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Drug-testing in schools has been shown to reduce the use of drugs as well as reduce other negative activities and occurrences known to be associated with drug use among students. There are critical components of a drug testing program and this study has related those components and the appropriateness of their use in a school drug testing program.
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D. And O'Malley, Patrick M. (2003) Relationships etween Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies. J. Sch Health, 2003;73(4): 159-164.
Judy Kreamer, Gary M. Fields, Ph.D., et al., titled "The Overlooked Cause of Children eing Left ehind: Drug Use Compromising Academic Success," published by Educating Voices, Inc., 2008
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, "Academic Performance and Substance Use among Students Aged 12 to 17: 2002, 2003, and 2004." The NSDUH…
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D. And O'Malley, Patrick M. (2003) Relationships Between Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies. J. Sch Health, 2003;73(4): 159-164.
Judy Kreamer, Gary M. Fields, Ph.D., et al., titled "The Overlooked Cause of Children Being Left Behind: Drug Use Compromising Academic Success," published by Educating Voices, Inc., 2008
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, "Academic Performance and Substance Use among Students Aged 12 to 17: 2002, 2003, and 2004." The NSDUH Report, Issue 18, May 2006
Student Drug Testing Coalition (2008) Reports and Resources. Online available at http://www.studentdrugtesting.org.
As a result, unions today are completing a variety of drug screens on construction workers who are members to ensure compliance to the federal law (Fournier, 2006). Unions have also acknowledged publicly that drug abuse in the construction industry is particularly acute and that there needs to be a continual focus on improving the screening methods to ensure compliance (Fournier, 2006). Like the U.S., Canada has aggressively pursued this program to ensure their union members are healthy and capable of delivering on the contracts delivered (Contant, 2008). In British Columbia for example 35,000 unionized construction workers were tested last year for drugs, using a randomized set of test approaches to ensure accuracy (Contant, 2008).
The passing of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 has led to a global adoption of more stringent standards for drug screening and evaluation throughout the construction industry globally. The U.S. In many respects as…
Contant, J.. (2008, October). This is just a test. . . For drugs and alcohol. OH & S. Canada, 24(7), 8.
Paul Fournier. (2006, April). Construction's Bad Habit. New England Construction, 70(7), 8.
Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
Girardot, D.. (2008). Trends in testing for drug abuse. Occupational Health, 60(12), 28-29.
This would also serve to improve the relationship and the trust between the teachers, students and their parents.
OHSU, (Dec 2002), 'Pilot Study Reports High School Drug-Testing Program Dramatically Reduces Drug Use', Retrieved on February 23rd 2008, from, http://www.ohsu.edu/unparchive/2002/123002saturn.html
Robert Taylor, (1997) 'Compensating ehavior and the Drug Testing of High School Athletes', CATO Journal, Retrieved on Feb 24th 2008, at http://web.psdomain.ucdavis.edu/people/faculty/rstaylor/Drug%20Testing.pdf
Jennifer Kern, Fatema Gunja, Alexandra Cox, Marsha Rosenbaum, Ph.D., Judith
Appel, J.D. & Anjuli Verma, (Jan 2006), 'Making Sense of Student Drug
Testing: Why Educators Are Saying No', Retrieved Feb 24th 2008, at http://www.safety1st.org/images/stories/pdf/drugtesting.pdf
Linn Goldberg, M.D, Dianne L. Eliot, M.D. Davip P. Mackinnon, Ph.D, Esther
Moe, Ph.D, Kerry S. Kuehl, M.S, Liva Nohre, Ph.D and Chondra M. Lockwood,
M.A, (Jan 2003), 'Drug Testing Athletes to Prevent Substance Abuse:
ackground and Pilot Study: Results of the SATURN (Student Athlete Testing
Using Random Notification) study', Journal of Adolescent Health,…
OHSU, (Dec 2002), 'Pilot Study Reports High School Drug-Testing Program Dramatically Reduces Drug Use', Retrieved on February 23rd 2008, from, http://www.ohsu.edu/unparchive/2002/123002saturn.html
Robert Taylor, (1997) 'Compensating Behavior and the Drug Testing of High School Athletes', CATO Journal, Retrieved on Feb 24th 2008, at http://web.psdomain.ucdavis.edu/people/faculty/rstaylor/Drug%20Testing.pdf
Jennifer Kern, Fatema Gunja, Alexandra Cox, Marsha Rosenbaum, Ph.D., Judith
Appel, J.D. & Anjuli Verma, (Jan 2006), 'Making Sense of Student Drug
The first condition of libertarianism is thus fulfilled. Now we come to the second part. If an employer chooses to have his employees tested, he should have made it absolutely clear when hiring them that they would be tested. It was then up to them to decide whether they wanted to work for his firm or not. If the employer decided to have a new policy of drug testing implemented in the company, then he must give his employees at least a period of six months to decide whether they wanted to continue working or not. In case they were on drugs before, this six-month period will give them a chance to give up the habit and become cleaner. Thus no one's liberty and rights would be hurt and everyone would get a fair deal. (Shaw, 2007)
John awls came up with a rather interesting theory of ethics and justice.…
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson Wadsworth
It so happened that Russian doctor Karlov was trying to find patients for another clinical trial for an experimental drug, and Ershov fit the requirements to enter the study. "They told me the treatment was safe," says Ershov. "I trust my doctor completely." Like 90% of Karlov's other clinical-trial patients, he immediately signed the consent form (Lustgarten, p. 1). Russia is one of those countries that suffers from high costs and low standards of medicine as well as lack of doctors.
utsourcing of medical trials is on the rise. As many as 40% of all drug testing is going to "emerging markets" and this number is rising. Vioxx and Zocor, created by Merck, tested in Russia as well as a few other developing nations, and many of Pfizer's drugs that earned them billions of dollars (AP, p. 1).
