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Definition of Dyslexia
Dyslexia is one of the conditions of the broader spectrum of learning difficulties. There are specific learning difficulties that are different from what could be defined as "Dyslexia." Specific learning difficulties are a set of conditions that emanate from the brain's processing coupled with the individual's other processing abilities. These difficulties have been labeled as dyscalculia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia and so on. It is stated that there are fifteen such learning disabilities. Dyslexia forms a part of this classification but is slightly different from the others. There is a co-morbidity that can be noticed between these specific learning difficulties. There are many symptoms that overlap and co exist. The difficulty in pinpointing the actual and simple definition of dyslexia arises from this overlapping of symptoms. (eid, 2003)
Though the term "Dyslexia" is used in the denotation of "specific learning difficulties" It is argued earlier that "dyslexia" is…
Hoien, Torleiv; Lundberg, Ingvar. (2000) "Dyslexia: From Theory to Intervention"
Hultquist, Alan M. (2006) "An Introduction to Dyslexia for Parents and Professionals."
Jessica Kingsley: London.
Dyslexia is a learning disability, and is a relatively broad term. It makes reading difficult because of the lack of learning comprehension and fluency seen by the dyslexic person (Cherry & Kruger, 1983). There are many ways in which dyslexia can manifest, including the processing speed of language, the verbal comprehension, the phonological awareness, and other factors (Willcutt & Pennington, 2010). Typically, most dyslexic people have trouble reading. It was not that long ago that there were few options for these people, other than struggling in school and not being good readers. As time went on and dyslexic people were studied, it became easier to determine why they were having trouble reading. That led to ways to help them learn to read more easily, so they would not fall as far behind their peers. Five to 10% of the population is believed to be affected by dyslexia, but studies have…
Cherry, R.S. & Kruger, B. (1983). Selective auditory attention abilities of learning disabled and normal achieving children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16 (4): 202 -- 5.
Pennington, B.F., Santerre-Lemon, L., Rosenberg, J., MacDonald, B., Boarda, R., Friend, A., Leopold, D.R., Samuelsson, S., Byrne, B., Willcutt, E.G., & Olson, R.K. (2011). Individual Prediction of Dyslexia by Single vs. Multiple Deficit Models. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121 (1): 212 -- 224.
Schuele, C.M. (2004). The impact of developmental speech and language impairments on the acquisition of literacy skills. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev, 10 (3): 176 -- 83.
Willcutt, E.G. & Pennington, B.F. (2000). Comorbidity of reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Differences by gender and subtype. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33: 179 -- 191.
Samuel T. Orton in 1925. This method involves placing a patch on the non-dominant eye of the individual, active training of the non-dominant hand and refraining from listening to non-verbal music. Like the above-mentioned "treatment," this method has also been discarded by dyslexia professionals, due to the lack of hard evidence.
The most common form of treatment for dyslexia today is related to the use of special techniques which train dyslexic individuals to "rapidly and accurately identify words" which helps to build word recognition skills by "increasing the number of words (one) can recognize effortlessly and without thought." asically, this method, i.e. "automatic word recognition," is based on the suggestion that words "are recognized by thinking about them" which makes reading "a laborious process." Overall, this method allows the individual with dyslexia to "instantly identify words without having to sound them out" which has been shown to "greatly increase reading…
Csepe, Valeria. Dyslexia: Different Brain, Different Behavior. New York: Kluwer
Academic Press, 2001.
Doyle, Jeffrey. Dyslexia: An Introductory Guide. UK: Whurr Publishers, 1996.
Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment." Reading Success Lab. Internet. 2006.
This is because working with different applications will help them to see information, sights and sounds differently. Moreover, this is giving everyone real world experience in using technology as a part of their lives. When this happens, they can more effectively reach out to different groups of students and understand specific areas that will address their disability. This is the point that there will be a positive transformation in the way the individual learns and how they are using the different concepts. (eid, 2011)
What eid determined, is that if these tools and tactics are integrated into the teaching philosophy. There will be an improvement in the educator's ability to connect with the student. For someone who is suffering from dyslexia, this will serve as tool that is helping to address critical disabilities. This is the point that a teacher can have an impact by showing the student another way…
Dyslexia Statistics. (2012). VAXA. Retrieved from: http://www.vaxa.com/dyslexia-statistics.cfm
Ott, P.(2006). Teaching Children. New York, NY: Routledge
Reid, G. (2011). Dyslexia. London: Contortium
Thompson, P. (1996). Dyslexia. London: Chapman and Hall.
Although there is no recognized single definition of dyslexia, it generally refers to a condition in which there is a marked and often chronic inability to read fluently. It is also known as a "specific reading disability" or a "specific language disorder." Most researchers have suggested that dyslexia can affect people with varying levels of intensity, i.e., some are more severely affected than others; hence it is difficult to estimate the exact percentage of population that is afflicted by the disorder. However, according to most estimates, 10 to 20% of the world's population is thought to show some signs of dyslexia. Dyslexia is usually identified during childhood, but it continues to affect individuals throughout their lives.
In this paper I shall look at various aspects of dyslexia, including its:
Is it a Gift or an Affliction?
Characteristics of Dyslexia
ecent research on Dyslexia has…
About Dyslexia & Reading Problems." (2004). Child Development Institute. 04/25/2004. Retrieved on September 15, 2004 at http://www.cdipage.com/dyslexia.htm
Berninger, Virginia W. (2000). "Dyslexia the Invisible, Treatable Disorder: The Story of Einstein's Ninja Turtles." Learning Disability Quarterly. 23: 3. pp: 175+.
Dyslexia: Gift or Affliction?" (n.d.) Dyslexia Online. Retrieved on September 15, 2004 at http://www.audiblox2000.com/dyslexia_dyslexic/dyslexia016.htm
Raskind, Wendy H. (2001). "Current Understanding of the Genetic Basis of Reading and Spelling Disability." Learning Disability Quarterly. 24: 3. pp.: 141+
Just as I have been able to take advantage of therapy, technology, and training, I expect that new developments will ease communications skills for autistic children.
In a culture that strongly emphasizes literacy as a primary, fundamental social skill, having either dyslexia or autism can make it difficult to cope in social situations. Dyslexia, however, does not come in the way of most social interactions whereas autism might. If more is understood about autism and the different ways autistic individuals perceive, perhaps we can devise new methods of communication similar to the way that sign language has become a complete lexicon for the hearing impaired.
