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Drug-testing in schools has been shown to reduce the use of drugs as well as reduce other negative activities and occurrences known to be associated with drug use among students. There are critical components of a drug testing program and this study has related those components and the appropriateness of their use in a school drug testing program.
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D. And O'Malley, Patrick M. (2003) Relationships etween Student Illicit Drug Use and School Drug-Testing Policies. J. Sch Health, 2003;73(4): 159-164.
Judy Kreamer, Gary M. Fields, Ph.D., et al., titled "The Overlooked Cause of Children eing Left ehind: Drug Use Compromising Academic Success," published by Educating Voices, Inc., 2008
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, "Academic Performance and Substance Use among Students Aged 12 to 17: 2002, 2003, and 2004." The NSDUH…… [Read More]
As a result, unions today are completing a variety of drug screens on construction workers who are members to ensure compliance to the federal law (Fournier, 2006). Unions have also acknowledged publicly that drug abuse in the construction industry is particularly acute and that there needs to be a continual focus on improving the screening methods to ensure compliance (Fournier, 2006). Like the U.S., Canada has aggressively pursued this program to ensure their union members are healthy and capable of delivering on the contracts delivered (Contant, 2008). In British Columbia for example 35,000 unionized construction workers were tested last year for drugs, using a randomized set of test approaches to ensure accuracy (Contant, 2008).
The passing of the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 has led to a global adoption of more stringent standards for drug screening and evaluation throughout the construction industry globally. The U.S. In many respects as…… [Read More]
This would also serve to improve the relationship and the trust between the teachers, students and their parents.
OHSU, (Dec 2002), 'Pilot Study Reports High School Drug-Testing Program Dramatically Reduces Drug Use', Retrieved on February 23rd 2008, from, http://www.ohsu.edu/unparchive/2002/123002saturn.html
Robert Taylor, (1997) 'Compensating ehavior and the Drug Testing of High School Athletes', CATO Journal, Retrieved on Feb 24th 2008, at http://web.psdomain.ucdavis.edu/people/faculty/rstaylor/Drug%20Testing.pdf
Jennifer Kern, Fatema Gunja, Alexandra Cox, Marsha Rosenbaum, Ph.D., Judith
Appel, J.D. & Anjuli Verma, (Jan 2006), 'Making Sense of Student Drug
Testing: Why Educators Are Saying No', Retrieved Feb 24th 2008, at http://www.safety1st.org/images/stories/pdf/drugtesting.pdf
Linn Goldberg, M.D, Dianne L. Eliot, M.D. Davip P. Mackinnon, Ph.D, Esther
Moe, Ph.D, Kerry S. Kuehl, M.S, Liva Nohre, Ph.D and Chondra M. Lockwood,
M.A, (Jan 2003), 'Drug Testing Athletes to Prevent Substance Abuse:
ackground and Pilot Study: Results of the SATURN (Student Athlete Testing
Using Random Notification) study', Journal of Adolescent Health,…… [Read More]
The first condition of libertarianism is thus fulfilled. Now we come to the second part. If an employer chooses to have his employees tested, he should have made it absolutely clear when hiring them that they would be tested. It was then up to them to decide whether they wanted to work for his firm or not. If the employer decided to have a new policy of drug testing implemented in the company, then he must give his employees at least a period of six months to decide whether they wanted to continue working or not. In case they were on drugs before, this six-month period will give them a chance to give up the habit and become cleaner. Thus no one's liberty and rights would be hurt and everyone would get a fair deal. (Shaw, 2007)
John awls came up with a rather interesting theory of ethics and justice.…… [Read More]
It so happened that Russian doctor Karlov was trying to find patients for another clinical trial for an experimental drug, and Ershov fit the requirements to enter the study. "They told me the treatment was safe," says Ershov. "I trust my doctor completely." Like 90% of Karlov's other clinical-trial patients, he immediately signed the consent form (Lustgarten, p. 1). Russia is one of those countries that suffers from high costs and low standards of medicine as well as lack of doctors.
utsourcing of medical trials is on the rise. As many as 40% of all drug testing is going to "emerging markets" and this number is rising. Vioxx and Zocor, created by Merck, tested in Russia as well as a few other developing nations, and many of Pfizer's drugs that earned them billions of dollars (AP, p. 1).
These experiments "raise questions about corporate ethics and profits on a frontier…… [Read More]
Drug Testing / Police Coercion
Individuals classified as either probationers or parolees occupy an intermediate position in regard to their constitutional rights. They do not enjoy the full range of rights afforded ordinary citizens but they enjoy greater freedom and rights than those who are incarcerated. Probationers/parolees have a reduced expectation of privacy in comparison to regular citizens. In general, the rules of probation and parole, as recognized by the courts, restrict the rights of such individuals to the extent necessary to further the goals of probation or parole. These goals are ordinarily to assist the probationer or parolee in their efforts to rehabilitate themselves and still allow the state to monitor and enforce the conditions of probation/parole. The legal rationale for this position is that it is necessary in order to promote a legitimate governmental interest in protecting society from the activities of those who have already…… [Read More]
Drug testing is one of the most controversial human resources practices. On the one hand, employers want to know whether their employees are doing anything to impair them while on the job. On the other hand, employees deserve the right to privacy. Court rulings on the ethics and legality of drug testing have been ambiguous. As the textbook points out, the United States Supreme Court "has concluded that drug tests are 'minimally invasive' procedures that as a rule do not violate individuals' rights," (p. 560). On the other hand, recent news articles show that drug testing remains one of the most controversial issues in human resources. Published in Fox News, the article "Judge says Florida governor's order to drug test state workers unconstitutional" reveals the conflict between employee and employer rights with regards to drug testing. The textbook mainly addresses drug testing as a facet of contingency selection for new…… [Read More]
drug and alcohol testing for commercial truck drivers. Specifically, it will discuss the merits of testing, and why it is a necessity for public safety. Drug testing of all employees has come under fire in recent years for a wide variety of reasons - however, drug testing for those employees who carry a Commercial Driver's License (CDL), is mandated by the Federal Government, and this is imperative for public safety on America's roads and highways.
Drug and Alcohol Testing for Commercial Truck Drivers
Drug and alcohol testing has come under fire from many groups, from the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), who feel it violates any employee's rights, to groups who advocate testing should be increased, rather than decreased. One area of drug and alcohol testing that has stood up to opposition is the testing of commercial truck drivers. The Federal Government began requiring mandatory drug testing of drivers beginning…… [Read More]
Thus, the hospital went against its own purpose of successfully treating all patients. By ignoring alcoholic addiction, they showed their main concern was illicit drugs, rather than treating all patients with addiction problems effectively.
In conclusion, drug testing pregnant women is not the problem in itself. What happens to those drug tests is the real problem. When women's tests are handed over to other authorities without their knowledge, it violates the Fourth Amendment. eason and ethics play a part in our daily lives. However, law and the Constitution must reign over simple reason. While most Americans are reasonable and ethical, there are some who are not, and who must be governed by stricter laws. Drug testing pregnant women should continue. However, the results of their tests should remain confidential. If they do not, the implications for many other government interventions into Americans private lives are completely clear.
Bloom, obert…… [Read More]
These new testing procedures have come about as more and more people take a stand on animal testing. Drugs do not need to be tested on animals when there are other ways of accomplishing the same goals. There are even books published with medical alternative for animal testing, which indicates how many scientists hope to accomplish their work without using animals, which indicates they do not believe in it.
Some companies are relying far less on animal testing and turning to genetic testing for finer tuned results in special cases. For example, genetic testing has been used to develop several specialized cancer drugs for very specific diseases, such as leukemia and lung cancer. Genetic testing is much more accurate than animal testing, and can be used in very specific cases. Many believe genetic testing is the wave of the future, and could someday permanently and effectively replace animal testing.
In…… [Read More]
The idea of drug testing healthcare professionals is a topic worth examination for many reasons. The large numbers of people in society rely on healthcare workers to perform at high levels of competency due to the risk of life involved in this field of work. In today's workplace, some companies use random drug testing as a means of eliminating potential workplace threats caused by the effects of employees using drugs. The medical world is no different, medical professionals practicing while under the influence could cause potential workplace threats.
The purpose of this essay is to explore the idea that medical professionals should be drug tested randomly to minimize potential workplace threats caused by the effects of employees using drugs. I will present my argument and discuss literature related to this topic in order to gain a full understanding of this complicated and important discussion.
Thomas & Siela (2011)…… [Read More]
Drug Testing Policy at Northern Lights Nursing School
Because student nurses should be fully engaged with their academic and clinical preparations for employment the healthcare field, their sobriety should be assured and their cognitive abilities should not be impaired even to the smallest degree. The American Nurses Association estimates "…that six to eight percent of nurses use alcohol or drugs to an extent that is sufficient to impair professional performance" (NCSBN). Therefore, prior to admission to this institution, all prospective students are required to undergo a drug screening test. Moreover, students are required to pay for their drug screening and must have conducted this school-approved screening at least three weeks prior to admission to the nursing program.
The Drug Testing Policy at Northern Lights Nursing School
The personal and the psychological integrity of every student in this institution is important. Substance abuse is a known disease, and those in the…… [Read More]
Drug Testing in the Workplace is an incredibly important component in the ongoing war against drugs. It is simply impossible to argue that employees who are high or that use drugs on a regular basis can be an effective part of a company. Indeed those who use illicit drugs are often responsible for workplace accidents, absenteeism, worker's compensation claims, and health care claims; all of which hurt a company's productivity and profit margins.
Recent polls indicate that seventy percent of drug users are employed. This means that approximately ten million people who use drugs on a regular basis are employed at any given time. Obviously the most direct method of attacking drug use is in the workplace.
Calvina L. Fay, executive director of the Drug Free America Foundation Inc. In St. Petersburg, Florida, wrote the following in a letter to the editor of the St. Petersburg Times.
When testing began…… [Read More]
checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif exposure due to liability apart from increased premiums of employees compensation. Employers possess a http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif self-interest while maintaining a workplace which http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif free from drugs meant for the security as well as interests of staffs and bosses alike. But this is far from the complete picture. Debate comes to the fray when bosses either inexpertly or through force enforce drug testing in a way which infringes individual or privileges granted by the constitution like 'ight to Privacy' or the safeguard from illegal investigations as well as arrests. Although almost all states allow employee testing of drugs, nevertheless no state mandate http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif
In case of particular bosses who execute testing programs of drugs, it is vital that the http://www.checkyourassignments.org/images/spacer.gif adhere to procedure stipulated under the state and federal laws so as to guarantee protection of employee rights and privileges. ("Drug Testing," n. d.)
Coming to the constitutional provisions, the U.S.…… [Read More]
If they can figure out a way to manipulate the system, they will. Urine samples can be switched if the monitoring is not close enough, and there are also many "masking" products available that advertise their ability to mask the testing results of certain drugs, such as marijuana. If the individual is not extremely experienced in reading the results of the test and monitoring the testing samples, many discrepancies can occur. This can lead to false-positive test results, implicating innocent students, but it can also lead to false-negative results, which dispel the entire effectiveness of the testing process. If the process is open to interpretation and deviation, then the process does not work, and is useless in detecting drug use in determined and inventive students.
Finally, there is the fiscal aspect of drug testing. Not only do many experts agree that drug testing creates a negative climate of distrust in…… [Read More]
Eleven Literature eviews Attempt to Show and Support the Hypothesis:
These series of articles explain the history behind random drug-testing as well as the origins behind its support. In an article by James E. yan (2000), cases handled by the Supreme Court are examined in order to understand the rights of students in regards to policies. The literature goes on to state the Court has formed a body of rules that governs the constitutional rights that students (or their parents) "can legitimately assert against state and local education officials" (yan, 2000). esearch over these rights has not been done along with violation rates of these rights. Cases such as "Brown v. Board of Education" and "San Antonio Independent School District v. odriguez" lead people to try to analyze the Establishment Clause and the Free Speech Clause, in the school context to prevent abuse of those rights. andom drug-testing has come…… [Read More]
People Welfare Drug Testing Must a topic statement Must begin introductory paragraph a succinct thesis
In the United States, the concept of welfare has been one of the most widely debated social institutions of contemporary and historic times. Supporters of this social program believe that it provides a valuable means of supporting the poor, the disenfranchised, and those who quite literally cannot afford other opportunities for themselves. Those against the concept of welfare believe that it simply provides a means for those who are indolent and unmotivated to have even less motivation to improve their own socio-economic positions because they can essentially attain what they perceive is free money, and what in reality is funding from hardworking taxpayers. As such, those who adhere to this viewpoint believe that individuals on welfare are actually exploiting the socio-economic system in this country. Although the reality of the issue debated by these two…… [Read More]
Men and women are valued for their role as workers -- workers not merely at a given company -- but workers who form part of a larger industrial/technological organism that is the national, and increasingly, the global economy. ights of privacy give way to rights of public utility:
People want, not only profits, efficiency, and productivity, but also security. In order to feel safer, we willingly surrender some of our independence, our privacy. We support random drug testing in the war against drugs; we welcome the idea of state trooper roadblocks in order to crack down on drunk drivers. We rationalize: these are good things and a little erosion of our Fourth Amendment protections against "unreasonable searches and seizures" seems a small price to pay for security and peace of mind.
(Wood, 1996, p. 94)
Forth Amendment or Fourteenth Amendment -- it does not matter. Each guarantees some fundamental right…… [Read More]
The last reason to be mentioned in this essay as to why people might consider drug testing medical professionals is because of the fear it might give motive to medical professionals to stay clean and not abuse drugs. Although there is some truth to this idea, time and time again it has been shown not to be the case. There are many examples of people who are on probation for drug use who must get tested on a monthly basis who fail their tests regardless of their knowledge of the consequences if they fail the drug test. A famous example of this is Lindsay Lohan.
Lindsay Lohan is a celebrity who has been in the news time and time again for her alcoholism. She was given many chances to quit drinking and failed several times even though she was forced to wear a device that measured whether or not she…… [Read More]
For example, many professional organizations in completely benign fields (i.e. those not in any way associated with potential risks to the public, corruption, or violations of fiduciary responsibilities) utilize employment drug screening.
Whereas it is obvious why even private commercial employers have a legitimate interest in prohibiting the use of any intoxicating substances (including alcohol) on company property or during working hours, that merely justifies disciplinary action for those types of violations. Conversely, that concern does not justify drug testing that covers employees' private use of time away from work any more than it justifies testing employees for alcohol use away from the job.
Similarly, it is justifiable for police agencies to conduct drug screening for recreational drug use even in employees' private time, because drug use among police officers conflicts with their sworn responsibilities to enforce drug laws. Steroid testing of police officers would be justified even if steroids…… [Read More]
School Drug Testing
The use of illicit drugs as well as the use and abuse of prescription drugs have both become rampant problems in the United States. Of course, any societal concern of that size extends into the school realm. Obviously, it is good to identify and spot children who are abusing drugs including alcohol, marijuana, cocaine/crack, methamphetamine and heroin. There is even widespread use of pain and anxiety pills (among others) among teenagers and younger. However, the primary way to identify such children (or at least to verify suspicions) is to utilizing drug testing. While it may seem reasonable to use this technique as needed when suspicions arise, the probable cause needed to test such kids, not to mention the parental knowledge and consent that is needed, is not always easy to garner or prove. While the use of drugs by teenagers and younger kids is a problem, solutions…… [Read More]
Employee Drug Testing
Over the last few years, an increasing number of companies are turning to drug testing as way to screen and monitor employees. This is because, these individuals will increase healthcare costs, have more sick days, are less productive and more likely to become disabled. To avoid these issues, many are turning to drug testing as a way to effectively evaluate staff members. However, once someone tests positive is when various organizations will have different policies. To fully understand what is taking place requires looking at four of the most common policies inside the workplace. Together, these different elements will illustrate how they are able supervise and enforce these policies.
There are a number of options employers have available to them when their employee fails a drug test to include: providing a written warning, sending the person to treatment, suspension and termination. Each one should be used to…… [Read More]
Workplace Drug Testing
Joe is a high quality employee but if all employees are to be subjected to a random drug test then it is fair for Joe to be included in randomized testing. Why should Joe be left out of the sample just because he is who he is? No doubt there are numerous high quality employees that are like Joe, but the point of the randomized drug test is to fairly survey all employees so that it appears that no one group or individual is being singled out. This could have something more to do with the issue of political correctness, but the fact remains that the policy is meant to be non-discriminatory and that is something that works both ways -- neither discriminating against employees who might look like someone who uses drugs nor discriminating in favor of someone like Joe who looks like someone who does…… [Read More]
In that regard, illicit drug use, even during non-working hours, undermines our corporate interests of minimizing mistakes and maximizing output volume. Apart from any other reason, implementation of a drug testing policy is essential to maintaining the highest quality performance and output of all TI employees, particularly in the prevailing economic climate.
Personal privacy principles in the workplace are substantially less than elsewhere as a matter of law. Employers have a legitimate concern with prohibiting any illegal employee conduct, especially any that is associated with declining quality or productivity. Recreational use of illicit drugs conflicts directly with TI corporate commitments to provide the highest quality work and to maintain optimal efficiency and work output. Therefore, it is respectfully requested that the issue of employee drug testing be reconsidered in view of all the issues relevant to that concern.
Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York:…… [Read More]
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…… [Read More]
Drug Tests and Government Benefits
Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars…… [Read More]
he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).
Is D.A.R.E. Effective?
If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…… [Read More]
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…… [Read More]
While Jacob's Ladder is a horror film, Jacob Singer, played by Tim Robbins, is haunted by hallucinations, which he is convinced are a result of secret government chemical or drug testing carried out on him during the Vietnam War. In this regard, Jacob's Ladder comments on the countless unknown substances that are secretly administered to unwilling subjects. This aspect of the film, although ultimately proving to be untrue as Jacob's hallucinations are a desperate attempt to cling to life and he really dies in Vietnam, focuses on a different aspect of drug culture: drug testing and manufacture. In Jacob's Ladder, Jacob and his fellow soldiers, serve as ersatz lab rats, considered to be disposable by the U.S. government.
On the other hand, the Insider, directed by Michael Mann, focuses on the power held by drug corporations and their ability to influence the media and public perceptions of individuals. The Insider…… [Read More]
Drug Free Workplace
Substance abuse in the workplace is a serious issue. Employees who are under the influence of a drug on the job compromise an employer's interests, endanger their own health and safety and the health and safety of others, and can cause a number of other work-related problems, including absenteeism and tardiness, substandard job performance, increased work loads for co-workers, behavior that disrupts other employees, delays in the completion of jobs, inferior quality in products or services, and disruption of customer relations (Drug-free workplace policy, 2004). These reasons explain why it is so important for an employer to support a drug free workplace. Key components of this initiative are to publish clearly defined policies, establish a drug awareness and education program, train supervisors to detect and manage substance abuse issues and offer an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
Clearly defined written policies lay the groundwork for a drug free…… [Read More]
Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.
The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…… [Read More]
Drug Testing in the Workplace
Most employers in the United States are not required to do drug testing on either current or potential employees, although the majority have the right to do so (United States Department of Labor, 2010). Drug testing is not required under the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988. The Act can be confusing and challenging for employers, however, since it essentially states that any organization receiving federal grants or contracts must be drug-free but does not contain language that specifically allows for drug testing (Thompson euters 2011). Many state and local governments limit or prohibit drug testing unless required for certain jobs with state or Federal governments.
As far back as 1997, the American Civil Liberties Union was deploring the use of drug testing in the workplace, citing an increase of 277% over a ten-year period (American Civil Liberties Union, 1997). Drug testing remains a controversial issue…… [Read More]
Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts
For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…… [Read More]
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…… [Read More]
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…… [Read More]
Patients have a right to know if their doctor's decision to prescribe a certain medication has been influenced by free lunches or other perks, rather than that doctor's objective overview of prescribing information.
In fact, the real ethical issue presented in the underlying case is not that the doctors are accepting gifts from the pharmaceutical companies. Drug companies did decide to some degree of self-limit in their gifts to physicians. However, whether or not the drug companies offer gifts may not be the real ethical issue. The criteria for acceptability or unacceptability of gifts should actually rest on physician response, rather than an arbitrary financial limit of gifts for physicians. In other words, some of the currently prohibited practices, such as taking the physicians golfing, seem like a smart business practice for the sales people. The doctors, however, should have to maintain a database for patients to access, where they…… [Read More]
Sports and Drugs
Illicit or illegal drugs and sports have been related since the very start of competitive sports. But ever increasing competitiveness gave birth to the idea of cheating and increasing knowledge suggested the use of drugs to give one's energy and stamina that extra boost necessary for a win. As money began pouring into sports and sporting events the need and desire to succeed led to a steady rise in drug use among sportsmen. Different anti-doping and prevention policies were born and one of them was Australian Football League's 'Illicit Drug Policy'
Drug testing began with the revelation of drug use in the sport of cycling. But it soon spread to other sports as well. IAAF was the first ever sporting federation to making doping illegal and the decision got tremendous support after the death of two cyclists. The various sets of restrictions placed by different sports bodies…… [Read More]
Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…… [Read More]
Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.
According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to offer a summary and analysis of a CPS-oriented intervention with an at-risk child. The intervention will be described from beginning to end. It will be summarized how there was a prevention or resolution to problems that were discovered. There will be an analysis of how there was negotiating and advocacy on behalf of the client. There will be a listing of at least three practice skills (micro and/or macro) that were used as part of the intervention. There will be a general critique of the intervention's progress and performance, what could have been done to generate a better outcome, whether the intervention was empowering and whether it was discriminatory or oppressive.
The story in question is about a woman named Alice. Despite what her name might imply, lice is actually a Latino. She is under the scrutiny of…… [Read More]
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.
Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.
De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,
from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm
Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-
oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]
people engage in recreational activities. Sometimes these activities involve the use of alcohol or drugs. Although people can engage in some alcohol and drug usage dependent on state and federal legislature, many drugs remain prohibited. Because most drugs remain prohibited, it is important for businesses to monitor the potential usage of drugs amongst its employees. It is important for a business to have employees that are healthy and can function at their best most of the time. Therefore, drug testing should be implemented at least annually, for most jobs.
Companies must perform drug testing on their employees for several reasons. The first reason is preventative. Drug users often incur higher medical expenses versus the employees not on drugs. By identifying a potential drug user, the company can take the steps necessary to remove that employee and avoid unnecessary medical costs.
The second reason is deterring drug use. Employees applying for…… [Read More]
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…… [Read More]
For instance, in Min Patel's case her lung cancer there years ago that went into full recovery had nothing to do with her ability to perform as a deputy sheriff especially since she has passed the medical exams of the city. As what the Americans with Disability Act specifies, it is illegal to screen for any disability unrelated to job performance (Cayer, 2003, p. 141) and clearly, there was no disability to speak of except for records of Ms. Patel's clung cancer treatment and her statements that she had the disease. The city may be stating that if she is hired as a deputy sheriff, "she would be exposed to situations in which she could be breathing substances that could reactivate her condition (Cayer, 2003, p. 146)." This argument is immediately presumptuous and without basis unless the city provides strong evidence from top medical experts that that could be the…… [Read More]
They can reveal how many overworked and under-trained nurses kill and injure thousands of patients every year because hospitals sacrifice safety for not tracking their own medical errors. Statistics showed that only 14 States track these errors and hospitals in most States were not required to offer information on accidental deaths or injuries, not even to the families of the victims. Public custom databases, such as the Food and Drug Administration or FDA and the Health Care Financing Administration, tracked reports of a range of these medical errors and neglect from defibrillators to pacemakers, and from sutures to skin grafts. These incidents included thousands of patients accidentally overdosed because nurses typed the wrong dosage; did not hear the warning alarm on patients on life-saving machinery; patients' heads trapped in bed rails or strangled by post-surgical restraints (erens).
The Chicago-based National Council of State oards of Nursing computerizes disciplinary actions against…… [Read More]
According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.
3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.
From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been to assess a data flow diagram that makes reference to clinical trials. For each step in the clinical trial, the author of this response will speak to what personnel would be involved with that step of the process. Indeed, the data flow diagram in question is seventeen steps long and the litany of personnel involved with each step can be moderate to extensive. While some may think that clinical trials are fairly mundane and easy to pull off, that is simply not the case and the process is indeed extensive and potentially circuitous depending on how things go (FDA, 2016).
Step one of the diagram involves protocol development. The personnel involved would include medical writers, physicians, medical experts, project managers, biostatisticians and data managers. The protocols and rules of the study are important and must be defined. Step two…… [Read More]
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…… [Read More]
Drug Enforcement Administration, the Controlled Substances Act, and the War on Drugs all show that drug prohibition has been framed as a federal issue. Recent state-by-state legalization of cannabis (marijuana) has challenged and undermined the efficacy of federal drug laws and anti-drug policies. Almost half the states have now legalized marijuana for either medical or recreational use (Hill, 2015). The state-by-state legalization scheme creates legal and ethical conundrums. For example, Hill points out that federal anti-drug legislation prohibits legal marijuana businesses operating in states like Colorado to use national financial institutions for banking. Without access to the usual range of financing options, cannabis dispensaries and other related businesses are driven to a cash-only business which can "attract thieves and tax cheats," (Hill, 2015, p. 597). Other problems include the inability of Americans to legally transport cannabis over state lines, even between two states that both legalized the drug. Canada recently…… [Read More]
Drugs and Behavior
What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage?
Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus…… [Read More]
The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. ith stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.
The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they…… [Read More]
Club Drugs & Ecstasy
"Though some researchers have indicated club drug users are more likely to be poly-drug users, there remains little known about the prevalence and specific combinations of the substances they use…" (Grov, et al., 2009, p. 848).
The use of club drugs in the United States has been a problem for healthcare agencies and law enforcement for many years. The focus of research on the use of club drugs (notably ecstasy) in most articles is on "rave" events, where loud music and drug use is typical. This paper reviews and critiques the literature related to the use and abuse of club drugs.
The Literature on Club Drugs and the Issues Associated with Club Drug Usage
How extreme is club drug use in Chicago? A profile of adult club drug use was measured by Michael Fendrich and colleagues and published in the peer-reviewed journal Addiction (Fendrich, et al.,…… [Read More]
For the past several decades, the news about cancer in the United States has been increasingly positive and that trend has continued unabated over the past decade. According to the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, the overall incidence rate for men has declined by an average of 0.6% every year between 2004 and 2008, while for women, the incidence rate has dropped 0.5% per year from 1998 through 2006 and leveling off from 2006 to 2008 (National Cancer Institute). Just as importantly death rates from cancer have declined since 1975 and have sharply decreased between 19944 and 2008 for both men and women as shown in the graph below from the National Cancer Institute (National Cancer Institute).
There are myriad reasons for this decline in cancer deaths, including better education regarding healthy living, improved diets, and better treatment. Among the treatment options are improved…… [Read More]
That is evidenced by the fact that prevention messages produced affirmative responses to questions about curtailment and curtailment messages produced affirmative responses to questions about prevention.
(4) Perception of realism is likely a critical element of any anti-drug messaging campaign expected to appeal to a teenage audience.
Exactly what do you recommend for the de-marketing communications campaign?
There would seem to be little basis to presume that either a prevention strategy or a curtailment strategy would be more effective than the other. It is most likely that both approaches would be advisable because teenagers who already use drugs are much less likely to respond as hoped to the curtailment messages whereas teenagers who do not already use drugs would be more likely to respond as hoped to the prevention messages. More specifically, teenagers who already use drugs are beyond the point where a prevention messaging strategy would be productive.
On…… [Read More]
One of the most frequent injuries is represented by the traumatic brain ones.. amongst other symptoms, one can mention anxiety, severe depression. Headaches and the difficulty to reason clearly. PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder is also manifested through depression, insomnia, flashback.
It is important to underline that these psychological disorders are usually associated with drug abuse. Taking this into consideration, it can be underlined that we are dealing with a social phenomenon. Most soldiers do not have the psychological training needed in order to do what they need to do once in combat. War has never been and could never be a pretty things, so the atrocities that these young men witness or are forced to do, shake them up psychologically. The use of drugs is to be understood in close connection to this factor.
Depression is not a factor that can be ignored. And there is no time for…… [Read More]
FDA Drug Approval Process
In order for a pharmaceutical company to obtain FDA approval for a new drug, a long sequence of detailed testing and clinical trials must be administered. The approximate cost of putting a new drug through the approval is $500 million, and it takes an average of fifteen years for a drug to make it from initial testing to being available for patients. Furthermore, of every 5000 compounds that go through pre-clinical testing, only five advance to the human testing phase, and only one of these compounds will actually be approved. There are six key phases of testing that potential drugs go through on the path to FDA approval. These phases are early research / pre-clinical testing, clinical trials (phase I, phase II and phase III), FDA approval, and post-marketing testing.
The first phase of the drug approval process is pre-clinical testing. This consists of laboratory and…… [Read More]
IV. TESTING ON HUMANS
The only thing that is lacking at this point according to all reports is for testing on humans to be completed. The Time Asia articles states: "The last step for the ace-2 inhibitor, as for any drug, is human clinical trials. ecause the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires such rigorous testing, this is by far the most expensive part of drug development. So for human trials in some cases, Millennium has formed partnerships with large pharmaceutical companies that have the necessary resources and will share in any eventual profits." (2001)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
According to the work entitled: "rave New Pharmacy" published in Time Asia (2001) "When the human genome was sequenced...scientists finally gained access to the full text of God's reference manual; the 3 billion biochemical 'letters' that spell out our tens of thousands of genes. These genes, strung out along the 46 chromosomes…… [Read More]
It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.
This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that…… [Read More]