article/news/walmart-s-store-brand-great-game/138762/
Picchi, A. (2016). --
That is mainly because aircraft are much more expendable than pilots and combat operations can now be flown remotely by pilots stationed thousands of miles away from hostile fronts. Analysts predict that within the next decade or two, nations without the resources to compete with the U.S. In the development of sophisticated piloted naval aircraft will be able to launch hundreds of inexpensive drones without regard for how many are lost in combat (Crosby, 2007; Elgin, 2009). Large numbers of unmanned drones with offensive and "suicidal" capabilities could easily overwhelm even the most sophisticated multiple hostile aircraft tracking abilities of the U.S. Navy's manned air superiority aircraft (Crosby, 2007).
On one hand, the apparent trend in contemporary military aviation foretells the obsolescence of some of the principal missions of U.S. naval aircraft. On the other hand, U.S. naval air operations will still rely substantially on aircraft in the meantime,…
Crosby, F. (2007). The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World. London,
Elgin, B. "It's a Bird, It's a Plane, it's Pork!" Business Week; November 9, 2009: 46-47.
Jackson, R. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft. London, UK: Parragon.
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Describe the strategy, tactics, and tools that are available to agencies within the U.S. To perform counter-terrorism operations
The basic strategy for agencies within the U.S. is to focus on coordinating with states and local officials. This means that between the different levels of government, there will be increased amounts of intelligence sharing. At the same time, there is a concentrated effort in working with first responders to effectively prevent and mitigate the effects of a terrorist attack. This is accomplished by having threat level alerts that will let everyone know when to be vigilant. (Alexander, 2007, pp. 559 -- 597)
Some of the tools that are utilized during this process include: facial recognition technology, bomb / explosive detectors, dogs, surveillance cameras and laws that give officials greater powers. A good example of this can be seen with the passage and renewal of the U.S.A. Patriot Act. After…
Alexander, Y. (2007). Evolution of U.S. Counterterrorism Policy. Westport, CT: Prager.
Kagely, C. (2011). The Global Future. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Mickoulus, E. (2011). The Terror List. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Adrian Veidt (Ozymandias) Receives the Nobel Peace Prize
Five prizes are awarded by the Nobel committees each year, and probably the most memorable is the Nobel Peace Prize. Although the selection is sometimes controversial, the committee has specific directions from the founder himself regarding the quality of person he wished to receive this award. In devising how the specific prizes should be awarded, Nobel wrote specific language regarding each category. For the Nobel Peace Prize he said he wanted it to go "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses" (The Nobel Peace Prize). Thus, it is no wonder that the Peace Prize committee has awarded the prize to the man who is most responsible for the eradication of hostilities between the Soviet…
Google will focus on market segments that demonstrate the ability to expand with the business as it continues to invent products for the future technology. The well-informed student segment is subjected to vast technological advances and is easy technology adapters. This makes this segment an ideal market for the company to focus on. Besides its internet product, Google is revolutionizing its digital media platform. The perceptive student segment is always plunged in the digital media, and the company will maximize on this segment's needs for better technology. By concentrating on this market and acquiring recognition, the company will ensure this segment remains loyal to its brands due to its continuous quality products and technological innovations.
The internet is a universal device so the company will appeal to highly diverse users.
Most of its customers will be global
The products provided by the company will…
Technology and Criminal Justice System
The American prisons are known to be hosting some of the highest number of prisoners in relation to the entire population. The criminal justice system has over the years proven to be punitive and offenders have often found themselves incarcerated upon presentation of evidence. With the improvement of technology, there have been even more people getting convictions, increasing the number of people behind the prison walls. The overcrowding at the prisons has severally prompted the use of alternative means of correction rather than sending people to the prisons. This has seen increased paroles and offenders being put under probations as a means to decrease the congestion in the prisons.
The challenges that the criminal justice system has faced over the years have prompted the initiative towards inculcating the culture of more technology use within the criminal justice system. The use of technology in the criminal…
FBI, (2015). Next Generation Identification (NGI). Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/ngi
Lazer D., (2015). DNA and the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.davidlazer.com/sites/default/files/29%20DNA%20and%20the%20CJS%20chapt%201.pdf
Maureen Brown, (2000). Criminal Justice Discovers Information Technology. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_1/02e.pdf
National Institute of Technology, (2012). Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System Selection and Application Guide. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.justnet.org/pdf/IRRS-SAG-January-2013.pdf
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
Amazon is the world's largest e-tailer, and a technological leader in the field. This paper will outline the ways in which Amazon has built out its technological leadership, and how its different technology strategies help to support its overall business strategy. Ultimately, Amazon excels on the basis of the strong customer focus in its use of IT, as it recognizes that meeting customer needs is a critical component to growing its business in the long run.
Overview of the Company
Amazon was founded in July 1994 and came online in 1995. The company sold books initially, and its first book was sold in July 1995. This made the company an early adopter in terms of online retailing, and it soon began to leverage that position by plowing back the early revenues into technological innovation. The company responded to the reality of an increasingly competitive market with innovations such as the…
Amazon.com (2015). History of innovation. Amazon.com. Retrieved October 5, 2015 from http://www.amazon.jobs/history/2001-2005
Baldacci, K. (2013). 7 customer service lessons from Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos. Salesforce. Retrieved October 5, 2015 from https://www.salesforce.com/blog/2013/06/jeff-bezos-lessons.html
Bishop, T. (2014). 15,000 robots and counting: Inside Amazon's new fulfillment centers. GeekWire. Retrieved October 5, 2015 from http://www.geekwire.com/2014/video-amazons-robot-future-arrived-new-distribution-centers/
Chen, H., Chiang, R. & Storey, V. (2012). Business intelligence and analytics: From big data to big impact. MIS Quarterly. Vol. 36 (4) 1165-1188.
Mobile surveillance is when officials are monitoring the cell phone communication of a suspect. A good example of this; is when federal agents are listening in on the cell phone conversations of suspected terrorist leaders. (rookes, 2001)
Camera surveillance is when video cameras are used to monitor what is occurring at a particular location. A good example would be when; surveillance cameras are used to monitor public infrastructure such as: the subway system for suspicious activity. (rookes, 2001)
Social networking analysis is when you are monitoring the overall activities of someone on the different social networking sites. During the course of a terrorist operation, this would be used to establish the overall personality of the suspect; and determine how they are connecting with the rest of the organization. (rookes, 2001)
iometric analysis is when you are using biological features to identify suspects, such as: finger prints or facial…
Multijurisdictional Drug Law Enforcement Strategies. (1993). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing.
Brookes, P. (2001). Electronic Surveillance Devices. Woodburn, MA: Reid Educational and Publishing.
Dempsey, J. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Schmid, a. (2006). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
CFACC and AOC are, by their very nature, located several hundred, sometimes thousands of miles from the air battle. And, as emphasized prior, we understand that technology allows command far more specific details than in the history of the military. That being said, no amount of technology can translate a blip on a screen to an actual threat, and react with the appropriate response within milliseconds. One would think, for instance, that with the thousands upon thousands of dollars the service spends on training their pilots, the number of scenarios engendered, and the amount of air time required to pilot a multimillion dollar piece of extraordinary equipment that command would acknowledge that there needs to be a certain level of trust and allowance for experience and pilot assessment of various high stress situations. While it is certainly true that, at times, the individual pilot cannot see the "big picture," and…
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
However, this article makes a counter argument against such a use. Instead, it argues that the greatest benefit of unmanned aerial vehicles will come from developing ones not fast and flashy, but instead slow and steady. Instead of remote missions from the United States, according to the article, the operations should be capable of loitering over the same spot for months. In this sense, the unmanned aerial vehicle will act as a low-orbit satellite, or surveillance drone capable of capturing important security information without endangering lives.
"UAVs next step to stem terrorism." USA Today. December, 2003.
This article examines the non-military uses of unmanned aerial vehicles. Its main focus is on the value that unmanned aerial vehicles have for protecting the United States homeland. According to the Deputy Homeland Security Secretary, it is believed that unmanned aerial vehicles will be a primary aid to the department's ongoing efforts to provide…
Each level of the counter-terrorism strategy present in the United States has its own flaws and its own weaknesses.