These experiments "raise questions about corporate ethics and profits on a frontier…
Oboh, Mike. (2007). Pfizer faces $8.5 bln suit over Nigeria drug trial. Reuters News Service. Sunday, 30 Sep 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2007 at http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20070930/bs_nm/pfizer_nigeria_dc&printer=1;_ylt=AkMgNBgWdY6LMIhGScjpMkqb.HQA .
Spar, Debora and Day, Adam. (2006). Drug testing in Nigeria (B). Harvard Business School case.
Stephens, Joe. (2000). The body hunters: As drug testing spreads, profits and lives hang in balance. Washington Post. Sunday, 17 Dec. 2000. Page A01. Retrieved October 11, 2007 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A11939-2000Dec15 .
Drug Testing / Police Coercion
Individuals classified as either probationers or parolees occupy an intermediate position in regard to their constitutional rights. They do not enjoy the full range of rights afforded ordinary citizens but they enjoy greater freedom and rights than those who are incarcerated. Probationers/parolees have a reduced expectation of privacy in comparison to regular citizens. In general, the rules of probation and parole, as recognized by the courts, restrict the rights of such individuals to the extent necessary to further the goals of probation or parole. These goals are ordinarily to assist the probationer or parolee in their efforts to rehabilitate themselves and still allow the state to monitor and enforce the conditions of probation/parole. The legal rationale for this position is that it is necessary in order to promote a legitimate governmental interest in protecting society from the activities of those who have already…
Drug testing is one of the most controversial human resources practices. On the one hand, employers want to know whether their employees are doing anything to impair them while on the job. On the other hand, employees deserve the right to privacy. Court rulings on the ethics and legality of drug testing have been ambiguous. As the textbook points out, the United States Supreme Court "has concluded that drug tests are 'minimally invasive' procedures that as a rule do not violate individuals' rights," (p. 560). On the other hand, recent news articles show that drug testing remains one of the most controversial issues in human resources. Published in Fox News, the article "Judge says Florida governor's order to drug test state workers unconstitutional" reveals the conflict between employee and employer rights with regards to drug testing. The textbook mainly addresses drug testing as a facet of contingency selection for new…
"Judge says Florida governor's order to drug test state workers unconstitutional." Fox News. April 26, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/04/26/judge-says-florida-governor-order-to-drug-test-state-workers-unconstitutional/
drug and alcohol testing for commercial truck drivers. Specifically, it will discuss the merits of testing, and why it is a necessity for public safety. Drug testing of all employees has come under fire in recent years for a wide variety of reasons - however, drug testing for those employees who carry a Commercial Driver's License (CDL), is mandated by the Federal Government, and this is imperative for public safety on America's roads and highways.
Drug and Alcohol Testing for Commercial Truck Drivers
Drug and alcohol testing has come under fire from many groups, from the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), who feel it violates any employee's rights, to groups who advocate testing should be increased, rather than decreased. One area of drug and alcohol testing that has stood up to opposition is the testing of commercial truck drivers. The Federal Government began requiring mandatory drug testing of drivers beginning…
Ammerman, R.T. (1999). Prevention and societal impact of drug and alcohol abuse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Angarola, R.T. (1991). Substance-Abuse Testing in the Workplace: Legal Issues and Corporate Responses. In Drug Testing: Issues and Options, Coombs, R.H., & West, L.J. (Eds.) (pp. 155-182). New York: Oxford University Press.
Editors. (July 1994). Alcohol and Drug Testing - Part 382. Retrieved from the Underride Network Truck Safety Web Site: http://www.underridenetwork.org/pihs382.pdf21 Nov. 2003.
Gant, R.E. (1991, Spring). The impact of the trucking industry in Tennessee. Business Perspectives, 4, 1+.
Thus, the hospital went against its own purpose of successfully treating all patients. By ignoring alcoholic addiction, they showed their main concern was illicit drugs, rather than treating all patients with addiction problems effectively.
In conclusion, drug testing pregnant women is not the problem in itself. What happens to those drug tests is the real problem. When women's tests are handed over to other authorities without their knowledge, it violates the Fourth Amendment. eason and ethics play a part in our daily lives. However, law and the Constitution must reign over simple reason. While most Americans are reasonable and ethical, there are some who are not, and who must be governed by stricter laws. Drug testing pregnant women should continue. However, the results of their tests should remain confidential. If they do not, the implications for many other government interventions into Americans private lives are completely clear.
Bloom, Robert M. Searches, Seizures, and Warrants: A Reference Guide to the United States Constitution. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
Colb, Sherry F. "What Is a Search? Two Conceptual Flaws in Fourth Amendment Doctrine and Some Hints of a Remedy." Stanford Law Review 55.1 (2002): 119+.
Roubister, Vida. "Drug Tests of Non-consenting Pregnant Women Quashed." American Medical News; Chicago; 9 April 2001
These new testing procedures have come about as more and more people take a stand on animal testing. Drugs do not need to be tested on animals when there are other ways of accomplishing the same goals. There are even books published with medical alternative for animal testing, which indicates how many scientists hope to accomplish their work without using animals, which indicates they do not believe in it.
Some companies are relying far less on animal testing and turning to genetic testing for finer tuned results in special cases. For example, genetic testing has been used to develop several specialized cancer drugs for very specific diseases, such as leukemia and lung cancer. Genetic testing is much more accurate than animal testing, and can be used in very specific cases. Many believe genetic testing is the wave of the future, and could someday permanently and effectively replace animal testing.
Daston, George P., and Pauline Mcnamee. "Alternatives to Toxicity Testing in Animals: Challenges and Opportunities." Environmental Health Perspectives 113, no. 8-1 (2005): 6+.
Freeman, Kris. "Toxicogenomics Data: The Road to Acceptance." Environmental Health Perspectives 112, no. 12 (2004): 678+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011358425.Internet . Accessed 27 January 2007.
Guither, Harold D. Animal Rights History and Scope of a Radical Social Movement. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1998.
Microbial Substitute for Animal Testing." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), June 1994, 9+.
