Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 1000 essays for "Early History"

View Full Essay

History of the Early National

Words: 1208 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72452668



Aside from the practical considerations provided by the system which split the federal and local authorities, there was also the matter of the limitation of powers. In this sense, the central government was built in such a manner as to express the boundaries of the influence even the elected office representatives had on the particular issues concerning each state. Thus, the Congress and the House of epresentatives were established and these institutions came to represent the essence of the American epublicanism and democracy.

Despite these revolutionary ideals, the interpretation of the epublican creed came to be associated with the industrial aspects of the economy. As the country began to flourish and the economic development came to be associated more and more with the industrial revolution, so did the epublican political thought. The issue related to the taxation without representation and the subsequent debates that emerged gave way to an increasingly…… [Read More]

References

Appleby, Joyce. Republicanism and Ideology. American Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 4, Republicanism in the History and Historiography of the United States. (Autumn, 1985), pp. 461-473.

Mcgurk, John. "A New Look at Civic Republicanism." Contemporary Review, Vol. 283, October 2003.

Slaughter, Thomas P. The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
View Full Essay

History of Racism and the

Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5709741

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]

References

Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24

Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52

Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at  http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
View Full Essay

History of American Law Enforcement

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 474698



During the first era of American policing, constitutional standards of criminal procedure including formal policies of arrest, interrogation, evidence procurement, and the treatment of prisoners was substantially subject to local authorities and varied tremendously from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (Conlon, 2004; Scmalleger, 2008). So-called "street justice" was routinely administered by police officers either in conjunction with arrest or (more commonly) in lieu of formal arrest, mainly because it was more convenient for officers and considered more effective at motivating lawful compliance among career criminals (Conlon, 2004).

Contemporary American Policing

In terms of organizational structure, the modern era of American policing had already evolved by the early 20th century, but the industry would still have to endure the limitations of widespread political corruption and cronyism left over from the scandals such as the infamous Tammany Hall dynamics in 19th century New York City politics. Subsequently, the consequences of the Prohibition era would…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Conlon, E. (2004). Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead.

Johnson, B. "A Look at Fusion Centers: Working Together to Protect America." FBI

Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 76, No.12 (2007).

Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
View Full Essay

History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
View Full Essay

History of X-Rays Rays Were

Words: 305 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69896274

" (Jan. 16, 1896, p. 9) oentgen won a Nobel Prize for his discovery which was very well deserved considering the fact that he was the first to notice the X-rays when similar rays had been seen before. Once the discovery became public, there was no stopping the physicists, scientists and even photographers. Everyone tried to find out how they could make use of those rays with Edison developing incandescent bulbs to produce X-rays and British scientist William Bragg worked on inner nature of X and y-rays. Many more researches and studies followed the initial discovery and they helped better understand the nature of X-rays and how they could benefit the medical community.

eferences

Alexi Assmus: Early History of X-rays. etrieved online 3rd June 2009 from http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf… [Read More]

References

Alexi Assmus: Early History of X-rays. Retrieved online 3rd June 2009 from  http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf
View Full Essay

History of Wireless Tech In

Words: 1094 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90931350

"They are adding 1 million new users a day."

Impact on cultures

One of the Chinese cultures that are affected by the wireless technology is the Cash Culture. Paying in cash has been a practice to most Chinese. Credit and debit cards are not in the trend of the Chinese culture. However, with the revolution of the wireless technology, cash would seem to be a little out of the way of how the technology will be utilized. This is because part of a type of a mobile service uses prepaid methods. Tom York, in his article China's Exploding Wireless Industry, mentions the following.

Payments for small purchases can be billed along with the monthly wireless bill, the method now used to bill for third-party purchases and services.

ut that system probably won't work on a large scale need to support a mobile economy," says Chen. He also notes that more…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Intel Working to Advance Use of Wireless Technology in China.

Retrieved on February 11, 2005 from Intel Online. Web site:  http://www.intel.com/pressroom/archive/releases/20040609corp.htm 

York, T. China's Exploding Wireless Industry.

Retrieved on February 11, 2005 from Hpbazaar Online.
View Full Essay

History on the State of Virginia

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9462564

17th century, a book inspired by Sir Walter Raleigh and written by Richard Hakluyt, entitled "Western Planting," built up great interest in American colonization. Focus of commercial explorations was possible trade with the East India Company for the West. The King of England formed and granted a royal charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company (Interesting.com) to found a colony. In December 1606, the London Company, led by Captain Christopher Newport, reached a town and named it Jamestown, after the King of England. It was the first permanent settlement in North America, the whole of which was then Virginia. The first settlers in this new land consisted of 12 laborers, a few carpenters, a blacksmith, a mason, a barber and a tailor and 50 other men.

When Captain Newport returned England for a while and left the colony to the inefficient leadership of Governor Wingfield, trouble and misery…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Folk, Stephney. Virginia's Founding Fathers. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.lineone.net/~fight/Stephney/virginia.htm

2. Garman, Gene. Founding Principles Rejected: Colonial Virginia. 1998 accessed 28:03:03).  http://www.sunnetworks.com/~ggarman/princip.html 

3. Interesting.com. Colonial Virginia. (accessed 28:03:03).  http://www.interesting.com 

4. Jeff. The Founding of Jamestown. The Montague Millennium, 2002.
View Full Essay

History of the League of Women Voters

Words: 4175 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19333396

history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.

The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…… [Read More]

Bibliography

A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005..  http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/ 

Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:

The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.
View Full Essay

History and Development of Sound Technologies and Sound Design in Film

Words: 11249 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 80180588

sound technologies and sound design in Film

Sound in films

Experiments in Early Age

Developments

Crucial innovations

Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan

Sound Design

Unified sound in film production

Sound designers in Cinematography

Sound Recording Technologies

History of Sound Recording Technology

Film sound technology

Modern Digital Technology

History of sound in films

Developments

Sound Design

Sound Recording Technologies

The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.

Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.

Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.

Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
View Full Essay

history of psychology annotated bibliography

Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36211058

Clark, R. E. (2004). The classical origins of Pavlov's conditioning. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39(4), 279-294.

Classical conditioning is the cornerstone of behaviorism. However, it is often taken for granted how classical conditioning was introduced to the field of psychology. This article starts with a brief section about the precursors of Pavlov’s famous dog salivation response experiments. The precursor to Pavlov was Twitmyer’s knee-jerk reflexes. Like Green (2009), Clark (2004) talks a little of William James and his contributions to the early evolution of psychology. Then, Clark (2004) delves into the meat of the matter: Pavlov’s experiments. Using dogs as subjects, the Russian scientist revolutionized the study of human behavior with his studies showing how classical conditioning works. Clark (2004) traces Pavlov’s work, and also shows how it was received. Then, the author shows how Pavlov’s conditioning experiments became classical conditioning through the work of B.F. Skinner. Essentially, this research…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of the Profession and

Words: 1314 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38484254



Prostitutes are often represented and protected by a pimp. A pimp is a man who is responsible for protecting the prostitute, and collecting the money that she gets paid for her services. Pimping is also illegal as it has commonly led to violence against the prostitute or Johns and it is often steeped in drug use or providing drugs to the prostitute to keep her hooked and willing to perform sex in exchange for those drugs.

LEVELS

There are many types of prostitutes. The street prostitutes walk around on city streets soliciting customers who drive by in cars. They generally have a room or access to a hotel nearby or they will get into the vehicle and perform acts of sex for money.

There are also brothels in some parts of the world as well as Nevada.

Brothels are controlled houses or environments in which prostitutes work. They have an…… [Read More]

References

Prostitution (Accessed 10-6-06)

 http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Prostitution
View Full Essay

History of the Michigan International Auto Show

Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80991210

Michigan Auto Show: History

Early History

The history of the Michigan Auto Show (now re-named as the North American International Auto Show) dates back to 1899 when it was held for the first time as the Detroit Auto Show in Detroit. The credit for organizing the earliest Detroit Auto Shows goes to illiam E. Metzeger who dealt in bicycles before becoming associated with the auto industry. ("Zacharias"). Metzeger had traveled to England in 1895 to attend the world's first auto exhibition and returned to Detroit to become its first auto dealer. (Ibid.)

In 1899 Metzeger and an associate formed the Tri State Sportsman's and Automobile Association and leased the Light Guard Armory in Detroit to organize a hybrid exhibition of sporting equipment and automobiles. At the first show, the major attractions were big-game trophies from Africa, fishing tackle and assorted sporting equipment, rather than automobiles. Metzeger was the only auto…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Auto Show Historical Overview: A colorful past, an exciting future." January 2002. NAIAS 2002 -- Official Web site. March 10, 2002. http://www.naias.com/main.asp?sectionID=51&visitorType=1

Economic Impact: North American International Auto Show." January 2002. NAIAS 2002 -- Official Web site. March 10, 2002. http://www.naias.com/main.asp?sectionID=87&visitorType=1

Interesting Facts." January 2002. NAIAS 2002 -- Official Web site. March 10, 2002. http://www.naias.com/main.asp?sectionID=5&visitorType=1

2002 NAIAS: History." Woman Motorist. (n.d.) March 10, 2002.  http://www.womanmotorist.com/autoshows-2002/naias-2002/naias-2002-history.shtml
View Full Essay

History of the World in 6 Glasses Compare and Contrast 3 Drinks

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16705836

Histories of the orld in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage

'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Standage, Tom. The History of the World in Six Glasses. New York: Walker & Co., 2005.
View Full Essay

Early vs Later Aegean Civilization -- Minoan

Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33584419

Early vs. later Aegean Civilization -- Minoan and Mycenaean vs. Classical and Hellenic Ages

The early Minoan and Mycenaean cultures of the Aegean represent, respectively, a palace-ruled island-based culture and a more militaristic land-based culture, that were eventually to converge into the singular culture of the Classical Age of mainland ancient Greek civilization. At first, this development may seem surprising. The differences between the early and late artistic and political eras seem striking to the modern eye. hile Minoan and Mycenaean statues are static and almost Egyptian in their stylization, Classical and particularly Hellenic sculptures and depictions of the human form are 'realistic,' idealized, or highly emotional in their stance and expression. The earlier civilizations were either royal or military-run, and fairly enclosed. Athens was to form the cradle of democracy for later civilization, and even Sparta formed alliances with other city-states. Still later, Hellenic society became extremely porous, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hawkes, Jacquetta. (2002) "Cultural Explanations." PhpWiki. http://metamedia.stanford.edu/traumwerk/index.php/Knossos%2C%20the%20Pacifistic%20Mother%3F%3A%20Comparisons%20with%20Mainland%20Greece. [23 Feb 2002]
View Full Essay

History of Softball Has Its Origins in

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53950889

History Of Softball

Softball has its origins in the game of baseball, the bat-and-ball sport which was first played in America with a codified set of rules in Hoboken, New Jersey on 19 June 1846. The game of softball appeared in the U.S. just over thirty years later in 1887. While the two sports are similar in many ways, they also contrast in a number of ways -- as does their history. This paper will examine the history of softball and show how and why it developed out of the game of baseball.

With the first known game of softball being played on Thanksgiving Day in Chicago between Yale and Harvard football fans. The game began quite by accident and quite spontaneously when, after the results of the football game between the two rivals were announced and winning parties were awarded their money, a graduate from Yale hurled a boxing…… [Read More]

From the 1950s onward, an organization known as the International Softball Federation began to oversee softball competition across the entire world. In Australia in 1965, women competed for the first time in an international championship match that included five teams from around the world. Even though the game was invented by men, the women beat them in holding the world's first world championship softball tournament. The first men's world tournament did not take place until the following year in 1966 and it was held in Mexico City. The United States men's team won the championship. From that time on, every four years, a world tournament has been held for competing times within the international community.

Softball even became an Olympic event in 1996 when women's softball was included as an official sport in the Olympic Games. The United States women's team has shown nothing but dominance in the Olympic Games since softball was inaugurated, winning three gold medals. The sport was cut, however, not even a decade after its inauguration, by the International Olympic Committee. (Baseball was removed from the Games as well). Still, some speculate that softball will return to the world stage along with all the other major sporting events of the Summer Olympics.

In conclusion, softball was a game that began quite by accident when rowdy college football enthusiasts took up hitting around a boxing mitt in a boat club in Chicago. Thanks to the determination of a man named George Hancock, the oversight of Lewis Rober (a fireman in Minneapolis), and the organization skills of Leo Fischer and Michael Pauley, softball evolved from the boat club to the Olympics as one of the world's most popular sports for men, women and children.
View Full Essay

History of Suburbs the Term Suburb Is

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96535355

History Of Suburbs

The term suburb is defined as an area that is adjacent to the town and it is occupied. It is a small community as compared to the town community that commune to and from town on a daily basis or regular basis (Meriam-Webster, 2012).

In the U.S.A., the Levittowns are noted to have been the root of the suburbs by a large extent. This was the event after the WWII when the population suddenly increased upon the return of the soldiers who had gone abroad to fight the war. This upsurge of the population prompted a bill known as the GI bill of 1944 that approved the provision of money for the education and building of houses for the returning population. It was at this point that a man called William Levitt set out to buy vast pieces of land outside of the main cities like Philadelphia…… [Read More]

References

Colin Stief, (2012). An Overview of Suburbs. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from  http://geography.about.com/od/urbaneconomicgeography/a/suburbs.htm 

Cornel University Department of Sociology, (2010). The Causes of Sprawl. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from  http://cals.cornell.edu/cals/devsoc/outreach/cardi/programs/land-use/sprawl/causes.cfm 

Meriam-Webster, (2012). Definition: Suburb. Retrieved January 29, 2012 from  http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/suburb
View Full Essay

History of the Rosicrucian Order

Words: 5816 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46875287



ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…… [Read More]

References

Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.

Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian

Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,

1985. Print.
View Full Essay

History of Communication

Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37691919

History Of Communication Timeline

TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION

(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…… [Read More]

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.

Wikipedia.org
View Full Essay

History of Egyptian and Mayan Writing Egyptian

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37558866

History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing

Egyptian writing

The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.

Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.

Smith, Tony)

Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004.  http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm 

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004.  http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm 

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004.  http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
View Full Essay

History of the Areas of

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93612485

It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.

Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).

The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Construction Technology Time

Words: 6960 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 51255638

It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .

The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History in Architecture Because They

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93403681

They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.

As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.

orks cited:

1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.

2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.

2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,

H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill, 1963.

Talbot Hamlin. "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.
View Full Essay

History of CNC Computer Numerical

Words: 5340 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95617189



Michael Cooley (1972) has suggested that the drawing office has been downgraded in importance as a result of the finer division of labor in engineering that began in the 1930s. He described how the creative design element had become increasingly separated from the work of executing drawings. The fragmentation of shop floor jobs was, according to Cooley, paralleled by fragmentation of the job of the designer/drafter. Until the 1930s, drafters in ritain were responsible for designing a component, stress testing it, selecting materials for it, writing the specifications, and liaising with the shop floor and customers. ut starting in the 1930s, these functions were progressively broken down into separate jobs and taken over by various specialists, such as stress testers, metallurgists, tribologists, methods and planning engineers, and customer liaison engineers, leaving drafters with only the job of drawing (3D Systems Corporation, 2001).

In effect, in the ritain of the 1930s,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

3D Systems Corporation. 2001, 3D Systems. Retrieved Nov 3, 2011. from the World Wide Web: www.3dsystems.com/

Brown, Richard D. 2009, Knowledge Is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700 -- 1865. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., 1977, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Cooley M. 1972, Computer-Aided Design-Its Nature and Implications. Richmond, Surrey: AUEW/TASS.
View Full Essay

History of Air Cargo Industry

Words: 3692 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84106237

2).

ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.

The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift

When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…… [Read More]

April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.

Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,

From  http://europeanhistory.about.com .
View Full Essay

History of the Texas Range

Words: 6519 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2421645

(Famous Cattle Trails)

The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.

ecognizing the…… [Read More]

References

Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005

Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005

Biodiversity and Conservation: a Hypertext Book by Peter J. Byrant" Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/\?\?Z[??[?K?X? ???[X? ?H?[Y\?X?[?L??Y??[?X??\??Y
?]Y?\?  ?
B???Y??[? ?X?[?
View Full Essay

History of Architecture Not Only

Words: 1701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98679220

An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.

Conclusions

Though our current architecture is derived…… [Read More]

Reference:

Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at  http://en.wikipedia.org
View Full Essay

History of the Media in America Media

Words: 2710 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32475062

History Of the Media in America

Media America, a History

Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.

Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."

Less than a…… [Read More]

References:

Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American

Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd

edition, 2010.
View Full Essay

History of Air Cargo IT's

Words: 3792 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62401065

It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.

Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.

The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.

Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002

IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web:  http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm 

Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
View Full Essay

History of Swiss Banking in

Words: 2877 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3277343

The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.

The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times.  http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .

Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.

Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005.  http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
View Full Essay

History of the Jewish Community

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91030742

("Golden Age of Jewish Culture" 2005) The Jewish community faced a second and harsher wave of prosecution at the end of the Muslim rule in Spain when, as a result of the Inquisition, sevaral hundred thousand Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal; most of them fled to the Balkan peninsula under Ottoman Empire.

Money Lending Jews and Isolated Existence

The Jewish communities that settled in various parts of Europe usually kept to themselves (or were forced to do so by others). Most Jews became merchants and money lenders since Usury was declared illegal by the Church for Christians. Although many Jews prospered in this way, their isolated existence and money-lending role made them easy targets as scapegoats for misfortune of others.

Prosecution During Crusades

Although the Christian crusades in the Middle Ages were primarily directed against their arch enemies -- the Muslims, they frequently degenerated into massacres of an…… [Read More]

References

Golden Age of Jewish Culture." (2005). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at  http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Golden_age_of_Jewish_culture_in_Spain

History of the Jews." (n.d.) History World. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at  http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=413&HistoryID=aa42 

Jews in the Middle Ages." (2005). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at
View Full Essay

History of the Modern Era

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28715355

The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.

In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17c 18c

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13465288

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C

This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.

Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…… [Read More]

References

Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners

Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.

Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
View Full Essay

History of Alabama History of

Words: 1561 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92750473

At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.

The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.

Conclusion

Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…… [Read More]

Works cited

Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.

 http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108176.html 

Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times

Oct. 18, 2010: 3
View Full Essay

History of Aviation Safety Aviation

Words: 2180 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67399676

All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).

The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…… [Read More]

References:

Boeing. (2010). Making flying safer -- how Boeing helps to advance safety. Retrieved on September 19, 2010, from the Website:

http://www.boeing.com/commercial/safety/index.html

Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA regulations. Retrieved on September 18,

2010, from the Website,  http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/faa_regulations/
View Full Essay

History of the World in

Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1853217

Anyone can virtually make wine out of grapes. The quality of the grapes is the first and most important feature in the wine production and only after that are there other factors involved that influence the final product.

Standage considers the first distinction between Eastern and Western thught and civilization closely linked to the attitude the two cultures from two opposite regions of the globe had when it came to wine consuming. While Greeks drank wine at formal parties, making it more a part of a ritual destined to loosen tongues and relax while sharpening the minds and setting imagination loose, the Persians, mostly drank beer as a part of their nourishment and even when they drank wine, it was not for intellectual purposes of for the pleasure of savoring it, but more as a display of wealth and power, as it was the case mentioned before. Based on such…… [Read More]

Like, beer, the wine was nourishment, the beverage for feasts, celebrations and intellectual gatherings, but also an element of religious rituals and even medicine. As alcoholic beverage on the table of the poor and rich alike it is still praised for its benefits just as it is blamed for the destruction of families and the perversion of whole societies that fell its victim. It is, of course, not the wine, but the human nature, subject to greed and sometimes the victim of its own inability to keep moderation in sight at all times.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

McGovern, P. Ancient Wine: the Search for the Origins of Viniculture. 2003. Princeton University Press. Princeton Historical Timeline. Georgian Spring. A Magnum Journal. Retrieved; Oct 18, 2009. Available at: http://www.georgianspring.com/timeline.php
View Full Essay

History of Albania Is a

Words: 1468 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 98413026

The desperation of its populace has meant that Albania continues to lag more successful former communist nations like Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia in modernization and quality of life, although recently the Albanian government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and instituted fiscal reform packages to reduce corruption, curtail the 'gray' or quasi-illegal activities supporting the economy, and to attract foreign investments. Still, much of Albania's most talented individuals often move abroad, although they often send money home. It is estimated that the Albanian "economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy," which also helps offset the towering trade deficit ("Albania," 2008, CIA Fact Book).

The one bright spot has been Albania's relatively smooth transition to democracy, as it is has not been afflicted by the xenophobic uprisings that characterized the dissolution of neighboring Yugoslavia. Economic corruption has been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albania. (2008). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html 

Albania." (2008). Infoplease. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at  http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107268.html 

Albania under communist rule." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at ( http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r-frd/cstdy:@field  (DOCID+al0059)

The Balkan Wars and creation of an independent Albania." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at (
View Full Essay

History of Economic Thought Provide

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53640012

In addition, he argued that human behavior is mainly based on the pursuit of material profits.

According to Smith the society could develop only in case of existence of freedom and equality. These rational principles according to Smith could stimulate objective development of society and development of economical relations. His philosophical and moral ideas of course influenced his political economy. Smith's political economy based on freedom of competition and Smith principles of political economy based on the natural needs of developing capitalist society of Great Britain in many respects defined the economical policies of the major 19th century capitalist states.

3. Provide a sense of the historical context and the nature of the main debates in political economy during the first quarter of the 19th Century in Britain and how these debates shaped the complexation of early classical economic thought.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century there still existed…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History Naval Warfare What Was Naval Power

Words: 2454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74689093

History Naval Warfare

What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?

"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…… [Read More]

BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]

Conclusion

The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.

Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.

Endnotes
View Full Essay

History of MRI

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28873916

History of Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI)

Getting an MI scan may someday become as common as getting an X-ray. - Davis Meltzer, 1987

According to Gould (2004), on July 3, 1977, an event took place that would forever alter the landscape of modern medicine, although outside the scientific research community, this event hardly attracted any notice at all. The event in question was the first MI exam ever performed on a human being. The procedure required almost five hours to produce one image, and the images were, by today's standards, very primitive (this first MI machine now occupies a special niche in the Smithsonian); however, its successors number if the thousands today (Gould, 2004). The advent of the MI clearly represented the beginnings of a new standard in noninvasive radio imaging that continues to be refined. This paper provides the background and history of magnetic resonance imaging, including its discovery…… [Read More]

References

Albertine, K. (2001). Anatomica. Willoughby, NSW, Australia: Global Book Publishing.

Gould, T.A. (2004). How MRI Works. (2004). How Stuff Works. Available:  http://www.howstuffworks.com/mri.htm/printable .

Hornak, J.P. (2002). The Basics of MRI. Available:  http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/inside.htm .

Ioannidis, J.P. & Lau, J. (April 5, 2002). FDG-PET for the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcoma. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Available:  http://www.cms.gov/coverage/8b3-iii2.asp .
View Full Essay

History of Wrestling An Overview

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56626960

In a reversal, which is worth two points, the prone person comes from underneath and gains control. A near fall is worth 2-3 points and is a 'near pin.' The points awarded for a 'near fall' are based upon how long the 'near pin' lasts. Points are also awarded based upon the opponent's infractions. These may include illegal holds, technical violations (like leaving the mat), grabbing clothing, the mat, or the opponent's headgear, locking or overlapping hands, improper or illegal equipment, "stalling," "unnecessary roughness" and "unsportsmanlike conduct" ("Overview of wrestling rules," est Virginia resting, 2010). Scholastic wrestling is scored as a team sport as well as individually.

The issue of women in wrestling has proved to be a controversial issue. On the Olympic level, women competed in wrestling for the first time in 2004. "omen from 21 nations competed in four freestyle weight classes. Medals were awarded to wrestlers from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dicker, Ron. "Olympic wrestling." Lifewire. [28 Feb 2012]

http://olympics.about.com/lw/Sports-Recreation/Amateur-sports/Olympic-Wrestling-an-Illustrated-History.htm

"Cutting weight." Independent Lens, 2000. [28 Feb 2012

 http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/girlwrestler/cutting_weight.html
View Full Essay

History of Psychology Is a

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24675908

The concepts of short- and long-term memory, as well as input and output all fit well within the language of computer science and psychologists quickly determined that they could use computers to study human thought and behavior (Wallace et al., 2007). Not only did the computer provide a way of looking at human thought, the use of the computer within the science of psychology also helped to add legitimacy to psychology as a scientific field of inquiry (Neisser, 2009).

But why do the roots of cognitive psychology represent one of the most influential periods in the whole history of psychology with respect to modern day psychology? Today, nearly all areas of psychology include some understanding and investigation of cognition. Some of the biggest developments in psychology have included studies in the field of neuropsychology and we now know more about the inner functioning of the human brain than ever before…… [Read More]

References

Goodwin, C.J. (1999). A History of Modern Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Macleod, C.M. (1992). The Stroop task: The "gold standard" of attention measures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 12-14.

Neisser, U. (2009). cognitive psychology. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 17, 2009, from Grolier Online http://gme.grolier.com.ccny- proxy1.libr.ccny.cuny.edu/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0066790-0

Wallace, B ., Ross, a., Davies, J.B., and Anderson T., (eds) (2007) the Mind, the Body and the World: Psychology after Cognitivism. London: Imprint Academic.
View Full Essay

History of Satan Since the

Words: 4478 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21876124

These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).

This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.

Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html

Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.

Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
View Full Essay

History of America Through 1877

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 27861139

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Punishment Critically Assess

Words: 4559 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95135347

Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).

Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]

References

Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,

pp. 125-146.

Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel

Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
View Full Essay

History of Social Psychology Past and Future

Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12479081

History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions

The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…… [Read More]

References

Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Allport, F. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Allport, G.W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
View Full Essay

History Geography During the Beginning of Ancient

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14863458

History Geography

During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garraty, John A., and Gay, Peter, Eds. The Columbia History of the World. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1999.
View Full Essay

History and Links of Social Psychology

Words: 1320 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89246979

History Of Social Psychology

According to Kruglanski and Stroebe (2012) social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how a person's feelings, behaviors, and thoughts are influenced by the implied, imagined, or real presence of other people. Social psychology will analyze various social topics including social perception, behavior leadership, conformity, prejudice, nonverbal behavior, and aggression. It attempts to understand a person's behavior in a social context. Therefore, social psychology will look at human behavior as other people and the social setting that this occurs shape it. Social psychologists will deal with the factors that lead a person to behave in a given way in front of others, and it looks at the conditions in which some behaviors and feelings will occur. Social psychology is a young field that began in the 20th century. Around 90% of all social psychologists are believed to be alive. The early influencers of this…… [Read More]

References

Baumeister, R.F., & Finkel, E.J. (2010). Advanced social psychology: The state of the science. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2012). Handbook of the history of social psychology. Church Rd, Hove: Psychology Press.
View Full Essay

History of Nursing Science Nursing Has Existed

Words: 1117 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30135288

History Of Nursing Science

Nursing has existed in some for as long as humans have roamed the earth. The modern era of nursing began with the emergence of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War in the 1850's. The daughter of affluent parents, Nightingale greatly accelerated the development of nursing and is widely acknowledged as the most important person in the history of nursing. Nursing science translates to the profession itself in the form of best practices that have been formulated, debated, reviewed and analyzed so as to verify the validity of nursing theories before they are put into practice.

Nightingale Emerges

As is the case with many nurses and others who dedicate their lives to the care of others, Nightingale was driven largely by her spirituality and religious convictions. Many people perceive there to be an inherent conflict between religion and science but Nightingale did not believe this to be…… [Read More]

References

George, J.B. (2011). Nursing theories, the base for professional nursing practice. (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

McKenna, H. (1998). Nursing theories and models. Taylor & Francis.

Parker, M.E., & Smith, M.C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practice. (3 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.

Walker, L.O., & Avant, K.C. (2011). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. (5 ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

History Policing the Law Enforcement Industry America

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61646033

History Policing, the Law Enforcement Industry America, Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America; a critical analysis

A critical analysis: History Policing; the Law Enforcement Industry America; Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America

History of Policing

Formalized local government-based policing in America began in the late 1820s in the largest American cities. Early police officers were not considered to be professional with respect to social status. In fact, the terms professional and police were not likely to appear together. Policemen in this historical period were typically not much more than watchmen. It wasn't until the turn of the 20th century that professionalism began to characterize American police. It is mostly agreed that the professionalization of the police in the United States began with the efforts of August Vollmer. (Douthit, 1975).

Vollmer was the first Chief of Police of Berkeley, California, elected as the town Marshall in 1905.…… [Read More]

References

911 Commission Report (2004), Washington, D.C.: GAO.

Crank, John P. (2003), "Institutional Theory of Police: A Review of the State of the Art," Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 26 (2): 186- 207.

Douthit, Nathan (1975), "August Vollmer, Berkeley's First Chief of Police, and the Emergence of Police Professionalism," California Historical Quarterly, 54), spring: 101-124.

Goldstein, Herman (1979), "Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach," Crime and Delinquency, 25: 236-58.
View Full Essay

History of Corrections

Words: 2922 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38581426

History Of Corrections

Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.

King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at:  http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf 

Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
View Full Essay

History of Nursing

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72659178

History Of Modern American Nursing

When the Crimean War ended in 1856, patient mortality at British hospitals was forty-two percent. Despite the fact that Joseph Lister introduced the concept of antisepsis as early as 1867, the germ theory of disease would not be adopted for another several decades. Nevertheless, already by the end of the American Civil War in 1865, Union hospitals had treated over one million battlefield casualties, with only eight percent mortality. Mainly, historians credit Florence Nightengale, whose campaign for cleanliness and hygiene in hospitals fortuitously predated the crucial implementation of medical antisepsis in modern medicine (Starr, 1984).

Women in Early American Medicine:

Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, admission to formal medical education was largely restricted to males until Quakers in Philadelphia founded the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1850. While more than a dozen women's medical schools were subsequently founded by the turn…… [Read More]

References

Caplan, A.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley

Starr, P. (1984) The Social Transformation of American Medicine.

New York: Basic Books
View Full Essay

History Diabetes Today Is a

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66918489

Even in the second half of the 17th century did doctors prescribe apparently absurd remedies such as viper's flesh, red coral, sweet almonds, and fresh flowers for diabetes sufferers (DiabetesHealth.com). Of course, these had little effect, and sufferers were generally condemned to death. The first breakthrough before the 1920s came in the form of Dr. John Rollo, who built on the work of Dr. Dobson of Liverpool to prescribe the first relatively successful treatment of the disease: a diet that was high in fat and meat and low in grains and breads. This improved the prognosis significantly, and for the first time in history could diabetes sufferers expect an extended life.

The year 1921 saw a miraculous discovery that would change the treatment of diabetes forever (Sattley). The surgeon Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best were instrumental in the discovery of insulin as an effective treatment for the disease.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canadian Diabetes Association. The History of Diabetes. 2009.  http://www.diabetes.ca/about-diabetes/what/history/ 

Diabetes Health. History of Diabetes: From Raw Quinces & Gruel to Insulin.  http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/1992/11/01/25/history-of-diabetes-from-raw-quinces-and-gruel-to-insulin/ 

Health.Savvy. A Timeline of the History of Diabetes. Feb 8, 2008.  http://health.savvy-cafe.com/a-timeline-of-the-history-of-diabetes-2008-02-08/ 

Sattley, Melissa. The History of Diabetes. Dec. 17, 2008. Diabetes Health.  http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/2008/12/17/715/the-history-of-diabetes/
View Full Essay

History of Riga Latvia the

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46012022

9-11).

Wars

In 1621, iga came under the rule of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus who declared iga the second capital of Sweden. During the ussian-Swedish War, ussia failed to colonize iga as it remained to be the, "second largest city under Swedish control until 1720 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy" (ibid., par. 13). In 1720, Tsar Peter the Great of ussia became successful in its invasion to iga. As a result, "iga was annexed by ussia and became an industrialized port city of the ussian empire" (ibid., par. 13). By 1900, iga was already holding the third spot in terms of ussia's most industrialized cities. This massive industrialization led to the rise of Latvian bourgeoisie which made iga the center of National Awakening. This particular social phenomenon entailed a string of nationalist movements (ibid., par.15).

German occupation in iga during World…… [Read More]

References

History of Nations. (n.d.) "History of Latvia." Retrieved from www.historyofnations.net/europe/latvia.html. On December 1.

Latvia & Riga. (n.d.). "History." Retrieved at http://www.latvia-riga.com/history_latvia.htm#on December 1, 2008.

New World Encyclopedia, (n.d.). "Riga, Latvia." Retrieved at  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Riga,_Latviaon  December 1, 2008.

U.S. Department of State. (n.d.). "Background Note: Latvia." Retrieved from www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5378.htm. On December 1.
View Full Essay

History of the Resurrection Tradition

Words: 3003 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41643718

History Resurrection

The History of Resurrection Tradition

According to Merriam-ebster dictionary, the word 'resurrection' stands for "the state of one risen from the dead." Generally, resurrection refers to restoration to life of the person who is clinically dead.

Concept of resurrection has been in existence in one form or the other since the very birth of the first human being in this planet. Over the centuries, different religions and mythological schools of thought have defined and taken the tradition of resurrection in different ways; therefore, it is always hard to find any commonly agreed fact about it.

For further clarification, it will be necessary to point out that resurrection stands apart from the concepts of 'immortality of soul' and 'resuscitation' as it involves the rebirth of both body and soul (Harrington).

It will not be wrong to say that the tradition of resurrection is closely associated with the philosophy of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Harrington, D., J. Jesus: A Historical Portrait. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2007.

Inplainsite.org. 9 October 2011

Keathley, J.H."The Resurrection of Jesus Christ."09 October 2011 <

 http://bible.org/article/resurrection-jesus-christ >.
View Full Essay

History of Automakers Ford Motor

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 88504505

The company is now considered the second largest automaker in the world. Within one year after its inception, the company brought well-known brands under its name such as Cadillac, Cartercar and Pontiac. The company was originally owned by William Durant but excessive debt cost him the ownership in 1910 when the bank took it over. Durant then started the Chevrolet Motor company. In 1920s, the company sales surpassed those of Ford Motor Company due to brilliant leadership of Alfred Sloan. In the next decade, the company expanded and started Greyhound bus service. During the Second World War, the company faced threat of nationalization from Nazi government. But due to personal and business contacts, the company abandoned its German operations in return for a complete tax write-off. Its post war growth was impressive as General Motors became the first ever U.S. company to pay $1 billion in taxes. It was also…… [Read More]

References

History of Ford Motor Company: http://wardsautoworld.com/ar/auto_history_ford_motor/

History of General Motors:  http://www.gm.com/corporate/about/history/
View Full Essay

History of Economics the Role

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36727662

But the home was very important for other reasons, again overshadowing the economy. Now people buy homes based on where they can find jobs, or even experience forced moves from their jobs -- this would have been unthinkable then.

A third interesting factor of early economies is the goal of self-sufficiency that individuals had. Large amounts of wealth were not really attainable, and the basic goal of the time was to have everything you needed. This was the definition of success, whereas poverty meant you were dependent on someone else, not just underprivileged. This leads to a fourth point Polanyi makes, specifically about kinship-organized societies. These groups especially tended to have little extraneous wealth, so there were very few exchanges that actually changed economic status. Such exchanges almost always marked major occasions, like proposals and/or weddings. The principles of exchange in these times were either utilitarian or symbolic, and not…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Economic Thought Mercantilist

Words: 2556 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47524446

It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.

But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…… [Read More]

References

Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952

Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998

Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations

http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008
View Full Essay

History of Science-Patronage Guiding Thinkers

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13308766

Therefore, it can be said that the patronage of Federico Cesi was important for Galileo because it placed him in contact with well-known scientists, it offered him the possibility to conduct research by consulting materials from a variety of fields, thus broadening the spectrum of his analysis, and, at the same time, it enabled him to conduct research that would probably bring him prestige and fortune due to the respectability of the group he is part of.

The oyal Academy of Science of Paris is yet another remarkable example of patronage. However, this example points out a new level of motivation for patronage. During the reign of Louis 16th, the oyal Academy of Science came under royal patronage to point out the fact that "the king was the source of everything that happened in his kingdom" (Dear, 115). However, the king at the time had little interest in the actual…… [Read More]

References

Dear, Peter. Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001

Lindberg, David C. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. To a.D. 1450. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
View Full Essay

History of Chopsticks Chopsticks Eating

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81979963

71). Because of this, with few exceptions, the Japanese eat nearly everything with chopsticks. Many Japanese do not want to eat sandwiches with their hands, and in Japan, sandwiches are cut into small pieces and served with toothpicks (Grew, p. 266). Chopsticks play an important role from a child's earliest days in Japan to teach the importance of not eating with the hands. Around 100 days after its birth, a small ceremony is held where the child is introduced to solid food. Soft food suitable for a small baby is prepared and placed in front of the child. The mother uses never-before-used chopsticks to give the baby morsels of the solid food (endry, p. 36).

But while the Japanese culture was using chopsticks as part of a cultural interest in cleanliness, in China, chopsticks became a symbol of their cultural value on belonging to a group rather than standing out…… [Read More]

Hendry, Joy. Becoming Japanese: The World of the Pre-School Child. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1986.

Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. "Rice as Self: Japanese Identities through Time." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Shih, Chih-Yu. Negotiating Ethnicity in China: Citizenship as a Response to the State. Oxford, England: Routledge, 2002.