Drug Testing Essays (Examples)

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Drugs Testing Interoffice Memorandum Subject

Words: 446 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89488433

In that regard, illicit drug use, even during non-working hours, undermines our corporate interests of minimizing mistakes and maximizing output volume. Apart from any other reason, implementation of a drug testing policy is essential to maintaining the highest quality performance and output of all TI employees, particularly in the prevailing economic climate.


Personal privacy principles in the workplace are substantially less than elsewhere as a matter of law. Employers have a legitimate concern with prohibiting any illegal employee conduct, especially any that is associated with declining quality or productivity. Recreational use of illicit drugs conflicts directly with TI corporate commitments to provide the highest quality work and to maintain optimal efficiency and work output. Therefore, it is respectfully requested that the issue of employee drug testing be reconsidered in view of all the issues relevant to that concern.

orks Cited

Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Friedman, L. (2005). A History of American Law 3rd Edition. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies

Schmalleger, F. (2001). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Drug Free Workplace in Favor

Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15910707

What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.

Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…… [Read More]


Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.

Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68

Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998

Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
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Drug Tests and Government Benefits Recently There

Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29027268

Drug Tests and Government Benefits

Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Brooke. (26 March 2012). Guv signs off on welfare recipient drug-screening program. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved from  http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/politics/53795131-90/cash-continue-drug-guv.html.csp 

Alcindor, Yamiche (29 February 2012). States consider drug testing welfare recipients. USA Today. Retrieved from  http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-02-17/welfare-food-stamps-drug-testing-laws/53306804/1 

Hoover, Tim. (29 March 2012). Bill to drug test welfare recipients dies in Colorado House in second reading. Denver Post. Retrieved from  http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_20283105/drug-test-welfare-bill-dies-colorado-house-second?source=rss 

Rivas, Jorge. (25 August 2011). 96% of Florida welfare applicants pass drug test, discredit Tea Party gov. ColorLines. Retrieved from http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/98_of_florida_welfare_applicants_pass_newly_implemented_drug_tests_discrediting_governor.html
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Drug Education

Words: 3833 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1213854

Drug Education

he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).

Is D.A.R.E. Effective?

If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…… [Read More]

The writer highlights that in spite of vast promises, in the past two decades statistics have pointed to a sharp augment in the use of drugs in the United States.

5). Stewart I. Donaldson. 1996. Drug Abuse Prevention Programming, Do we know what content works? Journal of American Behavioral Scientist. (June). Vol 39, no. 7. Pgs. 245-261.

The highlights that if $700 million a year and twenty thousand specifically trained police officers do not effect in the lessening of drug used amid minors, besides giving police something to do, what does it accomplish?
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Drug Screening Is Used More

Words: 3363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39455260

In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.

Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.

Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.

Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year.

French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
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Drug Culture in Lost Weekend

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35655446

While Jacob's Ladder is a horror film, Jacob Singer, played by Tim Robbins, is haunted by hallucinations, which he is convinced are a result of secret government chemical or drug testing carried out on him during the Vietnam War. In this regard, Jacob's Ladder comments on the countless unknown substances that are secretly administered to unwilling subjects. This aspect of the film, although ultimately proving to be untrue as Jacob's hallucinations are a desperate attempt to cling to life and he really dies in Vietnam, focuses on a different aspect of drug culture: drug testing and manufacture. In Jacob's Ladder, Jacob and his fellow soldiers, serve as ersatz lab rats, considered to be disposable by the U.S. government.

On the other hand, the Insider, directed by Michael Mann, focuses on the power held by drug corporations and their ability to influence the media and public perceptions of individuals. The Insider…… [Read More]

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Drug Free Workplace

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61731661

Drug Free Workplace

Substance abuse in the workplace is a serious issue. Employees who are under the influence of a drug on the job compromise an employer's interests, endanger their own health and safety and the health and safety of others, and can cause a number of other work-related problems, including absenteeism and tardiness, substandard job performance, increased work loads for co-workers, behavior that disrupts other employees, delays in the completion of jobs, inferior quality in products or services, and disruption of customer relations (Drug-free workplace policy, 2004). These reasons explain why it is so important for an employer to support a drug free workplace. Key components of this initiative are to publish clearly defined policies, establish a drug awareness and education program, train supervisors to detect and manage substance abuse issues and offer an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

Clearly defined written policies lay the groundwork for a drug free…… [Read More]


Drug-free workplace policy. (2004, January) SDSU Foundation Human Resources. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.foundation.sdsu.edu/hrpage/pol_form/polform_notice_drug.html

elaws -- drug free workplace advisor. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen16b.asp?selection_list=

The role and responsibilities of supervisors. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://workplace.samhsa.gov/DrugFreeWP/suptrng.html

Utah Valley State College policies and procedures. (1992, June 18) Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.uvsc.edu/policies/hr/c-3_08.html
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Drug Trials One of the

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61679010

By upholding estern standards of ethics for drug trials, a company will not only meet its ethical obligations but will also ensure a higher standard of research. Clinical trials in emerging markets will still be cheaper than in estern markets, because the research staff will earn less, and because payouts to test subjects can be adjusted for living costs without violating ethical norms. Also, because standards provide structure, the quality of the research will be improved by applying estern standards in lieu of local standards.

Thus, the strongest ethical case lies for managing drug trials in emerging markets much as they would be managed in the est. The trials need to meet the specifications of the FDA anyway, and even with estern standards the cost of foreign drug trials will be lower. Additionally, when the drug company is free from the perception of ethical violation, not only will the results…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Rettue, P. (2012). Clinical trials in emerging economies- challenges and opportunities. Medical News Today. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/246778.php 

Singh, K. (2012). Lack of compensation norms for clinical trials results in exploitation of poor patients. The Economic Times. Retrieved November 10, 2012 f rom  http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-08-21/news/33303228_1_clinical-trials-drug-trials-trial-victim
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Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Military

Words: 2583 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36327230

Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.


The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…… [Read More]


Lande, R.G.; Marin, B. (2009) Biomarker characteristics of alcohol use in the U.S. Army. J Addict Diseases 28: 158-163. DOI:10.1080/10550880902772506

Larson, M.J.; Wooten, N.R.; Adams, R.S.; et al. (2012). Military combat deployments and substance use: Review and future directions. J Soc Work Pract Addict 12: 6-27. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2012.647586

McFarling, L.; D'Angelo, M.; Drain, M.; et al. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse and mental health treatment. Military Psychology 23: 1-5 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2011.534397

Milliken, C.S.; Auchterlonie, J.L.; Hoge, C.W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. JAMA 298: 2141-2148 doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141
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Workplace Drug Screening Opinion

Words: 1173 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28102510

Drug Testing in the Workplace

Most employers in the United States are not required to do drug testing on either current or potential employees, although the majority have the right to do so (United States Department of Labor, 2010). Drug testing is not required under the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988. The Act can be confusing and challenging for employers, however, since it essentially states that any organization receiving federal grants or contracts must be drug-free but does not contain language that specifically allows for drug testing (Thompson euters 2011). Many state and local governments limit or prohibit drug testing unless required for certain jobs with state or Federal governments.

As far back as 1997, the American Civil Liberties Union was deploring the use of drug testing in the workplace, citing an increase of 277% over a ten-year period (American Civil Liberties Union, 1997). Drug testing remains a controversial issue…… [Read More]


Drug-free workplace policy builder. Section 7: Drug testing. (2010). U.S. Department of Labor.

Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen92.asp

Drummer, O.H. (2006). Drug testing in oral fluid. Clinical Biochemist Reviews 27(30), pp. 147-

Privacy in America: Workplace drug testing. (1997). American Civil Liberties Union.
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Criminal Policy of Drug Court

Words: 3736 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85191739

Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts

For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…… [Read More]


Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.

A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.

Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm

Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
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Drug Pregnant

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96701852

Drugs and Pregnancy

The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.

The central issues identified during the entire session include…… [Read More]


Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.

Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse
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Drug Usage the Use Drugs

Words: 4084 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41436016

Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).

Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).

In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
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Drug Policies Major Policies History

Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8012701

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…… [Read More]


1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.

Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.

Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
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Drug Treatment of Metaboilic Syndrome

Words: 2046 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37625321

Patient and family education is essential especially with regards to eating habits. The patients should avoid excess fat in their diet as it contributes to high chances of contracting the disease (Bolen et al. 2010). The drug has, however, remained on the market in the U.S. The drug has been removed from European markets due to escalating concerns regarding safety. Obesity has considerable contribution to the number of preventable deaths in the United States. In essence, obesity is a condition whereby the affected being has a body mass index (BMI) that exceeds 30. Apparently, BMI refers to the measure of a person's body relative to his or her height (Bolen et al. 2010).

The United States and several other economies of the world spend hefty sums of money in their budget estimates towards treatment and general containment of obesity, hypertension, diabetes II and other causes of preventable deaths. Americans have…… [Read More]


Aronson, J.K. (2011). Side effects of drugs annual: A worldwide yearly survey of new data in adverse drug reactions. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Bolen, S., Clark, J., Richards, T., Shore, a., Goodwin, S., & Weiner, J. (2010). Trends in and patterns of obesity reduction medication use in an insured cohort. Obesity (Silver Spring,

Md.), 18(1), 206-209.

Carter, R., Mouralidarane, a., Ray, S., Soeda, J., & Oben, J. (2012). Recent advancements in drug treatment of obesity. Clinical Medicine, 12(5), 456-460.
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Drug Therapy

Words: 517 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8360663

Drug Therapy

Advanced pharmacology

Drug therapy: Individualized drug therapies

Patient responses to drug therapy can vary widely between individuals. For example, not all patients find their pain alleviated by the same doses of analgesics; some patients can become suicidal when taking antidepressants rather than find their symptoms eased. It is because of the varied response of individuals, based upon their physical chemistry (as well as their social and psychological needs) that individualized drug therapy is necessary. The social and psychological component, it should be noted, must not be minimized. Some diabetic patients find it very difficult to regulate their blood sugar with a highly complex insulin regime and any modifications which can be made might be extremely helpful in terms of ensuring glucose stability and compliance with treatment.

Another component of different drug response mechanisms is that of allergies. Allergies to penicillin, sulfate drugs, eggs, and other substances are amongst…… [Read More]


Antidepressant medications for children and adolescents. (2014). NIMH. Retrieved from:


Lesko, L.J. & Schmidt, S. (2012). Individualization of drug therapy: History, present state, and opportunities for the future. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 92, 458-466.

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Workplace Drug Screening Testing for Drugs Has

Words: 1362 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7216055

Workplace Drug Screening

Testing for drugs has developed into a significant security concern in places of work for management. The purpose of screening is to diminish the effects that illegal substance abuse has on the places of business, comprising lateness, non-attendance, turnover, mind-set troubles, theft, reduced output, misdeeds and hostility. "The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that drug use in the workplace costs employers $75 to $100 billion dollars annually in lost time, accidents, health care and workers compensation costs. Sixty-five percent of all accidents on the job are related to drug or alcohol, and substance abusers utilize 16 times as many health care benefits and are six times more likely to file workers compensation claims then non-abusers" (Intro to Drug Screening, n.d.).

Employers often implement drug testing programs because of federal rules and they have to or they do it because of business or legal necessities. Testing for drugs…… [Read More]


Drug Testing. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.nafdacnigeria.org/drug-testing.html

Drug Testing for the Workplace. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.211ct.org/InformationLibrary/Documents/DrugTestingfortheWorkplace.a spIntro to Drug Screening. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.employmentdrugtesting.com/screening.html

This is a Test: The Dilemmas of Drug Testing. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n1/test.html
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AFL Illicit Drugs Policy

Words: 1627 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63066216

Sports and Drugs

Illicit or illegal drugs and sports have been related since the very start of competitive sports. But ever increasing competitiveness gave birth to the idea of cheating and increasing knowledge suggested the use of drugs to give one's energy and stamina that extra boost necessary for a win. As money began pouring into sports and sporting events the need and desire to succeed led to a steady rise in drug use among sportsmen. Different anti-doping and prevention policies were born and one of them was Australian Football League's 'Illicit Drug Policy'

Drug testing began with the revelation of drug use in the sport of cycling. But it soon spread to other sports as well. IAAF was the first ever sporting federation to making doping illegal and the decision got tremendous support after the death of two cyclists. The various sets of restrictions placed by different sports bodies…… [Read More]


ABC News 2010, AFL stands by drug confidentiality policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012,  http://www.abc.net.au/news/2010-09-01/afl-stands-by-drug-confidentiality-policy/966194 

AFL 2008, Illicit drugs policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.aflpa.com.au/images/uploads/Illicit_Drug_Policy_August_2008_CURRENT_2.pdf

AFL 2010, AFL and AFLPA enhance illicit drug policy. Viewed 13 June, 2012, www.afl.com.au/tabid/13144/Default.aspx?newsId=66504

AFL 2012, AFL players and AFL have a simple message: say no to drugs. Viewed 13 June, 2012, http://www.afl.com.au/aflhq/aflplayerssaynotodrugs/tabid/12211/default.aspx
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Juvenile Drug Courts

Words: 3028 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8841439

Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…… [Read More]


Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165-183.

Cooper, C.S. (2001). Juvenile Drug Court Programs. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf

Office of Justice Programs. (2003). Juvenile Drug Courts: Strategies in Practice. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/197866.pdf

United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. (2015). BRIDGE Program: Mission Statement and Policies. United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from http://www.scp.uscourts.gov/Downloads/BRIDGEProgramMissionPolicies.pdf
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Fictional Drug Abuse Case

Words: 5191 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7740320

Chemical Dependency

Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.

According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…… [Read More]


Bettmann, J., Russell, K., & Parry, K. (2013). How Substance Abuse Recovery Skills, Readiness to Change and Symptom Reduction Impact Change Processes in Wilderness Therapy Participants. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9665-2

DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror). (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2015, from https://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n136/mode/1up

Gregorowski, C., Seedat, S., & Jordaan, G.P. (2013).A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289

Hall, W., Farrell, M., & Carter, A. (2014). Compulsory treatment of addiction in the patient's best interests: More rigorous evaluations are essential. Drug & Alcohol Review, 33(3), 268-271. doi:10.1111/dar.12122
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Domestic Violence & Drugs Use With Latina Parents

Words: 1297 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64950481

CPS Intervention

The author of this report has been asked to offer a summary and analysis of a CPS-oriented intervention with an at-risk child. The intervention will be described from beginning to end. It will be summarized how there was a prevention or resolution to problems that were discovered. There will be an analysis of how there was negotiating and advocacy on behalf of the client. There will be a listing of at least three practice skills (micro and/or macro) that were used as part of the intervention. There will be a general critique of the intervention's progress and performance, what could have been done to generate a better outcome, whether the intervention was empowering and whether it was discriminatory or oppressive.


The story in question is about a woman named Alice. Despite what her name might imply, lice is actually a Latino. She is under the scrutiny of…… [Read More]


Edwards, B., & Addae, R. (2015). Ethical decision-making models in resolving ethical dilemmas in rural practice: Implications for social work practice and education. Journal of Social Work Values & Ethics, 12(1), 88-92.

Lipsky, S., & Caetano, R. (2009). Epidemiology of Substance Abuse Among

Latinos. Journal Of Ethnicity In Substance Abuse, 8(3), 242-260.

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Animal Testing the Use of

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159435

This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.


Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-

oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
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Businesses and Drug Tests

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82042889

people engage in recreational activities. Sometimes these activities involve the use of alcohol or drugs. Although people can engage in some alcohol and drug usage dependent on state and federal legislature, many drugs remain prohibited. Because most drugs remain prohibited, it is important for businesses to monitor the potential usage of drugs amongst its employees. It is important for a business to have employees that are healthy and can function at their best most of the time. Therefore, drug testing should be implemented at least annually, for most jobs.

Companies must perform drug testing on their employees for several reasons. The first reason is preventative. Drug users often incur higher medical expenses versus the employees not on drugs. By identifying a potential drug user, the company can take the steps necessary to remove that employee and avoid unnecessary medical costs.

The second reason is deterring drug use. Employees applying for…… [Read More]


Davies, P., Francis, P., & Jupp, V. (2016). Invisible crimes: Their victims and their regulation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Knowlton, E. (2016, May 7). Maria Sharapova failed drug test at Australian Open - Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/maria-sharapova-meldonium-failed-drug-test-australian-open-2016-3

NIH. (2017). DrugFacts: Marijuana | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
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Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69293543

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.


With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]


Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Words: 3144 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41892521

Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Among High School Athletes

Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.

Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…… [Read More]


Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.

Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf

Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.

Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
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Illicit Drugs Has Always Been

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93313755

For instance, in Min Patel's case her lung cancer there years ago that went into full recovery had nothing to do with her ability to perform as a deputy sheriff especially since she has passed the medical exams of the city. As what the Americans with Disability Act specifies, it is illegal to screen for any disability unrelated to job performance (Cayer, 2003, p. 141) and clearly, there was no disability to speak of except for records of Ms. Patel's clung cancer treatment and her statements that she had the disease. The city may be stating that if she is hired as a deputy sheriff, "she would be exposed to situations in which she could be breathing substances that could reactivate her condition (Cayer, 2003, p. 146)." This argument is immediately presumptuous and without basis unless the city provides strong evidence from top medical experts that that could be the…… [Read More]


Cayer, N.J. (2003). Public personnel administration in the United States, 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
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Nurse Drug Theft in Hospitals

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96244200

They can reveal how many overworked and under-trained nurses kill and injure thousands of patients every year because hospitals sacrifice safety for not tracking their own medical errors. Statistics showed that only 14 States track these errors and hospitals in most States were not required to offer information on accidental deaths or injuries, not even to the families of the victims. Public custom databases, such as the Food and Drug Administration or FDA and the Health Care Financing Administration, tracked reports of a range of these medical errors and neglect from defibrillators to pacemakers, and from sutures to skin grafts. These incidents included thousands of patients accidentally overdosed because nurses typed the wrong dosage; did not hear the warning alarm on patients on life-saving machinery; patients' heads trapped in bed rails or strangled by post-surgical restraints (erens).

The Chicago-based National Council of State oards of Nursing computerizes disciplinary actions against…… [Read More]


Associated Press (2006). Former nurse convicted of drug theft. 1 page. Boston.com:the New

York Times Company

Berens, M.J. (2001). Medical errors. 3 pages. The IRE Journal: Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc.

Cuomo, a.M. (2001). Nurse admits to narcotic theft at Long Island Hospital. 2 pages. Office fo the New York State Attorney-General: New York State
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Drug Tysabri That Was Tested

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97795125

According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.

3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.

From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…… [Read More]

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Drug Manufacturers and the Threat of Me Too Drug Makers

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86854716

Patent Exclusivity

I would propose modifying the development and/or regulatory review processes to help reverse the trend towards "me too" drugs by overhauling the system that allows for drug companies to "chemically rejigger an oldie but goodie, craft a new name, mount a massive advertising campaign and sell the retread as the latest innovative breakthrough" (Mattina, 2015). The overhaul would require companies to show how their new "innovation" is different from a previous drug and what makes it more beneficial. These re-inventions of the wheel allow companies to skate past competitors who heavily invest in actually innovative drug developments by reaping the spoils of their labor after simply altering a chemical or two and claiming the innovation for themselves. In order to level the playing field and make it more of a fair practice for every company, there needs to be a system of reporting that validates and justifies the…… [Read More]


DiMasi, J., R. W. Hansen, H. G. Grabowski, 2003 "The price of innovation: new estimates of drug development costs," Journal of Health Economics 22: 151-185.

Mattina, J. (2015). Impact of 'me-too' drugs on health care costs. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/johnlamattina/2015/01/19/impact-of-me-too-drugs-on-health-care-costs/#3070fdeb2610
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Testing of New Drugs

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52056173

Flow Diagram

The author of this report has been to assess a data flow diagram that makes reference to clinical trials. For each step in the clinical trial, the author of this response will speak to what personnel would be involved with that step of the process. Indeed, the data flow diagram in question is seventeen steps long and the litany of personnel involved with each step can be moderate to extensive. While some may think that clinical trials are fairly mundane and easy to pull off, that is simply not the case and the process is indeed extensive and potentially circuitous depending on how things go (FDA, 2016).

Questions Answered

Step one of the diagram involves protocol development. The personnel involved would include medical writers, physicians, medical experts, project managers, biostatisticians and data managers. The protocols and rules of the study are important and must be defined. Step two…… [Read More]


FDA. (2016). Step 3: Clinical Research. Fda.gov. Retrieved 14 January 2016, from  http://www.fda.gov /ForPatients/Approvals/Drugs/ucm405622.htm

NIH. (2016). Steps Involved in Clinical Research Efforts. Nichd.nih.gov. Retrieved 14 January 2016, from https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/clinicalresearch/clinical-researchers/steps/Pages/index.aspx
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Correctional Issue of Drugs

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68200432

Drugs in Federal Corrections

Corrections issues

One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…… [Read More]


Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.

Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.

MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).

Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
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Illegal Drug Use Implications

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72701892

Drugs and Behavior

What are drugs exactly and what are some ways drug users get away with illegal usage?

Defining drugs use is a surprisingly difficult proposition. The definition as stated in the session II review is as follows: "any substance taken into the body that alters the function or structure of the body organs ... that changes body state or mental function." But this definition might not only apply to the substances that we would normally consider to be a "drug," but also to substances like chocolate. For example, chocolate has properties that have been shown to change body state and mental function by making a user feel happier for example. Furthermore, drugs can also be naturally occurring substances such as marijuana or mushrooms and thus cannot be further classified in regards to being synthetic substances. There are also countless useful drugs that significantly improve an individual's well-being. Thus…… [Read More]


OHSINC. (N.d.). How to Beat a Drug Test. Retrieved from OHSINC: http://www.ohsinc.com/info/how-to-cheat-a-drug-test/

The Economist. (2015, July 16). President Obama for the prisoners. Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform

The White House. (N.d.). Prescription Drug Abuse. Retrieved from Office of National Drug Control Policy: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/prescription-drug-abuse
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Illegal Drug Use Among Military

Words: 1051 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50241765

The first method, therefore, of curtailing use relates to the development of tougher measures for soldiers once they have failed a drug test. Prevention programs should be given a higher priority than is currently the case. ith stronger prevention programs, and if commanding officers are more willing to put troops who have failed drug tests into those programs, more soldiers can see their drug use curtailed.

The second method is related to the first -- prevention programs. If stress in its various forms is a major cause of illegal drug use among soldiers, then there needs to be more awareness of the issue in the military community, and more help available to soldiers before they start using. Training for all members of the military community would allow for the creation of an informal support grid for soldiers experiencing stress. Programs that give soldiers a place to turn to when they…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gilmore, G. (2011). DoD urinalysis test (drug test). About.com. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from  http://usmilitary.about.com/od/theorderlyroom/l/bldrugtests2.htm 

Jacobson, I.; Ryan, M.; Hooper, T.; Smith, T.; Amoroso, P.; Boyko, E.; Gackstetter, G.; Wells, T. & Bell, N. (2008). Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems before and after military combat deployment. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 300 (6) 663-675.

NIDA. (2011). Substance abuse among the military, veterans and their families. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/tib/vet.html

Zoroya, G. (2009). Army blasted for letting drug abusers slide. USA Today. Retrieved September 7, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2009-05-20-drug_N.htm
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Advocacy for Medicinal Marijuana Over Other Drugs

Words: 1341 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85858469

Advocacy for Medicinal Marijuana Over Other Drugs

For a considerable period of time, the reliance for the betterment of the health of an individual has depended on herbal remedies, and in many part of the world and in many households even, these continue to take a preference over the more advanced medical drugs that have come to define modern medicine.

Cannabis or Medical Marijuana is one such example of an herb that today is surrounded by controversy as regards to its usage and benefits. Besides the more negative connotations that seem to be attached to Marijuana, the medical benefits of it seem to surpass its disadvantageous. It will be the purpose of this paper, therefore, to establish a case for the use of Medical Marijuana based on its advantages as compared to Medical Drugs.

History of Cannabis:

Marijuana has come to be known by many names usually being a result…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Manila Bulletin. (2011, April 7th). AP IMPACT: Synthetic Drugs Send Thousands to ER.

Amar, M.B. (2006). Cannabinoids in Medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential . Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1-25.

Barnes, R.E. (2000). Reefer Madness: Legal & Moral Issues surrounding the Medical Prescription of Marijuana. UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). "Medical" Marijuana - The Facts. Retrieved December 9th, 2011, from United States Drug Enforcement Administration: http://www.justice.gov/dea/ongoing/marinol.html
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Developing New Drugs for Cancer Patients

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86308809

Cancer Drugs

For the past several decades, the news about cancer in the United States has been increasingly positive and that trend has continued unabated over the past decade. According to the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, the overall incidence rate for men has declined by an average of 0.6% every year between 2004 and 2008, while for women, the incidence rate has dropped 0.5% per year from 1998 through 2006 and leveling off from 2006 to 2008 (National Cancer Institute). Just as importantly death rates from cancer have declined since 1975 and have sharply decreased between 19944 and 2008 for both men and women as shown in the graph below from the National Cancer Institute (National Cancer Institute).

There are myriad reasons for this decline in cancer deaths, including better education regarding healthy living, improved diets, and better treatment. Among the treatment options are improved…… [Read More]


National Cancer Institute. (2012). Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer

death rates since the early 1990s. Retrieved from:


Chabner, B.A., & Longo, D.L. (Eds.). (2010). Cancer chemotherapy and biotherapy:
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Anti-Drug Marketing Campaign What Do

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56597623

That is evidenced by the fact that prevention messages produced affirmative responses to questions about curtailment and curtailment messages produced affirmative responses to questions about prevention.

(4) Perception of realism is likely a critical element of any anti-drug messaging campaign expected to appeal to a teenage audience.

Exactly what do you recommend for the de-marketing communications campaign?

There would seem to be little basis to presume that either a prevention strategy or a curtailment strategy would be more effective than the other. It is most likely that both approaches would be advisable because teenagers who already use drugs are much less likely to respond as hoped to the curtailment messages whereas teenagers who do not already use drugs would be more likely to respond as hoped to the prevention messages. More specifically, teenagers who already use drugs are beyond the point where a prevention messaging strategy would be productive.

On…… [Read More]

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U S Soldiers and Drug Abuse

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87155212

One of the most frequent injuries is represented by the traumatic brain ones.. amongst other symptoms, one can mention anxiety, severe depression. Headaches and the difficulty to reason clearly. PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder is also manifested through depression, insomnia, flashback.

It is important to underline that these psychological disorders are usually associated with drug abuse. Taking this into consideration, it can be underlined that we are dealing with a social phenomenon. Most soldiers do not have the psychological training needed in order to do what they need to do once in combat. War has never been and could never be a pretty things, so the atrocities that these young men witness or are forced to do, shake them up psychologically. The use of drugs is to be understood in close connection to this factor.

Depression is not a factor that can be ignored. And there is no time for…… [Read More]


Allen, T., the Iraq war-on drugs, 2006, March 20, 2008 http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/2670/

Alcohol and other drugs plague soldiers in Iraq, March 20, 2008 http://www.jointogether.org/news/research/summaries/2005/alcohol-and-other-drugs-in.html

Kelly, R., U.S. soldiers in Iraq suffer horrific brain and mental injuries, 2004, March 20, 2008 http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/nov2004/sold-n20.shtml

Millitary Drug Programs, March 20, 2008 www.jackson.army.mil/Directorates/Asap.htm
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Understanding Drugs

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70171420

FDA Drug Approval Process

In order for a pharmaceutical company to obtain FDA approval for a new drug, a long sequence of detailed testing and clinical trials must be administered. The approximate cost of putting a new drug through the approval is $500 million, and it takes an average of fifteen years for a drug to make it from initial testing to being available for patients. Furthermore, of every 5000 compounds that go through pre-clinical testing, only five advance to the human testing phase, and only one of these compounds will actually be approved. There are six key phases of testing that potential drugs go through on the path to FDA approval. These phases are early research / pre-clinical testing, clinical trials (phase I, phase II and phase III), FDA approval, and post-marketing testing.

The first phase of the drug approval process is pre-clinical testing. This consists of laboratory and…… [Read More]


Siegfried, J. The Drug Development and Approval Process.

Class notes, Development and Marketing of Drugs.
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Genome Project on Drug Design

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47141523


The only thing that is lacking at this point according to all reports is for testing on humans to be completed. The Time Asia articles states: "The last step for the ace-2 inhibitor, as for any drug, is human clinical trials. ecause the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires such rigorous testing, this is by far the most expensive part of drug development. So for human trials in some cases, Millennium has formed partnerships with large pharmaceutical companies that have the necessary resources and will share in any eventual profits." (2001)


According to the work entitled: "rave New Pharmacy" published in Time Asia (2001) "When the human genome was sequenced...scientists finally gained access to the full text of God's reference manual; the 3 billion biochemical 'letters' that spell out our tens of thousands of genes. These genes, strung out along the 46 chromosomes…… [Read More]


Drug Design in the Fast Lane: Speeding Drug Design (nd)


Elmer-Dewitt, Phillip (2001) The Future of Drugs. Time Asia 22 January 2001 Vol. 57, No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/cover1.html.

Lemonick, Michael, D. (2001) Brave New Pharmacy - Time Asia 22 Jan 2001 Vol. 157. No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/drug.impact.html
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New Steroid and Drug Policy

Words: 1103 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36894362

It seems that society places so much pressure on these heroes, too, that to appear larger than life, drugs are often the way they cope with pressure and stress. They make themselves "larger than life" with steroids to help reduce the pressure and the stress of their profession and their managers.

This may not be a public safety issue in the larger aspect of wearing seat belts or not driving after drinking, but it certainly is a public safety issue when it comes to the morals and ethics in our society - especially children. Children do imitate their heroes to a large extent, and baseball players, along with other professional athletes, are heroes to many children (and adults). Thus, children may get the idea that if their hero uses steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, so should they. This is a moral and ethical issue in that it teaches children that…… [Read More]


Author not Available. "Caminiti Comes Clean." Sports Illustrated.com. 28 May 2002. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/si_online/special_report/steroids/

Bodley, Hal. "Palmeiro Suspended for Steroids Policy Violation." USA Today. 1 Aug. 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/al/orioles/2005-08-01-palmeiro-suspension_x.htm

Jenkins, Chris. "Players Admit Steroids Changed Baseball. USA Today. 15 March 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/baseball/2005-03-15-steroids-mlb-cover_x.htm
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Food and Drug Law in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77408681

S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)

The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.

Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]

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Generic vs Name Brand Drugs

Words: 2572 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35104972


The abbreviated approval process authorized by Hatch-Waxman lets generic drug manufacturers use the same clinical data that the original manufacturer used to obtain FDA approval, thereby avoiding these expenses. In this regard, Greene emphasizes that, "Whereas the pioneer drug manufacturer must incur great expense and undergo rigorous scrutiny when it files an new drug application (NDA) to secure FDA approval, a generic manufacturer may file an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) in which it may take advantage of the NDA holder's time and expense" (2005, p. 310).

The impact of the Hatch-Waxman Act on generic drug availability has been enormous. For instance, in 1984, generic drug prescriptions represented less than 20% of all prescription drugs marketed in the United States; however, due in large part to the Hatch-Waxman Act, by 1996, the market share for generic drugs had increased to 43% and by 2006, as many as 63% of…… [Read More]


Abramson, R.G., Harrington, C.A., Missmar, R., Li, S.P. & Mendelson, D.N. (2004). Generic

drug cost containment in Medicaid: Lessons from five state MAC programs. Health Care

Financing Review, 25(3), 25-26.

Buehler, G. (2002, September-October). Generic drugs: What you need to know. FDA
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Resolving the Higher Prescriptive Drug Cost Problem

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85658337

Resolving the Higher Prescriptive Drug Cost Problem

Resolving beneficiary or medical consumer issues with respect to the rapidly rising costs of drugs is a heated issue I government and in every American's living room. Not only are those living in assisted living facilities but also parents with children and the increased number of retiring baby boomers are being financially affected in significant ways. In addition those Americans without proper insurance coverage are beset with problems of being able to obtain needed medications whatsoever. As healthcare costs continue to rise many Americans are finding healthcare coverage less affordable. Besides increasing the national deficit increased healthcare costs are taking a significantly larger portion of government spending away from other programs that need money badly. Without a doubt, strategies are badly needed to moderate growing healthcare costs and these strategies must not only come from the government but also from the consumer, pharmaceutical…… [Read More]

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Business Ethics in Drug Companies

Words: 3262 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35873031

Office Memo

Sub: comment on John's claim as a whistle blower against PharmaCAE and the ethical and legal implications of the case

As a member of Dewey, Chetum, and Howe you asked me to find out suitable ethical and legal implications that John's case could bring for the firm and for John himself. Detailed in the report are the issues regarding:

The Ethical issues relating to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety in relation to PharmaCAE

Business ethics can be defined as the art, system, method and the discipline that is applied to along with ethical principles to solve complex business issues and dilemmas. It defines the actions that are taken that tries to reach a balance between the organization achieving its business and economic obligations and social obligations (Moon, 2001).

One of the ethics that is applicable in this case is related to the advertisement…… [Read More]


Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=201.56

Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=201.56

Allen, L. (2013). Remington. London: Pharmaceutical Press.

Bradford, W., Kleit, A., Nietert, P., Steyer, T., McIlwain, T., & Ornstein, S. (2006). How Direct-To-Consumer Television Advertising For Osteoarthritis Drugs Affects Physicians' Prescribing Behavior. Health Affairs, 25(5), 1371-1377. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.25.5.1371
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The Process of Development and Testing for Drug Manufacturers

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15315384

Drug Development (From Nature to the Market)

The process of drug development is a complex one. The pharmaceutical industry is required to adhere to strict governmental regulations, set out by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which involve numerous phases of testing and clinical trials, close monitoring of the drug's effects on users, its stability, dosage forms (the preparation), and so on. This paper will describe the drug development process, as it proceeds from nature to the market.

Drugs that eventually make it to the marketplace can come from a variety of sources -- plants, animals, microbes, synthetic chemistry, biotechnology, and even modified molecules. Years of research and billions of dollars are invested by pharmaceutical companies as they seek out new, potential drugs for the market. All of this effort has resulted in the FDA's approval of 1,200 drugs for the marketplace since 1950 (Munos 960). The "recipes" that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bamelis, Lotte; Evers, Silvia; Spinhoven, Philip; Arntz, Arnoud. "Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of the Clinical Effectiveness of Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 171, no. 3 (March 2014): 305-322.

Coustasse A, Kimble CA, Stanton RB, Naylor M. "Could the Pharmaceutical Industry

Benefit from Full-Scale Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology with New Regulations?" Perspectives in Health Information Management (Fall, 2016). http://perspectives.ahima.org/couldpharmabenefit/

Munos, Bernard. "Lessons from 60 Years of Pharmaceutical Innovation." Nature
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Future of DNA Testing the

Words: 2054 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11879003

The scientists ran the DNA computer only in a test tube. They foresaw the need for an injectable version for intracellular activities, which could take decades to devise.7

In response to the fear of nonscale robots going around inside the body, the scientists said they placed safeguards into their systems.7 When more reliable DNA computers are invented with fewer mistakes, people could become more comfortable with injectable robots and accept them, the scientists said.7

A Milestone in Dental Science

OralDNA Labs, Inc., a specialty diagnostics company, provides science-based

Diagnosticand prognostic lab tests to target periodontal disease.8 Periodontal disease afflicts a quarter of the adult U.S. population. Neglect does not only result in serious gum disease and tooth loss. It has also been linked with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The company introduced MyPerioPathsm and MyPerioIDsm DNA tests. MyPerioPathsm identifies the presence of bacteria. MyPerioIDsm determines susceptibility to periodontal disease. The combination…… [Read More]


1. Saad R. Discovery, development and current applications of DNA identity testing. Baylor University Center. April 2005

2. Connor S. Let us rid society of genetic defects, says DNA pioneer. The (London) Independent. April 16, 2001

3. Eakins P. Strides foreseen in genetic research. Topeka Capital-Journal. May 6, 2000

4. Pw. Designer kids, super-athletes and genomic cures. Whole Earth. Summer 2000
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Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)

6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…… [Read More]

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
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New Drug Development and Approval

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49692904

Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.

Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.

Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…… [Read More]


Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.

"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Janodia, MD. "Drug Development Process: A Review." Pharmaceutical News 12/25/2007: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Mathieu, Mark, and Christopher-Paul Milne. New Drug Development: A Regulatory Overview. 8th. MA: Barnett Educational Services Chi, 2008. Print.
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Design a Trail for New Drug

Words: 2453 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73844395

dosage levels of Cholestease on Serum Cholesterol levels and the side effects associated with them in human beings.

Cholesterol has been a major media issue in recent years, especially the negative effects on the heart and its role in the development of heart disease. There have been many studies that indicate a connection between serum cholesterol heart disease and depression (1-3). Developing new methods to lower serum cholesterol has become a major industry in recent years. Currently the leaders in the industry are American Pharmaceutical giants, Pfizer, Merck, and Warner-Lambert (1), who have developed medications that lower cholesterol.

The Endicon corporation recognizes the potential market in developing a drug that will significantly lower serum cholesterol without the side effects associated with long-term use of the drugs currently on the market. In addition, we recognize the potential of developing a ritish Product, primarily marketed in Great ritain. Endicon has been conducting…… [Read More]


Clarke, R. et al. (1997) Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. Brit. Med. J 314 p.112-117.

Howell, W. et al. (1997) Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65 p.1747-1764.

Hudson, M. (2003) How Cholesterol Affects the Body. BurnBraeFarms.com. (Online at (http://www.burnbraefarms.com/nutrition/cholesterolnews.pdf) Accessed June 4, 2003.

Kronmal, R. et al. (1993)Total Serum Cholesterol Levels and Mortality Risk as a function of Age, A report based on the Framingham Data. Arch. Intern.Med. 153 p. 1065-1073.
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Should HIV Testing Screening Be Made Part of Primary Prevention

Words: 3311 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44959222

HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?

This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.


Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States

HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.

CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
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The Nida Drug Abuse Screener

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85630952

Substance Disorder

There are a number of different instruments that are used to diagnose substance disorders. One of these NIAMED, which has an online screening tool, the NIDA Drug Screening Tool. This test is used for screening. The patient is surveyed with respect to his/her use of various drugs, both illegal and prescription, with the focus on non-FDA approved uses of the latter. The tool was launched in 2009 as an aid to help physicians quickly and easily screen their patients for drug abuse risk (NIAMED, 2009).

This test is typically administered online, but it can be administered in offline format. The test is a survey. The results are provided at the end of the survey when the test is administered online. The test is one of the more basic tests, in that it is a single source, single method test that only focuses on frequency of usage and on…… [Read More]


Brown, R., Leonard, T., Saunders, L, & Papasouliotis, O. (1997). A two-item screening test for alcohol and other drug problems. Journal of Family Practice. 44 (2) 151-160.

NIAMED (2009). NIDA launches drug use screening tools for physicians. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nida-launches-drug-use-screening-tools-physicians

NIDA Drug Screening Tool. (2016). Retrieved May 9, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/nmassist/

Rahdert, E. & Czechowicz, D. (1995). Adolescent drug abuse: Clinical assessment and therapeutic interventions. NIDA Research Monograph. Retrieved May 9, 2016 from http://digisrv-2.biblio.etc.tu-bs.de:8081/docportal/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/DocPortal_derivate_00001904/Monograph156.pdf#page=152
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Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising











In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com