The idea of drug testing healthcare professionals is a topic worth examination for many reasons. The large numbers of people in society rely on healthcare workers to perform at high levels of competency due to the risk of life involved in this field of work. In today's workplace, some companies use random drug testing as a means of eliminating potential workplace threats caused by the effects of employees using drugs. The medical world is no different, medical professionals practicing while under the influence could cause potential workplace threats.
The purpose of this essay is to explore the idea that medical professionals should be drug tested randomly to minimize potential workplace threats caused by the effects of employees using drugs. I will present my argument and discuss literature related to this topic in order to gain a full understanding of this complicated and important discussion.
Thomas & Siela (2011)…
Parks, J. (2010). Should physicians undergo random drug testing? Med Page Today, 30 Aug, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2010/08/physicians-undergo - random-drug-testing.html
Thomas, M. & Silea, D. (2011). The impaired nurse: Would you know what to do if you suspected substance abuse? American Nurse Today, August 2011, v 6. Retrieved from http://www.americannursetoday.com/article.aspx?id=8114&fid=8078
Cox, L. (2008). Urine Drug Test for Doctors? ABC News, 12 Nov 2008. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/PainManagement/story?id=6232694&page=1
Drug Testing Policy at Northern Lights Nursing School
Because student nurses should be fully engaged with their academic and clinical preparations for employment the healthcare field, their sobriety should be assured and their cognitive abilities should not be impaired even to the smallest degree. The American Nurses Association estimates "…that six to eight percent of nurses use alcohol or drugs to an extent that is sufficient to impair professional performance" (NCSBN). Therefore, prior to admission to this institution, all prospective students are required to undergo a drug screening test. Moreover, students are required to pay for their drug screening and must have conducted this school-approved screening at least three weeks prior to admission to the nursing program.
The Drug Testing Policy at Northern Lights Nursing School
The personal and the psychological integrity of every student in this institution is important. Substance abuse is a known disease, and those in the…
National Council of State Boards of Nursing. (2011). Substance Use Disorder in Nursing: A
Resource Manual and Guidelines for Alternative and Disciplinary Monitoring Programs.
Retrieved April 17, 2014, from http://www.ncsbn.org .
Drug Testing in the Workplace is an incredibly important component in the ongoing war against drugs. It is simply impossible to argue that employees who are high or that use drugs on a regular basis can be an effective part of a company. Indeed those who use illicit drugs are often responsible for workplace accidents, absenteeism, worker's compensation claims, and health care claims; all of which hurt a company's productivity and profit margins.
Recent polls indicate that seventy percent of drug users are employed. This means that approximately ten million people who use drugs on a regular basis are employed at any given time. Obviously the most direct method of attacking drug use is in the workplace.
Calvina L. Fay, executive director of the Drug Free America Foundation Inc. In St. Petersburg, Florida, wrote the following in a letter to the editor of the St. Petersburg Times.
When testing began…
Fay, Calvina L. (2000) Workplace Drug Testing is Beneficial.
Retrieved February 18, 2003, from St. Petersburg Times. Website: http://wwwsptimes.com/News/021300/Perspective/Workplace_drug_testin.shtml
Drug Testing in the Workplace. Retrieved February 18, 2003, from the Indiana Prevention Resource Center at Indiana University. Website: http://www.drugs.indiana.edu/publications/ncadi/primer/drugtest.htm
Nixon, Tina. (1998) Workplace Drug Testing Probable. Retrieved February 18, 2003, from The Southland Times. Website: http://ask.elibrary.com/login.asp?c=&host=ask%Eelibrary%2Ecom&script=%Fgetdoc%
checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif exposure due to liability apart from increased premiums of employees compensation. Employers possess a http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif self-interest while maintaining a workplace which http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif free from drugs meant for the security as well as interests of staffs and bosses alike. But this is far from the complete picture. Debate comes to the fray when bosses either inexpertly or through force enforce drug testing in a way which infringes individual or privileges granted by the constitution like 'ight to Privacy' or the safeguard from illegal investigations as well as arrests. Although almost all states allow employee testing of drugs, nevertheless no state mandate http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif
In case of particular bosses who execute testing programs of drugs, it is vital that the http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif adhere to procedure stipulated under the state and federal laws so as to guarantee protection of employee rights and privileges. ("Drug Testing," n. d.)
Coming to the constitutional provisions, the U.S.…
Armentano, Paul. (n. d.) "Writing against drug testing auto service employees" Retrieved from http://www.carwash.com/ENewsArticle.asp?ArticleID=389
Comer, Debra R. (1994, May) "A case against workplace drug testing" Organization Science, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 259-267.
Coombs, Robert H; West, Louis Jolyon. (1991) "Drug testing: Issues and Options" Oxford
University Press: New York.
If they can figure out a way to manipulate the system, they will. Urine samples can be switched if the monitoring is not close enough, and there are also many "masking" products available that advertise their ability to mask the testing results of certain drugs, such as marijuana. If the individual is not extremely experienced in reading the results of the test and monitoring the testing samples, many discrepancies can occur. This can lead to false-positive test results, implicating innocent students, but it can also lead to false-negative results, which dispel the entire effectiveness of the testing process. If the process is open to interpretation and deviation, then the process does not work, and is useless in detecting drug use in determined and inventive students.
Finally, there is the fiscal aspect of drug testing. Not only do many experts agree that drug testing creates a negative climate of distrust in…
Editors. (2002). About drug testing. Retrieved from the Drugfreeschools.com Web site: http://www.drugfreeschools.com/drugtesting.html10 Nov. 2005.
Mandatory Drug Testing Violates Rights. (1996, August). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 125, 15+.
Wagner, A. (2004, August 19). Schools reject drug testing policy; most ignore recent state rulings. The Washington Times, p. B01.
Yacoubian, Jr., G.S. (2003). To pee or not to pee: School drug testing in an era of oral fluid analysis. Retrieved from the Florida State University Web site: http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/journal/schooldrug.htm10 Nov. 2005.
Eleven Literature eviews Attempt to Show and Support the Hypothesis:
These series of articles explain the history behind random drug-testing as well as the origins behind its support. In an article by James E. yan (2000), cases handled by the Supreme Court are examined in order to understand the rights of students in regards to policies. The literature goes on to state the Court has formed a body of rules that governs the constitutional rights that students (or their parents) "can legitimately assert against state and local education officials" (yan, 2000). esearch over these rights has not been done along with violation rates of these rights. Cases such as "Brown v. Board of Education" and "San Antonio Independent School District v. odriguez" lead people to try to analyze the Establishment Clause and the Free Speech Clause, in the school context to prevent abuse of those rights. andom drug-testing has come…
Blackwell, B.S., & Grasmick, H.G. (1997). Random Drug Testing and Religion. Sociological Inquiry. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.1997.tb00436.x
Cambron-McCabe, N. (2009). Balancing Students' Constitutional Rights. The Phi Delta Kappan,, 90(10), 709-713. doi:10.1177/0895904804271609
Dudley-Marling, C., Jackson, J., & Stevens, L.P. (2006). Disrespecting Childhood. The Phi Delta Kappan,, 87(10), 748-755.
Galea, S. (2013). EXPLORING THE PROMISE OF MANDATORY RANDOM STUDENT DRUG TESTING BY COMPARING IT TO OTHER SCHOOL DRUG PREVENTION STRATEGIES. Society for the Study of Addiction, 846-851.
People Welfare Drug Testing Must a topic statement Must begin introductory paragraph a succinct thesis
In the United States, the concept of welfare has been one of the most widely debated social institutions of contemporary and historic times. Supporters of this social program believe that it provides a valuable means of supporting the poor, the disenfranchised, and those who quite literally cannot afford other opportunities for themselves. Those against the concept of welfare believe that it simply provides a means for those who are indolent and unmotivated to have even less motivation to improve their own socio-economic positions because they can essentially attain what they perceive is free money, and what in reality is funding from hardworking taxpayers. As such, those who adhere to this viewpoint believe that individuals on welfare are actually exploiting the socio-economic system in this country. Although the reality of the issue debated by these two…
Associated Press. (2014). Mississippi governor signs welfare drug-testing bill. www.foxnews.com. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2014/03/25/Mississippi-governor-signs-welfare-drug-testing-bill/
Berggoetz, B., Cook, T. (2014). Welfare drug testing bill dies in Indiana State. www.indystar.com. Retrieved from http://www.indystar.com/story/news/2014/03/13/welfare-drug-testing-bill-dies-in-indiana-senate-/6402753/
Grovum, J. (2014). Some states still pushing drug testing for welfare. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/03/06/stateline-drug-testing-welfare-states/6118111/
Robles, F. (2014). Florida law for drug tests is struck down. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/01/us/florida-law-on-drug-testing-for-welfare-is-struck-down.html?_r=0
Men and women are valued for their role as workers -- workers not merely at a given company -- but workers who form part of a larger industrial/technological organism that is the national, and increasingly, the global economy. ights of privacy give way to rights of public utility:
People want, not only profits, efficiency, and productivity, but also security. In order to feel safer, we willingly surrender some of our independence, our privacy. We support random drug testing in the war against drugs; we welcome the idea of state trooper roadblocks in order to crack down on drunk drivers. We rationalize: these are good things and a little erosion of our Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches and seizures" seems a small price to pay for security and peace of mind.
(Wood, 1996, p. 94)
Forth Amendment or Fourteenth Amendment -- it does not matter. Each guarantees some fundamental right…
Barke, M., Fribush, R., & Stearns, P.N. (2000). Nervous Breakdown in 20th-Century American Culture. Journal of Social History, 33(3), 565.
Cann, W. & De Belleroche, J. (Eds.). (2002). Drink, Drugs and Dependence: From Science to Clinical Practice. New York: Routledge.
Davis, E., & Hueller, S. (2006). Strengthening the Case for Workplace Drug Testing: The Growing Problem of Methamphetamines. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(3), 4+.
Elwood, W.N. (1994). Rhetoric in the War on Drugs: The Triumphs and Tragedies of Public Relations. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
The last reason to be mentioned in this essay as to why people might consider drug testing medical professionals is because of the fear it might give motive to medical professionals to stay clean and not abuse drugs. Although there is some truth to this idea, time and time again it has been shown not to be the case. There are many examples of people who are on probation for drug use who must get tested on a monthly basis who fail their tests regardless of their knowledge of the consequences if they fail the drug test. A famous example of this is Lindsay Lohan.
Lindsay Lohan is a celebrity who has been in the news time and time again for her alcoholism. She was given many chances to quit drinking and failed several times even though she was forced to wear a device that measured whether or not she…
DMC Sinai-Grace Hospital | Home. Evaluation and Feedback | DMC Sinai-Grace Hospital. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://www.sgintmed.org/about-our-program/curriculum/evaluation-and-feedback
This source is from a hospital website. It allows visitors to see how they run evaluations for residents of their hospital. The information is current.
Michael Jackson Trial: Meet the Witnesses, Attorneys, and Jury - Entertainment & Stars. (n.d.).Latest UK News | Breaking News | Business News | Sport, Politics, Economy, Market News - International Business Times UK. Retrieved February 24, 2013, from http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/223314/20111002/micheal-jackson-trial-day-one-conrad-murray-kenny-ortega.htm
This source is from an entertainment website from the UK. It gives information on the Conrad Murray trial. It is used to provide evidence of doctors who are not under the influence of drugs, but still make bad decisions.
For example, many professional organizations in completely benign fields (i.e. those not in any way associated with potential risks to the public, corruption, or violations of fiduciary responsibilities) utilize employment drug screening.
Whereas it is obvious why even private commercial employers have a legitimate interest in prohibiting the use of any intoxicating substances (including alcohol) on company property or during working hours, that merely justifies disciplinary action for those types of violations. Conversely, that concern does not justify drug testing that covers employees' private use of time away from work any more than it justifies testing employees for alcohol use away from the job.
