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Moreover, influential Mexican officials are involved in the drug business and they support drug leaders in destroying the country. Corruption is thriving in Mexico, as most high officials find it difficult to resist the benefits that the drug business might bring. (Andrew Reding) According to Reding, there are even members of the federal judicial police involved in the Mexican drug business. It is not just the financial benefits which make officials get involved in the drug industry. There have been several important Mexican people that chose to reject the thought of collaborating with the drug barons. Sadly, most of those that didn't cooperate had been murdered by the merciless cartels. Curiously, wanted drug lords are often sighted on the streets of Mexico accompanied by their bodyguards as they simply walk along the streets without being arrested. (Reding) Their attitude is an insult to honest people everywhere.
The Mexican drug industry…
Cook, W. Colleen. (2007) "Mexico's Drug Cartels." Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Federation of American Scientists Web site: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf
Pedraza, Rick. (2009). "Mexico's President: We Need U.S. Help in Drug Wars."Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Newsmax Web site: http://www.newsmax.com/headlines/calderon_mexico_drug/2009/03/10/190284.html
Reding, Andrew. "Narco-Politics in Mexico." The Nation, Vol. 261, July 10, 1995.
Trevino, Maria. (2009). "U.S. border states must enact tougher gun laws to combat drug cartel violence." Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Latina Lista Web site: http://latinalista.net/op-eds/2009/03/us_border_states_must_enact_tougher_gun.html
, 2010). riting in the peer-reviewed orld Policy Journal, Kellner and colleague explain that another Mexican drug gang, Los Zetas, is known for kidnapping and demanding ransoms; and police are "outgunned" and "overpowered by criminals, who have become increasingly brazen…" (Kellner). Hence, the well-hidden and diverse drug cartels in Colombia are in stark contrast to the big, blood-letting cartels of Mexico.
THREE: Do these cartels present as much of a danger to the United States as terrorist organizations? The answer has to be no, they do not, because while the cartels kill, kidnap and behead police and politicians in Mexico, they have not yet invaded the U.S. with a strategy of murdering authorities. On the other hand, just this month in Boston, Americans were reminded as to the danger terrorists present (even U.S. citizens who terrorize communities) when they plant bombs in public places. There are dangers associated with tons…
Gootenberg, Paul (2010). Blowback: The Mexican Drug Crisis. NACLA Report on the Americas, 43(6), 7-12.
Gootenberg, Paul. (2012). Policy Issues: Cocaine's Long March North, 1900-2010. Latin
American Politics and Society. 54(1), 159-180.
In Sight Crime / Organized Crime in the Americas. (2011). Mexican and Colombian groups may
Mexico: Terrorism and Organized Crime
The convergence in numerous means of organized criminal activities that include terrorism and drug trafficking is a developing concern in the United States and the entire world. Some professionals in this filed imply that the increasing number of cases of terrorism and organized crime groups are jointly coordinated and the trend is increasingly developing into a worldwide phenomenon (Rollins 2). These occurrences pose a great and novel challenge from national security and law enforcement perspectives. Even though the convergence between terrorism and organized crimes is not interlinked in a direct and immediate contractual manner, the reality seems to imply that terrorism and drug trafficking in a coordinated manner is incredibly present (Rollins 2). Terrorism and drug trafficking are unlawful, concealed operations, and they hold numerous common needs. These needs include weapons acquisition, maintenance of anonymity, a steady cash flow, hiding assets and the two crimes…
Alexander, Yonah, Kraft, Michael. Evolution of the U.S. counterterrorism policy (three volumes). New York: Greenwood Publishing Group,2008.
Borgeson, Kelvin., Valeri, Robin. Terrorism in America. Texas: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009
Camp, Roderic. Mexico: What everyone needs to know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Christop, Hewitt. Understanding terrorism in America: From the Klan to Al Qaeda. New York:
Sinaloa Drug Cartel:
Drug cartels are described as large and highly sophisticated organizations that consist of several drug trafficking organizations and cells with certain assignments like security/enforcement, drug transportation, and money laundering. The command and control structures of many drug cartels are located outside the United States though they manufacture, distribute, and transport illicit drugs domestically. This is done through assistance of the drug trafficking organizations that are part of or have an alliance with the cartel. The drug trafficking organizations usually range from loosely managed deals among drug traffickers to the formally organized commercial enterprises. An example of a drug trafficking organization that is involved in trafficking narcotics is the Mexican Sinaloa Cartel.
Mexico's Drug War:
Currently, Mexico increasingly reflects Colombia 25 years ago because of the rapid spread and strengthening on drug cartels throughout the country
. Mexicans have become increasingly concerned and sharply divided on the most…
Bolton, John. "The Threat South of the Border: Mexico's Drug War Endangers U.S. Interests.
Obama Must Wake Up." NY Daily News, last modified June 10, 2010, http://www.nydailynews.com/opinions/2010/10/06/2010-10-06_the_threat_south_of_the_border_mexicos_drug_war_endangers_us_interests_obama_mus.html#ixzz12isbxsK9
Keefe, Patrick Radden. "How a Mexican Drug Cartel Makes Its Billions." The New York Times,
last modified June 15, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com /2012/06/17/magazine/how-a-mexican-drug-cartel-makes-its-billions.html?pagewanted=all
ar on Drugs -- Mexican Drug Trafficking
hen examining the behaviors and goals of various Mexican drug cartels, any well-informed observer can clearly see these groups aren't just drug pushers -- they are also terrorists. The cartels have been known to show their power by going into Mexican communities and simply slaughtering dozens of people then dumping the bodies in a shallow grave, or even stacking bodies by the roadside for citizens to see and become fearful. In fact, on June 18, 2014, twenty-eight bodies were found in a "mass grave" in Veracruz, and the identification of the corpses was difficult because of the decaying bodies (AP).
This grim scene is likely the result of the ongoing war between two cartels, the Zeta and certain rivals; the bodies are likely those of migrants that were coming up into Mexico from Central America, and found themselves in a crossfire between violent…
Associated Press. "Dozens of Bodies Found in Mexican Mass Grave." The New York Times.
Retrieved July 13, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Carpenter, Ted Galen. "Drug cartels are causing a refugee crisis." CNN. Retrieved July 13,
2014, from http://www.cnn.com .
Mexican Drug Cartel
Governments in Mexico and most of Latin America are being challenged by drug gangs and cartels. The constant insecurity brought about by this power struggle erodes the authority of the state and its sovereignty, giving drug gangs and cartels both political and economic power. The constant fights brought about by these criminal enterprises involves: drug gangs and cartels seeking to detach themselves from state authorities and conduct activities that essentially makes them 'primitive rebels' sustaining a struggle that is basically a 'criminal rebellion or insurgency'; the provision of useful social amenities; formation of narratives about power and rebellion; and gangs conducting themselves like modern social bandits to win support and power within their criminal enterprises and the geographical regions they control. They convey this message through violence and the way they do their businesses. The issue of Mexican drug cartels is of importance because these drug trafficking…
Bunker, R.J. (2013). Introduction: the Mexican cartels -- organized crime vs. criminal insurgency. Trends in Organized Crime, 16(2), 129-137.
Campbell, H. (2009). Drug war zone: Frontline dispatches from the streets of El Paso and Juarez. University of Texas Press.
Cohen, Y. (2009). Hamas in combat: the military performance of the Palestinian Islamic Resistance Movement. Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Cordero, C.F. (2012). Breaking the Mexican Cartels: A Key Homeland Security Challenge for the Next Four Years. University of Missouri-Kansas City Law Review, 81, 289-312.
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).
There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…
Ghosh, P. (2010, October 19). The pros and cons of drug legalization in the U.S. . Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.com/pros-cons-drug-legalization-us-246712
Lowy, J. (2014, September 1). Driving stoned? States prep for marijuana DUI. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0901/Driving-stoned-States-prep-for-marijuana-DUI
Miron, J., & Waldock, K. (2010, October 3). Making an Economic Case for Legalizing Drugs. Retrieved from CATO Institute: http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/making-economic-case-legalizing-drugs
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…
Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The main reason why legalizing all types of drugs will bring more good than harm is because regulation could be put into effect. Things could be more under control. The current system is not working, and that is apparent in the rates of crime that are still high, and the number of people still using, and putting themselves into very well-known danger. Either way, whether it is legal or not, people are still accessing these drugs. They are still able to go out and purchase something that is supposed to be illegal and it will continue to occur if nothing productive and progressive is done. The government, economy, and everyday folks could benefit if these substances are legalized. The policies should be based on actual effects on communities, people, and the country, not on moral and ethical grounds.
(1) Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. How goes the 'war on…
(1) Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. How goes the 'war on drugs'?: An assessment of U.S. Drug problems and policy. Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation 2005. Print.
(2) Hartstein, Max. The war on drugs -- the worst addiction of all. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse Inc.
(3) Courtwright, David T. Forces of habit: drugs and the making of the modern world. Boston,
That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams).
It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli).
Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…
Abrams, J. "Report: Teen Use of Pot Will Jump with Legalization - Move to Harder Drugs Follows, Group Says." Seattle Times 13 Jul, 1999: A5. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com .
An Unethical Reason for Legalizing Drugs." Business Week (3678) 24 Apr. 2000: 6. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com .
Burden, K. "What's the Fuss About Legalizing Drugs? Many People Advocating a "Harm Reduction" Approach to Illegal Drugs are Well-Meaning but Misguided." Presbyterian Record 70(10) Nov. 1996: 10-11. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006
U.S. get Involved Militarily in Mexico's Drug ar
The United States has occupied a place unique among nations since the fall of the Soviet Union. Super power is a term that can only apply to one country due to economic, military and domestic strength. Although there are other countries, most notably China, that are gaining ground, there is no other country that can currently claim to be a super power. But, this does not mean that the U.S. can act with impunity whenever it wants to. This paper will discuss the current drug war in Mexico and why the U.S. should not intervene militarily because Mexico is a sovereign nation, of the possibility of an international backlash, there could be a drug spillover into the U.S., it could cause a great deal of U.S. deaths, and of the possible added cost of the war during a recession.
Bricker, Kristin. "Mexico's Drug War Death Toll: 8,463 and Counting." Narconews, 2008. Web.
Chacon, Justin Akers. "U.S. Intervention in Mexico will make Things Worse." The Progressive, 2011. Web.
Harnden, Toby. Barack Obama: 'Arrogant U.S. has been Dismissive' to Allies." The Telegraph, 2009. Web.
Kearney, Kevin. "Pentagon Warns of U.S. Military Intervention in Mexico's 'War on Drugs'." World Socialist Website, 2009). Web.
Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border
Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border
The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…
Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.
BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm
Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.
An addiction can be considered a physical and psychological incapability to avoid the consumption of drugs, chemicals, substances, or even taking part in an activity even when doing so causes both physical and psychological harm (Nutt, 2018). The Addiction term is not only applicable when it comes to cocaine and heroin use. Any person who cannot function normally without taking some specific chemical or drug is considered to be substance dependent (Nutt, 2018). The obsession with some activities such as working, eating, and gambling is considered an addiction (Clark & Limbrick-Oldfield, 2013). This type of addiction is commonly referred to as behavioral addiction. As stated by Robbins and Clark (2015) behavioral addictions have gradually become a recognized psychiatric disorder. Recently pathological gambling has been allocated to the DSM-5 category (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There are several other disorders that have been suggested as being part of the behavioral addiction category…
Street Drug Trade Is One of the Most Important Social Institutions for Young People in Detroit
From his perspective, Bergmann writes that the street drug is one of the most important social institutions for young people in Detroit. As an institution, the drug dealings and everything surrounding it are becoming a transforming force taking people in a certain way of life and perception. Detroit is known to be a major region of the drug trade, including heroin. Like any other society, it suffers consequences of this in many ways, including the economic, cultural, social, and even psychological repercussions arising from the presence of the drug. Drugs are commonly effective and, in some way, change the way people behave, live, and interact. This is seen from his submission that "drug dealing governed the seasonal cycles of their lives and taught them about the nature and power of the state, capitalism and…
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…
Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.
Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.
Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm
Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.
flow of drugs into the United States, where the drugs are coming from, in what forms they come in and the general attitudes that are taken against the practice by both the United States law enforcement agencies in particular and the United Nations drug control treaties. The author of this report will answer all of those questions in detail and provide the proper sourcing and citations for the same. While some modest successes are made when it comes to the "war on drugs," the United States law enforcement collective is losing the battle and there is a difference of strategy when it comes to a comparison between the United Nations and the United States.
The first question is fairly specific and brief. For each of the five major illicit drugs that are available and that are used in the United States, there will be a summary of what each one…
DEA. (2011). Drugs of Abuse - 2011 Edition (pp. 1-79). Washington DC: Drug
Ferner, M. (2015). Colorado Introduces Major Shift In Its Marijuana Program. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/colorado-marijuana_n_5548620.html
Murphy, G. (2015). Have We Lost the War on Drugs?. WSJ. Retrieved 23 August 2015,
Columbian Drug Trade
If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.
However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.
We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.
It is certainly…
Most Americans value freedoms and liberties such as those protected in the United States Constitution. Those freedoms and liberties are violated when governments prevent access to drugs, which is why legalization may eventually happen on a state-by-state basis.
Marijuana has promising applications in health care, which is why states like California have recently permitted the sale and distribution of the drug to patients with prescriptions. The trend is spreading, and several other states also permit marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As more and more states follow suit, drugs will be effectively decriminalized. Law enforcement can divert its attention to violent crime, leaving ordinary citizens alone and leaving addicts in the care of trained psychological professionals. Consumers will purchase their pot from licensed dealers who they can trust, who carefully cultivate their strains to suit certain medical conditions, and who do not use chemical pesticides or any poison to…
Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Jones, Paul and Mortin, John. Marijuana: Early Experiences with Four States' Laws that Allow Use for Medical Purposes. United States General Accounting Office, 2002.
Kleiman, Mark. Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control. Greenwood Press, 1989.
It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will eliminate such acts of illegality.
The government and elected officials have a significant amount of say and rule as to what passes as a law and what does not. Such representatives are to symbolize and stand for what the people want. However, with so many voices and opinions of how certain issues should be and what should be ruled as legal, conflicts arise. Controversy is heavily shrouded in the dilemma around the legalization of drugs, and whether the government should permit the legal selling, purchase of narcotics like alcohol and tobacco. If such law is passed, the government and its citizens are affected economically, judicially, medically, and socially. Economically, the government is able to receive billions of dollars in revenue and reduce…
Block, W. "Drug Prohibition: A Legal and Economic Analysis." Journal of Business Ethics 12.9 (1993): 689-700. Print.
Cussen, M, and W. Block. "Legalize Drugs Now! An Analysis of the Benefits of the Legalized Drugs." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.3 (2000): 525-536. Print.
"Drug War Clock | DrugSense." DrugSense. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
"Economic Consequences of the War on Drugs." Drug Policy Alliance: Alternatives to Marijuana Prohibition and the Drug War. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
Future of Clinical esearch: Focusing on New Drug Costs
The objective of this study is to examine the future of clinical research with a focus on new drug costs. Toward this end three reports will be examined that analyze this issue. Drug development costs are unbelievably high and this results in pharmaceutical companies being slow to develop drugs.
According to a report published by 'Forbes' there is "one factor, as much as anything else, determines how many medicines are invented, what diseases they treat, and, to an extent, what price patients must pay for them: the cost of inventing and developing a new drug, a cost driven by the uncomfortable fact than 95% of the experimental medicines that are studied in humans fail to be both effective and safe." (Herper, 2013, p. 1) Forbes reports that in an analysis conducted that findings show that "A company hoping to…
Adams, C. And Brantner, VV (2006) Estimating the Cost of new Drug Development: Is it Really $802 Million? Health Affairs. Retrieved from: http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/25/2/420.full.html
Hard Pills to Swallow: The New Drug War (2014) The Economist. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/news/international/21592655-drug-firms-have-new-medicines-and-patients-are-desperate-them-arguments-over
Herper, M. (2013) The Cost of Creating A New Drug Now $5 Billion, Pushing Big Pharma to Change. Forbes. 11 Aug 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2013/08/11/how-the-staggering-cost-of-inventing-new-drugs-is-shaping-the-future-of-medicine/
S.A., there is bound to be more problems relating to criminality as well as social problems. For instance legalization of drugs will lead to even more violence across the U.S. Mexico border with each cartel trying to control as much of the market as possible. It will be a magnification of what is currently experienced in the drug deals.
Factually, criminals will not stop being criminals because a drug has been legalized and start be law abiding citizens, paying their taxes and upholding moral standards within the society. This is in light of the fact that the drug dealers don't deal in drugs due to the challenge of making a proper sale but because that is what makes them more money and they will not change just because it is now legal.
