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Drunk Driving Trends and Effects
Drunk driving and driving under the influence in general is a major problem in the United States. The problem is a common cause of traffic accidents and traffic fatalities and demonstrates a pervasive legal and social issue that has yet to be adequately solved and may even be increasing in occurrence as the population spreads into larger and larger areas. (Flahardy 4) According to Flahardy statistics show that first time arrestees on DUI charges have driven their cars while intoxicated on average 80 times before being detained and arrested on their first DUI charge. As the distance between destinations grows ever wider incidents of impaired driving seems to be increasing as the convenience of alternatives to driving yourself home become more mentally prohibitive, i.e. distance, cost, convenience, and time. (Flahardy 4)
DUI seems to affect in incidence a greater number of young people and be…
Flahardy, Cathleen. "MADD's Message." Insidecounsel 23.241 (2012): 4. Legal Collection. Web. 11 May 2012.
Glascoff, Mary A.Wallen, Michele, Shrader, Joe. "College Student Utilization Of Designated Drivers After Drug Or Alcohol Use." Chronicle For Driver Education Professionals 59.(2012): 14. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 11 May 2012.
Kramer, Robert L. "Why Massachusetts college students drink and drive: Do current policies to stop them make sense?." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A 71. (2011). PsycINFO. Web. 11 May 2012.
"Wheels Of Misfortune." America 201.6 (2009): 4. Academic Search Premier. Web. 11 May 2012.
Drunk Driving: A Review of Four Journal Articles
Introduction great deal of literature has been written on drunk driving. Some of it involves underage drinking and antisocial behaviors, some involves the court system and the penalties for drunk driving, and some of it simply attempts to address the reasons and causes behind why so many people seem to think that driving drunk is acceptable behavior. In the course of the next ten pages, four separate journal articles will be examined. hile these articles are not all on the same aspects of drunk driving, they all deal with the subject in various ways, from juvenile delinquency to penalties from the courts.
For each article an explanation of why the study was conducted and the reasons behind it will be made, as well as an explanation of what and how the results were measured. The various hypotheses that the researchers addressed will…
Chaloupka, F.J., Grossman, M. & Saffer, H. (2002). The effects of price on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Alcohol Health & Research World, 22.
Fox, R.J., Krugman, D.M., Fletcher, J.E. & Fischer, P.M. (1998). Adolescents' attention to beer and cigarette print ads and associated product warnings. Journal of Advertising, 27, 57.
Marcus, R.F. (1999). A gender-linked exploratory factor analysis of antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Adolescence, 34.
Wechsler, H., Lee, J.E., Nelson, T.F. & Kuo, M. (2002). Underage college students' drinking behavior, access to alcohol, and the influence of deterrence policies. Journal of American College Health, 223.
The First eview: Eisenberg's Evaluation of policies' effectiveness in relation to drunk driving is the first policy review piece chosen for this article. In the research Eisenberg (2003) presented novel findings on the effectiveness of public policies on the state-level linked to drunk driving, effectiveness in this context refers to reduction in the number of fatal crashes. The author argues that endogenous policies lead to biased conventional estimates of policy effects. With respect to the date of adoption, the concern was addressed by the writer by examining the policy effects' time pattern. According to results, the 0.08BAC law has an upward bias, but the policy is still of use. This type of analysis also evaluated MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) organization and graduated licensing programs for drivers of a younger age bracket. There is no effect implied according to the MADD estimates, this could be due to crude…
Carpenter, C. (2006), Did Ontario's Zero Tolerance & Graduated Licensing Law reduce youth drunk driving? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25: 183 -- 195.
Carpenter, C. (2004), How do Zero Tolerance Drunk Driving Laws work? Journal of Health Economics.
Eisenberg, D. (2003), Evaluating the effectiveness of policies related to drunk driving. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22: 249 -- 274.
Mothers Against Drunk Driving Affected Social Policy
Why was MADD created?
The Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) organization was created in response to the alarmingly high levels of injuries and fatalities that were resulting from incidences of drunk driving. The stated mission of MADD is "to stop drunk driving, support the victims of this violent crime and prevent underage drinking" (MADD mission, 2014, para. 2). The stated purpose of MADD contained in its articles of incorporation (September 5, 1980) is " "To aid the victims of crimes performed by individuals driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, to aid the families of such victims and to increase public awareness of the problem of drinking and drugged driving" (MADD mission statement, 2014).
The problem that lead to the creation of MADD
The MADD organization was created by the mother of a young woman who had been killed in a collision…
About us. (2014). Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Retrieved from http://www.madd.org/ about-
Cavendish, M. (2006). Drugs and society. New York: Marshall Cavendish Reference.
MADD mission. (2014). Mothers Against Drunk Driving. Retrieved from
Harsher Drunk Driving Penalties Time Offenders
Penalties given to people who drive under influence vary from one country to another. First time offenders are expected to receive lean sentences but should lose their license for some time. Such offenders are likely to be forced to attend classes on alcohol education and must be coerced to pay fines. Any first time offender should lose, his/her auto insurance. Another alternative could be ignition interlock procedures, and throughout the country, all first time offenders will be forced to install the device in their cars after they are convicted. It is obvious that subsequent offenders will be given serious punishments. Because of the variations in state laws, when driving under the influence is held as a felony, first time offenders should face punishments such as imprisonment for an extra period (Neeley, James & Jason, 42).
The offense of driving under the influence should not…
Barron's Educational Series. How to Prepare for the CDL, Commercial Driver's License Truck
Driver's Test. Hauppage, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2008. Print
Byrnes Mike. Barron's CDL Commercial Driver's License Truck Driver's Test. Hauppage, N.Y:
Barron's Educational Series, 2010. Print.
From these lists, eight participants will be sent invitations to participate in the study. Each time one of these participants declines to participate, an additional individual from that category will be randomly selected and invited to participate. This will continue until a sample size of 30 has been achieved. Participants will be invited to visit the lab, where they will complete an informed consent which will inform them that their participation in the study is entirely voluntary and that they are free to withdraw at any time. They will then be placed in a quiet room alone where they will be given a paper copy of the survey and asked to provide answers to each question as honestly as possible. Upon completing the questionnaire participants will be thanked and given a piece of candy as compensation and then will be provided with a debriefing sheet and some reading material on…
By contrast, teenagers who begin drinking before they are allowed to and young adults who just started drinking at the age of 21 frequently drink so much they become extremely intoxicated even when they do not mean to. They overestimate their ability to function; they underestimate their relative degree of impairment from alcohol; and they are the most prone to becoming more bold and more careless (or fearless) when they are intoxicated.
Whenever I have the opportunity to talk to my peers, I try to promote the idea that there is simply no such thing as any "safe" amount of alcohol that can be consumed before driving any kind of motor vehicle. Even is the statutory limit "allows" a certain cutoff point before a person is considered "intoxicated" by legal standards, the relative risk of being involved in an accident skyrocket after even a single drink as compared with the…
Federal Drug Association is studying to find out if people are getting prescription drugs that they do not actually need. A large number of doctors would like to see the American Medical Association ban prescription drug advertisements across all forms of media. A San Diego doctor, Dr. David Priver, claims that it is "catastrophic in my office, with patients coming in and demanding a drug they saw on television." In sixty nine percent of the instances a patient asks a doctor for a prescription drug advertised on TV they will walk home with that drug, an FDA survey has found. (Calfee, John (2002) proposal was drafted in June 2001 by Dr. Angelo Agro of the AMA's New Jersey delegation because he also feels that advertisements undermine doctors' credibility when physicians do not agree that the advertised drugs are the best choice for a patient that comes in and demands it…
Calfee, John (September 2002) Public Policy Issues in DTC Advertising of Prescription Drugs Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 19
Huang, Alison, (November 2000) The Rise of DTC Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the United States American Medical Association Journal, 2240
Kessler, D.A. (September 1990) The Federal Regulation of Prescription Drug Advertising and Promotion American Medical Association Journal, 2409-2419
Thoen, Eric (1998) Direct to Consumer Advertising: For Better Profits and Better Health American Journal of Health, 594-597
Angela and Mark put their two children through college, and Desmond moved to Chicago to pursue a law career. Emma stayed in Madison, and Angela groomed her daughter to take over the family business. In time, Emma gave Angela and Mark two wonderful grandsons, and Desmond embarked on a trip around the world, sending back art work from many countries to be auctioned off for in a charitable benefit.
At the age of 60, Angela decided to retire from Angela's Preserves, handing the reigns to her daughter, while still contributing recipes. She and Mark filled their retirement with many cruises, all over the world. At the age of 67, the two sat down to write a guidebook on cruises for retirees, with Angela writing and Mark handling photography. The book went on to become a top 200 seller on Amazon. Desmond, returned from several years overseas with his Singaporean bride…
Certainly, utilizing those agencies now that there has been a crime at the premises is warranted. However, it may not have been negligent for DWI to fail to contact law enforcement when it first began receiving threats. Large corporations such as DWI routinely receive threats in the course of business. The vast majorities of those threats are harmless and represent no danger to the employees or customers of those organizations. Therefore, DWI may have been exercising due diligence by increasing its security force and not reporting the action to the police. To determine whether or not DWI was negligent, it would be necessary to see the exact language of the threats. Threats of plausible violence against customers or staff would give rise to a higher standard of care than threats against the property. Businesses cannot be held responsible for harm that occurs as the result of an unforeseeable act by…
I'd nearly been killed by a repeat drunk driver and I was mad enough to climb into that squad car and make sure the driver got a lesson he wouldn't soon forget.
I was taken by ambulance to a local hospital for x-rays, my truck was totaled, and to this day the drunk driver or his parents have never reached out and said "sorry our son nearly killed you..." And "are you alright?" Instead there are the disclaimer letters from some high priced attorney outfit; the drunk driver's Dad is a judge. Nice; and the rules of justice bend for the killer he keeps in his house.
This is a true story and it makes you realize that drunk drivers really are killers; they murder people indiscriminately and with arrogance. The CDC (2006) states that male drivers are nearly twice as likely than female drivers to be intoxicated with a…
CDC (2006) - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Center for Disease Control. September 7, 2006
Howat P, Sleet D, Smith I. (1991) - Alcohol and driving: is the.05% blood alcohol concentration limit justified? Drug and Alcohol Review 1991;10(1):151-66.
California Department of Motor Vehicles (2006) - Accessed from the California DMV site on October 16, 2006:
Proposal for New DWI Laws for Missouri
DWI laws will always be contentious, with different viewpoints impacting on requirements of the laws. If rewriting the Missouri DWI laws the following would be recommended, the reasons for each recommendation are provided.
1. The legal limit; A person will be deemed to be intoxicated if they have a blood alcohol content higher than the level allowed. The level allowed for drivers of commercial vehicles will be 0%, for drivers under age of 21 and under it will be 0.01 and for drivers over the age of 21 it will be 0.05. The bill will also include any type of intoxication or undue influence of other substances which impair judgement.
There is a clear relationship between higher blood alcohol content and higher road traffic accidents (Karakus et al. 440; Fell and Voas 869). The implementation of a zero blood alcohol level would be…
Driving Drunk Dangerous
Mandatory license revocation and sentencing should be applied to all young adults who are convicted of drunk driving. In addition young adults who are found to drive drunk should be forbidden from riding in a vehicle with other young adult passengers for a period of up to one year.
Every year the number of fatalities and serious accidents that result from drunk drivers rises. There have been numerous laws enacted to combat the problem of drunk driving. None of these laws however have been directed specifically at young adults, and recent studies suggest that this population shows a growing trend toward drunk driving. Thus the aim of this paper is to argue for more severe penalties directed specifically at the young adult population, in the hopes that effective countermeasures may be established with regard to the drunk driving problem.
No one would argue that drunk driving is…
Grube, J.W. & Voas, R.B. Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors. Addiction 91:1843-1857, 1996
National Highway Safety Traffic Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1995, Report No.
DOT HS 808-471, Washington: Department of Transportation, 1996; In Shacket, R.W. & Yu, J.
Robin, G.D. "Waging the battle against drunk driving: Countermeasures, and Effectiveness." New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991.
One recent study examined victim impact statements and their ability to reduce repeat offenses of drunk driving (ojek, 1999).
The study looked at those who had been arrested and convicted of drunk driving in which an accident occurred. It examined those who had been rearrested after being in attendance for a victim impact statement program and compared them to those who had been rearrested but had never been exposed to a victim impact statement program.
The study concluded that those who had been exposed to a victim impact statement with regard to their offense had a lower rearrest rate than those who had not heard victim impact statements.
The study examined the results of those who did not receive victim impact statements and found that legal punishment was often the only consequence of driving while under the influence (ojek, 1999).
By contrast, VIPs address the emotional component of the DUI…
BADOVINAC, K. (1994)The effects of victim impact panels on attitudes and intentions regarding impaired driving. J. Alcohol Drug Educ. 39 (3): 113-118, 1994.
BRAITHWAITE,(1989) J. Crime, Shame and Reintegration, New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.
FORS, S. AND ROJEK, D. (1997) DUI offenders' reactions to a required victim impact panel intervention, Athens, GA: University of Georgia, 1997, unpublished report.
Mejeur, Jeanne (2003) Still driving drunk: strict drunk driving laws don't do much good unless they are vigorously enforced. From: State Legislatures
Driving hile Impaired in Canada
Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.
hat is Impaired Driving?
The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…
Addario, Frank. (2008). Nasty Criminal Law Will Achieve Nothing for Public Safety.
Criminal Lawyer's Association. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.criminallawyers.ca .
Bill C-2. (2007). An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to Make Consequential Amendments
To Other Acts. Parliament of Canada. Virtual Library. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.parl.gc.ca .
cell phone use while driving. Specifically it will discuss the increased use of cell phones in the United States, and the dangers of driving while talking on a cell phone. Talking on a cell phone while driving is dangerous. Studies show it is just as dangerous as drunk driving, and talking on a cell phone while driving should be banned nationally, not simply on a state-by-state basis.
CELL PHONES SHOULD E ANNED
Driving while talking on a cell phone has become quite controversial as more Americans use cell phones every day. Using cell phones in public can be annoying and downright rude, but driving while talking on a cell phone can be deadly. One analyst noted, "Driving and talking on a cell phone is like drinking and driving. In both cases, the driver's reaction time is slowed, especially in the event of a roadway mishap requiring urgent response. In addition,…
Author not Available. "Cell Phone Users Drive 'Blind'; Study Explains Why Hands-Free Phones Just as Bad As Hand-Held." U.S. Newswire, 01-27-2003.
Egan, Bob. "Commentary: Common Sense and Cell Phones." CNET.com. 23 May 2001. http://news.com.com/2100-1033-258172.html?legacy=cnet&tag=owv
Ferzan, Kimberly Kessler. "Opaque Recklessness." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.3 (2001): 597+.
Kanallakan, Jamie. "Cellular Phones: Policymakers Consider the Effects of Highway Usage." Spectrum: the Journal of State Government 74.1 (2001): 17.
The Dangers of Using a Cell Phone hile Driving
Statistics connecting cell phone usage with dangerous driving have becoming increasingly readily available. Evidence suggests that cell phones cause drivers to become distracted, to move their eyes off the road and, ultimately, to endanger their lives and the lives of other motorists. ith the advent of texting and emailing by smartphone, these risks are even greater. In spite of this, the United States remains resistant to impose federal legislation that would make it illegal, nationwide, to use a cell phone while driving. Given the evidence relating cell phone use and dangerous driving, there is a strong imperative for the development and passage of distracted driving laws on the national level.
The strongest argument in favor of such a law is the clear and irrefutable evidence denoting the danger of driving while using a cell phone. In fact, an article…
Hanson, D.J. (2012). Driving While Using Cell Phone as Dangerous as Driving While Drunk. Potsdam.edu.
Nationwide. (2013). Driving While Distracted: Statistics to Know. Nationwide.com.
Richtel, M. (2009). Drivers and Legislators Dismiss Cellphone Risks. New York Times.
S. minimum wage standards.
As the above scenarios illustrate, it is impossible to rely upon a single moral theory when developing a corporate code of ethics. This is because each individual brings his or her own personal perspective about ethics, so that each theory is biased by personal perspective. While Kohlberg's Model of Cognitive Development attempts to incorporate these differences, it fails to answer the question of whether or not individuals can judge the morality of someone's actions when that person comes from a different ethical and cultural background. (AllPsych, 2004). Therefore, it seems like the best thing a corporation can do is to consult the cultural norms of its stakeholders and try to fashion a corporate code that respects all of those norms. Such a code would focus on individual rights, utilitarianism, and justice. Therefore, DWI's corporate code should pledge to create value and enhance quality of life for…
AllPsych Online. (2004). Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Retrieved December 22, 2008 from AllPsych Online
Web site: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/moral_development.html
Crone v. United Parcel Service, No. 01-3595, http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com / data2/circs/8th/013595p.pdf, (8th Cir. Aug. 30, 2002).
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964).
"When a court strikes a contract provision for unconscionability it is declaring that provision is so unfair or oppressive that the court will refuse to enforce it." (Gillespie, 2007). The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (U.S. Const. amend. XIII, 1). The contract that the parties signed purported to make Mrs. Lowell the property of Mr. Lowell. Because the Lowells are Americans and purchased their ticket in America, it is unlikely that an American court would recognize Mr. Lowell's ability to contract away his wife's right to be recognized as a legal individual in a contract dispute. Furthermore, the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Mrs. Lowell the equal protection of the laws, (U.S. Const. amend. XIV, 1)…
Cruise Lines International Association. (2008). Personal safety and security. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Cruise Lines International Association
Web site: http://www.cruising.org/industry/personal_safety_security.cfm
Fl. Stat. 731.301(b)(1).
Gillespie, D. (2007). Survey of Illinois law: contract law. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Southern Illinois University School of Law
The issue was a charged issue that many people felt very strongly about, i.e. race and was an allowable and supported social stigma, and yet when faced with the real life decision to break the taboo and serve Chinese people they did so with little hesitation and then effectively lied about it in self report. (Pager & Lincoln, 2005, p. 355)
Drinking and driving is a seriously socially charged issue that could have the same self-report results if given the correct avenue to do so. The self-report dogmatic dialogue regarding drinking and driving is an absolute rejection of the behavior (even after 1-2 drinks as is asked in the New Zealand Study) and yet this is an attitude and a self-report dogma, what we would say when offered the social choice, not a real reflection of how individuals would behave if given the opportunity to drink and drive. Another fault…
Brownfield, K., Fernando, K., & Halberstadt, J. (2003). Indirect Effects of Lowering the Drinking Age on New Zealand Students' Alcohol-Related Behaviours and Attitudes. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 32(1), 22. Retrieved May 28, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001970912
Fagan, J. (2005, September). Adolescents, Maturity, and the Law: Why Science and Development Matter in Juvenile Justice. The American Prospect, 16, 5.
Fillmore, M.T., Carscadden, J.L., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (1998). Alcohol, Cognitive Impairment and Expectancies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(2), 174.
A and Lincoln Q. Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do. American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.
Both courts found that way because the fact that UPS believed that Crone lacked the necessary confrontational skills for the position in question was a non-discriminatory, non-pretextual reason to refuse to promote her.
In fact, Crone's own testimony supported the idea that UPS's reason was non-pretextual, since she testified that she did not believe the ultimate decision-maker had engaged in sex-based discrimination, that she had problems in confrontational situations, and that she was aware that confrontation skills were necessary for the supervisory position.
Some critics would suggest that this decision opened the door to sex-based and other types of discrimination. However, these critics base their criticism on gender stereotyping that suggests that women are generally not well-suited for dealing with confrontation. While there may be legitimate sex-based differences in approaches to confrontation, the fact that women may be more open to negotiation and less likely to escalate a confrontational situation…
After continuous pleading, I realized that the officers were not going to help me, and in fact they seemed to perceive that I was mentally unbalance and were even more aggressive with me. I took it upon myself to defend my issues the only way I could -- which was to raise my voice and let the officers know I was in distress and needed help.
The officers shoved me into the back seat of the patrol car, further injuring my ribs. I was lying on my back, coughing, having difficulty breathing and still bleeding from the handcuffs. I kicked the seat and yelled that I needed to be move to a position in which I could breathe. The female officer turned around and dropped me off with one of the male officers as the Emergency Medical Team arrives. At first, the EMS team does not understand my condition even…
Why Breathalyzers May Not Accurately Measure Alcohol Levels. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.mcminnlaw.com/criminal-law/austin-dwi-lawyer/why-breathalyzers-may-not-accurately-measure-alcohol-levels/#top
Green, S. (January 25, 2011). Family of Man Shoved into Wall by Deputy Settles. Newsbank. Retrieved from: http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/InfoWeb-p_action=doc&p_topdoc=1&p_docnum=1&p_sort=YMD_date:D&p_product=AWNB&p_text_direct-0=document_id= (%20135099C883E81388%20)&p_docid=135099C883E81388&p_theme=aggdocs&p_queryname=135099C883E81388&f_openurl=yes&p_nbid=W4DG51RKMTM3MDIyMjU2Ny41MDU0MDU6MToxMzoxOTIuMTYwLjIxNi4w&p_multi=STIW
Jabali-Nash, N. (December 14, 2010). California Police Officers Kill Man Pointing Water Nozzle, Not Gun. CBS News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504083_162-20025657-504083.html
Mangan, D. (1996). Police Brutality: The Use of Excessive Force. Retrieved from: http://www.drury.edu/ess/irconf/dmangan.html
It is important that we be allowed to pursue our business interests with a minimum of government interference. Given that the FTC and DoJ already enforce antitrust legislation, it seems unethical that the FCC also enforce such codes, specifically focused on our particular business.
I believe DI should support the proposed changes. The company would benefit from the opportunity to expand our media properties both horizontally and vertically. It would also give us greater opportunity to exit the business should we so desire in future. Ethical concerns about media consolidation are largely unfounded, especially in light of the way that the Internet provides a low-cost voice for alternative media outlets. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 has significantly reduced barriers to entry in the television business, so the free market can dictate which outlets will have an audience and which will not. Moreover, the FCC's Fairness Doctrine, upheld by the Supreme…
Klinenberg, Eric. (2006). Mega-Merger Mania. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060703/klinenberg
No author. (2008). Hart-Scott-Rodino. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.ftc.gov/bc/hsr/
McChesney, Robert W. & Nichols, John. (2008). Who'll Unplug Big Media? Stay Tuned. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080616/mcchesney
No author. (2008). Telecommunications Act of 1996. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.fcc.gov/telecom.html
Generally, a traffic stop consists of an officer placing a person in custody pursuant to the authority in the Texas Transportation Code for a violation of a traffic law contained in either the Transportation Code or a local ordinance. Unfortunately, the statutory framework and the case law encourage confusion. Among the most perplexing problems in this area is that of determining how a particular detention is best characterized for purposes of legal analysis. What are often characterized as traffic stops are in reality stops made to investigate suspicions of other offenses. Usually, a traffic stop is based on action taken while driving or at least operating a motor vehicle. This need not be the case, however. Chapter 552 of the Transportation Code, for example, is titled, "Pedestrians" and prohibits some actions that can be taken on foot (Texas Statutes, 2009).
Given the confusion between arrests and detentions to…
Farrell, T.B., et al. (2010). Offenses relating to operation of vehicles. In Texas Jurisprudence 3rd ed. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Melton, J. (2010). DWI law. Jerry Melton. Accessed December 2, 2010, from http://www.jerrymelton.com/DWI_Information.htm .
Texas Statutes. (2009). Accessed December 2, 2010, from http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/ .
08% or higher. Blood Alcohol content is the concentrated amount of alcohol in the blood, and this number can be assessed via chemical and Breathalyzer tests. Though this limit was previously as high as.10% in some states, even the lowered limit is not adequate to prevent alcohol related vehicle accidents. In fact, law enforcement officials classify an accident as alcohol related if a driver's blood alcohol content was.01%, or two drinks, or higher. Though some groups praise the.08% law as one of the biggest steps in drunk driving prevention, other groups believe a no tolerance policy should be adopted for operating under the influence of alcohol, similar to the policy that is already in effect for minors.
The physiological effects of alcohol do not begin at.08%. In fact, they begin at much lower blood alcohol content levels. According to Brown University, moodiness increases at.02-.03%; fatigue, delayed reaction time, and errors…
American Academy of Pediatrics. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects."
Pediatrics. 91.5(1993): 1004-1006.
Fetal Alcohol Information." Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. 2006. Centers for Disease Control. 6 May 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fas/fasask.htm .
Proposition 65." Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. n.d. California
Cog Beh Therapy
With respect to the businessman who comes to see the therapist about the problems in his marriage, there are two issues immediately apparent from the brief case history. The first is the man's unwillingness to accept any responsibility for the success of the relationship. He is immediately defensive, blaming his wife for all their problems. He claims that she is hypercritical and that she is "probably" suffering from PMS. Without getting the wife's side of the story, it is impossible to know the extent of her complaints against her husband, the degree to which she feels they need help, and the amount of effort she is willing to expend -- and has already expended -- to put the marriage back on track, if that is in fact what she wants. It is unlikely she has had a formal diagnosis of PMS. Used in this context, "PMS" is…
"Alcoholism: Definition." (2012). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com
Hodge, D.R. (2011). Alcohol treatment and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Social Work 56(1),
Furthermore, 34 other states offer insurance discounts of up to 10% following completion of such a course. Insurance points assigned by the individual insurance carrier are used to determine the cost of auto insurance and, therefore, are not reduced upon course completion (Young). In recent years, a number of states have adopted various forms of graduated licensing in an effort to manage the high crash rates among teenage drivers and, concomitantly, improve traffic safety for the public; such graduated licensing programs allow complete licensure only following the completion of a series of steps that involve removing the various restrictions from licensure have been satisfied (Williams, Weinberg, Fields, & Ferguson, 1996).
New Jersey's Motor Vehicle Services office has developed an online overview of the state's point system and includes the penalties for violating drunk driving laws, as a state with some of the most severe penalties for drunk driving and related…
Airport ground vehicle operations guide. (1998). U.S. Department of Transportation: SVC- 121.23/Stock Number ASY-300 98/001.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Doganis, R. (1999). The airport business. New York: Routledge.
Drivers make a penalty point; poll finds the majority of us have lost faith in the system. (2006, January 27). Daily Record (London, England), 3.
Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement
The American system of local governance for the purpose of maintaining parks and other recreational areas is political as well as democratic, and is based on certain citizens' awareness and desire to create better living conditions as far as environment is concerned, for the benefit of future generations. This entails preservation and conservation of natural parks and wildlife to a large extent. This is especially true in the case of the citizens of Illinois, who are always on the campaign for more open spaces, more parks, and more as well as better recreational facilities for its citizens. Officials are elected for the purpose of looking after and governing the problems that arise from these forests and natural forest preserves, and these officials do believe and also demonstrate the same determination and strongly idealistic beliefs of their predecessors, of the days gone by. The…
Blagojevich, Rod. (April 2004) "Illinois's Multi-Year strategy to Control Drug and Violent Crime FFY2004" Retrieved at http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/word/Byrne/ByrneStrategy.doc . Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Carlile, Harry E. "Keeping our parks a safe place to play" Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ip960919.html . Accessed on 27 October, 2004
DUI, International Referral Database of DUI, DWI, Impaired and Drunk Driving, Drinking and Driving, Lawyers & Attorneys" Retrieved at http://www.lawyers.ca/international/summaryoflaw.asp. Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Educational information: Illinois Department of Natural Resources" (2003) Retrieved at http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/index.htm. Accessed on 27 October, 2004
Police Traffic Stops
The facts contained below considers the major elements that institute a traffic stop as being defensible and legally professional. It will also consider the case laws that established the legality of check points and traffic stops.
Traffic roadblocks and stops come under the 4th Amendment protection against unreasonable seizures and searches because they hinder our freedom of movement.
A traffic stop usually occurs when a law enforcement agent signals a motorist to stop by the roadside (Traffic Stops and oadblocks-Lawyers.com). This stop comprises a seizure under the Fourth Amendment because it stands in the way of the freedom of movement of the motorist. For this stop to be valid under the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution, the law enforcement agent must look at specific and expressed facts to lend support to probable cause of criminal conduct or reasonable suspicion.
Although a law enforcement agent…
Traffic Stops and Roadblocks, (n.d.). Criminal Law Attorney Lawyers-- Legal Information - Lawyers.com . - Lawyers.com . Retrieved January 19, 2016, from http://criminal.lawyers.com/traffic-violations/traffic-stops-and-roadblocks.html
Are DUI Checkpoints Legal? - FindLaw (n.d.). Traffic Laws - FindLaw. Retrieved January 19, 2016, from http://traffic.findlaw.com/traffic-stops/are-dui-checkpoints-legal-.html
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…
African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/
Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3
FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html
MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
bartenders and their responsibility. Specifically it will discuss whether states and communities should hold bartenders responsible for the behavior of their patrons. Bartenders have become the butt of some very serious charges in many communities, because more and more states are holding them accountable for the behavior of the patrons they serve. However, bartenders should not be held accountable for what their patrons do after they leave the bar. Bartenders have no control over that behavior, and they have no way of knowing what patrons will do after they leave. Patrons are accountable for their own behavior, and they should act like adults and take responsibility for their own actions, rather than blaming them on someone else, like a bartender.
Bartenders, as most people know, work behind the bar, serving alcoholic drinks, to people in restaurants, bars, pubs, clubs, taverns and other locations all around the country. They often serve…
Buka, Stephen L., and Isolde J. Birdthistle. "Long-Term Effects of a Community-Wide Alcohol Server Training Intervention." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 60.1 (1999): 27.
Caprione, Carol Ann. Opportunities in Food Service Careers. Revised ed. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 2000.
Editors. "County Attorney Unfair to Bar Owners." Seacoastonline.com. 2009. 30 Oct. 2009.
Anti-Drug Legislation Matrix
Complete te matrix by selecting tree states to add below Federal. Ten, answer eac question listed in te first row for eac corresponding law.
Is marijuana illegal?
Wat are te penalties for possession of cocaine?
Wat are te penalties for possession of eroin?
Wat are te penalties for possession of prescription drugs?
Wat is te blood alcool level for a driving wile intoxicated (DWI) or driving under te influence (DUI) crime?
Is tere extreme DWI or DUI? If so, wat is te punisment?
Up to a year (1st offense)
Up to a year (1st offense)
Up to 1-3 years in jail (depending on prior record)
(altoug tere's a pus to lower to 0.05)
monts in prison and a fine
6-12 monts in prison and a fine
Depends on substance and prior record. 1-6 years in prison and up to $500k fine…
The author of this report has been asked to select a crime control policy and then use the facts and facets of the policy to answer a few questions. First, there will be a summary of the key elements of the policy. Second, there will be an explanation of the political process for the policy. Third, there will be an examination of the role that the federal government plays when it comes to formulating crime control policy. To get a little more specific about the federal role, there will be an evaluation of how the United States Congress gets involved and influences crime control policy. This is despite the fact that many of the applicable crime control policies in play are decided at the state level. All of this will be looked at through the lens and rubric of who has the most influence and control when it…
Brookings. (2014). Legal Marijuana: Comparing Washington and Colorado. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/fixgov/posts/2014/07/08-washington-colorado-legal-marijuana-comparison-wallach-hudak
Costa, J. (2016). Punishment for repeat DUI offenders inconsistent. Wcax.com. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.wcax.com/story/23033725/punishment-for-repeat-dui-offenders-inconsistant
Glazer, S. (2014). Sentencing Reform. CQ Researcher by CQ Press. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2014011000
MADD. (2016). MADD - Statistics. Madd.org. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.madd.org/ statistics/?referrer=https://www.google.com/
Similarly, this type of non-invasive acoustic and vibrational monitoring has been used by doctors to get a better assessment of in vivo hip conditions so that they can better comprehend things like total hip arthroplasty (Glaser et al., 2010).
"Acoustic emissions are elastic waves generated by a rapid release of energy at a localized source. They are produced by events such as particle impact, gas evolution, boiling, phase transitions, precipitation. Some processes produce emissions that can be heard. A lot more emit either outside the audible frequency or at too low an intensity to be heard (McLenna, 1995, p.338). Using non-intrusive acoustic monitoring is definitely a way to monitor an entire structure continuously and effectively (Wu & Abe, 2003). Acoustic signal-based monitoring can assess individual entities and mechanisms or total structures, pinpointing abnormalities, failures or red flags which need attention (Wu & Abe, 2003). It provides experts with…
Allison, N. (2011, October 3). New Non-Invasive Continuous Glucose Monitor Will Talk to Your SmartPhone. Retrieved from Diabetesmine.com: http://www.diabetesmine.com/2011/10/new-non-invasive-continuous-glucose-monitor-will-talk-to-your-smartphone.html
Bergman, D., Jin, D., Juen, J., Tanaka, N., & Gunter, C. (2011, January). Distributed Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring. Retrieved from Illinois.edu: http://seclab.web.cs.illinois.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/BergmanJJTGW11.pdf
Carlucci, A., Chiara, F., & Laforgia, A. (2006). Analysis of the relation between injection parameter variation and block vibration of an internal combustion diesel engine. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 141 -- 164.
Charles, P., Sinha, J., & Gu, F. (2009). Detecting the crankshaft torsional vibration of diesel engines for combustion related diagnosis. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1171 -- 1185.
One of those alarming physical changes is that the younger a person is when they begin drinking, even at low levels the more likely they are to become alcoholics. This change even overrides a known genetic predisposition for alcoholism. (Butler, July 4, 2006) Time forward ads regarding adult failure could be developed at a later time but again such images and concerns do not seem to sway teens. Funding for such a campaign would likely come from national and local foundations that stress clean living, and possibly from litigation funds that have been secured for healthier youth programs.
Alcohol use may begin simply as an exciting experiment, or as a way for a teen to feel a part of his or her peer group, lowering the feeling of awkwardness that often comes with the territory. Yet teen drinking can become a social disaster, that brings on extreme grief and loss.…
"AH shoes the best pillow when your a drunk teen and can't get up!" April, 10 2005 http://www.myspace.com/babyjenaya
"American Academy of Pediatrics Survey of Teen Alcohol Consumption: Summary Findings,"
American Academy of Pediatrics, September 30, 1998.
One solution to enhance learning might be to require that all officers take the initial course and to then develop online content for 'follow-up' briefings and re-testing of knowledge every six months. This would be more rigorous than the current method of having refresher courses every three years. The frequency of the retraining would reinforce the seriousness of the issue.
While it is true that there is an optional SFST update course to be taken within six months, the course is not mandatory. While an SFST instructor must supervise the SFST practitioner administering the SFSTs' in initial administration, the 35 test cases within six months of the initial training that the officer must complete are not supervised and thus there is no ongoing feedback during the course, limiting its effectiveness. Feedback is an essential component of learning -- in the classroom and in the field.
Level 3: Behavior
, 2005). At no time is any state obligated to comply with the federal guidelines for federal highway fund eligibility or to give up any sovereign rights established by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment. Furthermore, there is no issue of "withholding" or "withdrawing" any federal funds from states that choose not to comply with federal guidelines pertaining to the drinking age eligibility. Those monies are supplemental to any other federal funds and would not be offered except as an incentive to follow federal recommendations about the minimum drinking age. States do not have to comply if they prefer to lower the drinking age.
Reason # 3 -- Adults Younger than 21 are not as Responsible as Adults over 21
At the age of 18 or 19, most young people lack the fundamental abilities to make good decisions, especially about things such as taking risks and considering all of the consequences of…
Centers for Disease Control (2007) Teen Drivers: Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 22,
2011, from the CDC public website, at:
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
Law Enforcement Opinion
This report will cover a topic that has always been controversial. However, there have been some events as of late, most of them racially and otherwise socially charged, that have forced the argument the subject firmly back into the forefront. Of course, that topic would be law enforcement. While gun violence, politics and so forth are all the rage in the modern blogosphere and social media realms, the topic of law enforcement is high on the minds of many regular people and activists due to, among other things, the events and details surrounding what happened to people like Eric Garner, Freddie Gray, Michael Brown and so forth. There are plenty of talking heads that would paint the police as abusive and authoritarians. However, that is far from being the true picture that should be painted and this report shall aim to fill in the rest of the…
Baker, A. (2015). In Eric Garner Case, Judge Rules Against Releasing Grand Jury Evidence. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/20/nyregion/in-eric-garner-case-judge-rules-against-releasing-grand-jury-evidence.html
Barrabi, T. (2014). Michael Brown Robbed Convenience Store, Stole Cigarillos Before Darren Wilson Shooting, Dorian Johnson Says. International Business Times. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.ibtimes.com/michael-brown-robbed-convenience-store-stole-cigarillos-darren-wilson-shooting-dorian-1729359
CBS,. (2015). Family defends Trayvon Martin amid claims he was aggressor in deadly confrontation. Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/family-defends-trayvon-martin-amid-claims-he-was-aggressor-in-deadly-confrontation/
FindLaw,. (2015). Are DUI Checkpoints Legal? - FindLaw. Findlaw. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://traffic.findlaw.com/traffic-stops/are-dui-checkpoints-legal-.html
Define the Problem
The defined and existing problem is going to vary in scope and definition depending on who is doing the defining. However, there are some clear and obvious problems with the “three strikes” law. The policy itself was meant to address a problem. However, that policy has created a new set of problems. Indeed, there are situations where three-time violent felons are justifiably put away for twenty-five years to life. However, the major problem with the policy are the human and budgetary costs that are created by people being thrown in jail for life for minor offenses (“Ewing v. California”, 2017). There is also the concern that some people are being thrown in jail even though they will soon “age out” of criminal behavior. Indeed, men in their 60’s are not able to crawl through windows, run and jump fences like someone in their 20’s or 30’s (Besemer,…
States Sharing Criminal Information
Comment by Sabina:
States Sharing Criminal Information
Uncle Bob is a resident of California where is has a criminal record. Uncle Bob took his first trip out of state to Miami, Florida where he was pulled over for speeding. When uncle Bob was pulled over the police officer had a lot of information about him, his name, and date of birth, previous offense, height and weight. Uncle Bob was then handcuffed, and put in the back of the police car. In this paper I will explore some methods utilized by the Miami police officer to gain information about uncle Bob, and some possible communication methods available to police officers to gain criminal information.
The Interstate Driver's License Compact allows the 45 states that participate to share information with each other (DUI Laws, 2010). These states share information about Drunk Driving convictions, through a central database…
DUI Laws (2010). Interstate Driver's License Compact. Retrieved from http://www.1800duilaws.com/dui-info/drivers-licence.asp
Homeland Security (2007). Federal efforts are helping to alleviate some challenges. GAO Reports. 109-115.
Larance, E.R. (2010). Federal Agencies are sharing border and terrorism information with local and tribal law enforcement agencies, but additional efforts are needed. GAO Reports. 1-53
Sales, N.A. (2010). Mending Walls: Information Sharing After the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act. Texas Law Review. 88 (7) 1795-1854
There is no question, however, that immigration issues will remain in the forefront of our national policy debates.
Deportation Factors and Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude
Research indicates that since the late 1980s, Congress had been tightening the substantive provisions of the immigration laws, to make it far less likely that a convicted criminal alien can find a way to be relieved of expulsion. For many years the basic statutory pattern was that a crime involving moral turpitude rendered a person deportable, if it was committed less than five years after the person's entry and resulted in a sentence of one year or more confinement. A later-committed crime or one that drew a lighter sentence did not result in deportation. If the person committed two such crimes that were not part of a single criminal scheme, they could render the person deportable no matter when they were committed. A drug offense…
Calavita, Kitty. Immigration, law and marginalization in a global economy: Notes from Spain. Law and Society Review (1998).
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Immigration Act of 1907. http://www.multied.com/documents/immigrationact.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Levinson, Peter. The facade of Quasi-Judicial Independence in Immigration Appellate Adjudications. http://www.rightsworkinggroup.org/files/peter_article.pdf.(26 Apr. 2005).
Australian Laws for Alcohol Use
Australian Laws related to Alcohol Use
Underage drinking is a huge problem in Australia and more and more minors are having access to alcohol. This is having a big impact on their mental, emotional and physical growth as well as on the society at large. The existing laws do not provide stringent punishment to the offenders, especially those who are making it easy for underage drinkers to have access to alcohol and it is time the Government increases the punishment to make it more difficult for them to have access to it. The Government should also pass laws that will fill the existing loopholes and also provide a support system for young kids to turn to when they have emotional problems. A combination of these measures can go a long way in curbing underage drinking in Australia.
Underage drinking is a common problem in many…
No Author. 2010. Timely Rethink of Liquor Laws. The Advertiser (Adelaide). 21 July. p20-20.
Milne, Glenn. 2008. Alcopops Tax Warning- Young drinkers will switch to stronger wine products. The Sunday Mail (Brisbane). 18 May. P 4-4
Port, Jeni. 2008. "Is it On the Level?" The Age (Melbourne). 25 March. p1-1
Tideman, Deborah. 2006. Drinking Ban: plan to restrict teen alcohol use at home. The Advertiser (Adelaide). 20 June. p5-5
prohibition is a moribund idea, a strong, well-organized anti-alcohol movement marches on. Its strength lies in dozens of church, health, consumer, and citizens' groups such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving," or MADD. MADD was founded in 1980 to combat problems related to drunk driving. Since its founding, MADD has expanded its mission and vision to include issues like underage drinking and drugged driving. MADD has been instrumental in influencing state governments to raise the legal drinking age to 21 in almost all parts of the United States, and to lowering the legal blood alcohol content for driving and operating equipment. Moreover, MADD believes that advertising alcohol should be banned and their reasoning is founded on four core ideas. Because alcohol advertising targets the most vulnerable populations such as underage drinkers, encourages greater consumption of the product, and sells false beliefs, lawmakers could consider curtailing the entire practice of alcohol advertising.…
Advertising Standards Authority (2015). Alcohol advertising.
"Alcohol Advertising," (n.d.). Document.
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (2015). Alcohol beverage advertising. TTB.gov. Retrieved online: http://www.ttb.gov/advertising/alcohol-beverage.shtml
Federal Trade Commission (FCC, 2013). Alcohol adverting. Retrieved online: http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0391-alcohol-advertising
Criminal Procedure Law
This document outlines the proposed criminal justice system. Its aim is to prevent and control crime and criminal acts through punitive measures and penalties to those who violate the set laws. The paper is a suggested criminal justice system for a national jurisdiction, at the federal level. The jurisdiction has a population of about one million people who are equally dispersed in the urban cities and rural areas of the nation. The social and economic status of the residents in this jurisdiction ranges from the very poor to the very rich. The country has its fair share of illegal immigrants and the criminal acts perpetrated in the country do compare throughout all the regions of the country.
Murder is the termination of the life of a human being. The life of a human being starts at the point of conception. Murder is an act committed…
Adlerstein, Jo Anne C. "Felony-Murder in the New Criminal Codes." Am. J. Crim. L. 4 (1975): 249. Web.
Bubany, Charles P. "Texas Penal Code of 1974, The." Sw. LJ 28 (1974): 292. Web.
HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE, § CHAPTER 481-Sec. 481.001.-Sec. 481.354. (2013). Web.
Miller, Emily L. "(Wo) manslaughter: Voluntary Manslaughter, Gender, and the Model Penal Code." Emory LJ 50 (2001): 665. Web.
She had been struck several times in the head with a Toney Penna golf club -- so ferociously that the club had shattered into multiple pieces -- and then stabbed in the neck with the broken shaft the club's handle and part of the shaft had vanished. (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Martha Moxley section, ¶ 1)
From evidence retrieved from the autopsy, police determined Moxley's murder occurred at approximately10:00 P.M..
On July 10, 1998, 23 years after Moxley's murder, "Connecticut authorities convened a one-man grand jury consisting of Judge George Thim. The state's attorney Jonathan Benedict took over the Moxley case and began a multimillion-dollar effort to convict Michael Skakel" (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 5). Until this time, Greenwich police and state investigators considered Ken Littleton as the primary suspect for the murder of Moxley (Fuhrman, cited in Kennedy Jr., Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 7). According to prosecutors'…
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted. Post-Tribune (in). Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Givens, Ann. (2006). Evidence bungled?: Blood work in DWI death trial might have been mishandled, according to testimony of troopers, others. Newsday (Melville, NY). McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. "Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted." Post-Tribune (in). 2004. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research: www.highbeam.com/doc/1N11032253A4EBD8A1C.html
Complete coverage: Limo crash. (2008). Retrieved November 20, 2008 at http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/ny-licrashsg,0,390101.storygallery?coll=ny-linews-headlines
Throughout American history the power of the federal government in comparison with the states has been continually debated. This is because there is a principal known as the separation of powers. In the Constitution, this is reserving certain areas of authority for the federal and state governments. The problem is that many of these powers can often come into conflict with one another on a regular basis. As the Constitution, will provide some basic guidelines, but it will not address specific areas. To account for this, the courts are relying on individual interpretations and case precedent. This creates conflicting areas of authority, based upon the general powers that are given to the states and federal government. (Bonnie)
In the case of the federal government, this kind of conflict occurred in 1984 with the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. This law encouraged the states to raise the…
"Title 23." U.S. Senate, 2000. Web. 9 Mar. 2012
Bonnie, Richard. Reducing Underage Drinking. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2004. Print.
FAA Pilot Rest Requirements
On January 15, 2009, Captain Chesley Sullenberger successfully landed U.S. Airways Flight 1549, a scheduled commercial passenger flight from LaGuardia Airport in New York City to Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, onto the waters of the Hudson River after the plane, an Airbus A320-214, had been struck by a flock of birds which caused an immediate and complete loss of thrust in both engines. Had Capt. Sullenberger, and the crew of Flight 1549, not responded as they did, in a uniformly calm and cool manner while adhering to the tenets FAA safety regulations, there's a decent chance that all of the 155 occupants aboard the Airbus 320 would not be with us today, and that this story of heroism, in the face of looming tragedy, would have a different ending (Sturcke, 2009).
On February 12, 2009, in the wake of the glee and excitement that…
Bowles, H. (2010, Feb. 8). Colgan Pilot Fatigue & NTSB. Better Job Safety. Retrieved from http://safetests.blogspot.com/2010/02/colgan-pilot-fatigue-ntsb.html
Brandon, M. (2000, Sept). The Effects of Fatigue On Performance And Safety. Airline Safety.Com. Retrieved from http://www.airlinesafety.com/editorials/PilotFatigue.htm
Dorr, L., Duquette, A. (2010, Sept. 16). Fact Sheet -- Pilot Fatigue. Federal Aviation
Administration. Retrieved from http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=11857
An early report that was conducted by British physicians claimed that they had found irreversible brain damage in ten male marijuana users -- all of whom had been referred to them for medical treatment because of psychiatric illness, neurological symptoms, or drug abuse problems (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). These researchers used a brain imaging technology and forced air into the patients' brains through the spinal column, then reporting that they saw "abnormalities consistent with cerebral atrophy -- actual brain tissue shrinkage" (1997). The researchers methods were criticized and it was concluded within just a few short years that the brain imaging technique that they use was medically "risky and unreliable" (1997). Using more modern brain imaging technologies today, researchers have not found any evidence of brain damage in human marijuana users, even in those humans who smoke an average of nine marijuana cigarettes a day (1997).
Today there is the…
Earleywine, Mitch. (2005). Understanding marijuana: a new look at the scientific evidence. Oxford University Press; 1st edition.
Fox, Steve. & Armentano, Paul. (2009). Marijuana is safer: so why are we driving people to drink?
Chelsea Green Publishing; 1st edition.
Rosenthal, Ed. & Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why marijuana should be legal. Running Press; 2 Sub-edition.
The most successful of these hybrid strategies is David Beckham and his approach to making sure his personality pervades the messages over and above the positioning points in any IMC campaign. The undercurrents of social networking require a very high level of interactivity, transparency that leads to trust. In the case of athletes and celebrities who battle gossip media, the best defense is a good offense. Taking the initiates as Derek Jeter has done to stop rumors of conflict with Alex odriguez, Carmelo Anthony discussing his DUI in blogs, and the hybrid strategy of Beckham all show how critical it is for celebrities to keep these broader Web 2.0 dynamics in mind when communicating with their fans. Table 1 in the Appendix provides an overview of Web 2.0 applications.
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management eview 49, no. 3 (April…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed April 3, 2008).
Mary Cowlett (2000, January). Toeing the line of truth in spinworld. Marketing, 23-24. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 48129845).
Von Johnson, Pierre Ollivier. (2007). The Technology Disruption Conundrum. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 12(1), 215-221. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1288122001).
Ava Lawler, Gabrielle Tourelle. (2002). Public relations: The integrated communication tool in the launch of a new software operating system -- a case study. Journal of Communication Management, 7(2), 156-159. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 264328051).
Therefore, when studies are conducted on these offenders, then the relationship between psychiatric co-morbidity and DUI relapses would become clearer. Individuals would also be sent to certain areas to study the various psychological treatment methods that are generally available to those who are addicted to any substances, and when efforts are made towards co-alliances of these institutions, then the students of the schools would definitely benefit. (Division on Addiction)
It has been stated that the twenty first century will be the 'age of alliances' wherein the collaboration between non-profit organizations and corporations will keep growing in number. The nature of such collaborative alliances would also change, from when it was the traditionally philanthropic, where the donor would benevolently give, and the receiver would receive it gratefully, to where business as well as non-profits and for-profits work together so that they may be able to achieve their mutual goals and contribute…
Austin, James. (30 April, 2001) "Entering the Age of Alliances" Retrieved at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item.jhtml?id=2056&t=nonprofitAccessed on 14 July, 2005
Datnow, Amanda. (2005) "Happy Marriage or Uneasy Alliance? The Relationship between Comprehensive School Reform and State Accountability Systems" Journal of Education for Students placed at Risk. Vol. 10, No. 1, Pages 115-138 Retrieved at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327671espr1001_6?cookieSet=1 . Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Division on Addictions" Retrieved at http://www.divisiononaddictions.org/. Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Wohlstetter, Priscilla; Malloy, Courtney. L; Hentschke, Guilbert. C; Smith, Joanne. (2004)
budgets of any major size will get most, but not necessarily all, of their money from taxpayers of several many sorts but the main goal of the agencies regardless of size and structure is to provide basic and needed services to the area they serve, whatever and wherever that may be.
While all budgets are quite similar in one form or another, they are all different in their own ways and this can include the aim(s) of the money to be spent, where the money will come from and the overall fiscal policy exercised within the budget including investment, tax rates and savings strategies.
Basic Description of each budget
Differences and similarities of each budget
Sources of evenues of each budget
Change of revenue accounts in the future
e. Budget's fit with mission of the domain
f. How to improve budget and/or revenue estimation for each budget
HHS. (2014, June 1). HHS Budget in Brief. Department of Health & Human Services.
Retrieved June 28, 2014, from http://www.hhs.gov/budget/fy2015/fy-2015 -
IRS. (2014, June 26). Forms and Pubs. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from http://www.irs.gov/
(the Disaster Center's Motor Vehicle Accident Death and Injury data Index, par. 1)
Accidents due to motor vehicles were the second major reasons of police deaths by the end of the century, accounting for more than 2,000 deaths or 15% of all deaths. About, 1,000 more officers comprising of 7% of all loss of lives were hit and met death by passing motor vehicles while they were not in their vehicle, rendering this group the fourth main reason for law enforcement deaths during the last century. Drunken driving was responsible for 315 cases of these vehicle-linked deaths. During the initial part of the last century, the second most important cause of police deaths were accidents due to police deaths. Practically from 1910-1939, 485 officers lost their lives in motor cycle accidents, as opposed to 323 officers who met death in other automobile accidents. With legal enforcement starting to more and…
Alcohol and Motorcycle Accidents. http://www.texasmotorcycleaccident.com/article.asp?artid=52
Automobile & Motorcycle Accidents Information. 2007. http://www.injuryboard.com/view.cfm/Topic=31
Based on the U.S. Annual death rate of 8.7 per 1000. http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=view_all&address=203x347144
Blanchard, E. B; Hickling, E. J; Taylor, a. E; Loos, W. R; Forneris, C. a; Jaccard. J. Who develops PTSD from motor vehicle accidents? Behavior Research Therapy. vol. 34, no. 1, January, 1996. pp: 1-10.
The complete selection process consists of a written examination, on which a candidate must score above a certain percentile and be ranked accordingly, a physical and psychological evaluation, a background investigation and polygraph rest, and a medical examination ("Selection Process," NYSP Recruitment Center, 2008).
The training process
The basic school of training for New York State Troopers is 26 weeks of residential training, cumulating 1,095 hours of training. Classes are given to recruits in a number of areas, including police skills, police science, operations and public interaction relations. The areas of education span a wide array of issues, to include firearm training, first responder and emergency vehicle operations, criminology, DI enforcement, domestic violence enforcement, department policy on sexual harassment, how to make an arrest, and penal and constitutional law, amongst other topics. Some of the areas of instruction are expected and traditional, such as how to minimize the use of…
Basic School Curriculum." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/curriculum.cfm
Field Training." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/field_training.cfm
NYSP Division of Police: History." NYSP. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.troopers.state.ny.us/Introduction/History/
Qualifications for New York State Trooper." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/qualifications.cfm
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
Yes: Carla T. Main
Carla Main believes the drinking age should remain at 21, and she bases the first part of her discussion on a project called "The Amethyst Initiative," which has issued a statement calling for an official probe into the drinking laws as they now stand. The aim of the Amethyst Initiative is to have the drinking age of 21 lowered because the current laws are simply not working. Main is in agreement with the Amethyst Initiative on this point: the current laws are not working, and they should be reexamined. However, Main does not agree with the objectives of the Initiative beyond this. She explains why by laying out the history of the 21 Laws and the changes in society that have occurred since they have been in place (Main, pp. 58-59).
Main's primary issue with the arguments put forth by the Amethyst Initiative and similar groups…
Main, C.T. (2009). Underage drinking and the drinking age. In R. Goldberg (Ed.), Taking sides:
Clashing views in drugs and society (pp. 58-67). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
McMullen, J.G. (2006). Underage drinking: does current policy make sense? In R. Goldberg
(Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views in drugs and society (pp. 69-81). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).
There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…
Ghosh, P. (2010, October 19). The pros and cons of drug legalization in the U.S. . Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.com/pros-cons-drug-legalization-us-246712
Lowy, J. (2014, September 1). Driving stoned? States prep for marijuana DUI. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0901/Driving-stoned-States-prep-for-marijuana-DUI
Miron, J., & Waldock, K. (2010, October 3). Making an Economic Case for Legalizing Drugs. Retrieved from CATO Institute: http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/making-economic-case-legalizing-drugs
Special Identifications in History; Person, Event and Place
Transition from New Amsterdam to New York (1664)
New York City is located right at the mouth of the Hudson iver. The first European power to visit New York was the Dutch in 1624. The land caught the attention of the administration in Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company hoped to explore the region's fur trade. Peter Minuit purchased a major real estate. Peter traded trinkets with natives for the island of Manhattan in 1626. A new town was set up there and was called New Amsterdam. The colony sought to enrich the stockholders from the Netherlands. The first governor of New Amsterdam (Peter Stuyvesant) ruled it with decree and dictatorship. The Dutch West India Company thrived in slave trade.
The English focused their eyes on the Dutch holding after Charles II assumed the throne. Charles gave the land to his brother…
Caswell, J. E. (2015, May 19). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Henry Hudson: English Navigator and Explorer: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-Hudson
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2016). Hudson River school; American Art Movement. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/art/Hudson-River-school
Lankevich, G. (2016, August 12). New York City. Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/place/New-York-City/
Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. (2016). George Washington (1732-1799). Retrieved October 9, 2016, from Miller Center of Public Affairs: http://millercenter.org/president/washington
Human Ecosystem & Technological Change
Drugs should not be legalized
Drug policy in the United States has been on the forefront of polarizing issues in the political spectrum. The United States has been regulating and criminalizing the use of drugs for roughly a century and in the last few generations these efforts have culminated in what has been referred to as a "war" on drugs. This war has resulted in a large number of American citizens being incarcerated for the involvement in the drug trade or for their own personal drug use. In one report, the Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that roughly fifty-five percent of federal prisoners are incarcerated due to drug-related crimes and spends about twenty-two billion dollars annually of this effort (Head, N.d.). Whether you are for, or against, drug criminalization and the war on drugs, one of the factors that makes this such a polarizing debate…