Law enforcement cannot be left behind in the pursuit for more professional counter-terrorist elite units. The New York Police Department sets the bar for what municipal police can put together in terms of counter-terrorism, NYPD Shield, as its known, has conducted several successful operations since its inception in the aftermath of the September 11th attacks. Naturally, New Yorkers feel a special need to create a strong counter-terrorism unit beyond that of the United States government, due to the nature that the city is under constant threat from attacks. (Economist, the 2009). London, too is under this threat, however the London Police are not as well prepared for counter-terrorism efforts as the NYPD has proven to be. (Brant, 2011). Law enforcement's participation is a necessary part of counter-terrorism work for three reasons.…
Alexander, J.B. (2010, July). Convergence: Special Operations Forces and Civilian Law Enforcement. Retrieved from, http://www.afio.com/publications/JSOU10-6alexanderConvergence_final1.pdf .
Amnesty International. (2010, March 17). Control of U.S. special forces in Afghanistan a step toward accountability. Retrieved from, http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/control-us-special-forces-afghanistan-step-toward-accountability-2010-03-17 .
Barrett, R. (2006, October 26). The broader impact of terrorism on financial stability. Retrieved from, http://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2006/mfl/rb.pdf .
Brant, Robin (2011, November 23). Police Not Ready for New 'Counter-Terror Powers'. Retrieved from, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15847349 .
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
Finally, torture is the best means to try to get this information from the suspect (McCoy, 2006). Taken as a whole, these circumstances are so unlikely to occur that, even if the ticking bomb scenario would justify the use of torture, it has not ever occurred and, therefore, cannot be used to justify torture.
In fact, what many people who advocate in favor of torture fail to acknowledge is that while torture may be guaranteed to elicit information from even the most reticent of subjects, there is no reason to believe that torture will elicit truthful information. The theory behind torture is that, with the application of sufficient pain and fear, people will talk, and that does appear to be true in the vast majority of cases. However, it is more important to wonder what they will say than whether they will talk. In the non-terrorist scenario, "About 25% of…
Armbruster, B. (2011, October 3). Obama's successful counterterror strategy. Retrieved March 21, 2012 from Think Progress website: http://thinkprogress.org/progress-report/obamas -successful-counterterror-strategy/
Bufacchi, V., & Arrigo, J.M. (2006). Torture, terrorism, and the state: A refutation of the Ticking-Bomb argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 23(3), 355-373.
Gathii, J. (2004). Torture, extra-territoriality, terrorism, and international law. Albany Law
Review, 67, 101-138. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from:
Condoleeza Rice's biography to date is a remarkable story of how she got involved in politics and how she got to where she is today, the Secretary of State for the United States and arguably the most powerful woman in the world.
Rice's rise to her current position reflects a love of education that goes back in her family for generations, in spite of the fact that all of her great-grandparents were slaves. She had "house slaves" on both sides of her family, and their positions allowed them to become literate. Condoleeza's grandfather, John Rice, Jr., saved money he made picking cotton to go to college. He became a Presbyterian minister (Herstein, 2004).
Condoleeza Rice was born on November 14, 1954, in irmingham, Alabama. She lived through considerable turmoil in irmingham; one of her classmates, Denise McNair, was killed when the lack Sunday School was bombed in irmingham in 1964…
Beard, Jack M. 2004. "The Presidency and Building a Coalition to Wage a War on Al Qaeda and the Taliban Regime." White House Studies, Vol. 4.
Herstein, Arthur. 2004. "Acorns to Oaks: Condoleezza Rice's Journey From the Jim Crow South to the White House." World and I, August.
Jablonsky, David. 2001. "Army Transformation: A Tale of Two Doctrines." Parameters, Vol. 31.
Norolinger, Jay. 1999. "Star-in-Waiting: Meet George W.'s foreign-policy czarina. National Review, August 30.
Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.
The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.
The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…
Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology of Terrorism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 10.2, 177-187.
Moghadam, Assaf. 2008. Defining and confronting the Salafi Jihad. Middle East Strategy at Harvard. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://blogs.law.harvard.edu .
Proctor, Pat. 2012. War Without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Security, 5.2, 47-64.