Apparently the legalization of drugs will lead to more organized gang crimes like those in Mexico. These are…
Denis C., (1999). Zero-tolerance policies lack flexibility. U.S. Today. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/educate/ednews3.htm
Drug Enforcement Administration, (2013). Speaking out Against Drug Legalization. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://www.justice.gov/dea/pr/multimedia-library/publications/speaking_out.pdf
Drug Policy Alliance, (2013). Zero Tolerance Drug Policies. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/zero-tolerance-drug-policies
Holemberg J., 2009). Narcoterrorism. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://traccc.gmu.edu/pdfs/student_research/HolmbergNarcoterrorism.pdf
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
" Moreover, instead of spending billions of dollars on fighting the war, the Mexican government could channel this money -- which is significant for the Mexican economy -- into meeting the population's social needs, thus decreasing the incentives for Mexico's youth to resort to crime.
Prohibition of marijuana, one might even argue, is the lead cause of violence in Mexico. It is the prohibition that drives the drug market to the underground. In the underground world, the disputes between buyers and sellers cannot be resolved through legal means such as lawsuits and arbitration. So, they are often resolved through violence. hen the United States banned alcohol during Prohibition in 1930s, the level of violence increased but as soon as the ban was lifted, the level of crime and violence dropped to the pre-Prohibition levels. As Miron points out, [v]iolence is the norm in illicit gambling but not in legal ones.…
Camin, Hector Aguilar and Jorge G. Castenada. "California's Prop 19, on Legalizing Marijuana, Could End Mexico's Drug War." Washington Post. 5 September 2010. Web. 3 May 2011.
Forsyth, Jim. "U.S. Should Legalize Drugs, Says Former Mexican President Fox." Reuters. 3 May 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.
Johnson, Gary. "Legalize Marijuana to Stop the Drug Cartels." Huffington Post. 26 August, 2010. Web. 3 May 2011.
Miron, Jeffrey, a. "Commentary: Legalize Drugs to Stop Violence." CNN Online. 24 March 2009. Web. 3 May 2011.
The author mentioned that rather than only tying the drug consumption with unemployment, urban drug culture, and other factors, one needs to view the drug pervasiveness issues in light of distribution channels as well. The author mentioned that South East Asia's Golden Triangle was the hub of opium trade to the world. Thai-Burma border was used by the Yunnan province drug lords to change opium into marijuana and heroin. The long trail from Golden Triangle to New York was managed by Yunnan merchants and they exported the illicit drugs to Thai -- Burma border. After refinement into heroin, the drugs were then carried by the Chiu Chau Chinese drug traders. They transported these drugs to Bangkok, South Asia, America and Europe. ith loose organizational structures, these Chinese networks of drug trade were closely knit clans and fiercely ruthless in their trade practices as were the gangs of Versailles.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's war on drugs: No margin for maneuver." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.1 (2002): 134-148.
Grayson, George W. Mexico: Narco-violence and a failed state? Transaction Books, 2011.
" This is money that should be spent on (a) preventing and healing drug addiction and related issues; (b) more effective, and smarter, law enforcement. Legalizing marijuana would also generate much-needed tax revenues that can be spent on precisely those two things. From an economic or financial perspective, the legalization of marijuana will also help grow small businesses and thus can alleviate the problems associated with the current economic crisis. Low start-up costs for a marijuana grow operation also mean that low-income families and entrepreneurs can earn extra income in a legitimate way. Marijuana should be made legal because Americans value personal freedoms, too. It makes no sense for alcohol and Xanax to be legal but not marijuana. Marijuana, when made legal, can be regulated in the same way that alcohol and prescription drugs are. Police will not be wasting their time busting people for possessing a plant. Instead, pharmacists…
Armentano, Paul. "DEA Moves to Ban 'Fake Marijuana' Products." NORML. 24 Nov 2010. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://norml.org/
Cooper, Charles and McCullagh, Declan. "America's Love-Hate History with Pot." CBS News. 13 July 2009. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/13/national/main5154550.shtml
Drug Policy Alliance. Economic consequences of the war on drugs. Retrieved 25 Nov, 2010: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/economiccons/fact_economic.cfm
"Legalization of Marijuana." LegalizationOfMarijuana.com. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/
Law enforcement and narcotics trafficking
In fact, one of the things that many Americans may fail to understand is that there is a relationship between the domestic narcotics industry and international terrorism. Illegal drug trafficking is an international crime problem, and it is rarer that criminal enterprises limit themselves to a single illegal activity. Many criminal enterprises involved in narcotics distribution are also involved in the trafficking of humans and weapons. Furthermore, much of America's narcotic supply comes from Afghanistan, where its production and distribution can provide revenue for terrorist organizations. "The specific dynamics of the linkage between narcotics and conflict remain poorly understood. Evolving theory on the link between organized crime and terrorism enhances and supplements the debate on economic incentives in civil war, proposing mechanisms whereby insurgent groups interact with narcotics production -- a crime -- rebellion nexus" (Cornell, 2007). This nexus is not yet fully understood and…
Cornell, S. (2007). Narcotics and armed conflict: Interactions and implications. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 207-227.
Gorvin, I. (2008, May). Targeting blacks: drug law enforcement and race in the United States.
New York: Human Rights Watch Organization.
Hartney, E. (2012, February 6). How to prevent addiction in your kids. Retrieved February 22,
everal authors like ullivan (2001) point out the hypocrisy in drawing arbitary lines around certain classes of drugs. In fact, all drugs are potentially harmful. Even caffeine is bad for health when abused. Legally acquired pharmaceutical drugs can be lethal, whereas marijuana has no known cases of overdose. The discrepancy in laws and sentencing policies should be eradicated in order to create a more just society. As Walsh & Hemmens (2008) point out in the chapter on "Law and ocial Change," the prohibition on drugs is no different than the prohibition on alcohol. Both have caused the proliferation of organized crime and neither solved the underlying issues related to mental and physical health. One of the main reasons to legalize drugs is to reduce the market power of organized crime syndicates. Prohibition of alcohol "literally kick-started organized crime in the United tates, and ushered in a decade of gang wars…
Sullivan, a. (2001). The Distinction betwen legal and illegal drugs is arbitrary. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Walsh, a. & Hemmens, C. (2008). Law and Social Change. Walsh & Hemmens.