Similarly, it is justifiable for police agencies to conduct drug screening for recreational drug use even in employees' private time, because drug use among police officers conflicts with their sworn responsibilities to enforce drug laws. Steroid testing of police officers would be justified even if steroids…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
School Drug Testing
The use of illicit drugs as well as the use and abuse of prescription drugs have both become rampant problems in the United States. Of course, any societal concern of that size extends into the school realm. Obviously, it is good to identify and spot children who are abusing drugs including alcohol, marijuana, cocaine/crack, methamphetamine and heroin. There is even widespread use of pain and anxiety pills (among others) among teenagers and younger. However, the primary way to identify such children (or at least to verify suspicions) is to utilizing drug testing. While it may seem reasonable to use this technique as needed when suspicions arise, the probable cause needed to test such kids, not to mention the parental knowledge and consent that is needed, is not always easy to garner or prove. While the use of drugs by teenagers and younger kids is a problem, solutions…
Clayton, V. (2007). Parents, experts divided on school drug testing. msnbc.com. Retrieved 25 July 2016, from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/20631668/ns/health-childrens_health/t/parents-experts-divided-school-drug-testing/#.V5Z9x7grKUk
Cornell. (2016). Bill of Rights. LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 25 July 2016, from https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
Cornell. (2016). Supremacy Clause. LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 25 July 2016, from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/supremacy_clause
Gallardo, M. (2015). Parents sue Marian Catholic HS for discrimination. ABC7 Chicago. Retrieved 25 July 2016, from http://abc7chicago.com/news/parents-sue-marian-catholic-hs-for-discrimination-/1124093/
Employee Drug Testing
Over the last few years, an increasing number of companies are turning to drug testing as way to screen and monitor employees. This is because, these individuals will increase healthcare costs, have more sick days, are less productive and more likely to become disabled. To avoid these issues, many are turning to drug testing as a way to effectively evaluate staff members. However, once someone tests positive is when various organizations will have different policies. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at four of the most common policies inside the workplace. Together, these different elements will illustrate how they are able supervise and enforce these policies.
There are a number of options employers have available to them when their employee fails a drug test to include: providing a written warning, sending the person to treatment, suspension and termination. Each one should be used to…
Dressler, G. (2008). Human Resource Management. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education.
Workplace Drug Testing
Joe is a high quality employee but if all employees are to be subjected to a random drug test then it is fair for Joe to be included in randomized testing. Why should Joe be left out of the sample just because he is who he is? No doubt there are numerous high quality employees that are like Joe, but the point of the randomized drug test is to fairly survey all employees so that it appears that no one group or individual is being singled out. This could have something more to do with the issue of political correctness, but the fact remains that the policy is meant to be non-discriminatory and that is something that works both ways -- neither discriminating against employees who might look like someone who uses drugs nor discriminating in favor of someone like Joe who looks like someone who does…
Halbert, Terry; Ingulli, Elaine. "Making an Ethical Decision," Law and Ethics in the Business Environment, 3rd Edition. Mason, OH: Cengage, 1999.
Riggio, R. E. (2016). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. NY:
Sandle, Michael. Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? NY: Farrar, Straus, Giroux,
In that regard, illicit drug use, even during non-working hours, undermines our corporate interests of minimizing mistakes and maximizing output volume. Apart from any other reason, implementation of a drug testing policy is essential to maintaining the highest quality performance and output of all TI employees, particularly in the prevailing economic climate.
Personal privacy principles in the workplace are substantially less than elsewhere as a matter of law. Employers have a legitimate concern with prohibiting any illegal employee conduct, especially any that is associated with declining quality or productivity. Recreational use of illicit drugs conflicts directly with TI corporate commitments to provide the highest quality work and to maintain optimal efficiency and work output. Therefore, it is respectfully requested that the issue of employee drug testing be reconsidered in view of all the issues relevant to that concern.
Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York:…
Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Friedman, L. (2005). A History of American Law 3rd Edition. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies
Schmalleger, F. (2001). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.
Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998
Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
Drug Tests and Government Benefits
Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars…
Adams, Brooke. (26 March 2012). Guv signs off on welfare recipient drug-screening program. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/politics/53795131-90/cash-continue-drug-guv.html.csp
Alcindor, Yamiche (29 February 2012). States consider drug testing welfare recipients. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-02-17/welfare-food-stamps-drug-testing-laws/53306804/1
Hoover, Tim. (29 March 2012). Bill to drug test welfare recipients dies in Colorado House in second reading. Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_20283105/drug-test-welfare-bill-dies-colorado-house-second?source=rss
Rivas, Jorge. (25 August 2011). 96% of Florida welfare applicants pass drug test, discredit Tea Party gov. ColorLines. Retrieved from http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/98_of_florida_welfare_applicants_pass_newly_implemented_drug_tests_discrediting_governor.html
he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).
Is D.A.R.E. Effective?
If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…
The writer highlights that in spite of vast promises, in the past two decades statistics have pointed to a sharp augment in the use of drugs in the United States.
5). Stewart I. Donaldson. 1996. Drug Abuse Prevention Programming, Do we know what content works? Journal of American Behavioral Scientist. (June). Vol 39, no. 7. Pgs. 245-261.
The highlights that if $700 million a year and twenty thousand specifically trained police officers do not effect in the lessening of drug used amid minors, besides giving police something to do, what does it accomplish?
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…
Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.
Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.
Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year .
French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
Drug Free Workplace
Substance abuse in the workplace is a serious issue. Employees who are under the influence of a drug on the job compromise an employer's interests, endanger their own health and safety and the health and safety of others, and can cause a number of other work-related problems, including absenteeism and tardiness, substandard job performance, increased work loads for co-workers, behavior that disrupts other employees, delays in the completion of jobs, inferior quality in products or services, and disruption of customer relations (Drug-free workplace policy, 2004). These reasons explain why it is so important for an employer to support a drug free workplace. Key components of this initiative are to publish clearly defined policies, establish a drug awareness and education program, train supervisors to detect and manage substance abuse issues and offer an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
Clearly defined written policies lay the groundwork for a drug free…
Drug-free workplace policy. (2004, January) SDSU Foundation Human Resources. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.foundation.sdsu.edu/hrpage/pol_form/polform_notice_drug.html
elaws -- drug free workplace advisor. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen16b.asp?selection_list=
The role and responsibilities of supervisors. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://workplace.samhsa.gov/DrugFreeWP/suptrng.html
Utah Valley State College policies and procedures. (1992, June 18) Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.uvsc.edu/policies/hr/c-3_08.html
Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.
The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…
Lande, R.G.; Marin, B. (2009) Biomarker characteristics of alcohol use in the U.S. Army. J Addict Diseases 28: 158-163. DOI:10.1080/10550880902772506
Larson, M.J.; Wooten, N.R.; Adams, R.S.; et al. (2012). Military combat deployments and substance use: Review and future directions. J Soc Work Pract Addict 12: 6-27. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2012.647586
McFarling, L.; D'Angelo, M.; Drain, M.; et al. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse and mental health treatment. Military Psychology 23: 1-5 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2011.534397
Milliken, C.S.; Auchterlonie, J.L.; Hoge, C.W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. JAMA 298: 2141-2148 doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141
Drug Testing in the Workplace
Most employers in the United States are not required to do drug testing on either current or potential employees, although the majority have the right to do so (United States Department of Labor, 2010). Drug testing is not required under the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988. The Act can be confusing and challenging for employers, however, since it essentially states that any organization receiving federal grants or contracts must be drug-free but does not contain language that specifically allows for drug testing (Thompson euters 2011). Many state and local governments limit or prohibit drug testing unless required for certain jobs with state or Federal governments.
As far back as 1997, the American Civil Liberties Union was deploring the use of drug testing in the workplace, citing an increase of 277% over a ten-year period (American Civil Liberties Union, 1997). Drug testing remains a controversial issue…
Drug-free workplace policy builder. Section 7: Drug testing. (2010). U.S. Department of Labor.
Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen92.asp
Drummer, O.H. (2006). Drug testing in oral fluid. Clinical Biochemist Reviews 27(30), pp. 147-
Privacy in America: Workplace drug testing. (1997). American Civil Liberties Union.
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts
For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…
Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.
A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.
Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm
Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…
Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.
Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.
Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.
Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
Patients have a right to know if their doctor's decision to prescribe a certain medication has been influenced by free lunches or other perks, rather than that doctor's objective overview of prescribing information.
In fact, the real ethical issue presented in the underlying case is not that the doctors are accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical companies. Drug companies did decide to some degree of self-limit in their gifts to physicians. However, whether or not the drug companies offer gifts may not be the real ethical issue. The criteria for acceptability or unacceptability of gifts should actually rest on physician response, rather than an arbitrary financial limit of gifts for physicians. In other words, some of the currently prohibited practices, such as taking the physicians golfing, seem like a smart business practice for the sales people. The doctors, however, should have to maintain a database for patients to access, where they…
Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…
Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165-183.
Cooper, C.S. (2001). Juvenile Drug Court Programs. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf
Office of Justice Programs. (2003). Juvenile Drug Courts: Strategies in Practice. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/197866.pdf
United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. (2015). BRIDGE Program: Mission Statement and Policies. United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from http://www.scp.uscourts.gov/Downloads/BRIDGEProgramMissionPolicies.pdf
Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.
According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…
Bettmann, J., Russell, K., & Parry, K. (2013). How Substance Abuse Recovery Skills, Readiness to Change and Symptom Reduction Impact Change Processes in Wilderness Therapy Participants. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9665-2
DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror). (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2015, from https://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n136/mode/1up
Gregorowski, C., Seedat, S., & Jordaan, G.P. (2013).A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289
Hall, W., Farrell, M., & Carter, A. (2014). Compulsory treatment of addiction in the patient's best interests: More rigorous evaluations are essential. Drug & Alcohol Review, 33(3), 268-271. doi:10.1111/dar.12122
The author of this report has been asked to offer a summary and analysis of a CPS-oriented intervention with an at-risk child. The intervention will be described from beginning to end. It will be summarized how there was a prevention or resolution to problems that were discovered. There will be an analysis of how there was negotiating and advocacy on behalf of the client. There will be a listing of at least three practice skills (micro and/or macro) that were used as part of the intervention. There will be a general critique of the intervention's progress and performance, what could have been done to generate a better outcome, whether the intervention was empowering and whether it was discriminatory or oppressive.
The story in question is about a woman named Alice. Despite what her name might imply, lice is actually a Latino. She is under the scrutiny of…
Edwards, B., & Addae, R. (2015). Ethical decision-making models in resolving ethical dilemmas in rural practice: Implications for social work practice and education. Journal of Social Work Values & Ethics, 12(1), 88-92.
Lipsky, S., & Caetano, R. (2009). Epidemiology of Substance Abuse Among
Latinos. Journal Of Ethnicity In Substance Abuse, 8(3), 242-260.
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.
Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.
De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,
from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm
Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-
oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
people engage in recreational activities. Sometimes these activities involve the use of alcohol or drugs. Although people can engage in some alcohol and drug usage dependent on state and federal legislature, many drugs remain prohibited. Because most drugs remain prohibited, it is important for businesses to monitor the potential usage of drugs amongst its employees. It is important for a business to have employees that are healthy and can function at their best most of the time. Therefore, drug testing should be implemented at least annually, for most jobs.
Companies must perform drug testing on their employees for several reasons. The first reason is preventative. Drug users often incur higher medical expenses versus the employees not on drugs. By identifying a potential drug user, the company can take the steps necessary to remove that employee and avoid unnecessary medical costs.
The second reason is deterring drug use. Employees applying for…
Davies, P., Francis, P., & Jupp, V. (2016). Invisible crimes: Their victims and their regulation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Knowlton, E. (2016, May 7). Maria Sharapova failed drug test at Australian Open - Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/maria-sharapova-meldonium-failed-drug-test-australian-open-2016-3
NIH. (2017). DrugFacts: Marijuana | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.
Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…
Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.
Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf
Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.
Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
They can reveal how many overworked and under-trained nurses kill and injure thousands of patients every year because hospitals sacrifice safety for not tracking their own medical errors. Statistics showed that only 14 States track these errors and hospitals in most States were not required to offer information on accidental deaths or injuries, not even to the families of the victims. Public custom databases, such as the Food and Drug Administration or FDA and the Health Care Financing Administration, tracked reports of a range of these medical errors and neglect from defibrillators to pacemakers, and from sutures to skin grafts. These incidents included thousands of patients accidentally overdosed because nurses typed the wrong dosage; did not hear the warning alarm on patients on life-saving machinery; patients' heads trapped in bed rails or strangled by post-surgical restraints (erens).
The Chicago-based National Council of State oards of Nursing computerizes disciplinary actions against…
Associated Press (2006). Former nurse convicted of drug theft. 1 page. Boston.com:the New
York Times Company
Berens, M.J. (2001). Medical errors. 3 pages. The IRE Journal: Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc.
Cuomo, a.M. (2001). Nurse admits to narcotic theft at Long Island Hospital. 2 pages. Office fo the New York State Attorney-General: New York State
According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.
3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.
From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…
The author of this report has been to assess a data flow diagram that makes reference to clinical trials. For each step in the clinical trial, the author of this response will speak to what personnel would be involved with that step of the process. Indeed, the data flow diagram in question is seventeen steps long and the litany of personnel involved with each step can be moderate to extensive. While some may think that clinical trials are fairly mundane and easy to pull off, that is simply not the case and the process is indeed extensive and potentially circuitous depending on how things go (FDA, 2016).
Step one of the diagram involves protocol development. The personnel involved would include medical writers, physicians, medical experts, project managers, biostatisticians and data managers. The protocols and rules of the study are important and must be defined. Step two…
FDA. (2016). Step 3: Clinical Research. Fda.gov. Retrieved 14 January 2016, from http://www.fda.gov/ForPatients/Approvals/Drugs/ucm405622.htm
NIH. (2016). Steps Involved in Clinical Research Efforts. Nichd.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 January 2016, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/clinicalresearch/clinical-researchers/steps/Pages/index.aspx
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…
Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.
Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.
MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).
Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
Drug Enforcement Administration, the Controlled Substances Act, and the War on Drugs all show that drug prohibition has been framed as a federal issue. Recent state-by-state legalization of cannabis (marijuana) has challenged and undermined the efficacy of federal drug laws and anti-drug policies. Almost half the states have now legalized marijuana for either medical or recreational use (Hill, 2015). The state-by-state legalization scheme creates legal and ethical conundrums. For example, Hill points out that federal anti-drug legislation prohibits legal marijuana businesses operating in states like Colorado to use national financial institutions for banking. Without access to the usual range of financing options, cannabis dispensaries and other related businesses are driven to a cash-only business which can "attract thieves and tax cheats," (Hill, 2015, p. 597). Other problems include the inability of Americans to legally transport cannabis over state lines, even between two states that both legalized the drug. Canada recently…
Drugs and Behavior
What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage?
Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus…
OHSINC. (N.d.). How to Beat a Drug Test. Retrieved from OHSINC: http://www.ohsinc.com/info/how-to-cheat-a-drug-test/
The Economist. (2015, July 16). President Obama for the prisoners. Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform
The White House. (N.d.). Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from Office of National Drug Control Policy: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse
The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. ith stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.
The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they…
Gilmore, G. (2011). DoD urinalysis test (drug test). About.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://usmilitary.about.com/od/theorderlyroom/l/bldrugtests2.htm
Jacobson, I.; Ryan, M.; Hooper, T.; Smith, T.; Amoroso, P.; Boyko, E.; Gackstetter, G.; Wells, T. & Bell, N. (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 300 (6) 663-675.
NIDA. (2011). Substance abuse among the military, veterans and their families. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/tib/vet.html
Zoroya, G. (2009). Army blasted for letting drug abusers slide. USA Today. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2009-05-20-drug_N.htm
Club Drugs & Ecstasy
"Though some researchers have indicated club drug users are more likely to be poly-drug users, there remains little known about the prevalence and specific combinations of the substances they use…" (Grov, et al., 2009, p. 848).
The use of club drugs in the United States has been a problem for healthcare agencies and law enforcement for many years. The focus of research on the use of club drugs (notably ecstasy) in most articles is on "rave" events, where loud music and drug use is typical. This paper reviews and critiques the literature related to the use and abuse of club drugs.
The Literature on Club Drugs and the Issues Associated with Club Drug Usage
How extreme is club drug use in Chicago? A profile of adult club drug use was measured by Michael Fendrich and colleagues and published in the peer-reviewed journal Addiction (Fendrich, et al.,…
Banta-Green, Caleb, Goldbaum, Gary, Kingston, Susan, Golden, Matthew, Harruff, Richard,
and Logan, Barry K. (2005). Epidemiology of MDMA and Associated Club Drugs in the Seattle Area. Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 40, 1295-1315.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Ecstasy Overdoses at a New Year's Eve
Rave -- Los Angeles, California, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(22).
For the past several decades, the news about cancer in the United States has been increasingly positive and that trend has continued unabated over the past decade. According to the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, the overall incidence rate for men has declined by an average of 0.6% every year between 2004 and 2008, while for women, the incidence rate has dropped 0.5% per year from 1998 through 2006 and leveling off from 2006 to 2008 (National Cancer Institute). Just as importantly death rates from cancer have declined since 1975 and have sharply decreased between 19944 and 2008 for both men and women as shown in the graph below from the National Cancer Institute (National Cancer Institute).
There are myriad reasons for this decline in cancer deaths, including better education regarding healthy living, improved diets, and better treatment. Among the treatment options are improved…
National Cancer Institute. (2012). Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer
death rates since the early 1990s. Retrieved from:
Chabner, B.A., & Longo, D.L. (Eds.). (2010). Cancer chemotherapy and biotherapy:
One of the most frequent injuries is represented by the traumatic brain ones.. amongst other symptoms, one can mention anxiety, severe depression. Headaches and the difficulty to reason clearly. PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder is also manifested through depression, insomnia, flashback.
It is important to underline that these psychological disorders are usually associated with drug abuse. Taking this into consideration, it can be underlined that we are dealing with a social phenomenon. Most soldiers do not have the psychological training needed in order to do what they need to do once in combat. War has never been and could never be a pretty things, so the atrocities that these young men witness or are forced to do, shake them up psychologically. The use of drugs is to be understood in close connection to this factor.
Depression is not a factor that can be ignored. And there is no time for…
Allen, T., the Iraq war-on drugs, 2006, March 20, 2008 http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/2670/
Alcohol and other drugs plague soldiers in Iraq, March 20, 2008 http://www.jointogether.org/news/research/summaries/2005/alcohol-and-other-drugs-in.html
Kelly, R., U.S. soldiers in Iraq suffer horrific brain and mental injuries, 2004, March 20, 2008 http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/nov2004/sold-n20.shtml
Millitary Drug Programs, March 20, 2008 www.jackson.army.mil/Directorates/Asap.htm
FDA Drug Approval Process
In order for a pharmaceutical company to obtain FDA approval for a new drug, a long sequence of detailed testing and clinical trials must be administered. The approximate cost of putting a new drug through the approval is $500 million, and it takes an average of fifteen years for a drug to make it from initial testing to being available for patients. Furthermore, of every 5000 compounds that go through pre-clinical testing, only five advance to the human testing phase, and only one of these compounds will actually be approved. There are six key phases of testing that potential drugs go through on the path to FDA approval. These phases are early research / pre-clinical testing, clinical trials (phase I, phase II and phase III), FDA approval, and post-marketing testing.
The first phase of the drug approval process is pre-clinical testing. This consists of laboratory and…
Siegfried, J. The Drug Development and Approval Process.
Class notes, Development and Marketing of Drugs.
IV. TESTING ON HUMANS
The only thing that is lacking at this point according to all reports is for testing on humans to be completed. The Time Asia articles states: "The last step for the ace-2 inhibitor, as for any drug, is human clinical trials. ecause the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires such rigorous testing, this is by far the most expensive part of drug development. So for human trials in some cases, Millennium has formed partnerships with large pharmaceutical companies that have the necessary resources and will share in any eventual profits." (2001)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
According to the work entitled: "rave New Pharmacy" published in Time Asia (2001) "When the human genome was sequenced...scientists finally gained access to the full text of God's reference manual; the 3 billion biochemical 'letters' that spell out our tens of thousands of genes. These genes, strung out along the 46 chromosomes…
Drug Design in the Fast Lane: Speeding Drug Design (nd)
Elmer-Dewitt, Phillip (2001) The Future of Drugs. Time Asia 22 January 2001 Vol. 57, No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/cover1.html .
Lemonick, Michael, D. (2001) Brave New Pharmacy - Time Asia 22 Jan 2001 Vol. 157. No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/drug.impact.html
It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.
This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that…
Author not Available. "Caminiti Comes Clean." Sports Illustrated.com. 28 May 2002. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/si_online/special_report/steroids/
Bodley, Hal. "Palmeiro Suspended for Steroids Policy Violation." USA Today. 1 Aug. 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/orioles/2005-08-01-palmeiro-suspension_x.htm
Jenkins, Chris. "Players Admit Steroids Changed Baseball. USA Today. 15 March 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2005-03-15-steroids-mlb-cover_x.htm
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…
Q1. List ten real-world common property resources with which you are familiar. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion).
The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Examples of common property include public parks, fish in the ocean, public monuments, highways, clean water, clean air, public bathrooms, trees, schools, and public playing fields. Although some of these resources are, indeed, exploited, this is not the case with all of them.
For example, public monuments are usually relatively respected by individuals (although there is a risk of them being defaced). But one of the reasons for this may be…
The abbreviated approval process authorized by Hatch-Waxman lets generic drug manufacturers use the same clinical data that the original manufacturer used to obtain FDA approval, thereby avoiding these expenses. In this regard, Greene emphasizes that, "Whereas the pioneer drug manufacturer must incur great expense and undergo rigorous scrutiny when it files an new drug application (NDA) to secure FDA approval, a generic manufacturer may file an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) in which it may take advantage of the NDA holder's time and expense" (2005, p. 310).
The impact of the Hatch-Waxman Act on generic drug availability has been enormous. For instance, in 1984, generic drug prescriptions represented less than 20% of all prescription drugs marketed in the United States; however, due in large part to the Hatch-Waxman Act, by 1996, the market share for generic drugs had increased to 43% and by 2006, as many as 63% of…
Abramson, R.G., Harrington, C.A., Missmar, R., Li, S.P. & Mendelson, D.N. (2004). Generic
drug cost containment in Medicaid: Lessons from five state MAC programs. Health Care
Financing Review, 25(3), 25-26.
Buehler, G. (2002, September-October). Generic drugs: What you need to know. FDA
Resolving the Higher Prescriptive Drug Cost Problem
Resolving beneficiary or medical consumer issues with respect to the rapidly rising costs of drugs is a heated issue I government and in every American's living room. Not only are those living in assisted living facilities but also parents with children and the increased number of retiring baby boomers are being financially affected in significant ways. In addition those Americans without proper insurance coverage are beset with problems of being able to obtain needed medications whatsoever. As healthcare costs continue to rise many Americans are finding healthcare coverage less affordable. Besides increasing the national deficit increased healthcare costs are taking a significantly larger portion of government spending away from other programs that need money badly. Without a doubt, strategies are badly needed to moderate growing healthcare costs and these strategies must not only come from the government but also from the consumer, pharmaceutical…