Dyslexia and autism can therefore remind us to be more open-minded, and more willing to entertain different viewpoints and perspectives. The dyslexic or autistic child is not stupid; he or she simply possesses a different coding system, a different way of interpreting the signs and…
Corona, F., Perrotta, F., Polcini, E.T., & Cozzarelli, C. (2012). Dyslexia: An altered brain architecture. Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 8, Issue 2, 235-237. etrieved April 28, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/results?sid=721b1e27-67d8-463d-b4d9-44a305535bd1%40sessionmgr113&vid=2&hid=106&bquery=Dyslexia%3a+and+%22An%22+and+Altered+and+Brain+and+Architecture&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCx1cmwsY3BpZCZjdXN0aWQ9czYyNDMzNDEmZGI9YXBoJn5cGU9MCZzaXlPWVob3N0LWxpdmU%3d
Goswami, U. (2008, June). eading, dyslexia and the brain. Educational esearch, Vol. 50, No. 2, 135-148. etrieved April 28, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=8&sid=721b1e27-67d8-463d-b4d9-44a305535bd1%40sessionmgr113&hid=4&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCx1cmwsY3BpZCZjdXN0aWQ9czYyNDMzNDEmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#db=aph&an=32707926
International Dyslexia Association (2002) What is dyslexia? The international dyslexia association website. etrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.interdys.org/FAQWhatIs.htm
Meisinger, E.B., Bloom, J.S., & Hynd, G.W. (2009, December 24). eading fluency: Implications for the assessment of children with reading disabilities. Annals of Dyslexia, Vol. 60, Issue 1, 1-17. etrieved April 28, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=8&sid=48159d73-bc49-4284-be0b-98a6b11611dd%40sessionmgr11
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, .K., ashotte, C.A., Herron, J. & Lindamood, P. (2010, January 6). Computer-asssisted instruction to prevent early reading difficulties in students at risk for dyslexia: Outcomes from two instructional approaches. Annals of Dyslexia, Vol. 60, Issue 1, 40-56. etrieved April 28, 2013,…
Corona, F., Perrotta, F., Polcini, E.T., & Cozzarelli, C. (2012). Dyslexia: An altered brain architecture. Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 8, Issue 2, 235-237. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/results?sid=721b1e27-67d8-463d-b4d9-44a305535bd1%40sessionmgr113&vid=2&hid=106&bquery=Dyslexia%3a+and+%22An%22+and+Altered+and+Brain+and+Architecture&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCx1cmwsY3BpZCZjdXN0aWQ9czYyNDMzNDEmZGI9YXBoJnR5cGU9MCZzaXRlPWVob3N0LWxpdmU%3d
Goswami, U. (2008, June). Reading, dyslexia and the brain. Educational Research, Vol. 50, No. 2, 135-148. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=8&sid=721b1e27-67d8-463d-b4d9-44a305535bd1%40sessionmgr113&hid=4&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCx1cmwsY3BpZCZjdXN0aWQ9czYyNDMzNDEmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#db=aph&an=32707926
International Dyslexia Association (2002) What is dyslexia? The international dyslexia association website. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.interdys.org/FAQWhatIs.htm
Meisinger, E.B., Bloom, J.S., & Hynd, G.W. (2009, December 24). Reading fluency: Implications for the assessment of children with reading disabilities. Annals of Dyslexia, Vol. 60, Issue 1, 1-17. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=8&sid=48159d73-bc49-4284-be0b-98a6b11611dd%40sessionmgr11
Specifically, treatment consists of "customized exercises that specifically concentrate on stimulating the cerebellum to improve functioning and help speed up the rate information is received and processed" (Dyslexia treatments).
The theory that Cerebellar Developmental Delay (CDD) is responsible for the reading and other, related, difficulties typically experienced by dyslexics. Symptoms of Dyslexia spring from "an under-functioning cerebellum, the part of the brain which plays a key role in cognitive skills, concentration, and balance"(Dyslexia treatments). According to the Dore Achievement Center the individualized exercises offered by the center to stimulate and enhance cerebellar function have also resulted, among successfully treated patients, in "improved reading, comprehension, memory, and general mental processing." The DOE Achievement Centers also report a greater degree of self-confidence; higher self-esteem, and a more positive mental attitude and outlook, overall, among the adult dyslexics that the center has successfully treated. Another treatment available for dyslexic adults, through the National…
About the DMI EasiReader (2005). Gerard Keegan and his psychology website:
Dyslexia and Myers-Irlen. Retrieved January 12, 2005, at http://www.gerardkeegan co.uk/wnac.htm.
Boden, C. & Brodeur, D.A. (1999). Visual processing of verbal and nonverbal stimuli in adolescents with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(1), 58-71.
Bradford, J. (2005). Using Multisensory Teaching Methods. Dyslexia online magazine.
While one might reasonably think that all children live their lives in a mess, this is particularly so for dyslexic children and students. They often have real difficulties with planning and thinking ahead to when a book or pen might be needed next (Dyslexia Symptoms in a Dyslexic Pupil or Student, n.d.).
A very bright child who has dyslexia may not be identified until later because they are able to compensate enough to maintain average grades. Usually by the fourth grade, when the task changes from learning to read to reading to learn, they will begin to fall behind. Some students with dyslexia may be able to get by until high school or college before they encounter significant problems. Failure to recognize dyslexia can lead to significant frustration, loss of motivation for school, depression, and lifelong educational and occupational underachievement (Dyslexia, 2009).
Dyslexia is a very difficult disorder to diagnose.…
Dyslexia. (2009). Retrieved March 7, 2010, from Healthopedia Web site:
Dyslexia. (2010). Retrieved March 7, 2010, from MedicineNet Web site:
For this reason, it is critical to ascertain the causes of word reading difficulties in order to identify these problems and provide appropriate instruction as early as possible. (Allor, 00, p. 47)
Spear-Swerling & Sternberg note that the fundamental reason that children need to be screened for difficulties in pre-reading skills is that once the child is supposed to, by grade level be able to perform certain tasks it may be in part to late to help them regain pre-reading interest and ability. (Spear-Swerling & Sternberg, 1996, p. 1) (Santi, Menchetti & Edwards discuss the importance of early assessment as it is confounded by the new trend in education for outcome accountability, as not only do children need to have early skills developed, later children may benefit or be penalized for performance of previous students. (004, p. 189)
Mccray, Vaughn & Neal stress that reading is so crucial to the…
(Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation http://teams.lacoe.edu/reading/assessments/yopp.html)
Dyslexia as a Specific Learning Disability
Classified under the broader rubric of specific learning disabilities, dyslexia is a severe reading disability known to have a neurological basis (Taylor, Smiley & Richards, 2009, p. 92). Because reading and literacy are so crucial in every area of educational curricula and instructional design, students with reading disabilities like dyslexia may struggle more globally in their academics even though they do not have specific learning disabilities in other areas. Therefore, it is important that dyslexia is identified as early as possible in order to provide critical interventions for this student population.
Not all reading disabilities are dyslexia. Only one percent of all learning disabilities are correctly identified as dyslexia (Taylor, Smiley & Richards, 2009, p. 92). Whereas the “vast majority of reading problems can be effectively remediated,” dyslexia is difficult to remediate when it manifests in its so-called “pure” or most extreme form (Taylor,…
Morin, A. (n.d.). Programs that are influenced by an Orton-Gillingham approach. https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/partnering-with-childs-school/instructional-strategies/programs-that-use-an-orton-gillingham-approach
O’Brien, K. (2017). Even with new dyslexia law, many schools still missing the mark. ABC8 News. https://www.wric.com/news/even-with-new-dyslexia-law-many-schools-still-missing-the-mark_20180326071830735/1078159860
“Reading, Spelling, and Writing Programs,” (n.d.). Dyslexia Help: Regents of the University of Michigan. http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/tools/reading-programs
Taylor, R.L., Smiley, L.R. & Richards, S. (2009). Exceptional Students. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Virginia Department of Education (2018a). Dyslexia. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/special_ed/disabilities/learning_disability/dyslexia.shtml
Virginia Department of Education (2018b). Dyslexia training. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/teaching/licensure/dyslexia-training/index.shtml
Worthy, J., Salmeron, C.,, Long, S.L., et al. (2018). “Wrestling With the Politics and Ideology”: Teacher Educators’ Responses to Dyslexia Discourse and Legislation. Literacy Research: Theory, Method, and Practice 67(1): 377-393.
Youman, M. & Mather, N. (2018). Dyslexia laws in the USA: A 2018 update. https://www.dyslexicadvantage.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2018-Youman-Mather.pdf
Special Needs Intervention
Brenda is a seven-year-old second grader that has been identified as dyslexic. She has significant delays in pre-literacy and numeracy skills have been identified through both formal assessment and performance in classroom activities. Work samples demonstrate that Brenda has difficulty sequencing and recognizing word phenomes and putting them together for reading and writing activities. Brenda does not demonstrate the ability to recognize phenomes in words. Brenda frequently reverses letters and/or the whole words when performing literacy tasks.
