Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
In The United States
drug trafficking in the united states
"Drag trafficking is an activity that involves the importation, manufacturing, cultivation, distribution, and/or sale of illicit drags.
In this hierarchical system, narcotics are moved from smugglers, growers, or manufacturers to wholesalers who pass the product down through the chain of distribution to retailers and eventually to the consumer or drug user"
(Desroches, 2007, ¶ 1).
Despite the problems inherent in drug abuse promoted by drug trafficking from Mexico and other countries as well as by individuals living in America, United States (U.S.) consumers continue to spend billions of dollars each year on illegal drugs. Producing and supplying illegal drugs currently comprises a massive global business venture expected to continue to grow; negatively impacting the way a person's mind and body works. Drug trafficking portrays the supply side of the drug trade. In the book, Drug trafficking. What if…
Cooke, M. (2010). Tales from the DEA: Project deliverance or project folly?
The American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved June 30, 2011 from http://www.aclu-wa.org/blog/tales-dea-project-deliverance-or-project-folly
DEA, ICE mend fences; agree to share information on drug trafficking. (2009, June 19). The Washington Times (Washington, DC), p. A03. Retrieved June 29, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5031569861
Desroches, F. (2007). Research on Upper level drug trafficking: A review. Journal of Drug Issues, 37(4), 827+. Retrieved June 29, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035230201
" Drug trafficking began to finance and impact the politics in Colombia during the time to an unprecedented degree. (Schmid, 2005) as a way to stifle their political adversaries' revenue stream and fight against them, the FAC began trafficking drugs as well. esearchers see the increase of laboratories in the country as evidence to the link between FAC and drug trafficking. The FAC claims publically to not be involved in the drug trade. Any information or physical evidence that could be used to prove their direct involvement is lacking and circumstantial, in the opinions of those who both support and fight against the FAC. (Schmid, 2005)
This group and others like it have changed the game in terms of counterterrorism. Since groups like the FAC began successfully drug trafficking while still conducting terrorist activities, government agencies and other counterterrorist groups have developed a theory of the "narco-guerrilla" and "narcoterrorism." (Schmid,…
Makarenko, T. (2004). The Crime-Terror Continuum: Tracing the Interplay between Transnational Organised Crime and Terrorism. Global Crime, 6(1), 129 -- 145.
Schmid, a. (2005). Links Between Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: A Case of Narco-Terrorism? International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, January, 27, 1 -- 14.
Drug trafficking provides people with money and power. A lot of crimes are connected to drug trafficking. That is because the activity is often run by criminal organizations that make large profits from the selling of drugs and people. When criminals traffic drugs that frequently traffic humans as well. These people are often trafficked for sex, slave labor, and organs. When drug trafficking mixes with these kinds of crimes, national security can become a big problem. This is because some of these criminal organization could be terrorist in nature and may use the money gained from trafficking to promote and implement a terrorist agenda.
Drug trafficking in the United States frequently occurs in the border. However, there does exist trafficking through the use of drug mules. Human Sex trafficking a frequent pairing to drug trafficking is a serious violation of human rights, but also provides ability for those like drug…
Executive Office of the President,. (2013). NATIONA L DRUG CONTROL STRATEGY. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/federal_support_for_local_law_enforcement_equipment_acquisition.pdf
Ivan, K. (2015). Drug Cartel War as the Major Security Challenge in the U.S.-Mexican Relations: Centre for European and North Atlantic Affairs -- Analysis. Cenaa.org. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://cenaa.org/analysis/drug-cartel-war-as-the-major-security-challenge-in-the-us-mexican-relations/
Seelke, C., Wyler, L., & Beittel, J. (2010). Latin America and the Caribbean: Illicit Drug Trafficking and U.S. Counterdrug Programs.
State.gov,. (2013). Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2015/vol1/
Iran Contra and Drug Trafficking
An Analysis of Our Government's ole in Drug Trafficking
American foreign and domestic policy has long been shaped by more than what is reported in the mainstream media. Yet, sometimes events transpire that the mainstream press cannot ignore -- such as the Iran-Contra Affair in the 1980s. The Iran-Contra Affair revealed an intricate web of CIA black ops, arms and drug trading, smuggling, and regime change -- none of which the American people were supposed to know about. In fact, Iran-Contra exposed the vein of hypocrisy that is bulging on the forehead of American politics: the fact that the war on drugs is waged on citizens who are being furnished with drugs by the very government that condemns them. This paper will analyze how Iran-Contra is just one example of the way the American government uses black ops to support hidden agendas (like drug trafficking)…
Chapman, B. (2012). Interview with James Corbett. Corbett Radio. Retrieved from http://www.corbettreport.com/?s=bob+chapman&x=0&y=0
Dawson, R. (2011). Why 9/11 Still Matters. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=26320&hilit=iran+contra
Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research. (1977). NYTimes. Retrieved from http://www.gulfwarvets.com/ProjectMKULTRA.pdf
Perkins, J. (2007). The Secret History of the American Empire. New York, NY:
This is troubling because, it means that in spite all of the different efforts to disrupt supplies; they have continued to remain strong. As a result, this is showing how the policy approach that has been taken is a failure, by not having any kind of effect on reducing the total amounts of Cocaine on the street (as the level of prices is an indication of this supply). The information from this source is useful, because it provides a total big picture view of the overall scope of the problem. This is important, because it can be used to establish how the current approach and policy are ineffective at addressing the underlying challenges.
Enforcement vs. Prevention. (2010). All About Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutaddiction.com/addiction/enforcement-vs.-prevention-and-treatment-solving-our-addiction-problem-requires-all-three
This sources talks about how there is not an emphasis on drug treatment programs in the United States. As they point out how there is no vested…
Drug Trafficking. (2004). Policy Almanac. Retrieved from: http://www.policyalmanac.org/crime/archive/drug_trafficking.shtml
Enforcement vs. Prevention. (2010). All About Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutaddiction.com/addiction/enforcement-vs.-prevention-and-treatment-solving-our-addiction-problem-requires-all-three
Law Enforcement Officers. (2010). Drug Rehab. Retrieved from: http://www.drug-rehab.com/news/law-enforcement-officers-advocate-for-treatment-rather-than-prison-sentences-2087.php
Large quantities of drugs have slipped across the border in large propane tanks, hazardous materials containers, canned food, and drums of jalapeno peppers. One example of the increasingly innovative ways traffickers are smuggling drugs occurred when traffickers smuggled drugs from Mexico, into the United State, and then further into Canada concealed in a special mold of porcelain toilets. Clearly, the present DEA budget is no match for the virtually limitless resources of the drug traffickers disposal (Hamowy, 1987).
According to Massing (2000), governmental agencies would need to spend $783 million more annually, to cut cocaine consumption by one percent. Similarly, prohibition efforts would need to be increased by $366 million, while domestic law enforcement would need to be increased by $246 million, to decrease consumption by one percent. In contrast, relying solely on treatment, the government would only need to spend an additional $34 million to attain that same one…
"Drug control strategy for 2010." (May/Jun 2010). NCADD Washington Report, 13(5/6). Print.
Drug Trafficking. (2004). Policy Almanac. Retrieved from: http://www.policyalmanac.org/crime/archive/drug_trafficking.shtml http://www.allaboutaddiction.com/addiction/enforcement-vs.-prevention-and-treatment-solving-our-addiction-problem-requires-all-three http://www.google.com/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=+inauthor :
Enforcement vs. Prevention. (2010). All About Addiction. Retrieved from:
Hamowy, R, 1987, Dealing with Drugs: Consequences of Government Control. Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy: San Francisco.
Drug Task Force
During the investigative process for a suspected drug-related criminal organization, a judge has issued a wiretap order for a suspect's phone. I have been assigned the responsibility of monitoring the suspect's phone conversations. During the course of such monitoring, I have heard the suspect and other individuals, who may or may not be involved in the drug ring, discussing other types of criminal activity. I have to decide whether the wiretap warrant allows me to take action against the suspect(s) based on what I have heard in those phone conversations. In order to do so, I must investigate the constitutional issues involved in the issuing of a wiretap warrant, as well as the scope of the material covered by that warrant. I need to understand that if I arrest the other individuals not associated with the reasons for the wiretap, what may happen to any future evidence…
Electronic Frontier Foundation. (2013). Wiretapping law protections. Retrieved September 15,
2013 from Surveillance Self-Defense website: https://ssd.eff.org/wire/govt/wiretapping-protections
LaMance, K. (2013). Police use of wiretaps. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from LegalMatch
Solution to Stop Drug Trafficking and Terrorism in the United States and Abroad
Drug trafficking and terrorism in the U.S. And abroad
Simply put, illegal drugs appear to be one of, if not the most lucrative sources of funds for terrorist activities. Mainstream media, scholars, policymakers, and even the general public commonly believe that terrorist activity is funded by global sales and/or trade in illegal drugs. It has been suggested that terrorist groups use the funds generated from the lucrative drug trade for bribery, communication networks, safe houses, and weapons purchases (DEA, 2014). Furthermore, if true, these funds from sale of illicit drugs also enable planning and execution of even more attacks. Advantages of the illicit drug market to terrorists might include ease of entry into the drug trade, minimal infrastructure investment needed, and insignificant transportation costs relative to immense profit (allentine 2003; Cornell 2005). Other factors may include the…
Bagley, B. (2012). Drug Trafficking And Organized Crime In The Americas. Woodrow Wilson International Center.
Ballentine, K. (2003). Beyond greed and grievance: reconsidering the economic dynamics of armed conflict. In K. Ballentine & J. Sherman (Eds.), The political economy of armed conflict (pp. 159-186). Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Baruah, S. (1994). The state and separatist militancy in Assam: winning a Battle and losing the war. Asian Survey, 34(10), 863-877
Bibes, P. (2001). Transnational organized crime and terrorism: Colombia, a case study. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 17(3), 243-258
According to the U.S. Department of Justice there are now 1.5 million individuals in prison facilities in the U.S. For the following types of offenses:
Extortion, Fraud, Bribery
Firearms, Explosives, Arson
Courts or Corrections
Continuing Criminal Enterprise
Source Bureau Justice Statistics online at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
The following table labeled Table 1.0 shows the drug arrested for each year running from 1986 to 2002, the drug categories and the number of arrested in that category as the kilograms or dosage units of drugs seized during the arrest..
It is clear that the trafficking of drugs in the United States is focused on by the Drug Enforcement Agency as well as other various agencies in an attempt to stop the flow of drugs into the United…
DEA News Release: Operation Jump Start Guatemalan-Colombian Drug Cartel Dismantled Online available at: http://crime.about.com/od/wanted/p/montoya.htm
Cops Use Electronic 'Sniffer to detect Illegal Drugs' U.S. Department of Energy Report 2005 Online available at: http://crime.about.com/od/current/a/case_news.htm
Montaldo, Charles (2005) Online Pharmacy Ring Busted Crime/Punishment Online at: http://crime.about.com/b/a/163989.htm
DEA Statistics: Drug Seizures Online available at: http://www.usdoj.gov/dea / statistics.html
The global cocaine seizures in 2002 indicate a 10% fall from 1999 -- the latest peak year for cocaine production. Although the bulk of cocaine seizures in 2002 continued to be in the Americas (55%in South America; 32% in North America), the most disturbing trend is the rise in European seizures (13% v. 6% in 1990 and 8% in 2000). The increase in cocaine trafficking to Europe is mainly due to the saturated and relatively high-risk market of North America and the relatively higher profits available in Europe. The declining trend in cocaine traffic to North America is attributed to effective eradication programs in the source countries and stricter crack-down by the drug enforcers on the cocaine market in the U.S.
Most of the worldwide cocaine traffic is managed by deeply entrenched criminal groups / drug cartels based in Columbia. These organizations use a sophisticated infrastructure to move cocaine by…
Bitter-Sweet Harvest: Afghanistan's New War." IRIN Web Special. February 20, 2005. http://www.irinnews.org/webspecials/Opium/weblinks.asp
Drug Trafficking in the United States." U.S. Drug Enforcing Administration. February 20, 2005.
International Drug Trafficking
One of the most prominent international issues regarding drugs is the ways in which these substances are illegally moved across borders. It was originally believed that the drug trade could be adequately controlled by enforcement. However, after roughly forty years of the failure to win the "war on drugs," it is becoming undeniably obvious that enforcement is not the effective solution to this situation. The role of globalization in the international community has worked to facilitate the exchange of information and goods, including the illicit drug trade; illegal markets have reached a level of complexity that no one previously thought possible and the value of the illegal drug market is valued at over five hundred billion dollars a year (Jenner, 2011). This hidden market has created innovative methods of subverting any effects of increased international enforcement and in many cases uses violence to ensure local compliance.
Ahmed, A. (2015, August 29). Young Hands in Mexico Feed Growing U.S. Demand for Heroin. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/30/world/americas/mexican-opium-production-rises-to-meet-heroin-demand-in-us.html?_r=0
Drug Policy Alliance. (N.d.). Drug Laws and Drug Enforcement Around the World. Retrieved from Drug Policy Alliance: http://www.drugpolicy.org/drug-laws-and-drug-enforcement-around-world
Felbab-Brown, V. (2012, August). Organized Criminals Won't Fade Away. Retrieved from Brookings: http://www.brookings.edu/research/articles/2012/08/drugs-crime-felbabbrown
Jenner, M. (2011). International Drug Trafficking: A Global Problem with a Domestic Solution. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 901-927.
With a total population of over 130 million people and being one of the major economies across the world, Mexico seems to be a nation that is all set to develop into a global superpower (Statista, 2018). Nonetheless, the country is unable to control proliferating corruption and violence emanating from drug trafficking. According to Kim (2014), Mexico is ranked 97th out of 178 in regard to the Failed State Index owing to its properly broadcasted problems with drug cartels. In addition, based on the corruption perceptions index, Mexico is ranked position 138 out of 180 with only a score of 28 percent (Transparency International, 2019). On an everyday basis, Mexican cartels partake in money laundering of millions of dollars. Mexican cartels have significantly and adversely impacted Mexico as a whole.
Mexican Cartel Operations
Mexican cartels are the biggest suppliers of various illicit drugs including cocaine, heroin and methamphetamines to…
Bender, J. (2014). Nearly Eight Years Into The Drug War, These Are Mexico\\'s 7 Most Notorious Cartels. Business Insider. Retrieved from: https://www.businessinsider.com/mexicos-7-most-notorious-drug-cartels-2014-10?IR=T
Blackstone, S. (2012). The amount of money Mexican drug cartels spend on bribes is staggering. Business Insider. Retrieved from: https://www.businessinsider.com/mexicos-drug-war-the-incredible-costs-of-corruption-2012-6?IR=T
Gutierrez-Romero, R., Oviedo, M. (2018). The good, the bad and the ugly: the socioeconomic impact of drug cartels and their violence. Journal of Economic Geography, 18(6): 1315 – 1338.
Kim, J. J. (2014). Mexican Drug Cartel Influence in Government, Society, and Culture (Doctoral dissertation, UCLA). Retrieved from: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6tg3z64q
Lee, B., Renwick, D., Cara Labrador, R. (2019). Mexico’s Drug War. Council on Foreign Relations.
Statista. (2018). Mexico: Total Population. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/263748/total-population-of-mexico/
Transparency International. (2019). Mexico. Retrieved from: https://www.transparency.org/country/MEX
Domestic Drug Trafficking
The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).
Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).
The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…
Sesin, Carmen. Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job: Colombian aids forgotten victims. NBC News. May 25, 2994. Accessed from MSNBC.com web site on May 05, 2005.
Humbles, Andy. Dealers get creative when hiding their drugs. The Tennessean.
February 15, 2004. Accessed from The Tennessean web site on May 05, 2005.
Traffic Film Analysis
Traffic is a 2000 film directed by Steven Soderbergh that focuses on the drug trade between the United States and Mexico, the factors that encourage individuals to promote the drug trade, and what steps are being taken to curb the drug trade. The film relays a very realistic interpretation of the proverbial war on drugs and demonstrates that drug culture has becomes so ingrained in society that it may be impossible to completely stop the drug trade between the United States and Mexico, or the United States with any other country.
Traffic seeks to investigate the ideologies of those that attempt to stop the trafficking of drugs between the United States and Mexico and those individuals and/or groups who promote drug trafficking either out of necessity or because they want to expand territorial claims. In the film, ideologies can be divided based on nationality and further divided…
Gaghan, Stephen. Traffic. Screenplays For You. Web. 7 October 2012.
Grillo, Ioan. "Top 10 Notorious Drug Lords." Time Specials. 22 June 2011. Web. 7 October
Just, Sara. "Nightline: Traffic -- The Reality Behind the Movie." ABC Nightline. 19 March. Web.
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml
DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).
Is D.A.R.E. Effective?
If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…
The writer highlights that in spite of vast promises, in the past two decades statistics have pointed to a sharp augment in the use of drugs in the United States.
5). Stewart I. Donaldson. 1996. Drug Abuse Prevention Programming, Do we know what content works? Journal of American Behavioral Scientist. (June). Vol 39, no. 7. Pgs. 245-261.
The highlights that if $700 million a year and twenty thousand specifically trained police officers do not effect in the lessening of drug used amid minors, besides giving police something to do, what does it accomplish?
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.
Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998
Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.
Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.
Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.
1. PBS (2009). The Border
Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/
2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.
Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html
3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…
6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.
Last accessed March 2010: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/
The author of this report is to answer a few questions relating to drug trafficking. The primary focus of the questions and answers will be on two sources in particular, those being the movie Traffic and the class text authored by Thio, Calhoun and Conyers. The questions include references to the links between drugs and crime, the roles and events surrounding certain people in Traffic and so forth. There will be references other than the two mentioned above throughout the answers, as is required by the parameters of the assignment. While many depict drug use as a victimless crime, this is far from being true and the scope of the people that can be affected by drug use, drug dealing and drug trafficking literally knows no bounds or limits.
There is a heavy amount of examples of how drug use and crime are related, but the author…
Abbey, Antonia. 2011. 'Alcohol's Role In Sexual Violence Perpetration: Theoretical Explanations, Existing Evidence And Future Directions'. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5):481-489.
Helfand, Ezra. 2015. 'U.S. Says Drug Abuse Needs Treatment, Not Just Jail'. NCADD. Retrieved October 16, 2015 (https://ncadd.org/in-the-news/358-us-says-drug-abuse-needs-treatment-not-just-jail).
IMDB,. 2015. 'Traffic (2000)'. IMDb. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0181865/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1 ).
Thio, Alex, Thomas C Calhoun, and Addrain Conyers. 2013. Deviance Today. Boston: Pearson.
Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems Than it olves
This is a paper on drug prohibition and its disadvantages. It has 1 source.
During Prohibition, Americans discovered that making popular substances unlawful cause more problems than it solves. Like alcohol and tobacco, drugs should be legal in this country as most of the problems related to drug use arise from the fact that they are illegal and hence more tempting.
Imagine this: Your fifteen-year-old son is going out to a fast food store, suddenly two gangs start shooting at each other, your son gets shot and dies in a cross fire.
The government of the United tates spends more than $18 billion of tax payer's money on the drug war. The increased expenditure finances the Drug Enforcement Agency, Office of National Drug Control Policy and is used to build a new prison every week. Add to this the financial…
Lynch, Timothy. War no more: The folly and futility of drug prohibition. National Review, Feb 5, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1282/2_53/69388682/p4/article.jhtml?term=Accessed 4/3/04
An addiction can be considered a physical and psychological incapability to avoid the consumption of drugs, chemicals, substances, or even taking part in an activity even when doing so causes both physical and psychological harm (Nutt, 2018). The Addiction term is not only applicable when it comes to cocaine and heroin use. Any person who cannot function normally without taking some specific chemical or drug is considered to be substance dependent (Nutt, 2018). The obsession with some activities such as working, eating, and gambling is considered an addiction (Clark & Limbrick-Oldfield, 2013). This type of addiction is commonly referred to as behavioral addiction. As stated by Robbins and Clark (2015) behavioral addictions have gradually become a recognized psychiatric disorder. Recently pathological gambling has been allocated to the DSM-5 category (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
There are several other disorders that have been suggested as being part of the behavioral addiction category…
Angela Garcia goes at providing more information regarding Hispanic addicts in the U.S. And their personal experiences. She relates to how New Mexico treatment facilities deal with numerous cases of addicts who experience overdose several times in their lives, are unable to defeat addiction, and eventually experience death. These individuals are in a condition where they accept their situation and believe that there is nothing that can be done for them. To a certain degree, however, it appears that Hispanics reacted differently to heroin when compared to other racial groups in the U.S. Many Hispanics in New Mexico apparently use heroin as a means to compensate for how they feel as a result of "then recurring pains associated with the ongoing history of loss and displacement that had come to characterize Hispano life" (Garcia 2008:720). Such patients are considered to suffer from a chronic addiction and they are generally believed…
1. Dannemiller, K. "Juarochos: Fleeing Ciudad Juarez." Visual Anthropology Review: 2010.
2. Garcia, A. "The Elegiac Addict: History, Chronicity, and the Melancholic Subject." 2008.
3. Gilliam, Angela 1992 "Toward a New Direction in the Media "War" Against Drugs." Transforming Anthropology 3 (1): 19-23.
4. Heggenhougen, H.K. 1984 "TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND THE TREATMENT OF DRUG ADDICTS: THREE EXAMPLES FROM SOUTHEAST ASIA." Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16 (1): 3-7.
The international drug trade affects countless numbers of people personally, whether due to addiction or to organized crime-related death, or to imprisonment. How ever, the drug trade can also be placed in a broader social, political, and economic context. The international drug trade is a thriving black market industry. Its commodities are not exchanged on the New York Stock Exchange but in shady deals on darkened shipping docks. The international drug trade is, however, a lucrative industry, and its participants reap definite financial benefits.
The drug trade impacts the legitimate global economy by diverting funds towards policing, court costs, and other punitive procedures. Border patrols and other preventative measures also cost taxpayer money that could be diverted elsewhere.
Moreover, the thriving drug industry means that impoverished people are willing to risk the concurrent dangers associated with the trade in order to reap higher wages. For example, Afghani farmers…
'Drug Programme." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/undcp.html
Yamane, Maki. "The Drug Trade." 18 Feb 1997. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from http://www.chez.com/bibelec/publications/international/drugtrade.htm
The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal
As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…
Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.
DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.
Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.
Drugs in Federal Corrections
One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…
Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.
Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.
MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).
Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... hat anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge…
Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.
'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. < http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/ >.
Ostrowski, James (1989). "Thinking About Drug Legalization." CATO Institute. < http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121es.html >.
'Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization." United States Drug Enforcement Agency. <
One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm
Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006 http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content
National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.
McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…
Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.
Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.
Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year .
French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).
There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…
Ghosh, P. (2010, October 19). The pros and cons of drug legalization in the U.S. . Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.com/pros-cons-drug-legalization-us-246712
Lowy, J. (2014, September 1). Driving stoned? States prep for marijuana DUI. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0901/Driving-stoned-States-prep-for-marijuana-DUI
Miron, J., & Waldock, K. (2010, October 3). Making an Economic Case for Legalizing Drugs. Retrieved from CATO Institute: http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/making-economic-case-legalizing-drugs
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…
Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.
Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.
Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm
Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org /museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
For much of the movie, Robert akefield is the main antagonist. akefield represents the American government's complicity in perpetuating an outmoded political policy. Thus, Traffic portrays the American government's ar on Drugs as being antithetical to American values. akefield is initially blind to his daughter's plight, and is depicted as being too career-driven and closed-minded to notice that the ar on Drugs is a war on his family and his country. However, akefield does wake up. At the end of the movie he perceives the connection between his actions as Drug Czar and the supply chain his daughter has access to. akefield's awakening is Soderbergh's call to America to end the ar on Drugs policy.
Traffic ends on a note of optimism while also leaving the ar on Drugs unresolved. Soderbergh seems aware that United States drug policy will not change any time soon. The film also offers a scathing…
Cafferty, J. (2009). Commentary: War on drugs is insane. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/03/31/cafferty.legal.drugs/index.html
Drug Policy Alliance Network. What's Wrong With the Drug War? Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/drugwar/
Greer, M. (2009). Drug War Clock. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.drugsense.org/wodclock.htm
"Timeline: America's War on Drugs." NPR. April 2, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9252490
S. residents over the age of 12 who have used heroin "at least once in their lifetime." (National Drug Intelligence Center, 2009, p.1) Heroin use among high school students is stated to be of particular concern and specifically reported is that approximately two percent of high school seniors have used heroin at least one time and that of those who have used heroin while in high school, approximately fifty percent have injected the drug.
Heroin may be injected, smoked or snorted. Many believe that smoking the drug will not lead to addiction however this is simply untrue. It is reported that both new and experienced users are at risk of overdosing on heroin since the purity of the heroin is an unknown.
The following table lists the street names for Heroin.
Street names for Heroin
Dead on arrival
Heroin Fast Facts - Questions and Answers (2009) National Drug Intelligence Center. Online available at: http://www.justice.gov/ndic/pubs3/3843/index.htm
Hopsicker, Daniel (2010) the Ultimate Hedge? Venice Airport has 60-Year -- history of Drug Trafficdking. 8 March. 2010. Madcow Morning News. Onlien avaialbel at: http://www.madcowprod.com/03082010.htm
Tsai, Michelle (2007) Heroin? The Art and Scinece fo the DEA's Drug Valuations. Online available at: http://www.slate.com/id/2166980/
Presidential Decision Directive PDD 44 Heroin Drug Control Policy (1995) November online available at: http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd44.htm
Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.
National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business
The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…
Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html
Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf
Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.
Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html
Complicating efforts to fight the drug problem are prisons that are bursting at the seams that are already full of nonviolent offenders charged with drug-related crimes (Knowles, 2008).
Given the potential threat to national security, something must be done today to eliminate the staggering financial incentives that are involved in illegal drug trafficking, and one such alternative would be the same solution that ended Prohibition and the organized crime that went hand in hand with that law. Legalizing drugs represents the only truly effective approach to eliminating the criminal element that is naturally attracted to the product because of their high demand and potential profits. While marijuana legalization efforts continue across the country, it is reasonable to conclude that ultimately the decision will be made that all of the expense and casualties that have been invested in the war on drugs are not worth it, given the poor return…
Fazey, C. (2007). International policy on illicit drug trafficking: the formal and informal mechanisms. Journal of Drug Issues, 37(4), 755-757.
Friman, H.R. (2003). Caught up in the madness? State power and transnational organized crime in the work of Susan Strange. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 28(4), 473-475.
Kelly, R.J. & Chin, K-L. (1994). Handbook of organized crime in the United States.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Most Americans value freedoms and liberties such as those protected in the United States Constitution. Those freedoms and liberties are violated when governments prevent access to drugs, which is why legalization may eventually happen on a state-by-state basis.
Marijuana has promising applications in health care, which is why states like California have recently permitted the sale and distribution of the drug to patients with prescriptions. The trend is spreading, and several other states also permit marijuana to be used for medical purposes. As more and more states follow suit, drugs will be effectively decriminalized. Law enforcement can divert its attention to violent crime, leaving ordinary citizens alone and leaving addicts in the care of trained psychological professionals. Consumers will purchase their pot from licensed dealers who they can trust, who carefully cultivate their strains to suit certain medical conditions, and who do not use chemical pesticides or any poison to…
Cermak, Timmen L. Marijuana: What's a Parent to Believe? Center City, MN: Hazelden, 2003.
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Jones, Paul and Mortin, John. Marijuana: Early Experiences with Four States' Laws that Allow Use for Medical Purposes. United States General Accounting Office, 2002.
Kleiman, Mark. Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control. Greenwood Press, 1989.
It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will eliminate such acts of illegality.
The government and elected officials have a significant amount of say and rule as to what passes as a law and what does not. Such representatives are to symbolize and stand for what the people want. However, with so many voices and opinions of how certain issues should be and what should be ruled as legal, conflicts arise. Controversy is heavily shrouded in the dilemma around the legalization of drugs, and whether the government should permit the legal selling, purchase of narcotics like alcohol and tobacco. If such law is passed, the government and its citizens are affected economically, judicially, medically, and socially. Economically, the government is able to receive billions of dollars in revenue and reduce…
Block, W. "Drug Prohibition: A Legal and Economic Analysis." Journal of Business Ethics 12.9 (1993): 689-700. Print.
Cussen, M, and W. Block. "Legalize Drugs Now! An Analysis of the Benefits of the Legalized Drugs." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.3 (2000): 525-536. Print.
"Drug War Clock | DrugSense." DrugSense. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
"Economic Consequences of the War on Drugs." Drug Policy Alliance: Alternatives to Marijuana Prohibition and the Drug War. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism
There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…
Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)
Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)
Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)
" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22)
The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005.
" (Foster, 1999) Within this framework there is no reference to gun ownership by individuals and according to Foster's report: "...it is reasonable to assume that private arms are intended for destruction under the term." (Foster, 1999)
The work of David . Kopel, a former assistant district attorney in Manhattan and presently a practicing attorney in Colorado writes in the work entitled: "Trust the People: The Case Against Gun Control" a policy brief published at the Cato Institute that: "Gun control is based on the faulty notion that ordinary American citizens are too clumsy and ill-tempered to be trusted with weapons. Only through the blatant abrogation of explicit constitutional rights is gun control even possible." (1988) Kopel relates that less than one in 3,000 gun owners commit murder. Each year approximately 7,000 individuals commit suicide and 300 or fewer people die in accidents involving handguns. As a matter of fact,…
NRA Warns of U.N. Gun Control (2006) the New World Disorder - WorldNetDaily. 16 June 2006. Online available at http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=50671
Foster, Sarah (1999) the 40-year Gun Grab: '60s disarmament plan still going strong, say U.N. critics. Panic in the Year Zero. 13 Dec 1999. WorldNetDaily. Online available at http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=17280
Bowers, Faye (2007) U.S. Steadies Its Aim at Gun Trafficking Into Mexico. 20 July 2007. Christian Science Monitor. Online available at http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0720/p01s05-usfp.html?page=1 .
U.S. Spent $27 Million to Destroy Small Arms, Light Weapons (2006) U.S. Department of State 9 June 2006. USINFO.STATE.GOV online available at http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfile-english&y=2006&m=June&x=20060609171603sjhtrop0.2761042&t=xarchives/xarchitem.html
There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)
In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…
Arfaniarromo, A. (2001). Toward a Psychosocial and Sociocultural Understanding of Achievement Motivation among Latino Gang Members in U.S. Schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(3), 123. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000891430
Boose, D.W. (2003). Rethinking the Korean War. Parameters, 33(4), 175+. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002573236
Coughlin, B.C., & Venkatesh, S.A. (2003). The Urban Street Gang after 1970. 41+.
Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S.E. (Eds.). (2004). Teen Gangs: A Global View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107029652
economic impact of drug use in the United States might initially seem easy to measure. A legal trial is an expensive proceeding: police officers, prosecutors or public defenders, judges, stenographers, and bailiffs are employees of the state, and even if jurors are barely remunerated, defense attorneys are lavishly remunerated. To prosecute someone for dealing marijuana is an expensive undertaking, and to do so under a "three strikes" law, where the crime is suddenly elevated to a horrific felony with extreme penalties, is even more expensive. The greater expense comes with convictions: America has the largest imprisoned population in the world, with more people behind bars in this country than comprise the entire populations of other sovereign nations. Imprisonment is not a cheap proposition. We can then consider the further economic impact, legally and morally speaking, of drug use in the current extensive misuse of civil forfeiture laws. Ostensibly designed to…
Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border
Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border
The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…
Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.
BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm
Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.
Comparative Analysis of Human Trafficking in the United States with the orld
Specialized Field Project
Human Trafficking is a very serious issue that affects every country around the world. Human Trafficking is also known as "Sex Trafficking," or "Modern Day Slavery," which reflects the primary reasons people are bought and sold today -- sex trade and involuntary labor. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines sex trafficking as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for a commercial sex act, is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age."
Moreover, labor trafficking is defined as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, using force, fraud, or coercion for subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery." (CNHTR, n.d.)…
Wayne, O. & Genelle, B. (2011). Major Principles of Media Law, 2012 Edition, Chapter 10, Cengage Learning.
Wheaton, E. M., Schauer, E. J., & Galli, T. V. (2010). Economics of Human Trafficking. International Migration, 48(4), 114-141. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00592.x
Wyler, L.S. (2013). Trafficking in Persons: International Dimensions and Foreign Policy Issues for Congress. Congress Research Service
U.S. get Involved Militarily in Mexico's Drug ar
The United States has occupied a place unique among nations since the fall of the Soviet Union. Super power is a term that can only apply to one country due to economic, military and domestic strength. Although there are other countries, most notably China, that are gaining ground, there is no other country that can currently claim to be a super power. But, this does not mean that the U.S. can act with impunity whenever it wants to. This paper will discuss the current drug war in Mexico and why the U.S. should not intervene militarily because Mexico is a sovereign nation, of the possibility of an international backlash, there could be a drug spillover into the U.S., it could cause a great deal of U.S. deaths, and of the possible added cost of the war during a recession.
Bricker, Kristin. "Mexico's Drug War Death Toll: 8,463 and Counting." Narconews, 2008. Web.
Chacon, Justin Akers. "U.S. Intervention in Mexico will make Things Worse." The Progressive, 2011. Web.
Harnden, Toby. Barack Obama: 'Arrogant U.S. has been Dismissive' to Allies." The Telegraph, 2009. Web.
Kearney, Kevin. "Pentagon Warns of U.S. Military Intervention in Mexico's 'War on Drugs'." World Socialist Website, 2009). Web.
War on drugs is one of the biggest human rights and social justice atrocities currently in the United States. There are actually no winners in the war on drugs, not unless leaders of drug smuggling operations can be considered "winners." Law enforcement loses because their precious resources are being diverted from serious crimes to drug crimes. Ordinary citizens lose because police officers are overly concerned with non-violent drug possession and even distribution cases than they are with actual societal harm. Drug use causes no more harm than alcohol use, and it makes no sense to retain drug prohibition when harm reduction seems to call for more open approaches to drug regulation.
As Benavie (2009) points out, the damage caused by the war on drugs includes an uptake in violence because of the operations of organized crime, contaminated drugs like the recent fentanyl crisis leading to preventable deaths, property crimes due…
Benavie, A. (2009). Drugs: America's holy war. In Charon, J. M., & Vigilant, L. G. (2012). Social problems: readings with four questions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Failure of War on Drugs
The issue of drug trafficking and drug use within the U.S. has been a concern for successive governments and administrations from the historical time to the present day. The well-known campaigns across the nation like the "Just Say No" were aimed at discouraging young children and teenagers in school and college from engaging in drug abuse and drug distribution. To some extent there have been some levels of positive effect achieved by these initiatives, however, the rates of success are not up to the desired benchmarks. The lure of drugs and the social acceptance of drugs backed by the organized gangs that deal in drugs have made it a nightmare for the government and the relevant agencies to conclusively deal with the menace of drugs distribution and drug use.
It is essential hence to look at the effectiveness of the war on drugs within the…
Branson R., (2012). War on Drugs a Trillion-Dollar Failure. Retrieved October 15, 2015 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/06/opinion/branson-end-war-on-drugs/
Drug Policy Alliance, (2015). A Brief History of the Drug War. Retrieved October 15, 2015 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/new-solutions-drug-policy/brief-history-drug-war
Huffingpost, (2014). Narrowing the Racial Divide in the War on Drugs. Retrieved October 15, 2015 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/nclr-action-fund/narrowing-the-racial-divi_b_5731756.html
Consumers have the right to determine if the drugs are safe, which they often do because regulations in Canada pertaining to safety and drug tampering are just as strict as similar rules in the U.S. All 18 Canadian sites investigated by the General Accounting Office, wrote the journal Community Action in 2004, required consumers to supply a physician-written prescription before filling orders. That was the case for five of 29 U.S. pharmacies; no other foreign pharmacies did. Thus, consumers have the right to choice, and to find the best bargain, just as they might in any other commodity. (Bast, 2005) Viewed as such, importation is just another form of free trade and a "beneficial outcome of changing technology, free trade, and globalization. Free trade benefits everyone, and governments ought not cave in to special pleading by interest groups seeking to avoid competition or limit consumer choice."(Bast, 2004) Opponents counter that…
Colabrese, Inez. "Online Pharmacies." CBS News Report. Broadcast Basler, Barbara (2006) "U.S. Steps Back on Drug Seizures." 2006 AARP Bulletin.
Bast, Joseph. "The Pros and Cons of Importing Drugs from Canada." April 19, 2004.
The Heartland Institute Special Report.
Canadian internet pharmacies have strict standards, U.S. auditors reports." (25 Jul 2005)
They can reveal how many overworked and under-trained nurses kill and injure thousands of patients every year because hospitals sacrifice safety for not tracking their own medical errors. Statistics showed that only 14 States track these errors and hospitals in most States were not required to offer information on accidental deaths or injuries, not even to the families of the victims. Public custom databases, such as the Food and Drug Administration or FDA and the Health Care Financing Administration, tracked reports of a range of these medical errors and neglect from defibrillators to pacemakers, and from sutures to skin grafts. These incidents included thousands of patients accidentally overdosed because nurses typed the wrong dosage; did not hear the warning alarm on patients on life-saving machinery; patients' heads trapped in bed rails or strangled by post-surgical restraints (erens).
The Chicago-based National Council of State oards of Nursing computerizes disciplinary actions against…
Associated Press (2006). Former nurse convicted of drug theft. 1 page. Boston.com:the New
York Times Company
Berens, M.J. (2001). Medical errors. 3 pages. The IRE Journal: Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc.
Cuomo, a.M. (2001). Nurse admits to narcotic theft at Long Island Hospital. 2 pages. Office fo the New York State Attorney-General: New York State
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
The main reason why legalizing all types of drugs will bring more good than harm is because regulation could be put into effect. Things could be more under control. The current system is not working, and that is apparent in the rates of crime that are still high, and the number of people still using, and putting themselves into very well-known danger. Either way, whether it is legal or not, people are still accessing these drugs. They are still able to go out and purchase something that is supposed to be illegal and it will continue to occur if nothing productive and progressive is done. The government, economy, and everyday folks could benefit if these substances are legalized. The policies should be based on actual effects on communities, people, and the country, not on moral and ethical grounds.
(1) Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. How goes the 'war on…
(1) Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. How goes the 'war on drugs'?: An assessment of U.S. Drug problems and policy. Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation 2005. Print.
(2) Hartstein, Max. The war on drugs -- the worst addiction of all. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse Inc.
(3) Courtwright, David T. Forces of habit: drugs and the making of the modern world. Boston,
Street Drug Trade Is One of the Most Important Social Institutions for Young People in Detroit
From his perspective, Bergmann writes that the street drug is one of the most important social institutions for young people in Detroit. As an institution, the drug dealings and everything surrounding it are becoming a transforming force taking people in a certain way of life and perception. Detroit is known to be a major region of the drug trade, including heroin. Like any other society, it suffers consequences of this in many ways, including the economic, cultural, social, and even psychological repercussions arising from the presence of the drug. Drugs are commonly effective and, in some way, change the way people behave, live, and interact. This is seen from his submission that "drug dealing governed the seasonal cycles of their lives and taught them about the nature and power of the state, capitalism and…
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
Trafficking and Prostitution in the Developing orld
The world can be a harsh place, especially if you live in a developing nation, and especially if you are a woman. Lack of food and adequate housing, lack of access to good educational and medical facilities, an oppressive, often male-dominated social system - these are just some of the problems faced by millions of women each and every day of their lives. For most there is no hope of escape. Each new dawn brings with it the same sense of despair; the same feeling that one is a prisoner of one's fate. Change is slow in the developing world. Progress, if it comes at all, comes only very gradually, painfully, and often at a high price. Many of the nations of the Third orld were only recently communist, or colonies of the estern powers. Many still have one foot in…
1. Binder, David. "Country Report: Albania - Country Sends Its Own to Europe and Beyond." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736680.asp
2. Binder, David. "Country report: Bosnia - In a Post-War Zone the Sex trade Flourishes." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736679.asp
3. Binder, David. "Country Report: Yugoslavia - After Milosevic, Country Still Mired in Crime." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736678.asp .
4. Binder, David and Mendenhall, Preston. "Sex, Drugs, and Guns in the Balkans." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: