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Drug Culture Midterm
Prior to this course, I had a very narrow interpretation of drug culture in regards to film. The films I was most familiar with were those that focused on marijuana such as Cheech and Chong films, Pineapple Express, Half-Baked, and the Harold and Kumar trilogy among others. Additionally, the only other heroin-centric film I was aware of was Trainspotting, and the only other cocaine-centric film that had made an impression on me was Blow. However, as the term progressed, I became aware of how the general public perceived these drugs and how addiction was depicted in films.
Additionally, my definition of drug culture expanded to include things that are not necessarily consumed but that still alter a person's perceptions or contribute to addiction. These different types of addictions and mind-altering phenomena are most evident in Videodrome and The Social Network.
There are several films that…
Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.
On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…
Drug culture at Temple U
Transitioning from high school to college may be shocking to some individuals, but as they begin to get more comfortable with their environment, classes, and fellow students, one may realize that there are many similarities that carry over from their previous academic environment. One social structure that carries over from high school to college are the formation of social groups and cliques. The groups are usually formed because the individuals have common interests -- curricular or extracurricular -- or they are in the same academic program or share classes. Some social groups are also formed based on a shared interest in drugs. While drug use is not something that is openly discussed on campus, nor are drugs consumed openly, there is still evidence that supports the argument that students sometimes engage in recreational drug use.
One of the more widely accepted illegal drugs is marijuana.…
Cashing in on the demand for drugs can appear to be a lucrative opportunity, however, people always run the risk of getting caught for selling and distributing drugs. In an article from Philly.com by William Bender from August 23, 2012, one can see how prevalent drug use is at Temple University and at other schools. The article explains how 25 individuals were arrested in a sting that targeted an illegal pill ring. Among the pills that were sold to students at Temple are Oxycontin and Xanax. Furthermore, the sting also demonstrates that there is a demand for cocaine and marijuana at these schools as they were among the drugs that were sold and distributed by these drug dealers. It is also interesting to see that the ages of the individuals arrested in the sting ranged from 20 to 46, which indicates that drugs were not only distributed to students by students, but that outside individuals were also cashing in on the demand for drugs.
This article is especially interesting because it demonstrates the complexity of independent drug businesses. It is baffling to see the lengths to which people will go to in order to make money. The article states that one dealer was bringing home $2,000 to $3,000 a week! Considering that comes out to $104,000 to $156,000 a year, it is easy to understand the draw that such a dangerous endeavor has and why people would be willing to risk everything to be successful in this line of work. It will interesting to see how the trial of these individuals plays out because of the range of charges everyone is charged with and the extent of each of these people's involvement in the drug ring.
While Jacob's Ladder is a horror film, Jacob Singer, played by Tim Robbins, is haunted by hallucinations, which he is convinced are a result of secret government chemical or drug testing carried out on him during the Vietnam War. In this regard, Jacob's Ladder comments on the countless unknown substances that are secretly administered to unwilling subjects. This aspect of the film, although ultimately proving to be untrue as Jacob's hallucinations are a desperate attempt to cling to life and he really dies in Vietnam, focuses on a different aspect of drug culture: drug testing and manufacture. In Jacob's Ladder, Jacob and his fellow soldiers, serve as ersatz lab rats, considered to be disposable by the U.S. government.
On the other hand, the Insider, directed by Michael Mann, focuses on the power held by drug corporations and their ability to influence the media and public perceptions of individuals. The Insider…
And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and…
Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/
Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway
Drug addiction. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Drug:addiction.htm
Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics
A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and…
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
social poblem of using and selling dugs is potayed in music. I'm inteested in studying this because music has at once been accused of gloifying dug cultue and also as being one of the few means of allowing uses to vent on the ealities of dug cultue. Clealy, the elationship between dugs and music is a complex one. This pape will seek to shed light on the motivations fo atists to incopoate dug cultue in thei songs and what they pesumably gain fom it, and what society pesumably gains fom it as well.
The fist song that this pape will examine when it comes to the teatment of dugs as subject matte fo songs is in the wok of 2 Pac in his famous song, "Changes." This song is so emakable in that it addesses a temendous amount of social injustice in that is still alive and well in the…
references. Music Ther Perspectives, 69-76.
Duff, C. (2003). Drugs and Youth Cultures: Is Australia Experiencing the 'Normalization' of Adolescent Drug Use? Journal of Youth Studies, 433-447.
Genius.com. (n.d.). Corner Bodega. Retrieved from genius.com: http://rap.genius.com/50-cent-corner-bodega-coke-spot-lyrics
Genius.com. (n.d.). The Way We Get By. Retrieved from Genius.com: http://rock.genius.com/Spoon-the-way-we-get-by-lyrics
Lyrics.com. (n.d.). Changes 2 pac. Retrieved from lyrics.com: http://www.lyrics.com/changes-lyrics-2pac.html
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml
DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.
Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.
Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
Culture and Health Disparities - Filipinos
PESONAL SOCIAL STATUS: In researching this project, I found a study prepared by the Canadian Nurses Association (2005). It reviewed the social determinants of health and how one's social status impacts their or their family health outcomes. The focus of this piece was on issues such as poverty, economic inequality, social isolation and social support systems and their impact on the health of minorities, many of the same categories and characteristics mentioned in the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (Andrews et al., 2010). While their study was more on a broad base of Canadian conditions, their findings seem to reflect the circumstances of many first and second generation Filipinos. First and later generations of Filipinos who move to new cultures do act differently, but for the most part there remain many family connections and networks that cannot be overlooked.
My social status is mostly a…
Andrews, M. et al. (2010). Theoretical Basis for Transcultural Care. Section II. Foundations of Transcultural Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Vol. 21. DOI: 10.1177/1043659610374321.
Canadian Nursing Association (2005). Social Determinants of Health and Nursing: A summary of Issues. Canadian Nursing Association. Viewable at http://www.cna-aiic.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/BG8_Social_Determinants_e.pdf.
Castillo, M.V. (nd). Caring in the Diaspora: Filipino Immigrants, Health Care, Healing, and Religion. Religious Healing in Boston. Viewable at http://www.hds.harvard.edu/cswr/resources/print/rhb/reports/13.Castillo.pdf .
McBride, M. (nd). Health and Health Care of Filipino Elders. Stanford Geriatric Education Center. Viewable at http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/filipino.html .
Culture and Marketing Strategy
About the print ad from http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2013/johnnie-walker-from-the-future/
The print ad is about a certain brand of alcoholic drink that is endorsed by a professional athlete. The athlete takes a sip from a glass of whisky and begins walking. This in a way appears to suggest that consumers of this particular brand of whisky can cover long distances after taking this whiskey. Information pertaining to alcoholic content and how the brand is matured are not clearly visible on the ad. The only visible thing is the image of the person who has endorsed the brand making some strides.
Assumptions made by the authors of the ad
The authors of the ad try to make the ad to be more appealing to the motives and desires of the consumers. They give form to people's deep-lying desires. They assume that they will best arrest the consumer's attention by tugging consumer's…
Altstiel, T & Grow, J. (2006). Advertising Strategy: Creative Tactics From the Outside/In. CA:
Petracca, M. & Sorapure, M. (1998). Common Culture: Reading and Writing about American
Popular Culture. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Drugs at a Friend's House
The ethical dilemma of this scenario revolves around the question of what an officer's duties are when he or she is technically 'off-duty.' There is little question that when someone's life is at stake, such as during an armed robbery, that an officer has a moral obligation to intervene. However, the terms of this scenario are far more ambiguous. There is no immediate, obvious risk to life but persons are engaged in illegal drug use.
In this situation, it is unlikely that the officer's friend knows there is drug use going on at his house -- he would probably not invite a police officer into his house and allow his friends to use drugs. However, making an arrest would be profoundly disruptive and embarrassing to the friend's party. According to police protocol, "remember, you have NO LEGAL O DEPATMENTAL obligation to get involved, especially if…
Berry, Steve. (1991). Most departments prohibit accepting gifts. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved:
Ryan, Jack. (2007). Model policy: Off-duty action. Legal and Liability Policy Institute.
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…
A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx
Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).
Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.
The major concern is the effect of violence, due once again, to studies that show a connection between watching violence and participating in it. For example, Bushman and Anderson (2002) conducted as study in which they determined that playing violent video games can "engender hostile expectations, leading one to expect that others will respond aggressively" (p. 1679).
The Grand Theft Auto series of video games has undoubtedly been a major instigator in the backlash against the gaming industry. Not surprisingly, most parents are not too thrilled about the idea of their children taking on the persona of a character who commits crimes to earn rewards, and runs over prostitutes so he doesn't have to pay them. There was also a major parental backlash against the PS2 game Bully before it was released, because parents assumed that it would glorify bullying. The frenzy turned out to be unfounded as the game…
Bushman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679 -- 1686.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J. & Wykes, M. (2003) Violence on television: Distribution, form, context, and themes, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Rekulak, J. & Spangler, B. (2006) Let's Paint the '90s, Quirk Books
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…
Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .
Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.
Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.
Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.
Paxil tying drug readings: (Using readings support analysis)… the articles: "The
In order to properly analyze the drug known as Paxil, one must give prudent consideration to a number of factors. The first of these, of course, is the fact that by the very definition of this narcotic, it is a mind altering substance that is able to readily induce changes in one's brain or psychological state that often time have effects upon the physical body as well. Additionally, it should be noted that the very nature of this particular narcotic is quite different from other narcotics, in particular those which are used for recreational purposes -- namely mind altering substances such as alcohol and marijuana. It is quite possible for users to view occasions to engage in either of these substances as opportunities for fun and pleasure, particularly marijuana. However, although there may be medicinal purposes of…
Becker, Howard S. "Becoming a Marihuana User." The American Journal of Sociology. 59, no.3 (1953): 235-242.
DeGrandpre, Richard. The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Hacking, Ian. "Making Up People." The London Review of Books. 28, no. 16 (2006)
Neural Correlates of Drug elapse Propensity
efraining from Drug Use
Treating drug addiction requires experience and skill, because no single approach has broad efficacy (reviewed by Bauer, Covault, and Gelernter, 2012). High inter-individual variability of contributing factors and a lack of knowledge about what causes treatment failure (reviewed by Walton, Blow, and Booth, 2001), helps explain a relapse rate between 40% to 60% (NIDA, 2011). For this reason, researchers have been trying to identify what factors contribute to addictive tendencies and influence treatment success.
To better understand why some substance abusers are successful in overcoming their drug addictions and others are not, this essay will examine the neural correlates of drug relapse behavior. Particular attention will be paid to environmental and genetic factors and how they influence brain function on an anatomical and cellular level.
Neural Correlates of Environmental Triggers
Environmental triggers have long been known to increase the risk…
Bauer, L.O., Covault, J., and Gelernter, J. (2012). GABRA2 and KIBRA genotypes predict early relapse to substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123, 154-159.
NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse & Addiction). (2011). The science of drug abuse and addiction. DrugAbuse.gov. Retrieved 22 Oct. 2012 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse-addiction .
Potenza, Marc N., Hong, Kwang-ik A., Lacadie, Cheryl M., Fulbright, Robert K., Tuit, Keri L., and Sinha, Rajita. (2012). Neural correlates of stress-induced and cue-induced drug craving: Influences of sex and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 406-414.
Preston, Kenzie L. And Epstein, David H. (2011). Stress in the daily lives of cocaine and heroin users: Relationship to mood, craving, relapse triggers, and cocaine use. Psychopharmacology, 218, 29-37.
Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not
Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).
Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…
Ajzen, I. (2010). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2006). Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 2005. MMWR 2006, 55.
Cicero, T.J., Inciardi, J.A., & Munoz, A. (2005). Trends in abuse of OxyContin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004. The Journal of Pain, 6, 662-672.
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Prescription pain medications: Frequently asked questions and answers for health care professionals and law enforcement personnel. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 19(1), 71-104.
Public school culture is fairly similar even amidst ethnically and geographically diverse schools. For example, there is prohibition of classroom prayer. Students and school staff must maintain a professional and platonic relationship at all times. Any student or school staff engaging in illegal behaviors must be reported. These are just some things that every public school must do or else face potential legal problems. That being said, the culture in the school can be split up into subcultures where the differences can clearly be seen.
Cultural context has always been an important area to examine. Organizations often have their own sub-culture demonstrated by the ones working there. An example is corporate culture. Each company has its own corporate culture and corporate cultures often develop as an ethos generated and maintained by images, ritual, symbols, and social processes. "ituals are often embedded in the formal structure of the organization, as in…
Mavrofides, T., Kameas, A., Papageorgiou, D., & Los, A. (2011). On the Entropy of Social Systems: A Revision of the Concepts of Entropy and Energy in the Social Context. Syst. Res., 28(4), 353-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sres.1084
Mele, C., Pels, J., & Polese, F. (2010). A Brief Review of Systems Theories and Their Managerial Applications. Service Science, 2(1-2), 126-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/serv.2.1_2.126
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
In this way, they differ significantly from the general global tendency to have fewer children in the interest of a sustainable future for humanity. Cultural values are regarded as primarily important in the decision to have and raise children.
When the issue is thoroughly investigated, it is clear that culture is indeed a political issue. There are several and divergent reasons for this, of which the most important is that both politics and culture are inseparable from human life itself. There is no community that does not have some sort of government and some sort of culture. The ways in which culture and politics interact and manifest are as numerous as there are nations on earth. This is what makes it both a complicated and rich field of study.
Bentley, Jerry H. 1996. Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History. The American Historical eview, Vol. 101, no. 3. June…
Bentley, Jerry H. 1996. Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History. The American Historical Review, Vol. 101, no. 3. June 1995. http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/support/whatis_reading_2.pdf
International association for Conflict Management. 2007. Reciprocating concessions in intercultural and intracultural contexts. 20th Annual Conference: Budapest Hungary, July 1-4. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1100608
Philpott, Daniel. Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion. University of Notre Dame
Sizoo, Edith. 2000. An intercultural and multilingual contribution to the framing of a Charter of the Alliance. Syros Workshop, Greece. October 30 -- November 4.
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…
African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/
Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3
FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html
MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
American pop culture has been cultivated and molded by mass media. The recent iteration of mass media, electronic media, has a profound and significant influence on the daily lives, thoughts, perceptions and desires of every single person in the United States, whether people are aware of this influence, or not. The potential for media to influence people has been the subject of much debate since the earliest forms of mass media; newspaper, radio, and television have all contributed to our individual and collective psyche in America. This paper will discuss the roles that music, radio, television, and the motion pictures have played in the development of American popular culture as well as discuss some of the trends propagated by the electronic media and will provide a personal perspective on the relationship between media representations and consumerism, the human body and justice, law, and order.
Bagdikian (2000, pg. 185) notes that…
Bagdikian, B. (2000) The Media Monopoly, Sixth Edition. Beacon Press.
Bhattacharya, P. (July, 2003) Back to the future: Urbanization, globalization and consumerism. Boloji.com. Retrieved from http://www.boloji.com/opinion/0051i.htm
Zoubkov, P., Johnson, S., Young, N., Fletcher, H. & Thomas, B. (2004) Global Bits: Corporate influence in the media. Global Education Center, 3, 87-93 Retrieved from http://www.globaled.org.nz
e. according to American norms and conventions. Part of this, incidentally, was due too to the fault of government itself that failed to provide them with the land, which the Hmong could have fertilized.
I realized that even thoguh America has gone a long way in attempting to appreciate other cultures and in refraining from foisting their own way of life on cultures other than they; they still do so to a certain extent.
I also wonder why people found it so hard to understand that others coming from lives so different than they would need time to acclimate and learn their 'language'.
Most of all I was impressed with the steadfastness, courage, and resilience of the Lees to resolutely cling to her traditions and way of life despite recrimination and hardship.
There are some things that are better in the Hmong culture than in the Western culture, such as…
Fadiman, A. The spirit catches you and you fall down. Farrar & co., 1997
cultures you selected. Then describe two cultural attitudes, two cultural beliefs, and two cultural practices regarding HIV / AIDS in the cultures you selected. Finally, explain two factors that may impede the success of an HIV / AIDS prevention program in the cultures you selected and why. Support your response using the literature provided.
Attitude towards AIDS: Cultural differences
Although AIDS is an illness that knows no cultural barriers, the ways that cultures interpret the illness can be profoundly different. In the United States, when the illness first began to spread, there was a tendency to 'ghettoize' the disease. During the early years it was referred to as 'the gay plague' and the focus was solely upon its impact in the gay community. But as the illness grew more widespread to other populations, it became clear that this was not a useful paradigm through which to view AIDS. Additionally, the…
Within Japanese culture the taint of 'foreignness' remains regarding AIDS, in stark contrast to the United States The Japanese public still regards AIDS as something that 'cannot happen here,' despite the fact that alone of all the major industrial powers Japan's AIDS rate is still climbing. There is no widespread testing campaign in Japan, nor are there government-led awareness-raising campaigns as exist in the United States. The Japanese sense of cultural uniqueness and separation from the rest of the world is seen in the cultural attitudes expressed in the Japanese AIDS policy by public officials, by the media, and most unaffected citizens.
This refusal to acknowledge AIDS may seem puzzling to an outsider, given that Japan is not known as a particularly prudish culture (the use of love hotels by couples is common) and tends to be quite aggressive in using its public health resources to raise awareness and education about disease. For example, regarding lifestyle-related dietary diseases, "In Japan, public health nurses (PHNs) are traditionally employed by local governments. Each PHN is in charge of a specific geographical area and provides community residents with various health services, such as health counseling and home visits" (Marutani & Miyazaki 2010: 392).
PHNs have been widely credited as one of the reasons Japan has such a long lifespan for its elders and relatively low diabetes and obesity rates. There have been efforts to ensure that the advice
Culture on Substance Use Among Adolescents
Cultural values do have a significant impact on most adolescents' attitudes towards drug abuse. It should be noted that what is regarded "illicit" varies from culture to culture. In that regard, therefore, one social group could be appreciative and encourage the use of a substance that is considered illicit in another cultural setting or social grouping. This text concerns itself with the influence culture has on substance use among adolescents. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, highlight the various dimensions of culture that have an impact on adolescent treatment and prevention of substance use disorders, and focus on the kinds of cultural groups that adolescents could belong to that have some influence on their behavior and attitudes towards substance abuse and attitudes.
The relevance of culture when it comes to the formation of an individual's expectations on the negative impact of…
Abbott P.J. & Trujillo M. (1996). Alcohol and drug abuse among Hispanics. In: Kinney J, ed. Clinical Manual of Substance Abuse. 2:197- 207.
Marin G. & Marin B. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Robin R.W., Saremi A., Albaugh B., et al. (2004). Validity of the SMAST in two American Indian tribal populations. Subst Use Misuse. 39:601-624.
Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career
Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.
As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…
Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.
The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…
Lande, R.G.; Marin, B. (2009) Biomarker characteristics of alcohol use in the U.S. Army. J Addict Diseases 28: 158-163. DOI:10.1080/10550880902772506
Larson, M.J.; Wooten, N.R.; Adams, R.S.; et al. (2012). Military combat deployments and substance use: Review and future directions. J Soc Work Pract Addict 12: 6-27. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2012.647586
McFarling, L.; D'Angelo, M.; Drain, M.; et al. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse and mental health treatment. Military Psychology 23: 1-5 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2011.534397
Milliken, C.S.; Auchterlonie, J.L.; Hoge, C.W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. JAMA 298: 2141-2148 doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141
Gender in Post-Communist Society
Consider the differences between gendered behavior in the Czech Republic and the U.S.A.… which socio-historical factors affect the Czechs' present-day gender identity and gender issues?
Men are respected as the stronger sex and this determines the way they relate women. A Czech has a striking mixture of firm attachment to the labor market and strong family values, considerable independence and personal efficiency. The women are homemakers and breadwinners. They are also able to command attention. Another interesting part of the Czech gender roles is that love outweighs work. For example, more women devote their time to care for their children at home unlike before and make considerable efforts in finding husbands (Delphy & Leonard, 175).
I noticed that Czech women are nicely dressed in order for them to find husbands while the men act chivalrously in order for them to find wives. Many women abandon their…
Nanette Funk and Magda Mueller, "Feminism East and West," Gender Politics and Post-Communism. Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union,(1993) New York and London, Routledge, pp. 318-330.
Berger, John. "Ways of Seeing. London": BBC Penguin Books. pp. 129-154. 1977
Beauvoir, Simone de, "The Psychoanalytical Point-of-View," pp. 49-61. (2010). In the second sex New. York: Vintage Books
Delphy, Ch. And Leonard, D. "The Variety of Work Done by Wives," in (eds.) Jackson, S. And Scott, S. G Gender: A Sociological Reader. New York: Routledge. pp. 170-179.2002
Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…
Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
American Drug Policy: Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.
Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
Ecstasy vs. Heroin overdoses -- treatment and diagnosis
For many EMTs, depending on the city and time they are stationed in, one of the most common problems they will have to cope with is dealing with a drug overdose. However, although all drug overdoses are dangerous, not all illegal drug overdoses are the same, symptomatically or in their treatment. A great deal of misinformation exists regarding drug overdoses and their treatment in popular culture -- even the popular film "Pulp Fiction" which depicts a 'successful' treatment of snorted heroin is in fact inaccurate -- ephedrine to the heart would not have saved a victim of a heroin overdose in real life. (Kuhn, 2003)
hen dealing with any suspected drug overdose, the first thing to determine is in fact the victim's symptoms are indeed due to the ingestion of a drug, rather than of alternate cause. This is especially…
Ecstasy Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com. Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/heroin.htm
Heroin Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/ecstasy.htm
Kuhn, Cynthia, et al. (2003) Buzzed: The Straight Facts about the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy. Second Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Drug Enforcement Administration, the Controlled Substances Act, and the War on Drugs all show that drug prohibition has been framed as a federal issue. Recent state-by-state legalization of cannabis (marijuana) has challenged and undermined the efficacy of federal drug laws and anti-drug policies. Almost half the states have now legalized marijuana for either medical or recreational use (Hill, 2015). The state-by-state legalization scheme creates legal and ethical conundrums. For example, Hill points out that federal anti-drug legislation prohibits legal marijuana businesses operating in states like Colorado to use national financial institutions for banking. Without access to the usual range of financing options, cannabis dispensaries and other related businesses are driven to a cash-only business which can "attract thieves and tax cheats," (Hill, 2015, p. 597). Other problems include the inability of Americans to legally transport cannabis over state lines, even between two states that both legalized the drug. Canada recently…
Anti-Drug Campaign for Teens
At present, marijuana is the most used drug and most frequently available in United States of America. The American youth takes serious dosages of marijuana. At least 60% of the adult population in United States of America was prone to marijuana in 2002. The statistics were prepared in the supervision of The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. The website address is www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov .
Social marketing campaigns as well as social awareness programs are imperative to raise and propagate awareness pertaining to excessive drug abuse in United States of America. But in this case, the social campaigners as well as social marketers are armed with effective programs and messages, but remain hesitant to reach the teen audience. It's a tad bit complicated. Wordsen and Slater (2004) concluded that creating targeted ads regarding marijuana and its abuse through PSA's tended to be less…
Eddy, M. (2003). War on Drugs: The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. CRS Report for Congress, Order Code RS21490
Teinowitz, I. (2003). "Drug Office to Yank Terror Ads in About-Face," Advertising Age, March 31, 2003, pp. 1, 89.
US Congress (2002). U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Treasury and General Government, Effectiveness of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, special hearing, 107th Cong., 2nd sess., June 19, 2002 (Washington: GPO), p. 14.
Worden, J.K. & Slater, M.D. (2004). Theory and practice in the national youth anti-drug media campaign. Social Marketing Quarterly. 10 (2), 13-27.
ouldn't the government need the same amount of money, or perhaps even more, to regulate the new drug system. I can' only imagine the bureaucracy necessary to manage the legal trade of things like heroin, crack cocaine and meth.
The other prong of Vidal's argument is that "forbidding people the things the like or think they might enjoy only makes them want those things all the more." He claims that this psychological insight is obvious and yet denied by our government. As evidentiary support, he points to prohibition, but his arguments about prohibition don't directly support his thesis. He argues, correctly, that crime increased because of the prohibition of alcohol, and that the law caused a general contempt for the government, but he does not prove that people wanted to drink more because alcohol was prohibited to them.
The analogy between alcohol and drugs also does not hold up to…
Caruso, David B. "Higher Cigarette Taxes Lure Buyers to Black Market." The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/04/10/higher-cigarette-taxes-lu_n_96094.html April 10, 2008
"Number of Adult Smokers." Smoking from All Sides. http://smokingsides.com/docs/us_adults_bystate95 . November 8, 1996
"Richard M. Nixon." United States History. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1948.html .
Club Drugs & Ecstasy
"Though some researchers have indicated club drug users are more likely to be poly-drug users, there remains little known about the prevalence and specific combinations of the substances they use…" (Grov, et al., 2009, p. 848).
The use of club drugs in the United States has been a problem for healthcare agencies and law enforcement for many years. The focus of research on the use of club drugs (notably ecstasy) in most articles is on "rave" events, where loud music and drug use is typical. This paper reviews and critiques the literature related to the use and abuse of club drugs.
The Literature on Club Drugs and the Issues Associated with Club Drug Usage
How extreme is club drug use in Chicago? A profile of adult club drug use was measured by Michael Fendrich and colleagues and published in the peer-reviewed journal Addiction (Fendrich, et al.,…
Banta-Green, Caleb, Goldbaum, Gary, Kingston, Susan, Golden, Matthew, Harruff, Richard,
and Logan, Barry K. (2005). Epidemiology of MDMA and Associated Club Drugs in the Seattle Area. Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 40, 1295-1315.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Ecstasy Overdoses at a New Year's Eve
Rave -- Los Angeles, California, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(22).
Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.
National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business
The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…
Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html
Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf
Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.
Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html
Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence
Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating social and moral problem in our society; but it is also a serious police problem, and an expensive health problem. In fact, the annual health care cost associated with the manifestations of DV is estimated to run as high as $857 million in the United States (odiguez, et al., 2001). But moreover, DV takes a toll on American families that is much greater than any dollar amount could ever reflect - and, in addition, DV is a social blemish on the face of America that seems to be getting worse, not better. The "causes" of violence in the family - why men act aggressively against their wives and girlfriends and even their children - are varied and complicated; but in too…
Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (2003). Alcohol use may increase the likelihood of domestic violence. 15 p7.
Brain, Paul F. (1986). Alcohol and Aggression. London: Croom Helm.
Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. (1997). Drugs, Alcohol, and Domestic Violence
In Memphis: Research in Progress Seminar Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Female Substance Abusers and Addicts
Heroin is a highly addictive substance which is characterized by a rush of biophysiological symptoms such as a rush or feeling of euphoria, heaviness in one's extremities and a certain element of dry mouth (rehab-international.org). When it comes to heroin and gender, either gender can become addicted to it in a brief amount of time: "Addiction to heroin is characterized by the compulsion to use heroin despite an onset of negative consequences and despite the user's best attempts at stopping via willpower alone" (rehab-international.org). For women, one of the more common traits of heroin abuse is rather detrimental: the acquired tolerance means that greater doses of heroin have to be taken in order to get the original effects of the drug. When women are under the influence of the drug, they may engage in unsafe sexual activity, actions which can lead to STDs, unintended pregnancies…
Anderson, T. (2000). Drug Use and Gender . udel.edu, 286-292.
Beckerleg, S.'Women heroin users: Exploring the limitations of the structural violence approach,'
International Journal of Drug Policy, vol:16 2005, p183 -190
Cicero, T., Ellis, M., & Surratt, H. (2014). The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 821-826.
Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…
Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165-183.
Cooper, C.S. (2001). Juvenile Drug Court Programs. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf
Office of Justice Programs. (2003). Juvenile Drug Courts: Strategies in Practice. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/197866.pdf
United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. (2015). BRIDGE Program: Mission Statement and Policies. United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from http://www.scp.uscourts.gov/Downloads/BRIDGEProgramMissionPolicies.pdf
Breaux's development proved that thujone was not the ingredient that caused hallucinations in the drink (Adams).
Despite the legal issues surrounding its use, absinthe as a tool for inspiration is a topic yearning for much discussion. The Parisian artists such as Van Gough that used absinthe for inspiration no doubt thought that their creativity was a result of the hallucinations that it inspired. Marilyn Manson even developed his own brand of Absinthe, which can be purchased online. Other than Manson, modern artists such as Trash ednesday have produced songs about or inspired by the drink. Trash ednesday's album is even called "Absinthe Mind" ("Trash ednesday"). Is the fact that the drug is so overtly referenced as an inspiration for art and music by both modern artists and artists of the past feeding into a culture of acceptance regarding mind-altering substances? Some would suggest that this is true, while others would…
Adams, Paul. "Barely Legal: American Absinthe Passes the Taste Test." Wired. 19 July
2007. 12 April 2009.
"The History of Absinthe." Liqueurs de France. n.d. 12 April 2009.
Hacker Culture and Mitigation in the International Systems
The explosion of the internet technology in the contemporary business and IT environments has assisted more than 300 million computer users to be connected through a maze of internet networks. Moreover, the network connectivity has facilitated the speed of communication among businesses and individuals. (Hampton, 2012). Despite the benefits associated with the internet and network technologies, the new technologies have opened the chance for hackers to attack the information systems of business organizations and collect sensitive information worth millions of dollars. Each year, businesses have been a victim of cyber-attacks in the United States. As an increasing number of people and businesses own internet-enabled devices, more businesses have become a victim of cyber-attacks, which has become a critical concern in the business and governmental environments. (Hacker news, n.d.).
The objective of this paper is to analyze the cyber incidents of the Sony…
Atkinson, S (2015). Psychology and the hacker - Psychological Incident Handling. Sans Institute.
Christopher, A. & Vasili, M. (2006). The KGB and the World: The Mitrokhin Archive II. Penguin. 41: 120-1.
FBI (2014). Update on Sony Investigation. Federal Bureau of Investigation. USA.
Fotinger, C.S. & Ziegler, W.(2004). Understanding a hacker's mind -- A psychological insight into the hijacking of identities. Donau-Universitat Krems. Commissioned by RSA Security.
Music on American Culture and Values
Over time, music has molded the American culture and its values in a variety of ways. In this text, I will highlight the various ways in which both music and radio have shaped American values and culture. In so doing, I will identify my favorite genre/type of music in an attempt to highlight the impact the music I listen to has had on American culture and social behavior.
How the American Culture and Its Values Has Been Shaped by Music and adio
In the words of Eldridge (2008), "by the close of the 1930s, twenty-eight million households (and seven million cars) boasted at least one radio set, with most tuned-in to a network or local station for an average of five hours a day." In that regard, it would be correct to point out that radio has played a critical role in the growth…
Bob & Hanger, J. (2012). The Silent Generation: 1925 -- 1945. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Eldridge, D.N. (2008). American Culture in the 1930s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Keith, M.C. (2008). Radio Cultures: The Sound Medium in American Life. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Dutch Culture "Typical Dutch?"
The history of the Netherlands is demonstratie of a unique situation both socially and politically as the leel of Dutch tolerance has been duly noted on countless issues. The historical underpinnings of this are clearly defined in the brief document History in an Nutshell clearly details the liberal nature of the formation of the nation and its political system as well as the many times that this liberal/tolerant policy stance has been challenged, from abroad and now from within. Another interesting aspect of the history of the Netherlands is that up to the end of French occupation the region was actually a Republic and the only after the end of the French occupation did the nation become a monarchy. Yet despite its liberal and tolerant demeanor and een in the wake of many European reolutions that resulted in the end of monarchies the Dutch hae remained…
van Voss, Lex Heerma "Dilemmas of the Welfare State." 1-11.
Shouf shouf habibi! (2004) Motion Picture IMDb plot summary http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0341578/plotsummary
Simon (2004) Motion Picture IMDb plot summary http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0393775/plotsummary
Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism
There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…
Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)
Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)
Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
Primary mode of subsistence of the Maori culture, for example pastoralists, emerging agriculturalists, industrialists, agrarians states, horticulturalists and foragers has impact on different aspects of cultures. In New Zealand settlers were the cause of the primary mode of subsistence. New Zealand Maori's cultural identity tends to be varied and the census of 1991 showed that Maori are identifying themselves in diverse ways. The revelation of the census was that 511,947 were some ancestry of "Maori," there was claim by 433,080 to be "New Zealand Maori' ethnic group as well as ethnic group which has the smallest population of 321,396 saying to be from the "New Zealand Maori" ethnic group. The population of New Zealand Maori is 4 million. In this population, quite loose approximately number tend to be: 1 in 7 possesses Maori blood, 2 in 7 are Scots, 2 to 7 have English origin, 2 in 7…
d'Ardenne, P. & Mahtani, A. (1994). Transcultural Counselling in Action. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Durie, M. (2004). Mauri Ora. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
Lange. R. (1999). May The People Live. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press.
Orange, C. (1997). The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington, N.Z. Bridget Williams Books Limited.
The author of this report has been asked to offer a summary and analysis of a CPS-oriented intervention with an at-risk child. The intervention will be described from beginning to end. It will be summarized how there was a prevention or resolution to problems that were discovered. There will be an analysis of how there was negotiating and advocacy on behalf of the client. There will be a listing of at least three practice skills (micro and/or macro) that were used as part of the intervention. There will be a general critique of the intervention's progress and performance, what could have been done to generate a better outcome, whether the intervention was empowering and whether it was discriminatory or oppressive.
The story in question is about a woman named Alice. Despite what her name might imply, lice is actually a Latino. She is under the scrutiny of…
Edwards, B., & Addae, R. (2015). Ethical decision-making models in resolving ethical dilemmas in rural practice: Implications for social work practice and education. Journal of Social Work Values & Ethics, 12(1), 88-92.
Lipsky, S., & Caetano, R. (2009). Epidemiology of Substance Abuse Among
Latinos. Journal Of Ethnicity In Substance Abuse, 8(3), 242-260.
Couse / subject= Drugs Across Cultures. ANT110. Writing Anthropology Essay. Essay question = "Is addiction a cultural category a biological reality?' Needs point view, provide backup resource readings. Also -text citation.
The concept of addiction is one of the most debated topics in the present and many individuals have expressed particular interest in discovering the factors that are probable to make certain groups exposed to substances. Addiction is one of society's most pressing problems and it is essential for individuals to focus on combating it through any means available. In order for society to be able to determine whether addiction is more related to biological factors than it is to cultural factors, one would need to follow patterns and learn more regarding what leads to addiction. The fact that the masses over generalize makes it difficult for researchers to get a better understanding of what addiction is. While addiction can…
Ahmad, Diana L. "The Opium Debate And Chinese Exclusion Laws In The Nineteenth-Century American West," (University of Nevada Press, 2007)
Choudhury, Suparna and Slaby, Jan, "Critical Neuroscience: A Handbook of the Social and Cultural Contexts of Neuroscience," (John Wiley & Sons, 2011)
Conrad, Peter and Schneider, Joseph, "Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness," (Temple University Press, 1992)
Farrell Brodie, Janet and Redfield, Marc, "High Anxieties: Cultural Studies in Addiction," (University of California Press, 2002)
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.
Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)
In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…
Arfaniarromo, A. (2001). Toward a Psychosocial and Sociocultural Understanding of Achievement Motivation among Latino Gang Members in U.S. Schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(3), 123. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000891430
Boose, D.W. (2003). Rethinking the Korean War. Parameters, 33(4), 175+. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002573236
Coughlin, B.C., & Venkatesh, S.A. (2003). The Urban Street Gang after 1970. 41+.
Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S.E. (Eds.). (2004). Teen Gangs: A Global View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107029652
mass tourism on the culture of Ibiza
Ibiza in Spain is one of the best-preserved medieval islands in Europe. The island is closest of all the Balearic Islands to mainland Spain and has a 200 km coastline. Although it has a reputation as a party island, there is much more to it than nightclubs. There are many small coves and over 50 beaches. One can view other Ibiza attractions, museums, events, festivals and travel. Ibiza has earned the title of "Clubbing Capital" of the world. The temperatures range from 20 degrees Celsius in May to around 27 in August. The population hovers around 110000 while the language spoken is Castilian Spanish. The currency accepted is the Euro. During the 1990's, tourism was boosted in the island when it earned the Guinness ecord as the entertainment industry in the world. Since it has around 300 days of sunshine throughout the year,…
Ibiza Information" Retrieved at http://www.ibiza.world-guides.com/ . Accessed on 10 May 2004.
Tourism and Environment on the Island of Ibiza" Retrieved at http://www.ecociencia.com/tourism.htm. Accessed on 10 May '2004.
Tourism and Biodiversity" Retrieved at http://www.ukotcf.org/pdf/calpe/calpe125-144.pdf . Accessed on 10 May '2004.
Ibiza Uncovered" Retrieved at http://www.drugtext.org/library/articles/bellis.htm . Accessed on 10 May '2004.
The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As is quickly apparent while reading the case study, the company engaged in a long and extensive list of ethical and/or legal violations as a means to maximize profit and minimize the legal and other red tape that seems to bother them even though it is there for a very good reason. The ethical issues involved will be touched upon and analyzed. There will also be an exploration and analysis of direct-to-consumer marketing of drugs, whether John is the "investor" of AD23, the arguments about John being a whistleblower and the associated protections he would have if he is and examples of intellectual property theft that have occurred in the last two years or so. While bad things do incidentally happen and…
Direct-Consumer Drug Advertising
Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising
Direct-to-consumer drug advertising of pharmaceutical drugs is a hot-button issue. Is it ethical, or does it lead to self-diagnosis and take advantage of people who have hope for a cure? Currently, New Zealand and the United States are the only two countries that allow this kind of direct-to-consumer advertising to take place, which calls into question why other countries do not allow the same, if the practice is ethical. From a deontological point-of-view, using Kant's categorical imperative, this paper will address whether the direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical drugs is ethical or unethical. According to the deontological approach, one's duty is to do what is morally right and avoid what is morally wrong, regardless of what the consequences of those actions may be (Beauchamp, 1991; Waller, 2005). Because that is the case, there are moral questions raised that have to be considered with something as…
Beauchamp, T.L. (1991). Philosophical Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy, 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw Hill.
Kamm, F.M. (1996). Morality, Mortality Vol. II: Rights, Duties, and Status. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kamm, F.M. (2007). Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kant, I. (1964). Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, Inc.
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
Dr. Leonard Egede published an editorial in the Journal of General Internal Medicine regarding various issues in health care i.e. race, ethnicity, culture, and disparities. The editorial was published on the premise that existing evidence shows that racial and ethnic minorities obtain lower quality of health care services as compared to non-minorities. This trend continues to exist despite the significant development in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous chronic diseases. The main focus of this editorial was to highlight the disparities in health care delivery due to racial, ethnic, and cultural factors. In this regard, the publisher focused on examining why patients from minorities experience greater mortality and morbidity from several chronic diseases unlike non-minorities despite the significant medical advances. The editorial focused on three studies that were published on the issue of race, ethnicity, and disparities in the delivery of health care services to various patient populations.
However, the media continues to take women with those features and portray them as less educated than their white counterparts, and now even less educated than their "white" looking Black sisters.
In the ad below one can see that the model is Black but her nose, eyes and lips do not feature typically Black characteristics. She looks like a European woman who has Black skin. This is the media's answer to the demand to provide a more fair portrayal of Black southern women in the media.
The image below at first glance might prompt one to applaud the media for finally recognizing the beauty in the Black female population but when one takes a closer look the same thing can be noted as in the previous ad. This woman is beautiful by standards attributed to white women.
The media has done the Black Southern woman another injustice with the attempt…
New Piece to the Puzzle: Examining Effects of Television Portrayals of African-Americans.(Abstract)
From: Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media | Date: September 22, 2000 | Author: Rada, James A. | More results for: portrayal of African-Americans media
The nightly news blues. (portrayal of African-Americans) (Column)
From: Essence | Date: January 1, 1993 | Author: Walker, Kenneth | More results for: portrayal of African-Americans media
5). While divorce can lead to safety for children and adults caught in violent and abusive relationships, it can also lead to increased violence down the line. Studies indicate that children who grow up in abusive situations often tend to become abusive themselves as adults, and this means that abuse and violence could continue to grow in our culture as these children grow up and continue the ongoing cycle of abuse and violence.
Another bedrock of American culture is religion, and divorce goes against many religious teachings. The freedom to worship any religion we please is a foundation of the country and our culture, and religious worship tends to go down in divorced families. Fagan and ector continue, "eligious worship, which has been linked to health and happiness as well as longer marriages and better family life, is less prevalent in divorced families" (Fagan, and ector). This means that…
Butler, Ian, et al. Divorcing Children: Children's Experience of Their Parents' Divorce. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2003.
Cozort, Larry a. "Is the Tax Court Becoming a Divorce Court? The Answer Could Change How the Innocent Spouse Rules Are Interpreted." Journal of Accountancy 195.2 (2003): 35+.
Doherty, William J., et al. "Why Marriage Matters: Twenty-One Conclusions from the Social Sciences." New York: Institute for American Values, 2002.
Editors. "Divorce Statistics." Divorce Magazine. 2005. 5 Nov. 2008. http://www.divorcemag.com/statistics/statsUS.shtml
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture
On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not and never ever has (yan and Jetha, 2010).
Mainstream science-- in addition to spiritual and cultural establishments-- has long propagated the belief that males and females progressed in nuclear households where a guy's possessions and defense were exchanged for a female's fertility and fidelity. However this story is breaking down; now more so than before. Less and less couples are marrying and divorce rates keep climbing up while adultery and flagging sexual libido drag down even relatively strong marital…
Abbey, A., Ross, L.T., McDuffie, D., & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 147 -- 169.
Armstrong, E.A., England, P., & Fogarty, A.C.K. (2009). Orgasm in college hookups and relationships. In B.J. Risman (Ed.), Families as they really are (pp. 362 -- 377). New York, NY: Norton.
Backstrom, L., Armstrong, E.A., & Puentes, J. (2012). Women's negotiations of cunnilingus in college hookups and relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49,1 -- 12.
Bisson, M.A., & Levine, T.R. (2009). Negotiating a friends with benefits relationship. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 66 -- 73.
These codes of ethics play a very important role in any industry.
In this particular pharmaceutical company, if the art, copy, medical and the quality assurance department will bear in the mind about these codes of ethics,
It should be noted that a company is always pursuing for just one direction, for one common goal, hence everybody must also be working on that common direction. It is important that every employee understand that before each makes his/her own initiatives it is better to know the company first because there are times that some they do not understand fully the main objective of the company thereby making jump in to conclusions sacrificing the ultimate goal of the company.
Like for example in the University of Western Australia (obson 1005), their teaching on organizational management is focused on main key principles: (1) Equity and Justice (2) respect for People and (3) Personal…
Robson, Allan. Code of Ethicss & Code of Conduct. Vice-Chancellor, University of Western Australia. September 2005. http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:VoFMZJRAOEYJ:www.hr.uwa.edu.au/publications/code_of_ethicss+Personal%2BCode%2Bof%2BEthicss+Human+Resources&hl=en&gl=ph&ct=clnk&cd=2