An interview with Brenda's teacher reveals that other than her problems associated with dyslexia, Brenda's development and functioning is on target with a majority of her peers. She tends to display shyness and introversion when called upon in class to perform activities associated with literacy and numeracy. She is polite and participates actively in class activities. She is a pleasant child and normally social with her classmates. She…
Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I. & Beeler, T. (2011). "Phonemic Awareness in Young
Children." Reading Rockets. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/408/
Dyslexiaaustralia.com (n.d.). Dyslexia Testing Services. Retrieved from http://www.dyslexiaaustralia.com.au/information-mainmenu-90/38-disability-discrimination
Dyslexiasymptoms.net. (2011). Dyslexia Symptoms, Tests and Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.dyslexiasymptoms.net/page/2
These should be arranged in such a way as to minimize the risk and discomfort to an employee; particularly those who are obliged to spend long periods of time in front of the display screen.
2. Additional factors may require attention if an employee has special needs, i.e. pregnancy or an eye condition. If a person is for example disabled to the extent of requiring a wheel chair, certain ergonomic factors become important. The table containing the display screen should for example be lowered to a comfortable position for such an employee. If the employee is obliged to work at more than one workstation, adjustable tables could be installed for the purpose.
In an employee has only one arm, the position of equipment such as the mouse and keyboard should be taken into account. An employee with only a left arm for example would require a mouse to be at…
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
educationists and teachers in the classroom today is identifying and dealing with children who have a speech, language or communication impairment, which negatively impacts on learning.. Many children find it difficult to understand how conversation works or don't make use of language at all. There are different terms used to describe specific speech and language difficulties, including "phonological difficulties, articulation difficulties, verbal dyspraxia, dysarthria, semantic pragmatic disorder, Asperger Syndrome and selective mutism." (Speech Impairments)
These specific speech and language difficulties can impact severely on the development and natural psychological and social growth of the child. Furthermore, it can also lead to further and more complicated problems - as will be discussed in this paper. "Children with a variety of speech and language impediments are increasing at risk as their language abilities fall behind those of their peers." (Children and Mental Health)
Emphasis must also be placed on recognizing the speech…
Bradford, J. Using multisensory teaching methods. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Dyslexia magazine Com. Web site: http://www.dyslexia-parent.com/mag30.html
Bredenkamp, S. (1990) Protecting Children from Inappropriate Practices. ERIC Digest. Retrieved December 21, 2000 from ERIC Digest. Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/children.htm
Children and Mental Health. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General Web Site: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter3/sec1.html
DeBord, K. (1997) Developmentally appropriate 4-h experiences for the 5- to 8-year-old. Retrieved December 20, 2004, from NC State University. Web site: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/human/pubs/develop_appropriate.html
Integration of music and reading may help parents prepare their children for school. On the surface, music and literacy seem opposite of each other both in meaning and delivery. However, the two forms of learning go hand in hand. For example, lyrics and literacy are similar because lyrics are the words sung in a song. Often, they are poetic and can be understood as poetry that sometimes tells a story.
Many singer songwriters are also storytellers, weaving intricate and powerful stories into their songs. If one examines a music soundtrack and a story line/plot, one can see how music is used to help tell the story as much as the narrative itself. As technology advances, music is becoming readily interweaved with reading comprehension. One study examined the use of multimodal e-books that combined text with animation, images, and sounds. Children made academic gains in reading from using multimodal e-books (Morgan,…
Cauchard, F., Cane, J. E., & Weger, U. W. (2011). Influence of Background Speech and Music in Interrupted Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(3), 381-390. doi:10.1002/acp.1837
Chang, A. C., & Millett, S. (2015). Improving reading rates and comprehension through audio-assisted extensive reading for beginner learners. System, 52, 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.system.2015.05.003
Cogo-Moreira, H., Andriolo, R. B., Yazigi, L., Brandao de Avila, C. R., & Mari, J. (2012). Music education for improving reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009133
Cohn, N., Jackendoff, R., Holcomb, P. J., & Kuperberg, G. R. (2014). The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension. Neuropsychologia, 64, 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.018
Therapist Name: Case Name/#:
Reason for Referral:
The client is an eight-year-old female who may not have be making adequate academic progress consistent with her age and grade level. She is currently in the third grade. The client was assessed over two sessions.
Clinical concerns: Difficulty in school/with academic progress.
Clinical concerns: Possible learning disability.
Clinical concerns: Reading difficulties.
Clinical concerns: Client potentially not motivated to perform in class.
Clinical concerns: Rule out depression and/or anxiety.
Jailah was born on September 11, 2007. Jailah is the third child and a sibship of five. According to her mother Jailah is of Hispanic and African-American descent. Her native language is English.
With respect to her family Jailah has three sisters ages 16 years old, 14 years old, and five years old. She also has a younger brother age seven years old. The children the family have three different fathers.…
Patton, no doubt had loyal subordinates that worked as a team to carry out his orders making them successful. This is another thing that made him such a great leader. He had the favor of his superiors and the respect and loyalty of his subordinates. Some may view his manner of speech as unorthodox, but overall it worked for him. He was aggressive and tenacious and did not give up. He may have been born with these qualities, but his military schooling and extracurricular activities probably helped to fully develop them.
As successful as Patton was, he was not immune to making poor decisions and terrible mistakes. Because Patton had a tough interior and exterior, he expected this of his subordinates. He was known to slap men whom he felt were showing signs of weakness. He did this to a few subordinates during visits to hospitals around the time of…
Ethier, E. (2001). Patton races to Messina. American History, 36(1), 38.
Harvey, R. (2008). Maverick military leaders: the extraordinary battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, Rommel, and others. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.
Niderost, E. (2006). A fool's errand. World War II, 21(4), 30-80.
Shane, T. (1943). These are the generals -- Patton. Saturday Evening Post, 215(32), 19-82.
Students individualized education program (IEP)
The term IEP is used to refer to the special program or plan that is created with a specific student in mind due to the disability that they have in class which prevents them to learn as fast or with ease as the others in the class. In this instance, the student has special learning disability and needs to be helped through the IEP in order to get an environment that is conducive for his learning and a team that is assistive as much as possible. The student has difficulty in reading skills and also has difficulty in decoding, comprehension and fluency. These predispose him to be socially removed from peers and there is need to have IEP that would help him in the subjects in class and the social life too.
The seven components of the IEP to be use for the student with…
Davies R.D. (1192). 37 Common Characteristics of Dyslexia. 37 Common Characteristics of Dyslexia
Children's Books On Development Of Children's Self-Concept, Dealing With Life's Challenges and/or Have Characters With Disabilities
This list has been sorted by the books' readability levels;
AC = Adult ead to Children. Books for Pre-K to Grade 3, ranging from 10 to 30 pages, with illustrations; typically designed for parents to read to their children (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).
JE = Juvenile Easy eader. For children who are beginning to read on their own, such as those in Grades 1-2; ranging from 30 to 80 pages; illustrations are included to break up the text (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).
JF = Juvenile Fiction. Children's fiction or chapter books; for children in Grades 2-6; ranging from 60 to 200 pages, the books are generally divided into chapters, contain fewer illustrations, and have more complicated plots or concepts than either AC or JE books (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).
Andy and His Yellow Frisbee
Publisher: Woodbine House,…
Teacher Vision. (2000-2016). Children's Books About Disabilities. Retrieved May 2, 2016, from Teacher Vision: https://www.teachervision.com
memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.
THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY
Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)
Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)
There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…
Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.
Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf
Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Valdosta: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf
Nelson-Jones, R. (2011). Theory and practice of counselling and therapy (1st ed., pp. 1-3). Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE.
search "students with disabilities in higher education" consist of themes that focus on the need to assist learning disability students in universities by extending their test taking time (Spenceley, Wheeler, 2016; Hadley, 2011), by identifying their disability and providing extra assistance and resources (Budd et al., 2016; Callens, Tops, Brysbaert, 2013; Diez, Lopez, Molina, 2015; Kimberley, Laurie, 2011), and by applying programs designed to assist students with learning disabilities in particular classes in which they consistently struggle (King-Sears et al., 2015; Sachs, Schreuer, 2011; yan, 2011; Hutcheon, Wolbring, 2012).
Spenceley and Wheeler (2016) find that extending the test times for students with disabilities is one way in which universities can help such students work towards graduating college. Hadley (2011) likewise identifies the need for universities to extend more welcoming and favorable conditions to students with disabilities in order to facilitate their academic aims. This theme is essentially supported by the…
Budd, J. et al. (2016). Postsecondary students with specific learning disabilities and with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should not be considered as a unified group for research or practice. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4): 206-216.
Callens, M., Tops, W., Brysbaert, M. (2012). Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia. PLoS ONE, 7(6): e38081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038081
Diez, A., Lopez, R., Molina, V. (2015). Students with disabilities in higher education: a biographical-narrative approach to the role of lecturers. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1): 147-159.
Hadley, W. (2011). College students with disabilities: A student development perspective. New Directions for Higher Education, 154: 77-81.
Next door to where we live is a family with an 8-year-old boy who is in the third grade. He says that he does not like to read but that he has to for school and he hates it. “I don’t like reading in class. It’s hard to say the words and everybody laughs at me.” I asked him if there was anything he enjoyed about reading and he said, “Yeah, when we can stop.” I decided to try a different route to see if I could get his participation any better and introduced the topic of comic books. “Do you like Batman or Spiderman?” I asked. “Oh yeah!” So I offered him a few comic books to look at and he enjoyed them, but there was still the question of whether or not he was enjoying them because of the pictures or whether he was able to actually…
One counterargument to the practice of teaching vocabulary is that children learn the meanings of many words by experiencing those words in the actual world and in text without explicit instruction. Unfortunately, such incidental learning is filled with possible problems. The definitions learned range from richly contextualized and more than sufficient, to incomplete to wrong. Children do develop knowledge of vocabulary through incidental contact with new words they read. This is one of the many reasons to challenge students to read incessantly.
There is considerable evidence that readers who possess prior knowledge about the topic of a reading often comprehend the reading better than classmates with no, or lower prior knowledge. Nevertheless, even when students have knowledge relevant to the information they are reading they do not always relate their world knowledge to the content of a text. Unless inferences are absolutely necessary to make sense of the…
Armbruster, B.B. & Osborn, J., (2001) Put reading first: The building blocks for teaching chilren to read. National Institute or Literacy, Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: www.nifl.gov
Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., & McKeown, M.G., (1982) Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506-521.
Cordon, L.A., & Day, J.D. (1996) Stategy use on standardized reading comprehension tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 288-521.
Nation, K. & Snowling, M.J., (1998) Individual differences in contextual facilitation: Evedence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension. Child Development, V. 69 No. 4, p.996- 1011. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: http://C:UsersOwnerDesktop
(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)
The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…
Fletcher, Jack M. (2002) Researchers support early intervention for all children
Drummond, Kathryn (2005) About Reading Disabilities, Learning Disabilities, and Reading Difficulties. Reading Rockets. 2005. Online available at http://www.readingrockets.org/article/639
Mastropieri, Margo and Graetz, Janet (2003) Implementing Research-Based Reading Interventions to Improve Access to the General Education Curriculum
Lazarus, Belinda Davis and Callahan, Thomas (2000) Attitudes Toward Reading Expressed by Elementary School Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities. Reading Psychology 21: 281-282. Copyright 2002 Taylor & Francis. Online available at http://www.usm.maine.edu/~amoroso/edu621/4050957.pdf
The author used the "North Caroling Alternative Assessment Protocol" (NCAAP) for her research. Research of course is conducted some time before it is published, so it seems likely that the NCAAP has been modified since this research to include academic areas, but Courtade-Little's research may be of little help to teachers concerned with demonstrating academic achievement in alternative ways.
The third article looked at ways to evaluate academic gains in alternative ways, particularly by the use of "running records." Olsen (1999) notes that "Students who will participate in alternate assessments typically are not working toward a regular high school diploma...." This statement might be of great concern, since students with dyslexia who have had great difficulty reading have been able, with the right supports, to complete a high school diploma and even college. The idea that only very severe disabilities interfere with good performance on group achievements may not be…
Courtade-Little, Ginevra. 2005. "The impact of teacher training on state alternate assessment scores." Exceptional Children, March.
Delzell, Lynn Ahlgrim; Algozzine, Robert; Browder, Dianne M.; flowers, Claudia; Karvonen, Meagan; and Spooner, Fred. 2003. "What We Know and Need to Know about Alternate Assessment." Exceptional Children, January.
Olsen, Ken. 1999. "Putting Alternate Assessments Into Practice: What to Measure and Possible Sources of Data." Exceptional Children, December.
Best practices that help students with learning disabilities consistently focus on early intervention not only for educational benefit, but also because early intervention promotes greater social skills ability and development among children (Wong & Donahue, 2002). The sooner a child is integrated into the mainstream system and learns to "cope" with any perceived "deficits" the more likely they are to build healthy and long-lasting friendships that will help them as they age to become contributing members of society (Wong & Donahue, p. 93).
Personnel Implementing Plan
The key school personnel to implement this plan include the parents of the student, who must reinforce the actions taken by educational authorities to enhance student learning; the teacher of the student, who must be aware of what a student's needs are, and of special educational resources, so he or she may integrate the two curriculum's without disturbing any student's learning; and administrators, who…
Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, Daniel P. (2002) Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brooten, K. (2007) "Writing about the holocaust, writing research report, poetry,"
HotChalk Inc., Retrieved December 13, 2007: http://www.lessonplanspage.com/
Jaffe-Gilla, E., & Benedictis, Tina, Ph.D., (2007) Learning Disabilities: Understanding the types, causes, symptoms, and diagnosis. HelpGuide.org, Retrieved December 13, 2007:
Decoding: Identifying Improved Techniques and Approaches for Helping Children Learn to ead
Because reading is essential to overall academic success, one of the most serious and explosive issues in the United States today is how to meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse population of students with a wide range of developmental needs. The situation is urgent as well, since current trends in educational achievement suggest that millions of students will not acquire the education necessary to fully participate in the economic and political aspects of society. Additionally, the inequality that results from differences in the educational achievement of children is likely to further widen the gap between the rich and poor. Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics.
The National Association for the Education of Young Children (1996) points out that all children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order…
Alexander, A.W., Anderson, H.G., Heilman, P.C., Voeller, K.K.S., & Torgesen, J.K. (1991). Phonological awareness training and remediation of analytic decoding deficits in a group of severe dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 193-206.
Carver, R.P. (1990). Reading rate: A review of research and theory. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Cooper, N. (1999). Literacy today: Phonics fun. Retrieved March 17, 2004, from Literacy Trust Website: http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/Pubs/wirth.html .
Dias, K. & Juniper, L. (2002). Phono-Graphix - who needs additional literacy support? An outline of research in Bristol schools. Support for learning, 17(1).
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
individual child help you to better understand some problems of the struggling reader?
A major part of the classrooms in the nation's public schools consist of struggling readers. It has been suggested by researchers that subject teachers can enhance reading abilities of students by imparting: (a) strategy and skill instruction and (b) reading and text-discussion opportunities in several ways. However, giving better or more reading instruction doesn't mean students will apply it. It has been suggested by some researchers that poor as well as good readers don't apply reading skills that have been imparted to them, despite understanding how it is to be done and being interested in learning information through texts. Moreover, struggling readers might opt for engaging with instructions and texts in ways that they realize are damaging to their progress as readers, despite saying that they aspire to improve (Hall, 2009).
Not much is known regarding the…
Brann, A., & Gray, T. (2012). Embedded Supports to Differentiate Instruction for Struggling Students. Retrieved from Reading Rockets: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/embedded-supports-differentiate-instruction-struggling-studentsEducational Psychology. (n.d.). California: McGraw Hill.
Ganske, K., Monroe, J., & Strickland, D. (2003). Questions teachers ask about struggling readers and writers. International Reading Association.
Hall, L.A. (2009). Struggling Reader, Struggling Teacher: An Examination of Student-Teacher Transactions with Reading Instruction and Text in Social Studies. National Council of Teachers of English. How to Write a Case Study. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.gttp.org/docs/HowToWriteAGoodCase.pdf
Kelly, C., & Campbell, L. (n.d.). Helping Struggling Readers. Retrieved from John Hopkins School of Education: http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/strategies/topics/literacy/articles/helping-struggling-readers/
Jasmin is a 21-year-old Asian woman who immigrated to the United States 10 years ago. She is an intelligent college student and she likes to study, although she has been diagnosed with ADHD and dyslexia. She lives together with her parents, young sister and older brother. Jasmin's younger sister is in high school and her brother works at the father's grocery store. Her father has high blood pressure and needs to rest but continues to work at the store. Her mother also worked at father's grocery store.
The patient is taking Concerta. If she skips medication, she cannot concentrate on her studies and finds it difficult to talk to the other students. Her adviser is concerned about her ADHD and her difficult concentration. At the intake and opening the session with Jasmin, the client reported that she felt somewhat depressed, unmotivated, and self-destructive. She added that she felt she…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402. Digital Copy: http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/policy/multicultural-guidelines.aspx
Duncan, B. (2010). On becoming a better therapist. American Psychological Society
Ingram, B.L. (2006). Clinical case formulations: Matching the integrative treatment plan to the client. Wiley publishing.
Jones-Smith, E. (2013). Strength-based therapy: Connecting theory, practice, and skills. Sage, Inc.
Description of the Classroom
The observation took place in an eighth grade level social studies classroom consisting of twenty-one students from diverse backgrounds. The teacher is Latina. Not wanting to make any assumptions about ethnicity or culture, I asked the teacher about the demographics. The teacher stated that of the 20, 8 were female and 12 male. Three students were African-American, two were Vietnamese-American, two Indo-American, five students were Hispanic, two were Jewish, three were from mixed backgrounds, and four were white. Two of the students had IEPs, one of them was an African American boy and the other a white student. Each of the students with IEPs had specific learning and developmental disabilities. One of the Vietnamese-American students had been recently diagnosed with audio processing disorder, and accommodations were being made to move the student to the front of the classroom. The IEPs provided for specific accommodations and modifications…
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
These were followed by positive school climate, administrative support, collegial support and collegial friendships. At the bottom of the list were salary and benefits. Conversely, lack of administrative support, role conflict, and difficulty working with colleagues were the main causes of attrition.
In order to provide high quality programs for children with disabilities, and ensure that they make good progress toward attaining their goals and meet increasingly rigorous academic standards, the recruitment and retention of qualified, committed and talented teachers is essential.
Chambers, C. (2008, December). Special education challenges. District administration. etrieved November 19, 2010, from http://www.districtadministration.com/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=1778
Chinese Proverbs (NDI). Thinkexist.com. etrieved November 19, 2010, from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/tell_me_and_i-ll_forget-show_me_and_i_may/10546.html
Code of Federal egulations. (1999, July 1). Child with a disability. Code of federal regulations §300.7(c) (10). etrieved November 19, 2010, from http://www.nectac.org/idea/300regs.asp
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (2010). K-12 academics. K12academics.com. etrieved November 19, 2010, from http://www.k12academics.com/us-education-legislation/individuals-disabilities-education-act-idea
Peterson, J. (2007). A…
Chambers, C. (2008, December). Special education challenges. District administration. Retrieved November 19, 2010, from http://www.districtadministration.com/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=1778
Chinese Proverbs (NDI). Thinkexist.com. Retrieved November 19, 2010, from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/tell_me_and_i-ll_forget-show_me_and_i_may/10546.html
Code of Federal Regulations. (1999, July 1). Child with a disability. Code of federal regulations §300.7(c) (10). Retrieved November 19, 2010, from http://www.nectac.org/idea/300regs.asp
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. (2010). K-12 academics. K12academics.com. Retrieved November 19, 2010, from http://www.k12academics.com/us-education-legislation/individuals-disabilities-education-act-idea
' (Davidson; Lutz, 175) The target of such function is to better comprehend the manner varied circuits are combined during the meditation to generate the mental and behavioral variations which are indicated to prevail due to such experiences, incorporating the promotion of enhanced welfare. (Davidson; Lutz, 175)
Arnone, D; Schifano, F. Psychedelics in psychiatry. The British Journal of Psychiatry,
2006, vol. 188, no.3, pp: 88-89.
Aydin, K; Ucar, A; Oguz, K.K; Okur, O.O; Agayev, A; Unal, Z; Yilmaz, S; Ozturk, C.
Increased Gray Matter Density in the Parietal Cortex of Mathematicians: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study. American Journal of Neuroradiology, November-December 2007, vol. 28, pp: 1859-1864.
Ball, Jeanne. Keeping your prefrontal cortex online: Neuroplasticity, stress and meditation. The Huffington Post, 11 August, 2000. p. 4.
Davidson, ichard J; Lutz, Antoine. Buddha's Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation.
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, September, 2007, pp: 172-176.
Formica, Michael J. Mindfulness practice in everyday…
Arnone, D; Schifano, F. Psychedelics in psychiatry. The British Journal of Psychiatry,
2006, vol. 188, no.3, pp: 88-89.
Aydin, K; Ucar, A; Oguz, K.K; Okur, O.O; Agayev, A; Unal, Z; Yilmaz, S; Ozturk, C.
Increased Gray Matter Density in the Parietal Cortex of Mathematicians: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study. American Journal of Neuroradiology, November-December 2007, vol. 28, pp: 1859-1864.
Before IDEA "in 1970, U.S. schools educated only one in five children with disabilities, and many states had laws excluding certain students, including children who were deaf, blind, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded" from the educational system entirely (Special education and rehabilitative services, 2007, Ed.gov).
Mainstreaming special needs students reduced the social stigma of many conditions, such as mental retardation and autism, which were formally not spoken of or recognized by the wider public. This also made it easier to encourage parents to identify children who might have more minor special needs that would be helpful to address with therapy and resource room support. Now it is 'normal' for students with mild learning challenges to receive extra time on their SATs, additional tutoring, and classroom accommodations that can make significant improvements in the quality of their education.
IDEA allows for the creation of an IEP (individualized education program) that is…
Special education and rehabilitative services. (2010). Ed.gov. Retrieved November 18, 2010 at http://www2.ed.gov/policy/speced/leg/idea/history.html
When dealing with students from a wide variety of cultures and levels of ability, enhanced self-consciousness on the part of all members of the classroom can promote tolerance within the learning environment. The awareness of the classroom's 'hidden' assumptions can foster greater self-consciousness and compassion regarding those who are less fluent in the norms of the hidden curriculum.
The hidden curriculum of social assumptions thus is least harmful when it is not so hidden. An effective teacher cannot eliminate all social norms from the classroom, nor would this be desirable, but the teacher can grow more self-conscious and explicit about her expectations. Some of the teacher's assumptions might be valid, others might not be, but not until the rules of the hidden curriculum are revealed can they be fairly upheld. Hidden rules are often arbitrarily enforced, and frustrate those who do not understand them.
The 'hidden curriculum' has been viewed…
Deutsch, Nellie (2004). Hidden curriculum paper. The University of Phoenix.
Retrieved March 21, 2010 at www.nelliemuller.com/HiddenCurriculum.doc
Hasler, Angela. (2010). Sparhawk's Hidden Curriculum. Sparkshaw School.
Retrieved March 21, 2010
Such cognitive behavioral strategies often depend upon daily monitoring of behavior, and a system of rewards and punishments.
Another valuable means of assessment for all special needs student is the use of a portfolio. Grading students on relative improvement is important: composing a portfolio that shows improvement in meeting IEP goals over the semester, as well the extent to which the student was able to meet general classroom requirements creates a sense of accomplishment for the student as well as demonstrates to administrators and parents the educational benefits the student is accruing in the classroom. Having the student present the portfolio to the teacher aloud is also a useful aspect of a portfolio assignment, and can be used as an act of self-analysis that can help the student's level of confidence and ability to communicate to others.
Age Students With Learning Disabilities
The impact of family motivation on college age students with learning disabilities may be a deciding factor in regard to the student's success or failure. College age students with learning disabilities obviously have more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. Educators cannot just tell the student to just sit-down and read five chapters of Freud. These students have problems like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few and they may have had additional help in the past that may not be available at an older age. When there are obvious underlying issues, the family, teachers and the students themselves have to work more closely together in order to reach the desired positive outcomes. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton,…
Positive feedback is a major part of the Family Systems Theory process. Feedback in this case is a process in which the family, and possibly the teaching team involved, all work together to regulate the thinking process of the college age student with learning disabilities. This process also incorporates the notion that positive self-talk by the college age student with some form of learning disability is a necessary component of educational success. Self-talk helps them monitor their own output. In other words, the human body in this case accepts feedback from both internal and external sources to promote positive goals and objectives. A good example of a positive feedback system is how an automatic pilot system is used in most commercial airplanes. The automatic pilot process provides a computer that is actually flying the plane constant feedback about required information regarding the planes speed, altitude, direction and so on. As the plane drifts off course slightly, the computer system realigns the flight path. The college age student with a learning disability also drifts off occurs from time to time and positive feedback from family members, teachers and counselors and the student themselves all help to get the student back on course. This approach continually promotes active coping efforts and attributes positive meaning to the learning situation.
Name of Theory: FAMILY STRESS & COPING THEORY
Based on Family Stress Theory, there can be many indicators of a family's adaptation to stress induced events. "One is the adaptation of individual family members, including adolescents have noted that such factors as the perceived levels of individual and family stress serve as markers of adaptation." (McCubbin, 1993) In other words, the adaptation implies that there are a large number
In extreme cases this could afford a method of imparting knowledge where formerly there were none. (Mac Arthur, 248)
Thus it is evident that the modern teacher cannot be away from the influence of technology and it is time that teachers are technically trained, and they are also made aware of the use of modern data processing methods which will enable them in assessing students and understanding their own potential and role. As with all industries these problems are also the foundations for unions to call in the status quo. Because the modern technologies.
(c) Teachers Unionization
The unions for the teachers have unfortunately blocked their own progress. Unions though a great means of collective bargaining interfere in the progressive measures which include programs to enhance the teacher's proficiency and effectiveness. Thus there is a problem of the 'parent collective' and the teachers unions and the educational institutions. Though there…
Apple, Michael W. Who Needs Teacher Education? Gender, Technology and the Work of Home Schooling. Teacher Education Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 2, 2007, p. 111-114.
Berlau, John. Teachers Discard the Union Label; as the National Education Association
Pursues a Liberal Agenda, Many of Its Rank and File Refuse to Toe the Line and Have Formed Their Own Teacher-Advocacy Groups, Insight on the News, September 30, 2003, p. 23.
Hashemzadeh, Nozar; Wilson, Loretta. Teaching with the Lights Out: What Do We Really
For example, the individual has developed a serviceable way to tie his or her shoes they therefore do not need to learn alternative ways to do so. Yet, when the individual is faced with a broken finger he or she must learn a new way to do the task, and in doing so they change a pathway that was previously set. Now because recovery is imminent they are likely to retain the old way of doing the task but if the finger is permanently injured then the new task process must be set. There is also some evidence that lacking major neurological damage, many of the old pathways still exist in adults as they adapt to new ways of doing things where in children they often disappear, or get used for another learning task as new pathways are formed. Yet, this is challenged in the research as well and often…
Alm, H., Scholz, B., Fischer, C., Kultima, K., Viberg, H., Eriksson, P., et al. (2006). Proteomic Evaluation of Neonatal Exposure to 2, 2'4, 4'5-Pentabromodiphenyl Ether. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(2), 254.
Arnstein, P.M. (June 1997) the neuroplastic phenomenon: a physiologic link between chronic pain and learning. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing.
Becker, H.C. (2000). Animal Models of Alcohol Withdrawal. Alcohol Research & Health, 24(2), 105.
Capaldi, E., Robinson, G., & Fahrbach, S. (1999). NEUROETHOLOGY of SPATIAL LEARNING: The Birds and the Bees. 651.
Gurian does not suggest that girls should not be allowed to engage in such activities, only that the learning environment be balanced to enhance the weaknesses of both sexes, as well as build upon what he sees as their innate strengths.
Gurian further cautions educators that some behavior difficulties may be the product of the current social environment of expectations, rather than a reflection that such disorders have increased, as some studies indicate that ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and conduct disorders have increased. So-called conduct and behavioral disorders may be a poor fit of environment and child, rather than the child's fault. An easily distracted child may have been more accepted in a kinesthetic society that valued manual skills, for example, and the 'niceness' demanded in conventional schooling may cause an aggressive child to be labeled as maladaptive, even though he possesses hidden leadership skills.
Gurian suggests working in…
Davis (2007) stated that baseline testing must be performed at a young age so that children with prosopagnosia do not grow feelings of isolation and depression for now, there is no treatment available with prosopagnosia same with dyslexia or autism, however once parents become familiar with their child who have this condition, parents will be able to adjust with the situation, although it can be difficult emotionally, specifically if their child cannot identify them as his/her parents; on the contrary, it is not as good as when parents reprimand their child for something that can not be managed and for the children who have prosopagnosia, it can be reassuring to be acquainted with why their parent can be at times appear unaware to them.
Duchaine and Garrido (2008) said that the results are constant with face-specific processes, but it is also consistent with other accounts of face recognition, cases illustrating…
ABC News (2007, July). Faceblindness: Forgetting Familiar Faces, People With the Disorder Have Normal Vision Otherwise. Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=3361813&page=1&CMP=OTC-RSSFeeds0312 .
Burman, C. (2002). Prosopagnosia (Face Blindness). Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://www.prosopagnosia.com/main/pa/.
Choisser, B. (2002). Face Blind! Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://www.choisser.com/faceblind/ .
Davis, J. (2007, March). Face Blind. Wired Magazine. Retrieved on March 21, 2009 at http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~ptrapnel/stories/FaceBlind.html.
(McGannon, Carey and Dimmitt, 2005)
To address this need in the field of school counseling, the CSCOR has developed the National Panel for School Counseling Evidence-ased Practice, which is composed of school counseling educators and practitioners who have been identified as experts in the field. Panel members are currently evaluating existing methods of evidence-based practice by reviewing the research literature so that they may establish rules of evidence to determine whether a practice can be identified as evidence-based. The panel is identifying rules for judging strong evidence, identifying needed research, and communicating their findings to other practitioners and researchers. (McGannon, Carey, and Dimmitt, 2005)
The work of Jeremy M. Linton entitled: "Perceived Therapeutic Qualities of Counselor Trainees with Disabilities" states that a learning disability (LD) is present when the person's achievement in a specific academic area is significantly below the level expected for age, schooling, and level of intelligence. In…
Carey, John; Dimmitt, Carey McGannon, and Carey, Wendy (2005) the Current Status of School Counseling Outcome Research. School of Education - University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Research Monograph, Number 2, May 2005.
Problem Solving and RTI: New Roles for School Psychologists by Andrea Canter, 2006, February, Communique, 34(5). Available from www.nasponline.org
Linton, Jeremy M. (1999) Perceived Therapeutic Qualities of Counselor Trainees with Disabilities. Journal of Instructional Psychology March 1999.
Elbaum, Batya; and Vaughn, Sharon (2008) Can School-Based Interventions Enhance the Self-Concept of Students with Learning Disabilities? National Center for Learning Disabilities. 2008. online available at http://www.ncld.org/content/view/518/
They will not have to sit through lessons that are not meant for them. Every lesson would be targeted towards that particular group of students.
Special education is a highly specialized field making teacher retention an even more important issue than in the general population of teachers. Teaching a diverse array of students with specialized needs increases the workload of teachers more than those who only have to concentrate on a single subject. When teachers become overwhelmed, they are likely to experience higher amounts of job related stress. This stress translates into job dissatisfaction and can lead to lower teacher retention (Greiner & Smith, 2006). The proposed strategy would reduce teacher workload by allowing them to concentrate on the needs of only one group of students. They could become more proficient in the needs of this particular group of students, resulting in fewer job related stresses.
Greiner, C. & Smith, B. (2006) Determining the Effect of Selected Variables on Teacher Retention.
Education, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_200607 " Summer 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2007 at
" (2001) When opportunities are provided to the students with Dysgraphia that accommodate writing challenges "they are more successful in the general education classroom." (Quenneville, 2001) Collaboration between classroom teachers and technology specialists is a requirement. Assistive technology has two primary purposes which are: (1) to augment an individual's strengths, thereby counterbalancing the effect of the disability; and (2) to provide an alternative mode of performing a task." (Quenneville, 2001) Assistive technology may either replace an ability that the student does not possess or assistive technology may provide necessary support for task completion due to impairment of the ability of the student.
One type of assistive tool is the computer, which assists the student through changing the writing process "...making it easier to develop and record ideas, to edit ideas, and to publish and share with others." (Quenneville, 2001) There are various supports, which may be used at various stages…
Dysgraphia (2007) National Center for Learning Disabilities Online available at http://www.ncld.org/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=468
Jones, Susan (1998) Accommodations and Modification for Students with Handwriting Problems and/or Dysgraphia. Resource Room. Online available at http://www.resourceroom.net/readspell/dysgraphia.asp
Newman, Renee M. (1998) Dysgraphia: Causes and Treatment. RM Newman Communications. Dearborn Michigan. Online available at http://www.dyscalculia.org/Edu563.html
Quenneville, Jane (2001) Tech Tools for Students with Learning Disabilities: Infusion into Inclusive Classrooms. LD Online. Available at http://www.ldonline.org/article/6380
In addition to the highly qualified mandates of NCLB there are also requirements to use research-based education practices over effective-based education practices.
The different levels of ability combined with the various qualifiers of special education students present a difficulty in determining the best course of research-based learning. In addition the ability to track and report such learning becomes difficult at best, impossible at worst.
Given the wide spectrum of students that qualify for special education services there is a demonstrable difference in the services they are provided.
The students in special education today, receive a combination of education instruction. When they are able to appropriately benefit and learn in a mainstream environment the federal government dictates that they do. If their particular disability provides the need for accommodations to that mainstream education, such as oral testing, or un-timed lessons the school has provided that as well through…
____(2005) Special Education Teachers Up in Arms Over NCLB Certification Requirements Atlanta Journal
Chambless, D.L., & Hollon, S.D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
Cobb, P., Confrey, J., diSessa, a., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational Researchers, 32(1), 9-13.
Davies, P. (1999). What is evidence-based education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 47, 108-121
He also is the richest man in the world, and came from a high-achieving family. (His mother was a college regent and the head of United Way.)
Gates was known for years as an autonomous loner. He did not marry until he was nearly 40, and he keeps a very low public profile, unlike the more charismatic and outgoing Branson.
Gates is legendary for his need for dominance. Neither he nor Branson "need" to work anymore, they could live comfortably off their income for the rest of their lives. However, Gates continues to run Microsoft, and be involved in all the decision making. He is "transitioning" out of the leadership role to lead his charitable foundation, but it will take two years and he will still be involved in high-level decisions. It seems it is very difficult for him to give up the reins and he must dominate the company…
All of these students will have different educational needs, even if they have the same numerical IQ. Thus, "the discrepancy," of a score below 100 or average, will not tell educators "anything about what kind of intervention might help the child learn" in a fashion that is useful to the educators. (Benson, 2003)
Binet, the originator of intelligence testing, evolved his test to identify if students had normal intelligence and could enter the French school system -- a child either passed or failed this early test. Later, he saw the tests as a way of identifying weaknesses or strengths, which the educational system could address. (Benson, 2003) But while some of the information gleaned from contemporary IQ tests can be useful, data from intelligence testing has been used to validate racial theories of innate, or genetically passed along intelligence. Early classification of students with low IQs can ignore what is…
Benson, E. "(2003) Intelligent Testing." APA Online: Monitor on Psychology. Retrieved 1 Dec 2006 at http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb03/intelligent.html
Intelligence and Achievement Testing: Is the Half Full Glass Getting Fuller? APA
Online: Monitor on Psychology. Retrieved 1 Dec 2006 at http://psychologymatters.apa.org/iqtesting.html
Over the last several years, there has been a continuing emphasis on finding ways to improve the total amounts of learning comprehension in reading. Part of the reason for this, is because the achievement scores in these areas have been consistently declining. A good example of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the National Endowment for the Arts. They found that the total number of Americans who are reading on daily basis has declined by 14% in over 20 years. ("National Endowment for the Arts," 2007) The reason why, is because the advancements in technology and availability of different products (i.e. video games and other forms of entertainment) have created a change the kinds of activities they are involved in. Over the course of time, this has caused most children to read less.
To address these issues and help to improve these numbers, a…
National Endowment for the Arts. (2007). NEA. Retrieved from: http://www.nea.gov/news/news07/TRNR.html
Baflie, C. (2007). Reader's Theater. Reading Rockets. Retrieved from: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/39/
Corcoran, C. (2005). A Study of the Effects of Readers Theater. Reading Improvement, 42 (2), 310
Gayla, S. (2008). Increasing Reading -- Literacy Performance. Chicago, IL: Pearson.
(Williams 2011, pp. 218 -- 222)
Critically Analyze the Selection Process at Boeing
The process of becoming hired by Boeing requires showing how an individual must have the skills that the company is looking for. This is because the firm uses a program called ET. This is a tool that managers will use to match the person with the kinds of skill sets that Boeing will require in specific positions. The most common strategy for receiving this training; is to attend the company's 11-week certification program at the Washington Aerospace Training and esearch Center. This will guarantee an interview with the firm. (Dunlop 2011) (Boeing Interview Questions 2012) (Arkel 2007)
Once someone reaches the interview process is when they agree to be subject to a background check and a drug test. During the interview, Boeing will use a round robin behavioral format. This can take place at the company's facilities…
Boeing Interview Questions, 2012, Glassdor.com, Available from: [17 March 2012].
ERT FAQs, 2012, Boeing, Available from:
(Belkin, 2004) Students can still be kinesthetically involved, however -- for instance, asking a blind student how something feels or smells, senses that might be more developed in this child, can give him or her a sense of empowerment. Reading levels may be wide in a mixed classroom of special education and 'regular' students, and students with dyslexia can benefit from the use of talking books with animated voices. Even students with reading difficulties that are not formally diagnosable can grow more enthusiastic about reading by being encouraged to, for instance, cook a recipe that the pilgrims did in a history text, or to cut out pictures from the newspaper about a topic discussed in social studies class. Ultimately, curriculum objectives like students being able to read certain vocabulary cannot be forgotten, but if challenging vocabulary is reinforced throughout the day, and verbally, aurally, and spatially, as well as on…
Belkin, Lisa. (September 12, 2004) "The Lessons of Classroom 506." Magazine. New York Times.
Piaget, Jean. (1970) "Piaget's theory." In P. Mussen (ed) Handbook of child psychology, Vol.1. New York: Wiley, 1983.
81). Ambrose and Corn (1997) further define "functional vision" as vision that can be used to derive input for planning and performing tasks; the extent to which one uses his or her available vision is referred to as "visual efficiency."
eading Skills. According to Carver (2002), "reading usually means to attempt to comprehend language in the form of printed words"; therefore, for the purposes of this study, the term "reading skills" will refer to an individual's ability to comprehend language in the form of printed words.
This chapter provided an introduction to the study, including the background and a statement of the problem of vision impairment on students' academic performance; a discussion of the purpose and significance of the study was followed by a description of the research questions that will guide the research process. An assessment of the study's limitations and delimitations was followed by a delineation…
Ambrose, G.V. & Corn, a.L. (1997). Impact of Low Vision on Orientation: an Exploratory Study. RE:view, 29(2), 81.
Balota, D.A., D'Arcais, G.B. & Rayner, K. (Eds.). (1990). Comprehension processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Becker, C.A. (1980). Semantic context effects in visual word recognition. An analysis of semantic strategies. Memory & Cognition, 8, 493-512.
Blachman, B.A. (1997). Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical problem that does not allow him to cope with the burden of the educational system without special help and instruction, or anything else. The proponents of the exit exams also state that unless students are held to certain high standards, it would be impossible to identify or address the various inherent flaws and weaknesses in the entire system of examinations. Another advantage of the exit exam system, according to them, is that there will be an increase in the motivation levels for both students and teachers to do better and excel at the exam to the best of their abilities.
This, again, is valid only for those students who are in the normal stream of education, and not for those students who…
CA High School Exit Exam." Retrieved at http://www.suhsd.net/html/cahsee1.htm. Accessed on 11 January, 2005
Definition of Special Education" Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:Special+EducationAccessed on 11 January, 2005
Goodwin, Sherry Posnick. "Students with learning disabilities campaign against high school exit exams" Retrieved at http://www.cta.org/CaliforniaEducator/v7i8/MTC_1.htm . Accessed on 11 January, 2005
High school exit examination: District and School Information Packet." (April 2000)
The reluctance of going to the school assumed to lie at home. It is assumed that the child has an inclination to stay at home where the well being of the parent is guaranteed. In turn the parents visualize the problem of intimidation of their children to prevalent in schools. The psychologists however find that the inclination towards avoidance of the schools is the consequence of various elements with their reaction to both home and school stressors. The contemporary thought on school phobia depicts that there are some children who denies attending school as a result of separation anxiety. (School Phobia)
Most of the children reluctant to go to school are between the ages 8-13 years. In case of some the reluctance is as an effort to avoid uncomfortable feelings associated with school. The phobia is associated with the fear of being criticized or evaluated. Sometimes the particular activities like…
Anandalakshmy. S. The child at school. Retrieved at http://www.doctorndtv.com/children/detailtopics.asp?id=31 . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Bullying in schools. Retrieved at http://www.bullyonline.org/schoolbully/school.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Hogan, Maureen. School Phobia. Nassau County Psychologist. Retrieved at http://www.fenichel.com/schoolphobia.html . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Starting School. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved at http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/82.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
(Brodwin; Cardoso; Star, 2004)
Since it is a fact that those people with special needs do face many more challenges in their lives than other people, the possibility of technological assistance for them must be given extreme importance, and when this is done, the device can be acquired. Sometimes, when the assistive device has been provided for the person, like for example a child who attends school, by the school itself, then the issue would be whether or not the child can be allowed to use the device at home. This is especially true in cases where the assisted device is something that would enable the child to finish his homework on time, without which he would not be able to do it. (Providing Assistive Technology: A Legal Perspective)
The concerned AD committee must use its discretion for such cases, because, mot of the time, the parent may insist that…
Ability Hub: Frequently Asked Questions" Retrieved at http://www.abilityhub.com/ . Accessed on 8 July, 2005
Brodwin, Martin. G; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Star, Tristen. (July-September, 2004) "Computer
Assistive Technology for people who have disabilities: computer adaptations and modifications" Journal of Rehabilitation. Vol: 25; No: 2; pp: 64-68
Definitions of Assistive technology" Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:Assistive+technologyAccessed on 8 July, 2005
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
IS THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN TROULE?
The United States has enjoyed a long history of providing public education for all students. However, many people believe that our educational system does not function well and that it has not for some time. Although multiple ways to improve public education have been tried, the belief persists that our schools produce under-educated students who are under-prepared for college or work. The goal of education is to teach students, but not all the students learn well, and for those who do not learn, we cannot always find either adequate explanations or solutions.
For some decades, the United States has attempted to use group testing to track the success of our educational programs. One attempt was by use of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests (Ipka, 2003). These tests provide raw scores of from 0 to 500. The Department of…
Ipka, V.W. 2003. "At Risk Children in Resegregated Schools: An Analysis of the Achievement Gap. Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 30.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. 1992: Harper Perrenial.
McQuillan, Jeff. 1998. "Seven myths about literacy in the United States." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(1). Accessed via the Internet 8/23/05.
Schrag, Peter. 2004. "What's Good Enough? Advocates Are Demanding Not Just Equal but Decent Schools for All Children." Magazine article by Peter Schrag; The Nation, Vol. 278, May 3.
(We've never had it so good - and it's all thanks to science) Thus the question of genes is an effect on certain humans and their behavior; in short their physical and behavioral traits. That does not change the view of society on what a well nurtured human is.
Thus we still expect "other people" in society to be upright, polite, incorruptible, generous, are honest, hard working, well-informed, broadminded, who are conscious about society, sensitive to environment, non-violent and self-restraint. In short, those are the objectives of good nurturing, but does it happen all the time? Even in the Old Testament we had the tale of Cane and Abel. Society involves both nature and nurture.
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer isk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. etrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html. Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15…
Bad Gene Ups Prostate Cancer Risk in Black Men. 9 July, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.hon.ch/News/HSN/513973.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Did the march of progress bring Aids to Africa? Sydney Morning Herald. 15 September 2000.
Retrieved at http://www.uow.edu.au/arts/sts/bmartin/dissent/documents/AIDS/rs/SMH.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
Lemonick, Michael. D. Gene Mapper. December 17, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.time.com/time/poy2000/mag/venter.html . Accessed on 10 August, 2005
resolution to the issue based on the principles of distributive equality.
One of the difficulties in defining equality is that unless a highly simplistic and unrealistic form of 'simple' equality is enforced, in which all members of society are 'forced' to be equal, such a principle fails to be workable in the real world, as manifested in the failure of communism to create a truly equal society. "Equality distorts incentives promoting achievement in the economic field, producing an inefficiency grounded in a waste of assets arising from the administrative costs of redistribution (Okun 1975). Equality and efficiency need to be placed in a balanced relation" (Gosepath 2012). Does equality mean that every student receives an 'A' in class? Or that the tax system should be so progressive that everyone makes the same amount of money? This might indeed be equal, but it would hardly seem fair in most…
However, when dealing with the question of the college admissions process, the question of equality becomes more vexed. On a level of simple equality, the college admissions process fails the test miserably, because the most prestigious and the most competitive institutions do not have open admissions policies. To truly avail one's self of all of the resources offered by schools such as MIT and Harvard, candidates must prove themselves worthy through a selection process, and intelligence is a major qualifier for admission. Measuring intelligence is innately exclusive and 'unequal.' Also, some people may have access to resources that others lack, which facilitates them presenting a more qualified appearance to the admissions committee. Affirmative action may make some allowances for this, but overall, this cannot entirely distill the potential impact of class upon the process.
There is even concern about how learning disabilities are viewed in college admissions. One simple method of 'equality' is to judge the admissions process solely on intelligence, as perceived by a specific standard for all. However, some students with learning disabilities may be gifted, but their special needs make it difficult for them to succeed on standardized tests like their gifted non-LD peers. "When test prep is not enough, there is another option with increasing appeal to well-off families: a diagnosis of dyslexia or attention deficit disorder that allows a student to take the SAT and other standardized tests untimed" (Allan 2006). For students with severe learning disabilities, the untimed test is supposed to make it easier, and for some students with mild learning disabilities, an untimed test is seen as giving a student a critical advantage in raising his or her score for some parents.
Having the untimed test option theoretically makes it easier for students, even students with LDs, to be treated 'equally.' But given the potential for certain individuals to abuse the option (virtually