Wisher, R. (2001) Illegal Drugs Should Not Be Legalized. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Particularly, many democrats and republicans expressed their dismay about the fact that the ush administration did not notify or seek congressional input while the policy was being developed. However, as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roberta Jacobson, who actually drafted the 'Merida initiative' says, "Although it [Merida] was proposed by a Republican administration, it was passed by a Democratic [party-controlled] Congress." [Jim Fischer, 2009]
Some policy analysts from Mexico have expressed their concern that controlling drug trafficking in Mexico would be better achieved if the U.S. takes active measures to control the arms trafficking from across its borders into Mexico. Gen. Javier del Real Magallanes, who is in command of the northeastern states such as Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi says, "If there are no weapons, there's no violence. These arms aren't from Mexico; they're from the other side." [Laura Starr, 2007]. Sharing…
1) Colleen W. Cook, Oct 2007, 'CRS Report for Congress: Mexico's Drug Cartels', retrieved Apr 22nd, 2010, from, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf
2) Bernd Debussman, 'Latin America: Mexico Drug War Update', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/604/mexico_drug_war_update
3) Manuel Roig-Franzia, 'U.S. Guns Behind Cartel Killings In Mexico', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/28/AR2007102801654.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
For much of the movie, Robert akefield is the main antagonist. akefield represents the American government's complicity in perpetuating an outmoded political policy. Thus, Traffic portrays the American government's ar on Drugs as being antithetical to American values. akefield is initially blind to his daughter's plight, and is depicted as being too career-driven and closed-minded to notice that the ar on Drugs is a war on his family and his country. However, akefield does wake up. At the end of the movie he perceives the connection between his actions as Drug Czar and the supply chain his daughter has access to. akefield's awakening is Soderbergh's call to America to end the ar on Drugs policy.
Traffic ends on a note of optimism while also leaving the ar on Drugs unresolved. Soderbergh seems aware that United States drug policy will not change any time soon. The film also offers a scathing…
Cafferty, J. (2009). Commentary: War on drugs is insane. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.cnn.com /2009/POLITICS/03/31/cafferty.legal.drugs/index.html
Drug Policy Alliance Network. What's Wrong With the Drug War? Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/drugwar/
Greer, M. (2009). Drug War Clock. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.drugsense.org/wodclock.htm
"Timeline: America's War on Drugs." NPR. April 2, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9252490
Traffic Film Analysis
Traffic is a 2000 film directed by Steven Soderbergh that focuses on the drug trade between the United States and Mexico, the factors that encourage individuals to promote the drug trade, and what steps are being taken to curb the drug trade. The film relays a very realistic interpretation of the proverbial war on drugs and demonstrates that drug culture has becomes so ingrained in society that it may be impossible to completely stop the drug trade between the United States and Mexico, or the United States with any other country.
Traffic seeks to investigate the ideologies of those that attempt to stop the trafficking of drugs between the United States and Mexico and those individuals and/or groups who promote drug trafficking either out of necessity or because they want to expand territorial claims. In the film, ideologies can be divided based on nationality and further divided…
Gaghan, Stephen. Traffic. Screenplays For You. Web. 7 October 2012.
Grillo, Ioan. "Top 10 Notorious Drug Lords." Time Specials. 22 June 2011. Web. 7 October
Just, Sara. "Nightline: Traffic -- The Reality Behind the Movie." ABC Nightline. 19 March. Web.
United States is in the middle of a war on drugs, and has been for several decades. Yet, many believe that we are losing this war, often because of the impractical approach legislation has taken in response to curb growing rates of addiction in the United States; however, drug addiction continues to be a major social problem in the United States. esearch shows that there is a direct correlation between increased incidences of domestic violence and use of drugs. This makes it incredibly imperative for local advocacy groups and law enforcement to find viable solutions to the growing drug problem surrounding the use of illegal substances in The United States.
The United States is in the middle of a war on drugs, and has been for several decades. Yet, many believe that we are losing this war, often because of the impractical approach legislation has taken in response to curb…
Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research. CA: Wadsworth. Smith, M.J. (1988). Contemporary Communication Research Methods. CA: Wadsworth.
Dealing With Drug Abuse -- Summary and Recommendations. 2012. Dealing With Drug Abuse - Summary and Recommendations. [ONLINE] Available at:
http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/studies/dwda/dwdsum.htm . [Accessed 28 April 2012].
FBI -- A Model for Success in the Drug War. 2012. FBI -- A Model for Success in the Drug War.
International Criminal Organizations
Over time, Mexico has experienced significant growth in crime levels -- something that has led to an increase in criminal activity not only in Mexico but also across the entire region as well. In this text, I concern myself with the rise of international criminal organizations in Mexico. In so doing, I will amongst other things explain the role poverty and/or corruption has played in the creation of fertile ground for organized gangs and how the Mexican government has responded to the rise in criminal activity. Further, in addition to evaluating the effect of the said criminal organizations on the stability of the nation as a whole, I will also speculate over what the situation in Mexico means to the United States from a national security perspective. ecommendations with regard to how the government of Mexico should respond to the situation will be offered at the end…
Barkan, S. & Bryjak, G. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Center for International Cooperation -- CIC (2013). Organized Crime. Retrieved from http://cic.nyu.edu/content/organized-crime
CNN Library. (2013). Mexico Drug War Fast Facts. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/02/world/americas/mexico-drug-war-fast-facts/
Edmonds-Poli, E. & Shirk, D.A. (2012). Contemporary Mexican Politics (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
To put a price tag on the problem for reader, Indiana University economist Eric Rasmusen claims in figures from a 2005 GAO report on foreigners that were incarcerated in Federal and state prisons calculated that illegal immigrants commit 21% of crime in America. This cost America more than $84 billion (Kingsbury).
Illegal immigration from Mexico is a major funnel for terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda. This is stated in the groups own words. In a 2009 video, an al Qaeda recruiter threatened to smuggle a biological weapon into the United States. He claimed that the organization would do this via tunnels under the Mexico border. The video aired on Al Jazeera and was later posted to several web sites. These show Kuwaiti dissident Abdullah al-Nafisi telling supporters in Bahrain that terrorists in al Qaeda were observing the U.S. border with Mexico to figure out how to send terrorists…
"Al Qaeda eyes bio attack from Mexico." Washington Times 3 June 2009: Web.
24 Oct 2010. .
"Al-Qaida Operative Nabbed Near Mexican Border." News Max.com. News Max.com,
20 Nov. 2005. Web. 24 Oct 2010. .
Americans who want to open businesses in Mexico's cities would be able to do so easily, which would stimulate Mexico's economy as well as America's. Mexicans who want to live and work in the United States could do so without risking their lives and leaving their families. Quality of life would vastly improve in Mexico, and the improved economy would mean less strain on health care and other social services. During the current economic recession, unifying the two countries makes more sense than it ever has.
One of the best reasons to have a union between the United States and Mexico is to reduce rates of crime. Border towns are violent places, and law enforcement officials are often killed in skirmishes that involve organized crime. The United States and Mexico are both at fault for fueling organized crime. According to Donnison, "More than 6,000 people died last year in Mexico…
Donnison, John. "Mexico Says U.S. Fuels Gun Crime." BBC News. 12 April 2009. Retrieved Nov 14, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7996196.stm
"Mexico Environment." Retrieved Nov 14, 2009 from http://www.questconnect.org/mexico_environment.htm
States News Service. "U.S.-Mexico Border 2012." Retrieved Nov 14, 2009 from http://www.epa.gov/Border2012/
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Narcotic Trade in Mexico
Mexico's War on Drugs: Legitimate Efforts, Ineffective Results
Advocates on the war on drugs claim that the Government of Mexico is well on its way to victory since Vicente Fox-Quesada assumed the presidency in December 2000. After taking office, President Fox launched a national assault against drug trafficking and organized crime, developed the 2001-2006 National Drug Control Plan, and made the trafficking of drugs to be a national security issue. Under the Fox Administration, Mexican authorities have arrested key members of the major cartels and have dramatically increased information sharing between the United States and Mexican Governments. However, a never ending supply and corruption fueled by enormous profits appear to be rendering the legitimate efforts of Fox ineffective. In fact, policies encouraged by the United Stated and executed by Fox may hold the potential for the future destabilization of Mexico.
During the stepped up efforts of…
Carpenter, Ted. "Is Mexico the Next Colombia?" 20 Mar. 2003. CATO Institute. 5 Sept. 2004. http://www.cato.org/dailys/03-20-02.html .
Country Profile for 2003." U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. 5 Sept. 2004. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/intel/03047/ .
Ereli, Adam. "2003 Drug Cultivation Estimates for Mexico." 6 Apr. 2004. U.S. Department of State. 5 Sept. 2004. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2004/31185.htm .
Mexico Anti-Drug Force to be Scrapped." 17 Jan. 2003. BBC News. 5 Sept. 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2670291.stm .
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…
Cox, A.B., & Posner, E.A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 809+.
Dillin, J. (2006). How Eisenhower solved illegal border crossings from Mexico. Christian Science Monitor.
Green, T.C., & Ciobanu, I.M. (2006). Deputizing - and then prosecuting - America's businesses in the fight against illegal immigration. American Criminal Law Review, 43(3), 1203+.
Headley, B. (2006). Giving critical context to the deportee phenomenon. Social Justice, 33(1), 40+.
Davids purports that the MNF would operate under U.N. jurisdiction, with the Organization of American States as its head. (Saskiewicz, 2006) in his review of Davids' book, Saskiewicz (2006) notes that Davids " does not address the difficulties associated with sharing intelligence with foreign nations, nor does he prescribe a means by which this could be accomplished." In turn, he leaves the impression, based on interpersonal relationships and camaraderie, allied MNF members would merely cooperate and share intelligence. This potential "dream," Saskiewicz (2006) proposes would cause nightmares for personnel assigned to any special-security office.
In addition, Davids' assertion the MNF would ultimately fight narco-trafficking organizations, along with political considerations, coupled with logistical and manpower constraints, would most likely dissuade the majority of Latin American militaries from contributing forces to the MNF. MNF financing would also likely serve as an astronomical block to Davids' and/or similar proposed wars against narco terrorism.…
Chouvy, Pierre-arnaud. "Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan." Terrorism Monitor, Volume 2, Issue 6 (March 25, 2004). Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=23648 .
Hutchinson, Asa. Narco-Terror: The International Connection Between Drugs and Terror= (Speech). Institute for International Studies. Washington, DC., April 2, 2002. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/speeches/s040202.html .
Manwaring, M.G. (2005). Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.
This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.
Prohibitions against the…
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking
The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…
Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at < http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html >
Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.
Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.
The current opium irradiation program in Afghanistan is failing to address the long-term challenges impacting the country (i.e. poverty, a lack of economic opportunities and corruption). This is resulting in the Taliban and organized crime utilizing it as an avenue to create greater amounts of instability. In the ten years, seizures of opium and heroin have declined by 57 and 77% respectively. This is problematic, as it is making it difficult for the country to move forward beyond the decades of civil war. (Ackerman, 2014)
To address these issues, a new approach must be used that are showing the way forward. This will be accomplished by providing policy recommendations and suggesting a future course of action which can reverse key trends. Together, these insights will enhance stability and decrease the influence of the Taliban / organized crime elements.
The opium trade and poverty are directly related…
Drug War? American Troops are Protecting Afghan Opium. (2014) Global Research. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/drug-war-american-troops-are-protecting-afghan - opium-u-s-occupation-leads-to-all-time-high-heroin-production/5358053
The Most Addictive Drugs. (2014). Rehabs. Retrieved from: http://luxury.rehabs.com/drug-addiction/most-addictive/
National Drug Policy. (2001). Canadian Parliament. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/371/ille/library/dolin1-e.htm#3 .
Ackerman, S. (2014). Afghan Opium Production Explodes. The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/30/afghan-opium-production-explodes - billions-spent-us-report
Scores of illegal Latin Americans work in the hospitality industry, construction, meatpacking, agriculture, and landscaping sectors. In fact, in some of the states it is said that almost half of the construction workers are from Latin America. There are arguments that if all these illegal immigrants were removed these jobs would improve the unemployment situation for the American citizens. It is also generally argued that the pay scale for low skilled jobs would also increase. Also, most of the illegal aliens utilize healthcare, education and other services without paying taxes causing significant drain for the government.
The above points are clearly valid but there are both positive and negative effects of illegal immigration. Economists feel that totally eliminating illegal workers would only marginally improve the pay scale for high school dropouts and would not have any significant impact for workers with higher qualifications. Furthermore, illegal immigration contributes positively as Americans…
1) Michael Barone, 'Living with Illegals', U.S. News and World Report, April 3rd 2006.
History Of Organized Crime
More than a century of motion pictures and more than a half-century of television productions have created a somewhat romanticized version of organized crime as typified in "The Godfather" series. Indeed, there is even a National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, commonly known as "The Mob Museum" in Las Vegas which is a popular tourist destination (Green, 2013). The reality of organized crime, however, contrasts sharply with any romanticized depiction and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) emphasizes that organized crime is not only prevalent in the United States, it has become far more complex and broader in scope compared to the past. To determine the facts about the history of organized crime, this paper provides a background and overview followed by an analysis of some of the main sources of revenues for these criminal organizations. Finally, the paper concludes with an analysis of…
Calderon, F. (2015, Summer). Drug trafficking and organized crime: Connected but different. Harvard International Review, 36(4), 52-55.
Drug trafficking. (2016). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https:// www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/.
Green, M. (2013, October 1). How the Mob (Museum) was won: Building a history of organized crime in the U.S. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 17(2), 101-104.
Kelly, R. J. & Chin, K. L. (1999). Handbook of organized crime in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
Transnational criminals and organization are active in many parts of the U.S. and they make use of illicit cross-border tunnels, parcel services and other means to unlawfully smuggle and distribute drugs and narcotic substances among the communities.
In addition to causing personal harm to individuals consuming drugs, the activities of the transnational drug cartels often lead to significant amount of violence and crime. These are aspects that are associated with drug trafficking and such consequences have the potential to affect the well-being of citizens as well as the fabric of institutions that govern the country.
There are several strategies to combat this menace and all the strategies depend on intelligence gathering, sharing and effective understanding of the information to execute effective actions.
Some of the strategies that are useful in combating the foreign drug cartels and their impact in the U.S. society include maximizing Federal support for drug…
Over the course of about a year, it appears that "in total, some 1,725 weapons appear to have been involved," with weapons subsequently showing up in both the United States and Mexico (Cochran 2011).
Operation Fast and Furious first raised the interest and ire of the public in June 2010, when a document showed that the ATF had lets at least 309 guns walk before subsequently losing track of them (Cochran 2011). The practice of allowing straw purchasers to complete their purchase in order to track the gun had been done before, but the lack of oversight and communication seen in Operation Fast and Furious meant that the process of tracking these weapons suffered a fatal breakdown, so that they were ultimately lost until they showed up again at the scenes of crimes. It was this scenario that ultimately ignited the firestorm of controversy now surrounding the program, because in…
Chu, Vivian, and William Krouse. Gun Trafficking and the Southwest Border. Washington DC:
Congressional Research Service, 2009.
Cochran, Sylvia. "Timeline of Ill-Fated Gun Smuggling 'Operation Fast and Furious'." Yahoo
News. Yahoo, 27 Oct 2011. Web. 22 Nov 2011. .
history of events in the twentieth century, one might surmise that the twenty-first may not be all that different. Why? ecause human nature and the pursuit of self-interest has not changed from one century to the next. To explain what drives international relations, Joshua Goldstein provides a brief history of the world, in addition to information about the geographical features and the consequences of different nation's economies. (Goldstein, 2003) The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by relative peace in the world. The Franco-Prussian wars were at least three decades into the past. Nobody would envision that the worst horrors of a global scale wars were in the near future. In as much as Goldstein avers that the First World War was wholly unnecessary and it was, at least in its inception, a macho exercise (p. 37), one can believe that war is part of human nature.
Goldstein, J.S. International Relations. 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.
Tacitus, C., and Birley, A.R. Agricola; and Germany. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This course has enabled me to understand the actual description and meaning of public policy and its significant concepts. Generally, public policy is an action taken by the government through its executive branches in response to a specific public issue. Government agencies and organizations develop and implement public policy with the intention of protecting the society and providing benefits to the populations. Notably, such actions are taken based on the provisions in the Constitution and institutional traditions.
The most significant concepts learned in this course are the instrumentation, tools, and modes of operation of public policy. The significance of public policy instrumentation has been emphasized throughout the course because it shows the theoretical relationship between governing and the population. Secondly, knowledge regarding the tools and modes of operation of public policy has provided information on how every instrument comprise of strong knowledge regarding social control and various ways of implementing…
Kimery, A. (2012, July 12). 'Fast and Furious' Ignored Pleas to Track Guns with Technology,
Some Insiders Say. Retrieved August 7, 2013, from http://www.hstoday.us/blogs/the-kimery-report/blog/fast-and-furious-ignored-pleas-to-track-guns-with-technology-some-insiders-say/f115959a222459b18b7a28cc5af44040.html
Lascoumes, P. & Le Gales, P. (2007, January). Introduction: Understanding Public Policy
through Its Instruments -- From the Nature of Instruments to the Sociology of Public Policy Instrumentation. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 20(1), 1-21. Retrieved from http://graduateinstitute.ch/files/live/sites/iheid/files/sites/developpement/shared/developpement/cours/Atelier_Politiques_Publiques/PP%20legales-Lascoumes.pdf
Crime and Violence in Mexico
Introduction recent study by the orld Bank reveals that Mexico has become one of the most violent and crime-ridden regions in the world (Hart). After a slight decrease in the 1960's, the report shows that the murder rate has increased again in the 1990's to more than 16,000 murders per year (p. 111-113). The country's homicide rate was double that of the United States, with 18 killings for every 100,000 people.
Over the past few decades, Mexico's population has increased and urban poverty levels have risen. As a result of these two factors, Mexico has seen a significant increase in crime and violence. Residents have resorted to illegal means of making money, including drug rings and street crime, as the country struggled to incorporate a capitalist system.
A recent study from the Citizen's Institute for the Study of Insecurity reveals that 4.2 million Mexicans were…
Babb, Satrah. Managing Mexico: Economists from Nationalism to Neoliberalism. Princeton University Press, 2001.
Carl, Tracy. Rudy To The Rescue. The Associated Press. Oct. 10, 2002.
Hart, John. Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War.
University of California Press, 2002.
Foreign business environment: Columbia
A. What events (political, economic, and technological) are the most important in recent years that might have impacted the business culture in Colombia?
Individuals who perceive Colombia as still being paralyzed by crime networks and drug cartels are skeptical and bewildered by the notion of a confederation of politicians, business leaders, and academicians visiting the nation. However, in reality, the situation in Colombia is far different from what it was a mere ten years ago.
Colombia’s infamous cruel and powerful drug cartels emerged during the latter part of the seventies era and developed in the subsequent two decades. Specifically, the Cali Cartel and Pablo Escobar’s Medellín Cartel were politically, socially and economically influential in the nation in this period. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, the world regarded the nation as being well on its way to becoming a failure as a state.…
ACME Mexico City Analysis
Acme New Mexico
The author of this report is asked to conduct an analysis and issue a report for the ongoing operations of Acme New Mexico. First, there will be a focus on two data-collection techniques, those being sustainable supply chain management and decision support systems. The purpose of each technique chosen will be explained in addition to why each choice benefits the company. However, the limitations of each option will be explored and discussed as well. The costs and training of each technique will be mentioned. The problem, opportunity or challenge of Acme Mexico City will be mentioned as well as the roadblocks associated with achieving the necessary metrics and outcomes.
The reasoning behind the two techniques selected is not hard to decipher or justify. Sustainability is often dismissed a sham or unrealistic, even when it comes to supply chain topics. While petroleum…
AP. (1999, August 22). Hurricane Bret Nears Texas, Mexico. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved February 3, 2014, from http://articles.latimes.com/1999/aug/22/news/mn-2698
CareerBuilder. (2014, February 3). Greater Efficiency by Working Remotely.
CareerBuilder.com. Retrieved February 3, 2014, from http://www.careerbuilder.com/jobposter/small-business/article.aspx?articleid=ATL_0117TELECOMMUTE
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
globalized context, which of the two issues -- sovereign debt and energy insecurity -- is the greater challenge to U.S. national interests and why?
Globalization is the integration of trade, economic, financial and communication resources. Its primary focus is on the free transfer of goods and services across national borders. However, there are some restrictions which are applied under this philosophy. Most notably: the movement of people across national borders with little to no interference. This is designed to protect the smaller economies and encourage development inside these regions. (Dodds, 2012)
The biggest challenge for U.S. national security interests is energy insecurity. This is because all nations require resources (such as oil and natural gas) to maintain consistent levels of economic growth. The tighter supplies will lead to increased chances of conflicts taking place based upon controlling them. (Dodds, 2012)
A good example of this can be seen with the…
China Japan Island Dispute. (2013). Defense News. Retrieved from: http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130504/DEFREG03/305040006/China-Japan-Island-Dispute-Could-Become-Flashpoint
Burgan, M. (2007). America in World War Two. Milwaukee, WI: World Almanac Library.
Burr, M. (1994). Requiem for Sudan. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Dodds, F. (2012). Climate Change and Energy Insecurity. Sterling, VA: Dunstan House.
organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.
The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."
The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…
Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html
Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm
Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm
Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
This book deals with problems experienced in law enforcement that demonstrate the inability of police officers to make lawful decisions. Chapter 8 deals specifically with police corruption and identifies three elements that exist in police corruption. The first is, the behave must be forbidden, the second is misuse of officer's position, and third, the reward. Although this chapter offers no study, it does provide a look into what the definition of corruption is along with a possible explanation for the prevalence of corruption amongst police officers and law enforcement in general.
Block, C. (2015, December 30). Florida Police Under Investigation for Laundering $55.6 Million For Drug Cartels. Retrieved from http://www.mintpressnews.com/212404-2/212404/
A newspaper article, this source discusses police corruption in Miami. Florida cops that work for the Bal Harbour Police Department have allegedly laundered an estimated $55.6 million for…
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm