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Dust Bowl Bibliography
Bonnifield, Matthew Paul. The Dust Bowl: Men Dirt and Depression. University of New Mexico Press, 1979.
A journalist named Robert Geiger first coined the term Dust Bowl in the 1930s, which was a decade of extreme droughts, blizzards, tornadoes, dust storms and other climatic changes. Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, Kansas and other Plains states bore the brunt of this drought, and Dr. Bonnifield lived through it at the time. This region of the country was highly arid and semi-desert even at the best of times, and had undergone a big speculative boom in wheat farming during World War I and the 1920s. When the drought began in 1930, coinciding with the Great Depression, these events caught the Plains farmers completely unaware and unprepared. Many went bankrupt and abandoned their farms, turning into migrant workers and economic refugees on the West Coast. Huge dust storms that continued…
Although the 1930s as a whole for all farmers were marked by dramatic periods of "boom and bust," for the residents of the Triangle, the periods of "boom" were far shorter and crueler (McNeill 40). Indeed, when "Captain John Palliser first reached the prairies he was said he thought he had "discovered Hell" because the region was so arid and desert-like. Still, Palliser noted "a fertile belt surrounding the region" (Bonikowsky 2007). Like the Great Plains, Indians and buffalo were the main residents (McNeill 41). The British government ignored Palliser's dim prognosis about developing the area and encouraged settlement.
Farmers in the Triangle repeatedly watched entire seasons of crops blow away in the dust, despite their efforts to engage in vigorous, proactive farming techniques like "fallowing (plowing but not sowing a field)," crop rotation (which was not practiced in the American est) and "shallow cultivation to preserve soil moisture, unfortunately…
Bonikowsky, Laura Neilson. "Drought in Palliser's Triangle. The Canadian
Encyclopedia. 2007. 8 Nov 2007. http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/PrinterFriendly.cfm?Params=A1ARTFET_E20
Causes." The Dust Bowl Outline. 2003. 8 Nov 2007. http://snr.unl.edu/metr351-03/jnothwehr/causes.html
McNeill, J.R. Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth
They are used for the same reasons farmers depleted the soils in Oklahoma in the 1930s, which was to produce a surplus of crops in the hopes of making bigger profits.
Many of those consequences are long-term and might not be noticeable for at least one generation into the future. I think the Dust Bowl situation is interesting because the consequences of poor farming practices did take many decades to manifest. If the Dust Bowl teaches us anything it is that we need to think more in terms of long-term results rather than short-term gains.
Finally, I appreciated learning how the Dust Bowl phenomenon can be applied to other human-caused environmental problems. Any time human beings override common sense in the pursuit of profit, disaster can occur. Whether planting corn and soybeans instead of diverse crops or whether overproducing livestock to fuel the fast food industry, many environmental problems are…
"The Dust Bowl." Retrieved July 13, 2009 from http://www.usd.edu/anth/epa/dust.html
S. history. He has held teaching appointments at Brandeis University, the University of Hawaii, and the University of Maine. He serves on the boards of several environmental organizations. His publications include An Unsettled Country: Changing Landscapes of the American est (1994); The ealth of Nature: Environmental History and the Ecological Imagination (1993); Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas (1977); and A River Running est: The Life of John esley Powell (2001). He is currently working on a biography of John Muir, to be published by Oxford University Press (Harvard Divinity School, 2006, found online at http://www.hds.harvard.edu/cswr/resources/eve/worster.html)."
orster's credentials reveal him to be well educated in the subject matter that he covers in his book, Dust Bowl. He is a man whose interest in environmental history, especially it focuses on those areas of the country where orster's own life experiences have been shaped, and would familiarize him with the geography…
Carr, Edward Hallett. What is History?, Random House, New York, New York, 1961.
Worster, Donald. Dust Bowl, Oxford Press, Oxford: New York, 2004.
Worst completed the book, A Passion for Nature: The Life of John Muir, and it was published in 2008.
Journal Reflections on a Dust Bowl Tale
Out of the Dust -- the Depression in Adolescent Poetry
It is difficult to think of this work as too dark for young individuals, even middle school children, because of its emotional truth and absence of sensationalism. It is written in the poetic voice of an articulate young women about concerns many young people face in real life, namely that of death of a loved one, guilt, and also coping with physical accidents. Moreover, the death of Billie Joe's mother is not gratuitous, or merely a death for sensationalism's sake. The book shows the effects death of a young person's main maternal figure upon a family and a great historical economic crisis, that of the looming Great Depression in the Dust Bowl of Midwestern America. The historical context of the novel gives an added importance and weight to the mother's death and the…
Hesse, Karen. Out of the Dust. New York: Scholastic 1997.
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
On the other hand, in the Dust Bowl evidence, photos and statistics play a very important role, because they paint a graphic picture of what was going on in the country and how people were suffering. This type of evidence plays a much more important role than in the Sacco and Vanzetti case, which was not so much about photographs and statistics, but about print documents and even the political climate. This indicates how different cases require different perspectives and the use of differing evidence.
The difference in these two historic cases also points to the use of differing evidence to study different moments in history. The Dust Bowl affected millions of people who lost their farms, left the area, and moved to places like California to find work and start new lives. There were books written about it, news stories, and everything in between. The Sacco and Vanzetti case…
Davidson, James West and Lytle, Mark Hamilton. After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Volume 2, Fifth Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2004.
Bonnie and Clyde
hat accounts for the persistence of the legend of Bonnie and Clyde? For two not particularly distinguished criminals from a bygone era in American history, the staying power in the collective consciousness of Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker is nothing short of remarkable. In part, the media has played a substantial role, with the epochal 1967 Arthur Penn film having been succeeded in 2013 by a television miniseries about the duo and their gang. I hope to demonstrate through an examination of the historical source material that the reason for Bonnie and Clyde's persistence is explainable in one single word: economics. hat Bonnie and Clyde signify for later generations of interested readers is a response (howsoever criminal) on the part of ordinary people to the Great Depression that defined America during the Presidency of Herbert Hoover. Although certain other aspects of their short career -- particularly their…
Barrow, Blanche Caldwell. My Life with Bonnie and Clyde. Ed. John Neal Phillips. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 2005. Print.
Guinn, Jeff. Go Down Together: The True Untold Story of Bonnie and Clyde. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010. Print.
Phillips, John Neal. Running with Bonnie and Clyde: The Ten Fast Years of Ralph Fults. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. Print.
Schneider, Paul. Bonnie and Clyde: The Lives Behind The Legend. New York: Henry Holt, 2009. Print.
The land was already suffering from the eradication of grass because of cattle-farming, the natural balance of the ecosystem had been destroyed as a result of the tyranny and greed of man, and now the land, starving, ate the farmers alive. Dust pneumonia killed men and women living on soil that only a few years ago had yielded wild profits during the wheat boom, when the rest of the world had suffered a wheat shortage.
There is something poignantly human about the attitude towards money and profit in the farmers that everyone can relate to -- how can something that once was so profitable suddenly evaporate, after all? How could the climate change so quickly -- it seemed impossible? Also, vibrant settlements had been built up around the area, after all. These were not small, isolated farming towns in many cases, but true communities that had been enriched by the…
Egan, Timothy. The Worst Hard Time: The Untold Story of Those Who Survived the Great
American Dust Bowl. Houghton Mifflin, 2005
However, it was changes in technology that originally made the cultivation of the land possible, and marked a shift from earlier methods of production, as practiced by Native Americans. hile small Okie farmers might have hated the larger agricultural conglomerates, they too had benefited from technology in past and paid the price when technology destroyed the land. And it was, in the end, technology that also saved such subsistence farmers, in the form of new cultivation methods -- introduced by the federal government.
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." itness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and orld ar II. May 1, 2010.
"The Dust Bowl." U.S. History. May 1, 2010.
Egan, Timothy. The orst Hard Time. Mariner, 2006.
"Hugh Hammond Bennett." The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of rath. Penguin,…
Cooper, Michael. Dust to Eat. Clarion, 2004.
Davidson, J.R. "Interview." Witness. The Dustbowl. PBS. May 1, 2010.
"Dust bowl." The Great Depression and World War II. May 1, 2010.
Oklahoma has only been a state in the U.S. since 1907, yet Oklahomans were around well before then. Oklahoma is known as the “sooner” state because settlers had arrived in the territory before it had even been declared part of the United States. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was part of Arkansas Territory. The Native Americans were forced on the Trail of Tears and made to settle in Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma. In the latter half of the 19th century, cattle ranchers from Texas drove their cattle through Indian Territory to states up north and out west, paving cattle trails along the way. More and more whites began to settle in the area as a result of these cattle trails and the expansion of the railroad. Then when oil was found, Oklahoma became a major focus for the oil industry and Tulsa became…
Soviet Union brought the missiles into Cuba to rile up the American military establishment precisely so that U.S. nuclear missile installations in Turkey and Italy could be brought on the table. Secondly as an ally, Soviet Union was concerned about the fate of Cuba which held a lot of promise for the Communist experiment internationally.
The American leadership understood that what they faced in Cuba was a catch 22 situation. If they failed to act, they would live under threat and shadow of nuclear war. If they carried out a full fledge invasion of Cuba, the Soviet Union would respond by taking over West Berlin thereby severely denting the credibility of the United States of America in the eyes of its European allies. Able master of political chess that Khrushchev was he played the inexperienced but charismatic President Kennedy like a fiddle. There were of course some in the military…
The effect of all of this is to drive away those who actually worked the land because they loved it, replacing them with hired hands running machinery, neither of which is likely to be kind to the land.
Perhaps the most familiar form of business except for perfect competition, monopoly situations result when there are many potential buyers for a product or service, but only one seller.
In the Grapes of rath, a monopoly situation is created as the banks decide to remove tenant farmers, preferring to sell the land to a single large conglomerate of landowners or even a single corporation.
Steinbeck could hardly have painted a harsher picture of this monopoly-in-progress, with scenes of huge bulldozers razing all evidence of the tenant farmers from the land. However, he also notes that the 'monopolization' of the Great Plains was seemingly an event bigger even than those landowners who…
Cassuto, David. "Turning Wine into Water: Water as Privileged Signifier in 'The Grapes of Wrath'.." Papers on Language & Literature 29.1 (1993): 67+. Questia. 19 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Viking Penguin, 1939.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
It was necessary for the returning men to feel that they were coming home to resume their pre-war social roles. Roles that were governed by the rules of a patriarchal society that had changed by way of the roles women assumed in American society while men were away at war. omen became the decision makers, the bread winners, and the family mangers in a way that is portrayed as the exact opposite by June Cleaver's role in her family's life. The need of men prevailed over the reality of women lives, and women were depicted as weak, needy, clingy, and unable to make sound decisions. Instead, John ayne, the handsome and larger than life film figure of a man was there as a rock, the man who actually dictated the role of the women as one of being needy, clingy, and unable to survive without the stronger male counterpart.
S. History, 2011).
Only after aggressive government intervention did the Dust Bowl conditions improve. The government, even before the drought was broken in 1939, was able to reduce soil erosion by 65% through the actions of the Civilian Conservation Corps, which planted 200 million trees to "break the wind, hold water in the soil, and hold the soil itself in place" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). Farmers received instruction by the government on "soil conservation and anti-erosion techniques, including crop rotation, strip farming, contour plowing, terracing and other beneficial farming practices" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). For the first time, the government took an interest not simply in preserving some of its land from development in the form of national parks, but gave counsel to farmers how to use the land.
The gap between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' already wide even before the Great Depression, grew into…
"Disasters: The 1930s." U.S. History. February 20, 2011
"The Great Depression: What happened and how it compares with today." The Great
Depression. February 20, 2011.
The Day of the Locust, Version 2009
"In December of 2008, the National Bureau of Economic Research - the department responsible for categorizing our economic condition - finally acknowledged what most of Americans had known for some time: that the U.S. is officially in a deep and painful recession. It should be noted that no matter how bad things get NEBR refuses to use the term 'depression.'" (Economy in Crisis) This essay aims to present some similarities between our modern day world and the world that was depicted in the bestselling novel, "The Day of the Locust" by Nathanael est. As more of America begins to feel the pinch of a modern day Great Depression, we can see many similarities about the today's struggle with money, power, love, faith, race, violence, and life in general. One might say that history has again repeated itself and that there may…
Amadeo, Kimberly. (2009). "The Great Depression of 1929 - Could It Happen Again?" Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from About at http://useconomy.about.com/od/grossdomesticproduct/p/1929_Depression.htm .
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. (2009). "Great Depression." EBSCOhost: Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1/1/2009, p1-1, 1p.
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. (2009). "West, Nathanael." EBSCOhost: Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1/1/2009, p1-1, 1p.
Economy In Crisis. (2009). "The New Depression." Retrieved on December 1, 2009, from http://economyincrisis.org/articles/issues?i=The+New+Depression.
The best possible introduction to Grant ood's American Gothic is the fact that it was listed by The ashington Times as one of the most important icons of the 1930's in America: "Hardship at home and conflict abroad...the Great Depression. Dust bowl farmers sought a harvest of hope...labored to lift the countries spirits...Pitchfork Picture: Grant ood paints American Gothic." (The ashington Times, May, 1999)
Created in 1930, American Gothic captured the public imagination and shifted the attention of American painting from the cosmopolitan to the rural: "Grant ood's 'American Gothic' caused a stir in 1930 when it was exhibited for the first time at the Art Institute of Chicago.... Newspapers across the country carried the story and the painting of a farm couple posed before a white house...." (The Art Institute of Chicago eb site)
hy did a painting of an ordinary farm couple in front of a…
1930-1939." The Washington Times. May 24, 1999. Research by Sopko,
John, Carlton Bryant, and Patrick Butters. Retrieved from the Questia database. September 29, 2003: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001784640
American Gothic." Sister Wendy's American Collection. PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/sisterwendy/works/ame.html
Check out Grant Wood's comments about American Gothic and what he portrayed in this painting." CampSilos Web site: http://www.campsilos.org/mod2/students/wood_letter.htm
Although there are few Americans alive today who actually lived through the Great Depression, the event exacted an enormous toll on the country's and ultimately the world's economy in unprecedented ways, and some contemporaries questioned whether recovery was ever possible. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the literature concerning the Great Depression to identify is causes, including the financial, ecological and speculative reasons for the crash of the American economy. Finally, a discussion concerning the gradual recovery that spelled the end of the Great Depression is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning this seminal event in American history in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Although precise figures remain elusive, historians estimates that at least one-quarter and perhaps even more of the American workforce was unemployed during the period following the stock market crash in October 1929 through 1932, and 9,000 banks failed…
Byas, S. (2016, December 5). The Great Depression: Why it started, continued, and ended. The New American, 32(23), 33-37.
Joseph, L. C. (2003, November-December). Legacy of the Dust Bowl. Multimedia Schools, 10(6), 36-39.
Salamon, H. & Ebrahimi, M. (2014, October). The functions of speculation in economy: An investigation on the New York Stock Exchange Crash (1929-39). Asian Social Science, 10(19), 129-133.
The mere fact that these people interact as much as they do is a sign of the blurring of class signs. Also, the image of Gatsby as essentially nouveau riche, is itself a statement indicating interclass mobility. Unlike Steinbeck's story, Fitzgerald's is much more concerned with individual prejudices and stereotypes. In Gatsby, the prejudgments are of the working class against the leisured class. The work also speaks to the utter aimlessness of someone like Gatsby - a man who lives it seems, just for the sake of inoffensive pleasure, but who, at the same time, contributes nothing to the overall society. The unbelievable disconnect between Gatsby's set, and the rest of humanity is captured in an offhand remark of one of his guests, who just happened to find himself in the library, "I've been drunk for about a week now, and I thought it might sober me up to sit…
21, 388). Steinbeck's tone throughout is one of the owners' impending doom. ut their violent and cruel methods keep them in control.
The labor perspective is posed against this. Tom angrily mentions a strike. He says, "Well, s'pose them people got together an' says, 'Let 'em rot.' Wouldn't be long 'fore the price went up, by God!" (ch. 20, 336). He is told that the owners find out who the labor movement leaders are and jail or kill them. y the end of the novel, there is not much redeeming. The workers are exploited. The closest they come to organizing in unions is in the migrant camps. This does not help them overcome the powerful owners. Strikes are broken up because there are just too many people who are desperate for anything. Yet the Joad family falls into luck with cotton picking. This is symbolized in chapter twenty-eight with their…
Denning, Michael. The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century. London: Verso, 1996.
Kannenberg, Lisa. "Great Depression: 1930s." In Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History, ed. Eric Arnesen, vol. 2: G-N, 542-547. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Levant, Howard. "The Fully Matured Art: The Grapes of Wrath." In John Steinbeck's the Grapes of Wrath, ed. Harold Bloom (Modern Critical Interpretations), 17-44. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988.
Pizer, Donald. "The Enduring Power of the Joads." In John Steinbeck's the Grapes of Wrath, ed. Harold Bloom (Modern Critical Interpretations), 83-98. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988.
..it has to affect people in predictable ways regardless of particular circumstances" (Linton pp). However, music, says Linton isn't like that because one listener might hear the opening E-minor chorus of the St. Matthew Passion and become grief stricken, while someone else might become bored, and another might find that piece incomprehensible (Linton pp). According to Linton, listening to a particular kind of music does not throw listeners into a trance any more than heavy metal music turns its listeners into sociopaths (Linton pp).
However, even Linton back-stepped a bit when he revealed that there was one area of life in which music apparently had the ability to affect people's behavior, grocery shopping (Linton pp)! Several studies reveal that faster paced music tends to make American shoppers walk down the aisles more quickly than slower paced music (Linton pp).
Apparently Holloway believes that society can be transformed by the cultivation…
Linton, Michael. "The Politics of Music.'
History of the Pacific Northwest [...] how the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War impacted regional demographics in the Pacific Northwest. What social ramifications resulted from population shifts in the Northwest (consider rural and urban area)? How did demographics shape/influence Pacific Northwest politics? The Pacific Northwest did not escape the ramifications of the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War. No area in the country did. However, since the Pacific Northwest had not been quite as economically successful in the decade leading up to the stock market crash in 1929, its residents were not quite as deeply affected as those who had been more indulgent with their income.
Before the Great Depression in 1929, the Pacific Northwest had been growing significantly. By 1920, the area had grown by 254% from 1900 (Schwantes 365). However, the Great Depression put a stop to the growth and migration.…
Gates, Charles M. "Modern Economic History." The Pacific Northwest: An Overall Appreciation. Eds. Freeman, Otis W. And Howard H. Martin. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1954. 43-50.
Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Warren, Sidney. Farthest Frontier: The Pacific Northwest. New York: Macmillan, 1949.
The people. The faces
At the doors. Then my own face at the door.
No work, man. The pavement beneath my feet.
I can feel the cardboard in my shoes and once Only the finest of leather would do. From living
It up putting on the Ritz in the Big Apple
To selling Apples and eating Ritz crumbled
In charity stews. FDR says
Big government will provide big jobs
And once again I will spend, and America
Will spend, and all will be well again.
But it's hard to believe,
What you read,
On paper, in the papers
After losing your money, your shirt, and everything
You are and own on paper -- paper lies, paper money
Paper words, are cruel.
So sir, that's how my Great Depression began.
That's why I learned not to spend. To save string.
To hoard, like a rat, what I earn, burning with anger…
The Great Depression
The Great Depression started in 1929 and lasted until the end of the Second World War, it was the most severe depression seen in the western world. The depression had far reaching economic, social, and political consequences. To understand the depression it is necessary to look at the event itself, underlying causes, the impacts and the way in which recovery took place.
The Great Depression may be argued as starting in August of 1929, when the countries GDP started to decline; but it is the cash of October 1929 that marks the official beginning of the crisis (obbins & Weidenbaum, 2009). The stock market crash of 1929 was a surprise for many; the previous decade had been one of growth and prosperity. On Black Tuesday 29th of October the bottom dropped out of the stock market, which resulted in panic selling loosing 40% of the paper…
Bernanke, BS, (1983), Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression, The American Economic Review, 73(3), 257-276
Cecchetti, G, (1992). Sources of Output Fluctuations During the Interwar Period: Further Evidence on the Causes of the Great Depression, Working Paper No. 4049, National Bureau of Economic Research
Robbins, Lionel; Weidenbaum, Murray, (2009), The Great Depression, Transaction Publishers
" Steinbeck's novel was written in a much different style, much more modern, and so it is easier for modern readers to relate to it. Each of the novels places the characters in poor situations, so they all compare to each other in this regard. The reader becomes sympathetic to them because of their plight, and they want them to win. Unfortunately, because of society at the time, for most of the characters, that is not possible. Steinbeck's account of the Joads leaves them in a terrible situation by the end of the book, yet they somehow remain hopeful. Steinbeck is looking at the American people as a whole, and how, when the times are the worst, they still hang on to hope.
As for social impetus, the books did spark change. "The Jungle" actually helped form the first department in Washington to deal with food safety, the Federal Department…
Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
Before Anglos came to dominate the land, Cabeza de Baca portrays a kind of paradise-like environment, where even the sheepherders were like "musicians and poets" and "the troubadours of old," and every person had a story (Cabeza de Baca 11). This has been called a method of "preserving the culture" against the dominant discourse of Anglos: Cabeza de Baca, along with other writers of her generation are portrayed as trying to "get it [their culture] right" in an effort to transcend the overwhelming discourse of the Anglo "other" (Cabeza de Baca xx). Using Hispanic phrases and names, blurring historiography and biography, and the view of the past as a kind of lost "Eden" are all aspects of the authors 'agenda' (Cabeza de Baca xx). Cabeza de Baca deliberately uses English as a way of communicating with the Anglo reader and 'setting the record straight.'
Yet while Cabeza de Baca strives…
Cabeza de Baca, Fabiola. We fed them cactus. UNM Press, 1954.
trace the historical causation of the current recession - the causal factors. Currently, America and most of the world is experiencing a severe recession. The causes of that recession are many, and the fallout is severe. There are many similarities with the current recession to the Great Depression of 1929, and there are differences that set each recession apart. When compared close up, the Great Depression was much worse than the current recession, and that may be at least in part because of governmental measures used since the Great Depression.
The Great Depression
The Great Depression, which began in 1929, was one of the worst worldwide depressions in history. Most people believe the Great Depression occurred after the fall of the stock market in 1929, but it actually began before that. A reporter notes, "The Great Depression of the 1930s began with falling demand for durable and investment goods in…
Adelmann, Bob. "Bernanke: Lax Oversight Recession's Cause." New American.com. 2010. 20 March 2010.
Brinkmann, Jay, and Orawin Velz. "The 2009 Outlook." Mortgage Banking Jan. 2009: 22+..
Rockrohr, Phil. "Current Recession Not the Great Recession." University of Chicago. 2009. 20 March 2010.
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.
he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…
The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.
The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.
Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
They went into a spending frenzy that would carry them though the next decade. They bought houses, started families and settled down to a life of normalcy after a decade of chaos. Illustrations began to return to resemble that of fine are of earlier times.
The Invitation. Ben Stahl. Date unknown magazine photo. Al Parker. Date unknown
ise of the Atomic Age (1950-1960)
The prosperity that came with the end of the war continued into the new decade. Americans attempted to settle into a life or normalcy. There was a significant return to traditional gender roles, as many women were forced back into the household and the men went off to work as usual. Women, now used to providing for themselves represented a new target market. To fill their days they read the "seven sisters" (McCall's, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmopolitan, edbook, Good Housekeeping, Seventeen, and Women's Day). These magazines began…
Crow, T. 2006. The Practice of Art History in America. Daedalus. 135, no. 2. Questia Database.
"Jesse Wilcox Smith" 2000. http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/jwsmith.htm
Reed, Walter and Reed, Roger. 2008. The History of Illustration. Society of Illustrators. Online. http://societyillustrators.org/about/history/283.cms
Murphy, J. 2007. Making Virtual Art Present. Afterimage. 35, no. 2. Questia Database.
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
The economy began to contract still further immediately after the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Fears that Roosevelt would devalue the dollar or even abolish the Gold Standard caused both domestic and foreign investors to once again to "convert dollars to gold, putting pressure on both the banking system and the gold reserves of the Federal Reserve System. Bank failures and the Fed's defensive measures against the gold drain further reduced the stock of money. The economy took its deepest plunge between November 1932 and March 1933, once more confirming the temporal sequence predicted by the monetary hypothesis. Once Roosevelt was sworn in, his declaration of a national bank holiday and, subsequently, his cutting the link between the dollar and gold initiated the expansion of money, prices, and output" (Bernanke 2002).
Roosevelt did not abandon the gold standard wholesale. However, he did devalue the dollar, nationalize gold owned by private…
Bernanke, Ben S. (2002, November 8). Remarks at the conference to honor Milton Friedman.
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved June 2, 2009 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/BOARDDOCS/SPEECHES/2002/20021108/default.htm
Bordo, Michael D. (2008). The Gold Standard. The Econ Library. Retrieved June 2, 2009 at http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GoldStandard.html
Kelley, Martin. (2009). Top Five causes of the Great Depression. About.com.
The plan also calls for contributions to improve public education, to modernize schools and to improve Pell Grants. There is also money for research in science in technology to improve the broad band capabilities of the Internet infrastructure. Money has also been allocated for small business owners.
This infusion will be over several years. Critics of this plan concur that the amounts of money spread out over several years will not be sufficient to achieve the results the plan puts forth. Also, a lot of money has been given to banks, financial institutions and lending agencies. Money has also been given to the auto industry so that they can be more competitive with foreign auto manufacturers. But soon after, what the critics feared happened. The President asked the CEO of General Motors ick Wagoner to resign. Critics believe that such an unprecedented rise of the power of the Federal government…
Alter, Jonathan. The Defining Moment: Fdr's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Aravosis, John. Summary of Final Stimulus Package. 2009. America Blog. Available: http://www.americablog.com/2009/02/summary-of-final-stimulus-package.html .
Calmes, Jackie. "House Passes Stimulus Plan with No G.O.P Votes." New York Times 2009.
Fox, Justin. "
"Construction -- which was a substantial component of investment -- fell because the housing stock exceeded the demand after 1925. " (Temin 9) Termin goes on to say that
Consumption fell because wages, other income, and capital gains all fell, with the fall in wages having the largest effect. Business investment fell because profits fell and -- to a lesser extent -- because the yield on equities rose. Residential construction fell because the stock of housing four years previously was high. Inventories fell because sales fell. But wages, profits, and sales all fell because consumption and investment fell." (Temin 49)
All of these cascading events could and to some degree are occurring today and the cascading effect will likely result in economic fears and realities, "…under freely-competitive capitalism, periods of boom and overproduction were followed by downturns which 'corrected' prior imbalances via falling prices" (Burkett 60) All of the economic…
Badger, Anthony J. The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933-1940 New York: Ivan R. Dee, 2002.
Brummer, Alex. "It's Still the Economy, Stupid: Reckless Lending in America Is Giving the World Markets the Jitters. But in Washington, the Big Worry for Presidential Hopefuls Is Who Benefits Most from an Election-Year Recession." New Statesman 5 Nov. 2007: 20.
Burkett, Paul. "Forgetting the Lessons of the Great Depression." Review of Social Economy 52.1 (1994): 60.
Byrne, J. Peter, and Michael Diamond. "Affordable Housing, Land Tenure, and Urban Policy: The Matrix Revealed." Fordham Urban Law Journal 34.2 (2007): 527.
For two years prior to the publication of the Grapes of rath, Steinbeck spent his time with a group of migrant workers making their way towards California. Travelling and working with the laborers, Steinbeck found the heartfelt material in which to base his book." (Cordyack, 1) This shows in his gritty but sympathetic portrayal of the American working class.
This is an idea which illuminates perhaps the most important of parallels between the national experience during the Great Depression and the experience that the film portrays through the Joads upon their arrival to California. Namely, the capitalist system which has brought much pride and affluence to America's industrialists, and which somewhat questionably proclaims the opportunity for all to rise through an effective manipulation of the system, is the clear and declared enemy of the Grapes of rath. The inhumanity which is demonstrated by the banks and the bulldozers which reinforced…
Cordyack, B. (2005). John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath. 20th Century American
Bestsellers; UIUC Graduate School of Library and Information Services.
Text can be retrieved here:
Although no American would have hoped for war, the complete industrialization of formerly fallow aspects of American industry enabled many Americans to become financially independent again, and proved particularly personally empowering for many women, who were encouraged to work outside the home in nontraditional, better paying factory jobs rather than work at home -- or at non-industrial jobs. A return to industrialization and the expansion of technology empowered all workers, and brought dignity and security to the lives of many Americans, dignity that they had not known since before the Great Depression
After the end of orld ar II, one might argue that fear of new technology, in the form of the prospect of the Soviet Union using the atomic bomb against America, allowed for the rise of McCarthyism. However, it is important to remember that fear of the unknown and the alien, in this case, the Soviet Union, is…
Fishman, Charles. "Global fishiness." Excerpt from the Wal-Mart Effect at Salon.com.
23 Jan 2006. 2 May 2007. http://www.salon.com/tech/books/2006/01/23/walmart_effect/
From the New Deal to a New Century: About TVA." TVA Government Website. 2007.
May 2007. http://www.tva.gov/abouttva/history.htm
national public health resources in the United States. We will be describing the history of the public health department as well as other significant things regarding this subject. Our main focus besides at the national level will be at the Santa Clara County which is in the state of California. Finally, we will attempt to differentiate between public and community health which is related to our chosen agency of Santa Clara.
History of Department of Health in U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services started in 1798, at that time it had few finances as well as resources in terms of employed personals, medical equipments and so on. It later on became more effective with the aid of different acts such as Quarantine act of the year 1887. The department introduced children's services early in the twentieth century. The overall Public Health Service in the United States was restructured during…
Webster, C. (1998). The National Health Service. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McCrae, M. (2003). The National Health Service in Scotland. East Linton: Tuckwell Press.
Levy, B. (2006). Social Injustice and Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gostin, L. (2002). Public Health Law and Ethics. California: University of California Press.
The underside of affluence
The period is in the early years of the twentieth century. America is now experiencing economic and political expansion as it became the model of an imperial superpower for all nations, both in the Western and Eastern regions. Economic growth spurred as a result of the industrial revolution, while political structures strengthened due to the numerous successful conquests of the Americans to colonize nations in the Asian and southern American regions.
However, despite the affluence that American society had experienced during this period, a considerable half of the American population is suffering from poverty. With the rise of urbanization, many people flocked to the cities in search of a high-paying job and steady source of income as factory workers. However, the rapid incidence of migration to the cities made them crowded with people, hence, living conditions began to deteriorate, which includes the lack of…
In the 1930s, Dorothea Lange used photography to document the disastrous conditions for Americans confronted with the Dust Bowl in the West. The images demonstrated the urgent need for government programs to assist these disadvantaged people. The photographs told the entire story. Today, Lorna Simpson's photographs do the same: document the American blacks and demonstrate their personal societal needs. This Brooklyn-born artist uses black-and-white images to portray the situation of present-day American blacks so uninformed viewers can better understand these individuals perception of the world.
As Simpson notes about her work:
By presenting these cliches about women, I'm dealing with the language of stereotypes. I'm pointing to the fact that the wrong questions are so often asked, and this is why you don't know anything about this person. I intentionally sought to avoid presenting a 'them and us' situation, them being a white audience. It is also a…
Arango, Jorge. "At home with Lorna Simpson: a major player in the world of photography and video composes her personal sanctuary -- home." Essence. May (2002), np. [Electronic Version]
Ansell, Bennie Flores. "Lorna Simpson: The Black Female Body in Photography." Photography Institute. 25 April 2005.
Fusco, Coco. English is Broken Here. New York City: The New Press, 2000.
Technology and Global Ecosystem
An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem
The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…
Anton, Philip S., James Schneider and Richard Silberglitt. The Global Technology Revolution:
Bio/Nano/Materials Trends and Their Synergies with Information Technology by 2015.
Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
Bjornerud, Marcia. (1997). "Gaia: Gender and Scientific Representations of the Earth." NWSA
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
The story "The Bridle," for instance, tells about what could have turned out to be a family tragedy. However, written by Carver it becomes much stronger and more positive. After going bankrupt in agriculture, a family moves with its few belongings packed into a station wagon to a cheap apartment in a hotel somewhere in the Midwest. The narrator, who is the unfriendly and uncaring woman who runs the hotel, relates the story of what happens to the mother, Betty, and the horrible temporary jobs she takes to take care of her family.
One day at a drunken party at the hotel's pool, her husband, Holits, climbs to the roof of one of the units to jump into the water. Betty cries out, "What are you doing?" But he just stands there at the edge. He looks down at the pool, deciding how much he will have to run to…
Carver, Raymond. A New Path to the Waterfall. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 1989.
Carver, Raymond. Call if You Need Me. New York: Vintage, 2000.
Kibble, Matthew (Ed). "Raymond Carver" from Literature Online biography. London: Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company, 2001.
Scribner's Writing Series. Raymond Carver. Writers A to Z. Section. New York: Thompson Gale.
For example, the soil in the Loess Plateau area is notoriously erodable and it is difficult to revegetate the steep slopes with a sufficiently dense cover of plantation and grass. Moreover, rainfall in the area is generally insufficient to support the growth of trees and plants even after their plantation; grazing by animals worsens the situation. Silt retention dams and structures in the silt-carrying gullies and valleys have proven more effective and thousands of dams have been built. As these dams are gradually filled up, the dam heights have to be raised. Such high retention dams, however, are a double-edged sword. Heavy once-in-a-century rains or powerful earthquakes could cause dams to break and initiate catastrophic landslides that would create even bigger floods that would do immense damage. Similarly, the Chinese have managed to control floods in the river by periodically raising the levees and the dykes but the unrelenting silt…
Chengrui, Mei, and Harold E. Dregne. "Review Article: Silt and the Future Development of China's Yellow River." The Geographical Journal. 167.1 (2001): 7.
Haihua, Tong. "Yellow River sewage spill spawns fish kill." China Daily. 2004-07-03. October 7, 2006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/09/content_346769.htm
Hoh, Erling. "Yellow River in Death Throes?" The Washington Times. August 31, 2001: 17.
Liang, Qiuhua. "Yellow River -- China's Sorrow" March, 20, 2002. October 7, 2006. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~wolf1016/yellow_river_flooding.htm
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…
The Manhattan Project was? The secret project for inventing the atom bomb
Who were the Scottsboro boys? Nine black teenagers accused of rape in a 1931 Alabama case. It revealed the deeply seated racism in Alabama due to its denial of a fair trail.
A. Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to? Desegregation of the armed forces.
America Moves West
econstruction is the name for the period in United States history that covers the post-Civil War era, roughly 1865-1877. Technically, it refers to the policies that focused on the aftermath of the war; abolishing slavery, defeating the Confederacy, and putting legislation in effect to restore the nation -- per the Constitution. Most contemporary historians view econstruction as a failure with ramifications that lasted at least 100 years later: issues surrounding the Civil ights were still being debated in the 1970s, corrupt northern businessmen "carpetbaggers" brought scandal and economic corruption, monetary and tariff policies were retributive and had legal results in the north as well. Despite the failure of this period as an equalizer or integrator of races in the Old South, there was an equally robust push westward that not only encouraged individuals of all ethnicities to move, but changed the political and economic texture of the…
Immigration and Labor. (2009). Encarta.MSN. Retrieved from: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552683_11/new_york.html.
Railroads Following the Panic. (2001). U.S. History.com. 2001. Retrieved from:
Teaching With Documents: The Homestead Act of 1862. (2007). National Archives.
Aldo Leopold and Environmental History
In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with…
Close Comparison -- Compare and Contrast
Comparison of Solomon-Godeau and Williams
Photography is an ethically complex art: unlike a painting which purports to be the work of an individual artist and reaffirm his or her 'true self,' a photograph at least superficially suggests that it has encapsulated 'the real.' The impression of reality conveyed by photography is so persuasive that the fact that a photograph is still one interpretation amongst many may be forgotten. "For Solomon-Godeau, looking at social subjects is voyeuristic, creating contradictions that course through the entire history of documentary photography. In its parasitism on the real and self-justification in the name of consciousness-raising, the genre always risks reducing the 'objective' record of human misery to aesthetic spectacle" (Apter 1992: 693). An excellent example of such reduction are the infamous photographs of Walter Evans of the 'Okies' during the Dust owl era of the America 1930s or modern…
Apter, Emily. Review of Photography at the Dock: Essays on Photographic History, Institutions
and Practices by Abigail Solomon-Godeau. The Art Bulletin, 74.4 (Dec., 1992): 692-694.
Hill & Adamson, Nadar, Julia Margaret Cameron, Rejlander, Robinson, and P.H. Emerson.
Figures of early art photography.
MUSIC AND CENSORSHIP the FIRST AMENDMENT U.S. Constitution: Congress make law respecting establishment religion, prohibiting free exercise thereof; abridging freedom speech, press; people peaceably assemble, petition Government a redress grievances.
Photography as art: Walter Benjamin on photography
The invention of photography was initially viewed as a challenge to conventional forms of art because it could more perfectly replicate the surface of reality than any human brushstroke. However, artists were able to meet this challenge through using the human imagination and decentralizing the emphasis on replication. But Walter Benjamin argued that photography still posed a very profound and troubling challenge to art. Before, when people gazed at art, they were gazing at something recognizably 'other' that could not be reproduced and was an object with its own integrity. In contrast, a photograph can always be reproduced in its entirety and thus exists as a commodity. People long for some originality in…
Blue is the new black, according to the filmmakers of Blue Gold. Blue Gold is a documentary about how water is becoming a scarce commodity, and that it will become the reason for wars in the future unless something critical is done about it on political, economic, and public policy levels. This is an important film, because the issues impact all persons on the planet. ich or poor, male or female, black, white, or brown, water is necessary to sustain life. Without water, human beings die. The problem is that water management issues are embroiled in serious entanglements. Water that should be used for drinking is diverted to use in big agribusiness sectors, which are themselves problematic for their inhumane and polluting practices. Similarly, water that should be used for drinking is being diverted for use in manufacturing sectors. While human beings do need both manufacturing and farming…
Bozzo, Sam. Blue Gold. Feature Film. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1a3tjqQiBI
omen to History
omen have contributed to the history of the world from the beginning of time. Their stories are found in legends, myths, and history books. Queens, martyrs, saints, and female warriors, usually referred to as Amazon omen, writers, artists, and political and social heroes dot our human history. By 1865, women moved into the public arena, as moral reform became the business of women, as they fought for immigrant settlement housing, fought and struggled for the right to earn living wages, and stood up to the threats of the lynch mobs. The years beginning in 1865 is known as the Civil ar era and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. It was a time of great changes, especially for African-American women such as Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. omen of all races had to fight for equal rights, even the right to vote (http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html).omenhave indeed 'come a long…
Women in American History. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads05.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads12.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica06.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica02.html.
A accessed 07-04-2002).
Bryson, Donna. "MOTHER TERESA LED LIFE OF HARD WORK AND LOVE DIMINUTIVE NUN NEVER WAVERED FROM HER SELF-IMPOSED MISSION TO BRING COMFORT TO THE WORLD." Denver Rocky Mountain News. September 14, 1997, pp 3A. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Denver_Rocky_Mountain_News&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~InsideDenver.com~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Donna+Bryson&title=MOTHER+TERESA+LED+LIFE+OF+HARD+WORK+AND+LOVE+DIMINUTIVE+NUN+NEVER+WAVERED+FROM+HER+SELF%2DIMPOSED+MISSION+TO+BRING+COMFORT+TO+THE+WORLD++&date=09%2D14%2D1997&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=7.(accessed07-04-2002).
Lloyd, Marion. "Nun's Sainthood effort moves fast; Callers report miracles of Mother Teresa." The Washington Times. August 28, 1999, pp A6. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Washington_Times&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.washtimes.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Marion+Lloyd&title=Nun%27s+sainthood+effort+moves+fast%3B+Callers+report+miracles+of+Mother+Teresa++&date=08%2D28%2D1999&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=6 accessed 07-04-2002).
1939, John Steinbeck published his novel The Grapes of rath, and that same year the film version of the story was released. The film was directed by John Ford and was very popular, and the book and the film together reached millions of people. In writing this novel, Steinbeck reflected many of the social, economic, and political currents of the time. The story is set in the Great Depression era, and the Depression was still have its effect in 1939. hat would bring about the end of the Great Depression was already starting in Europe, meaning orld ar II, which does not impinge directly on the story of the Joad family but which we can see from our standpoint today was about to bring about massive changes in American society. The very nature of the story of the Joads, however, links that story to the Depression and its effect on…
Banks, Ann. First-Person America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980.Caldwell, Mary Ellen. "A New Consideration of the Intercalary Chapters in The Grapes of Wrath." Markham Review 3 (1973), 115-119.
Ford, John. The Grapes of Wrath. Twentieth Century-Fox, 1939.
The Grapes of Wrath." Contemporary Literary Criticism, Vol. 59. Chicago: Gale, 1989.
Groene, Horst. "Agrarianism and Technology in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath." Southern Review (9:1)(1976), 27-31.
Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.
One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says
Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…
Fehrenbacher, Don F. And Norman E. Tutorow. California: An Illustrated History. London: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.
Lavender, David. California: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.
Quiett, Glenn Chesney. "The Fight for a Free Port" from Los Angeles: Biography of a City by John and LaRee Caughey. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" from The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.
For this assignment, you will watch the National Geographic Documentary Six Degrees Could Change the World and answer the questions
1) Summarize key changes in the earth's climate system (include vital numbers quoted in the documentary) that are projected to occur with each incremental rise in global temperature.
Do not simply list these changes. I am well aware that if you do a google search, you will get numerous hits that describe degree-by-degree changes as described in the movie. Well, if you copy those (or paraphrase them), it wouldn't be as much funRight? Not to mention, you don't want to risk getting F on this course because of plagiarism. So do the right thing.Watch it and use your own words to articulate your response in a fashion that conveys a clear picture of these changes. If it helps, think yourself as a science writer who has…
While it may not seem like an exciting state from a distance, Oklahoma actually has a great history to it that is full of action and adventure. In Dwyer’s The Oklahomans, the history of these people comes to life. There are many stories to tell as Dwyer notes, so it is difficult to know where to begin—but as always the best place is typically at the beginning. The beginning of the story of the Oklahomans begins even before statehood was accomplished in 1907. It starts in the 19th century when the land was being used by cattle herders, farmers, settlers, and Indians who were placed there in what was then known as Indian Territory. Some of these Indians were fierce, like Quanah Parker, the warrior Comanche who killed many settlers and made the region a frightening place. However, Parker converted to Christianity later in his life, after coming into contact…
Death of the Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell Without knowing that a ball turret is small place in a B-17, we would not understand the central metaphor analogizing the mother's womb to the ball turret, which is essential to understanding that the poem is about the contrast between the warmth of a mother's love and the cold dehumanizing treatment of the "State" where he is just another soldier.
Common Ground by Judith Cofer Before reading the poem, the title seemed quite self-explanatory, I figured the poem would be about finding common ground between people, and in a sense it is, but the message, after reading the poem, is much starker. It is more about the inescapability of aging, the common links that tie generations as the young get old and realize the commonalities they share with their parents.
Hazel Tells LaVerne by Katharyn Machan Knowing the fairy tale helps…
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
Proust and Narrativity
We read Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time - that greatest work of his the title of which is more commonly translated as Remembrance of Things Past both because of the simple beauty of his language and because of the power that he has to find our own lost pieces of time. For while he makes us interested in his past because of his marvelous descriptions of his own childhood and we become entranced by his memories because of the elegant and lush way that he conveys them to us, we also read the book because it seems to offer to us a type of magic, seems to serve as a talisman to all pasts, not just his alone. This paper examines the narrative structure of In Search of Lost Time and the ways in which that structure, joined to Proust's language and symbolism, can help…
The flour prevents the dough from sticking to the surface, countertop, or table. Place the dough on the floured surface and knead gently to ensure that it has been mixed and is a uniform consistency. Now dust the rolling pin with flour and begin rolling out the dough to a uniform thickness of about 1/8." Use the rim of a cup or glass as a cookie cutter and cut as many circles as possible. You should be able to make between 15 and 20 circles. emove the rest of the dough around the cut circles, and repeat the process of rolling it out and cutting circles. Alternatively, you may simply ball up the excess dough and wrap in cling film. The excess dough can be stored in the refrigerator for a day or two or in the freezer for a week or two.
It is now time to fill the…
"How to Make Ravioli." Retrieved online: http://www.wikihow.com/Make-Ravioli
In these two labs, I investigated table salt crystals and Epsom salt crystals and found that these two different types of salt produced two different types of crystals. These labs were conducted by following the procedures recommended by the About.com websites related to chemistry and ionic crystals. For table salt crystals, I used the website http://chemistry.about.com/od/growingcrystals/ht/saltcrystals.htm and for growing Epsom salt crystals http://chemistry.about.com/od/crystalrecipes/ht/cupofcrystals.htm.
Materials used in the two labs were similar. For the table salt lab, I used table salt (or sodium chloride), boiling water, a glass jar, and a seed crystal. For the Epsom salt lab, I used a small bowl, Epsom salt and hot water from the tap (not boiling).
Because different salts and different crystals were being formed, the procedures were, naturally, a bit different. For the table salt crystals, I first boiled a pot of water, and then I poured some of it into…
Helmenstine, A.M. (n.d.). How to Grow a Cup of Quick Crystal Needles. About.com.
Retrieved from http://chemistry.about.com/od/crystalrecipes/ht/cupofcrystals.htm
Helmenstine, A.M. (n.d.). How to Grow Table Salt or Sodium Chloride Crystals.
About.com. Retrieved from http://chemistry.about.com/od/growingcrystals/ht/saltcrystals.htm
" The point made by the poet is similar to the poem above. The reference to John,
The Father of our souls, shall be,
John tells us, doth not yet appear;
is a reference to the Book of Revelations, at the end of the Bible.
That despite the promises of an Eternal life for those who eschew sin, we are still frail and have the faults of people. We are still besought by sin and temptations and there's really no escape. People are people. No matter what we say or do, we find that life is not so simple. Consider this reference, which really refers to a person's frame of reference or "way of seeing."
Wise men are bad -- and good are fools,
This is a paradoxical statement: there is large gap between spirituality and reality. Those we consider wise or bad, might make decisions that are globally profound,…