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The significance of this finding is primarily that the recorded diversity level of the species studied corresponds directly to all the other elements of the complex ecosystem processes essential to the planet's atmosphere and to the continued replenishment of the planet's surface.
Danovaro also points out that the direct relationship between the number of supported species and the efficiency of ecosystem processes revealed in his findings demonstrate that the deep-sea ecosystem is even more dependent on biodiversity than previously thought. On land, biodiversity is known to be important in the overall ecosystem, but it is only one of many other interrelated component of overall ecosystem efficiency and health. Apparently, in the underwater environment, biodiversity is not just another contributing factor, but rather, it is the single most important specific aspect of measurable factors that determines the state of the entire ecosystem.
The findings announced by Danovaro are particularly significant far…… [Read More]
Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire originally aired on the National Geographic Channel in August, 2007 as part of the Naked Science series produced by Ben Fox and Ian Hunt. The hour-long Ring of Fire program focuses on scientific efforts to understand the danger posed by the 25,000-mile long chain of volcanoes and earthquakes that makes up the Ring of Fire. The video explores scientific explanations for a rise in volcanic activity throughout the Ring of Fire, and discusses ways of predicting future volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis.
The Ring of Fire is a horseshoe shaped region surrounding the Pacific basin that comprises 90% of the world's volcanoes, and 80% of the world's largest earthquakes. The Ring of Fire is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, island arcs, and volcanic mountain ranges and plate movements. It is also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire,…… [Read More]
Climate modeling does not yet enable the detailed analysis of individual storms, but it does analyze the trends of the factors known to cause severe thunderstorms, including warm, moist atmospheric conditions near the ground, cold, dry air higher in the atmosphere, and winds traveling upwards from the ground to higher regions of the atmosphere. Generally, climate modeling uses information from grids representing specific regions of the country. As the technology and sophistication of the computer programs continues to improve, scientists expect to be able to study smaller and smaller areas with even greater specificity and accuracy. Subsequent studies are already being planned to do so by increasing the resolution of the imaging as well as by analyzing individual storms.
Unfortunately, that means certain areas like New York and Atlanta will be affected by global warming much more than the rest of the country as a whole.
Even worse, the research…… [Read More]
Furthermore, whereas the European Parliament originally intended for the aviation sector to comply with the new restrictions on emissions by 2011, the recent EU Environmental Council in Brussels proposed postponing that another year to 2012.
More importantly, there are financial mechanisms capable of limiting the ability of regulated industries to purchase exemptions that function very much the same way traffic fines do. Instead of limiting the opportunity to do so within the aviation industry, the recent Council proposal set a very relaxed standard that will enable the aviation industry to simply pay for the right to continue to pollute at rates that are not significantly reduced as intended. At the same time, the European Council has proposed a reduction of 8% from the 1990 emission levels by the year 2012. In view of the loopholes that currently would allow the industry to simply pay its way out of full compliance,…… [Read More]
Essentially, it is a systems theory that sees systems that are apparently disorganized (that is unpredictable because of the large amount of variables) as systems that do have order, it is just complex and we need to find it. Some call it the butterfly effect due to that the flapping of a butterfly's wings in China might have an effect on Peru's weather. Even the most sophisticated computers cannot analyze the number of variables that are needed to predict climate or weather. Thus, our task is to uncover more robust data and analysis systems that can take variables like industrialization, automobiles, large fields of grain, large herds of cattle, etc. And plug into a model that makes sense ("Chaos Theory, " n.d.)
What are the implications of the results of this study?
Clearly, the implications of the study are twofold: more data needs to be analyzed prior to making any…… [Read More]
The water acquisition in these areas depends specifically on the amount of rain fall. Its climate is affected by the North Pacific High, an oceanic high pressure cell that regulates the moderate temperature ranges. The city lies on the west side of the mountains, so the area receives much more precipitation (University of Illinois 2010). Most Mediterranean climates occur on the Western end of continents. Berkeley, and the entire Californian coast receives most of its rainfall during the winter months, therefore the precipitation rates will be the highest in the winter months than the rest of the year. Moreover, the Ocean regulates temperature in this area, which is completely absent in the case of Terre Haute Indiana. ather, Berkeley is surrounded by the ocean and mountains, which are the factors that have a primary affect on the differences between the two areas' water budgets.
WATE BUDGET for TEE HAUTE, INDIANA…… [Read More]
Earth Science class topic Mars. Attached documents style report properly. 2-10 sources peer-reviews journal. And 2 figures. Please read documents. In text citations needed .
Mars has always been one of the most intriguing planets in the solar systems and society did not hesitate to relate through the planet both from an astronomic point-of-view and from a cultural perspective. The fact that it is very probable for primitive life to exist below the planet's surface makes it possible for the masses to understand that this planet is not as different from earth as they might be inclined to imagine. One of the most effective methods to learn more about Mars would be to compare it to Earth. This would enable individuals to become acquainted with the planet's particularities and with its similarities to other planets in the solar system.
The planet's history and its relationship to mankind
a. Mars' contemporary…… [Read More]
earth science. Earth Science being the study of the Earth is concerned with changes of the surface and interior of the Earth, and the forces that cause these changes (eed, 2008). Furthermore, Earth Science examines the interaction between Earth's weather and climate, the changes of organisms through time as interpreted by organic evolution. This article outlines factors that could make humanity extinct; natural disasters, human-triggered cataclysms, willful self-destruction, and greater forces directed against us. This article's theme is important as it addresses factors that when critically looked at have effects on the Earth's structure. Understanding the future is important as it helps individuals to take measures before any damage is realized.
Aims of the Article
This article's main objective is to ascertain whether human beings face the imminent danger of extinction from the universe. The article fulfills this objective by outlining factors that could see an end to humanity in…… [Read More]
IX. Teacher presentation
The teacher's presentation in inquiry-based learning must be one that presents questions to the students. This can be best achieved through an interesting presentation that requires students to actively and fully participate in that which is being presented by the teacher. Capturing the classroom attention in this activity may be easily accomplished through filling a basket or box with oddities relating to earth science and to one-by-one pull them out of the container and lay them on the object being used for the presentation (i.e. teacher's desk, table, etc.) and to then ask the students what the object is allowing the students to guess, discuss and debate, and then providing the correct answer. But this is not the only question asked as the answer leads to more questions. For example: The teacher removes a conch shell from the basket holding the mystery items. The students guess and…… [Read More]
The Texas A&M University (1996-2007) claims that the Continental Tropical air mass is probably what's developing in the state of Arizona. These represent dry, hot air masses being created over southwest U.S. and north Mexico. The air mass makes its way into the U.S. via western Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, and typically moves in the east to northeast direction, carrying dry, hot air to the state of Texas. The precipitation direly needed in summer months is often brought by the thunderstorms and rain showers that form.
As per the Texas A&M University's (1996-2007) explanation, a majority of thunderstorms take place during the evenings or late afternoons, following maximum warming by radiation. During late afternoons, instability will probably be at its peak, on account of daytime heating, which increases the PBL (planetary boundary layer)-middle layer temperature gradient. With occurrence of daytime heating, the capacity of…… [Read More]
Interdisciplinary Education in Earth Sciences and Sustainability
Increasingly, educational scholars are observing the distinctive cognitive value in classroom projects that cross disciplinary boundaries and drive students to employ multiple learning strategies in completing academic tasks. This denotes the ambition to render curricular procedure and academic content according to the broader needs that must be fulfilled as one moves forward on one's academic journey. Accordingly, the approach taken to academics in this project proposal will center on the refinement of more generally applicable skill sets such as interpersonal communication, team orientation and learning through practical usage of emergent skills in science and mathematics disciplines. This approach will be modeled in accordance with the Common Core State Standards authored by the State of New York.
The project designed here would place students in groups, designated each group to study and create a presentation on a specific ecosystem. Possible selections would include the…… [Read More]
Foucault’s Pendulum is one of the key aspects that has been discussed and debated about in the course of time since its establishment. The main argument made by Foucault’s pendulum is to show proof that the earth actually rotates. The experiment introduced a pendulum that is already set in motion in a careful manner to evade the instigation of any slanting motion by tying it with a strand. Strangely, the pendulum then seems to alter its direction of swing in the course of time devoid of any external output or influence. This is to show that it is in actual fact that the Earth is the one rotating, whilst the pendulum goes on to swing in the similar plan in relation to the rest of the universe (Sparks, 2013). For instance, when an experiment is conducted, every time the pendulum goes through a swing for a period of…… [Read More]
One of the top performers, Singapore, boasts a very different approach towards mathematics education: "hile a single lesson in a U.S. textbook might span two pages and take one class period to go through, a lesson in a Singapore textbook might use five to ten pages and take several days to complete. The Singapore texts contain no narrative explanation of how a procedure or concept works; instead, there are problems and questions accompanied by pictures that provide hints about what is going on" (Garelick 2006: 1). However, an attempt to adapt such an approach in one Montgomery, Alabama school suburban district was abandoned, as it was feared that introducing new methods of teaching math within districts might make it difficult for students to meet state standards on standardized tests at the end of the year.
True, many Asian nations such as Korea also have national science and math educations and…… [Read More]
This type of evolutionary thinking will challenge the initial creationist act as well. Many creationist currents, including the Christian one, believe that human life was also created through divine intervention, so any kind of such approach where life actually evolved to form the human being along the way takes away the special characteristics of human kind, as perceived by Christianity, for example. So, evolutionism virtually challenges the entire theological belief on the history of Earth and its inhabitants.
4. Logical positivism is based on general skepticism towards mythology, theology or metaphysics and on the idea that all true facts can and have to be verified in order to become veridical. In this sense, besides empiricism and materialism, verificationism is also one of the pillars on which logical positivism is based.
For a fact, proposition or idea to be cognitively meaningful, it has to be able to follow a particular path…… [Read More]
Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2)
MOISTURE-RELATED HABITAT PREFERENCES IN ISOPODS
PROJECT DESIGN PLAN
Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality they are the only terrestrial species of crustacean, and are evolutionarily more related to crabs, shrimp and lobster than any kind of "bug."
This evolutionary relationship to so many aquatic species -- and the dearth of land crustaceans besides the isopods -- raises interesting questions about the isopod choice of habitat.
Crustaceans obviously have a system of underwater respiration using gills. Isopods also have these gills but do not live underwater: they are predominantly found in moist damp environments (beneath a rotting log).
But could isopods live underwater if necessary, or are their gills fully adapted to land life now?
I proposed an experiment to determine habitat preferences in isopods. It would offer a representative sampling of isopods…… [Read More]
Science and Religion: Conflict
Historical and Psychological Reasons for the Conflict Between Science and Religion
There is obvious controversy on the tensions between science and religion. A growing number of well-known figures deny any logical conflict between science and religion. For example, Langdon Gilkey says the following:
[T]o say that evolution' excludes God' is [. . .] merely to say that it is a theory within natural science. It is not to say that this theory is essentially atheistic or represents atheism. It is because science is limited to a certain level of explanation that scientific and religious theories can exist side by side without excluding one another, that one person can hold both to the scientific accounts of origins and to a religious account, to the creation of all things by God [. . .].
Ian Barbour believes that science and religion are "complementary languages," complementary ways of analyzing…… [Read More]
The information collected through these observations would then be documented and organized in ways that support the understanding of the underlying phenomena (Wolff, 2012).
Throughout history, scientific revolution has always centered on investigations that are conducted and developed through various observations. This process of investigation or observation has also included the review of existing scientific beliefs or practices. According to Francis Bacon, scientific revolution begins from existing evidence and gradually proceeds from specific observations to provisional generalizations or theories. The process is then cautiously repeated to establish some general truths that can be the basis of people's beliefs.
The scientific investigations that form the nature of scientific revolution are also based on observations that are directed by theory. ather than the mere collection and tabulation of data, scientific observations are in the form of hypotheses, which are also known as experiments. This is largely because experiments help in approving or…… [Read More]
First you have to list why this misconception is correct.
Misconception: Energy gets used up or runs out
Reasons why this is false: One of the basic laws of science is the Law of Conservation of Energy is that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.
Describe a non-mathematical way to help your students correct their misconception of this idea.
Suppose you were freezing in your home and wanted to get warm. You could use the Law of Conservation of Energy to warm yourself. Take some wood and put it into the fireplace. The wood has potential energy within it. Next, light a match and apply the small flame to the dry wood. By burning the wood, the potential energy from the material is released into the air and produces fire. The change from potential energy to kinetic…… [Read More]
Otherwise, one field risks becoming subordinate to the other; although it's likely that Coyne's theology is extraordinarily sophisticated, the brief excerpt of it that Bill Maher uses leads the viewer to suspect that if these precepts are followed to their logical conclusion, religion will always give way to science as John Paul II gave way to the certainty that organisms evolve over time.
If so, then efforts to restore faith to a more equal footing are naturally vulnerable to claims that they are reactionary attempts to usurp science's rightful and supreme interpretative role in modern life. It is easy to understand Richard Dawkins' profound revulsion over what he sees as resurgent religiosities surrounding Islamic fundamentalism on the one hand and Christian fundamentalisms on the other: These faith-oriented responses to world events pose an implicit challenge to his own conviction that all aspects of experience are the product of physical entities…… [Read More]
Such things, however, do not appear impossible given the state of science today.
There is one area of concern that science cannot totally resolve, unless it builds a time machine and can go into the future. That is, what are the total ramifications that result from science's wonders? Albert Einstein did not consider nuclear bombs when coming up with the equation of E=mc2
He considered himself a pacifist, yet encouraged the building of the bomb for fear that the Germans would create it first. He was looking toward the future. As he wrote to physicist Niels Bohr in December 1944, "When the war is over, then there will be in all countries a pursuit of secret war preparations with technological means, which will lead inevitably to preventative wars and to destruction even more terrible than the present destruction of life" (Clark, 2007, pg. 698). Then, close to death he stated:…… [Read More]
An object's heat capacity is the product of its precise heat capacity, which is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of the material one degree, and it's mass in kg. Heat capacity is a widespread property of a matter. In other words its worth varies depending on how much matter is present (Jorgensen, 2011).
What are the various sources of heat?
The sun is an element of the solar system. Therefore, it is a natural source of heat energy. Sunlight is significant for the survival of all living things. This type of heat energy is also known as solar energy.
The heat energy that is obtained from the Earth is known as geothermal energy. Sustainable and unsoiled geothermal energy can be obtained from the hot water and rocks that are located in the shallow ground. It is also located in the molten rocks obtainable in the farthest…… [Read More]
In the last fifteen or so years the concerns about vaccinations, and particularly the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccination (MMR) have come to the forefront of societies debates from a limited connection to autism that is most likely associated to the correlation between onset of symptoms of autism and autism spectrum disorders and standard immunization practices. The fear created a general public that was afraid to allow their children to get the life saving MMR and in turn many parents have denied their children vaccinations at all. Parents' fears of some connection between the vaccination and/or its ingredient makeup cause or trigger autism and an accompanying serious bowel disease is related to a single, very limited research study conducted in the UK (n 12). There has been a substantial increase in incidents of autism over the last 20 or so years and the extreme social, physical, emotional, financial and…… [Read More]
Geneticists have been trying to unearth so-called founder mutations: one original genetic mutation that subsequently caused generations of people to carry and/or suffer from a serious illness like sickle cell anemia. Unlike many other mutations, founder mutations can be traced to one original ancestor. The discovery and study of founder mutations allows anthropologists to research the general patterns of human migration, providing a more complete understanding of history. Religion views genetic mutations in a different light. Many fundamentalist Christians, for example, might propose that disease is God-given. Yet if Mary Schweizer, an Evangelical Christian scientist, can unite religion with science then anyone can. Her devotion to fundamental Christian thought is not at odds with her scientific endeavors, according to Yeoman. In fact, Schweizer views science as a spiritual endeavor, as a means to discover the meaning of life, death, and seeming anomalies. Religion and science share common goals and objectives…… [Read More]
Sci-Fi Art Analysis
The class text makes two passing references to Star Trek. ith that in mind, the author of this report will focus on the show Star Trek: The Next Generation. Although rather dated, much of the material and imagery used in the show is very good even by today's standards. The show ran from 1987 to 1994, seven seasons in total. The show was a brilliant piece of art both in terms of the subject matter they covered as well as the manner in which it was presented in terms of color, presentation, concepts and ideas. The show is rated a very high 8.7 on the International Movie Database (IMDb) website (IMDb). This brief report shall cover some aspects of the show, what made the show so good and the adeptness in which they blended the script, the imagery and the characters into a cohesive storyline. hile Star…… [Read More]
South Florida, especially Broward County, has showed the most eagerness, with eighty seven percent in favor of solar energy investment. Central Florida and the Gulf Coast were close behind, and eighty percent of those living in North Florida also favored more state venture for solar energy. hile voters of all ages said they approved of spending more on solar, ninety three percent of those between eighteen and thirty four agreed. Statewide, the accord crossed party lines, with eighty two percent of Republicans favoring more public capital for solar energy, compared with eighty seven percent of Democrats. The poll also showed strong support for solar energy even if it led to an increase in utility bills. Overall, eighty one percent of those polled said they were willing to pay more each month on their utility bill to sustain solar energy (Poll: Support up for solar energy investment, 2008).
The sun is…… [Read More]
He even goes so far as to claim that if global warming does occur, it will be a positive thing. Higher temperatures would be positive for agriculture and forests. He believes that higher temperatures will actually cause sea levels to drop, and wraps up his interview with the cheery optimism that everyone appreciates warmer weather.
igley isn't quite as upbeat. He points out that because uncertainty is a built in component of the climate models, it is just as likely that the scientists have erred on the side of caution as it is that they have erred on the side of excess. This means that the effects of global warming could be much worse than what the models predict. His overall concern:
I]t's not so much just the temperature changes, but it's the changes in all other aspects of the environment: amounts of precipitation, the ability for vegetation to maintain…… [Read More]
As a student taking an earth science class from a conservative, evangelical Christian institution of higher education, I am interested in the debate between creationist and evolutionists. Honestly, I enter into this course with some serious misgivings about some of the basic tenets of young earth creationism based on what I have been taught in a non-religious scientific context. I also, however, have some concerns about what I have been taught about old-earth evolutionary science as it seems to ignore the presence of God, which not only flies in the face of Christian theology, but also in the face of evidence of a historical belief in deities that seems to be part of human nature and would not make sense in a world without a higher power. As a result, I am left with several different specific questions in the young-earth / old earth debate. The first specific…… [Read More]
Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:
ased on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.
This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers
Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)
In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014…… [Read More]
Third Grade Science Instruction Plan
The Florida state standards for science education and knowledge achievements in the third grade essentially consist of background knowledge in all of the major branches of scientist inquiry and knowledge -- earth science, physical sciences, and life sciences (FDE 2010). This includes fundamental knowledge regarding the nature of matter and an introduction of types of matter, an understanding of energy and a knowledge of different objects that emit energy in the forms of heat and light and the basics of the energy life cycle amongst organisms on earth (FDE 2010). There are also numerous specific learning objectives identified in each of these and other areas of scientific knowledge that are defined by the state as necessary; the following lesson description touches on several of these areas (FDE 2010).
Earth in Space and Time
One popular way of introducing earth as it exists in space is…… [Read More]
It undergoes a transition from the olivine structure to the spinel structure. These transitions account for the discontinuous increase of the Earth's mantle as observed by seismic instruments.
6. How do mountains in the ocean basin differ from those on land?
Mountains in the ocean basins are perpetually being "recycled" through subduction zones. Therefore, the rock that they are made of differs in composition to mountains on land because of their younger age and mineral composition. Many of the mountains on land were created through uplifts in the crust, where rock from the crust was pushed upward and folded over time and time again. These types of rock have more metamorphic qualities while the ocean-bottom mountains tend to be more volcanic in nature and are more igneous. Also, the oceanic crust is made of basalt vs. The continental crust made of granite.
7. Why are continents so much higher than…… [Read More]
A Symbolic Analysis of Another Earth
Movies, for better or for worse, are a reflection of popular culture in one way or another; mainstream films tend to show exactly what a culture likes to consume, while more "independent" or at times "experimental" films reflect culture from other perspectives that are perhaps not the dominant voices in society. Either way, however, films cannot help but provide some insight into who we are, what we desire, and what our world looks like. Examining films in with this understanding and in this context provides some very interesting insights into our culture and ourselves, and how we are likely to respond to changing circumstances and possible realities. The film Another Earth does this quite explicitly, as the following analysis of the film in light of other social commentary shows.
The central conceit of this science fiction film from writer/director Mike Cahill (co-authored by…… [Read More]
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…… [Read More]
Students in the 21st century have the opportunity to learn at a rapid pace, through the use of new media and new pedagogical methods. New media shifts the pedagogical focus away from fragmented knowledge towards a more integrative and multidisciplinary understanding of the natural world. 21st century learning engages students with material, encouraging them to think creatively and critically rather than simply learning by rote memorization. Science curricula in public schools should reflect the new tools and technologies of the 21st century.
The Australian science curricula remains committed to 21st century learning and the development of effective citizens. To develop effective citizens, science teachers need to cultivate in their students a sense of curiosity or scientific inquiry and an appreciation for the scientific method of answering questions. A scientific worldview encourages students to ask probing questions and shows them how to find the answers to those questions. Science is a…… [Read More]
China vs. Europe
Compare the development of science and technology in these two civilizations: China and Europe. In what ways did cultural, social, and political factors influence development of science and technology?
It is easy to view scientific progress in a comparative fashion. hich power was 'better' at scientific progress, China or Europe, one might ask? But such a pairing of opposites is in fact a false dichotomy. Both civilizations saw, over the course of early modernity, tremendous technical as well as intellectual advances in their civilization's understanding of science. However, although Europe's religious and political intransigence to scientific discovery often presented itself as an obstacle, ultimately its greater openness and willingness to study and take into consideration advances of foreign cultures proved its 'making,' while China's geographical and political isolation, for all of its intellectual ferment proved its undoing in terms of becoming an early modern power of scientific…… [Read More]
For example, towards the end of Falling Free Van Atta finds an old memo in his e-mail with orders to kill the Quaddies: "Item: Post-fetal experimental tissue cultures. Quantity: 1,000. Disposition: cremation by IGS standard biolab rules" (p. 293). Van Atta notices that the order came from "General Accounting and Inventory Control" and was signed by "some unknown middle manager in the GA& IC back on Earth." Van Atta says, "I don't think this twit even knows what Quaddies are." Similarly, non-sensical orders come down all the time in the military, which is organized along corporate lines, from people who know nothing about local situations.
In a large corporation it is difficult to affix moral responsibility on individuals. When scandals erupt (Enron, for example), the CEO will claim he didn't know anything about what was going on. Employees lower in the hierarchy need their incomes, and they may be reluctant…… [Read More]
Space Travel Proposal
Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism.
The New Demand For Space Travel
The Rise of the Leisure Class
A New Manifest Destiny
Existing Space Tourism Companies
Other rising companies
Research and Development
The independent inventor's role
Alien intervention and other sources of data
Leadership and Guidance.
Who will lead?
A case for government to lead.
International governmental cooperation.
Better to build in space?
Better build on Earth and launch?
This essay will examine the idea of developing space vehicles for the new and demanding space travel and tourism industry. The purpose of the essay will be to highlight the key and important information regarding this topic and present the many differing options that this may be accomplished and ultimately achieved with purpose and…… [Read More]
Earth evolves Around the Sun
Is this idea/theory/episode/question an example of scientific activity? Why or why not?
It's important to bear in mind that the philosophers of hundreds of years ago didn't always believe that the Earth revolved around the sun. Many of these thinkers believed that the sun revolved around the Earth and that the Earth was the center of the universe -- with the sun and all the stars and planets revolving around it. However, the complicated movement of the sun made this a very difficult theory to support. "The Sun, however, does not merely rise in the east and set in the west. You can see for yourself that the Sun only rises directly in the east on the equinoxes: at all other times of the year, it rises in the northeast (summer) or southeast (winter). Also, the Sun moves with respect to the stars: the Sun…… [Read More]
ability to measure and track the results from any scientific experiment is extremely important to both the validity and truthfulness of the work. Scientists often have problems in certain sciences due to the scope of their investigation. As a result of these mismatches, indirect avenues of approach become necessary to measure and grasp the items of inquiry.
In physics, the atomic theory is based upon indirect measurements. The neutron, proton and electron are merely ideas that have been modeled due to the technology that is available to scientists. An electron has never been physically produced and only its characteristics have been noticed. This is an important distinction, because too often scientists take many of these long standing practices for granted and have assumed the presence of these particles, when there is compelling evidence there is not. Jessa (2009) reminded us that "This understanding the atom helped to fuel many other…… [Read More]
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)
Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups
The Earth Liberation Front
If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)
There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.
This…… [Read More]
eligion or Science?
Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…… [Read More]
History Of Nursing Science
Nursing has existed in some for as long as humans have roamed the earth. The modern era of nursing began with the emergence of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War in the 1850's. The daughter of affluent parents, Nightingale greatly accelerated the development of nursing and is widely acknowledged as the most important person in the history of nursing. Nursing science translates to the profession itself in the form of best practices that have been formulated, debated, reviewed and analyzed so as to verify the validity of nursing theories before they are put into practice.
As is the case with many nurses and others who dedicate their lives to the care of others, Nightingale was driven largely by her spirituality and religious convictions. Many people perceive there to be an inherent conflict between religion and science but Nightingale did not believe this to be…… [Read More]
The main theme used by Dawkins in "The Selfish Gene" is that of doubt. For example, as Dawkins speaks about how due to the results of teaching, people have come to assume that traits inherited genetically are fixed and cannot be modified (Dawkins, 3). Even though genes may program one to be selfish, one is not necessarily forced to comply with the traits he or she inherited, all the time. It would also be somewhat difficult for one to learn how to be unselfish, if he or she was not in the first place, genetically modified, to be unselfish (Dawkins, 3).
Unlike all animals, man is largely influenced by the environment or culture, and other influences that have been inherited from his ancestors. Some would argue that culture is such an important influence to man in that whether or not one has selfish genes, it does not matter…… [Read More]
Wulf, S.J. (2000). "The skeptical life in Hume's political thought. Polity, 33(1), 77.
Wulf uses David Hume's well-known skepticism to advance his concerning the extreme degrees to which philosophy had been taken before returning to less radical modes. He develops material about the antithetical ideas to those investigated here; that is, he puts into a context the ideas of those philosophers who, working at the edge of the intelligible, refused to "accede to the judgment of reason and even their own senses."
ukav, Gary. (1984) the dancing Wu Li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: Bantam.
One of the first statements ukav makes in this book is that he found, visiting the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Berkeley, California, that physics "was not the sterile, boring discipline that I had assumed it to be. It was a rich, profound venture, which had become inseparable from philosophy. Incredibly, no…… [Read More]
A scientist is a person who engages in systematic activities in order to gain knowledge. A person who makes use of scientific methods is also a scientist. The person must be an expert in one scientific field. A scientist will study the world, perform experiments, develop theories and write all this in papers (Weingart, 2012). Any person who is interested in the sciences is a scientist. From amateurs to professionals, provided the individual is curious to find out what would happen when he performs an experiment, the person is a scientist. Some of the famous scientists are Charles Darwin, Aristotle, Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, and Leonardo Da Vinci. These scientists have been widely covered and spoken of in the media. These individuals have excelled in their respective fields. They have experimented and made theory discoveries that are still in use to date. Most of their works have not been…… [Read More]
Pendulum Waves Science Fair eport
ichard Berg from the University of Maryland explained in his journal how to build a set of uncoupled pendula, which display "pendulum waves" back in 1991. The patterns exhibited by this demonstration are quite breathtaking and the manner in which the patterns actually cycle is nothing less than spectacular. This demonstration is available in The Video Encyclopedia of Physics and it is also somehow simple to construct from scratch. The aim of this report is to discuss how the wave-like patterns created by the swinging pendula could be explained by a simple extension to the standard decryption of transverse oscillating waves in a single dimension (Couder, Proti'ere, Fort and Boudaoud, 2005). Apart from the math being very graceful in its right, it is also useful to know that the recurring patterns observed in the pendula in fact surface from aliasing of the fundamental continual function,…… [Read More]
Smith notes that it may be impossible to unequivocally prove something with one hundred percent accuracy; rather, scientists seek probability.
The term theory is often misconstrued: Smith states that "theories always explain facts." Moreover, there is no clear demarcation between a theory and a hypothesis. Theories are basically broad hypotheses. Laws, on the other hand, are more restrictive and are often derived from theories. The practice of science entails experimentation as well as presentation to the scientific community. When the research is presented to other scientists, it is usually done so through peer-reviewed journals. Often other scientists will critique and critically evaluate the scientific experiment and attempt to replicate it. When the experiment has been replicated the hypothesis may become part of the canon of established science and from there, common knowledge.
Because science can only deal with what is observable and measurable, it can not apply to philosophy, aesthetics,…… [Read More]
Science Fiction Stories -- Comparisons / Contrasts
all-E & Blade Runner -- Utopia vs. Dystopia
The two well-known science fiction films that are critiqued in this paper -- all-E and Blade Runner -- will be critiqued and contrasted as to the following dichotomies: utopia and dystopia; technophobia and technophilia; and futurity and nostalgia. Thesis: these films both delve into the potentially disastrous environmental future for the planet, and each in its own way provides an alternative future.
all-E and Utopia: This ravaged planet is no utopia in the traditional sense, for sure, but all-E has evolved over the past 700 years; some kind of mutation perhaps is what has allowed him to survive in a highly radioactive environment. To survive alone with the exception of a cockroach (which is one of the few species that can survive horrendous polluting events like radiation) is proof of his survivability. After all, utopia…… [Read More]
Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century," Mortenson (2003) offers an apology for and defense of the Christian creation story. The author's primary defense of the iblical creation story is that there are "social, moral, and spiritual implications" of believing in science. The strengths of the article include the fact that it is mildly entertaining, appeals to a specific audience, and provides some insight into the history of science and ideas in the nineteenth century. The weaknesses of the article include erroneous claims and false assumptions. Therefore, the weaknesses of the article outweigh its strengths.
rief Overview and Main Points
"The Origin of Old-Earth Geology and its Ramifications for Life in the 21st Century" is a brief article that primarily outlines the evolution of scientific thought regarding the origin of the Earth. Mortenson (2003) refers to Enlightenment-era scientists and their theories of how the…… [Read More]
But global warming advocates and skeptics have both fallen afoul of scientific facts. The author of an Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore was forced to remove a slideshow from a presentation on global warming "after the Belgian research group that assembled the disaster data said he had misrepresented what was driving the upward trend. The group said a host of factors contributed to the trend with climate change possibly being one of them" (Revkin 2009). Conservative anti-global warming columnist George ill wrote a column that was attacked by the scientists whose research he used to prove the absence of climate change -- they said their data showed the area of the ice shrinking, not expanding, contrary to ill's statements in his column (Revkin 2009).
Reality tends to be more contradictory than slanted political platforms: "Some regions of Antarctica, particularly the peninsula that stretches toward South America, have warmed rapidly in recent…… [Read More]
Feminist Hermeneutics and Biblical Studies
Terry Mortenson's "The origins of old-earth geology…" is quite an interesting read. The author covers a fair amount of both scientific and religious history in a relatively short amount of text. He writes with a certain scholarly flair, and is discussing pivotal information about the history of the earth and how that has been interpreted by men of different religious convictions. Typically, articles that address these two concepts diametrically oppose them. To Mortenson's credit he actually bridges these two concepts, and elucidates little known history in the process.
Mortenson's work largely details the history of the time-honored debate between what he terms "old-world geologists" and "scriptural geologists" (Mortenson, 2003) regarding an accounting of the earth's history and point of origination. The several men who encompass the former group tended to believe that the earth is much older than the age ascribed to it in the…… [Read More]
The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus,…… [Read More]
Environment Science education and its effect on Students' Improvement
Does the current curriculum actually improve the student's decision making regarding environmental issues?
Sample Size and Sampling Method
Time Frame for the Study
Scope and Limitations
Current Environmental Science Curriculum
Is the current curriculum design actually improves the decision making regarding environmental issues?
For years it has been a tough job to implement the appropriate environmental education in the colleges. esearch in the field has pointed out several challenges in the creation of effective environmental curricula. esearchers also examined different strategies being used for the promotion of student awareness as well as fostering them to engage in the ever changing circumstances. The empirical research studies have made it clear that just acquiring the information on the environment science and ecology is not enough to motivate students to practically participate in environment protection. For the motivation there is a need…… [Read More]
The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…… [Read More]
Philosophy of Science
Scientific theories allow scientists to organize their observations regarding reality and existence, and predict or create future observations or results. Scientific theories need to be consistent, testable, verifiable and useful in order to be valid and reliable. Theories are typically ideas about the ways in which things work. Scientific theory relates to logical and empirical criteria that can be tested and validated. For science to exist and to be considered valid there must be a logically consistent idea presented to the public that explains certain conditions or realities. To be valid, science must explain something and should be proven via experimentation. Science should also enable the user to have a better understanding of the item or issue it is explaining. This relates to validity.
Thesis) will argue in this paper that science needs to be independently verified to be considered science but also that science does not…… [Read More]
Origin of Life on Earth
At present, scientists are still in search of the answer to how life originated on Earth. Until now, they are continuously studying several kinds of facts and are carrying on with their research. At the moment, there are 3 competing theories on the origin of life on Earth i.e. The Panspermia Theory, The Heterotrophic Theory and the Autotrophic Theory.
The Panspermia Theory
The Panspermia Theory was proposed by Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, in the early 20th century. He suggested that life on Earth did not begin on this planet but came from space. Panspermia is a Greek word whereby spermia means seeds and pan means everywhere. This theory supports the idea that simple life forms are capable of travelling in space can expand in any atmosphere or setting. Another feature of the theory denotes the idea that the growth and expansion of living organisms…… [Read More]
teaching space science. There are various complexities that affect the way that astronomy is taught, not the least of which is the enormity of scale that space science involves.
One of the basic requirements for understanding astronomy is coming to terms with the vastness of the universe. For example, a basic unit of astronomical measurement is the light year. Merriam-ebster defines the light year as "a unit of length in astronomy equal to the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum or about 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers" (2011). hile this definition conveys factual data, it does little to make the concept real, that is, accessible to the average student.
Moreover, trying to convey the reality of light traveling at the unimaginably fast speed of 299,792 kilometers per second (186,282 miles per second) is indeed mind-boggling. Even at such amazing speeds, light takes years to…… [Read More]
The inner core, meanwhile, has greater density, at 13, and temperature, at 6,650°C (or 12,000°F).
Compared against other planets in the solar system, the Earth contains just the appropriate amounts of gases, elements, and other properties that make human and other organism life possible.
Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, has lesser mass and volume than the Earth, at a fraction of only 1/18. However, it is as dense as the Earth, although Mercury's surface is made up of more solid mass, specifically rough, porous, dark-colored rocks. Its atmosphere is made up of sodium and potassium, which accounts for the planet's density and very thin atmosphere. It was hypothesized that the core of Mercury is made up of liquid iron compound, as a result of the presence of magnetic field.
Venus, meanwhile, exhibits a unique characteristic for being the brightest and hottest planet in the sky, with the presence…… [Read More]
1. When you hear the word “scientist” what do you envision?
When I hear the word “scientist”, what I picture is an individual conducting practical experiments and also proving theories with the endeavor of advancing the field of science and the world at large. However, I also picture both aspects of science encompassing the scientists that wish to make the world a better place, for instance, preserving the earth and also advancing scientific theories as well as the scientists that use knowledge for negative purposes such as creating bombs and viruses.
2. Discuss at least three characteristics of your vision of a scientist
One of the characteristics of my vision of a scientist is having had formulated and developed a scientific theory that had massive impact. A second characteristic of a scientist is someone who is extremely smart and intellectual and lastly I consider scientists to be revolutionary.
3. Which…… [Read More]
2. Scientists avoid using the terms "true" and "the truth" because they are too absolute. Science does not aim to give absolute knowledge. Instead, the scientific method relies on the senses and on experiments by creating hypotheses and testing them. Also, science is based on the five senses. The terms "true" and "truth" do not acknowledge the limitations of the five senses. Scientists understand that the body of knowledge created by science has changed over the years because of the development of better instruments to measure and gather data. The human senses might not change much, but the reliability of the senses change as instruments become more sophisticated. Scientists are constantly striving to improve the reliability of their observations and so can never claim to know the "truth." The five senses can point to what seems to be true, but scientists work with objectivity. Truth is a subjective issue, which…… [Read More]
Ancient Earth - Women's History
OFFICIAL USE ONLY
An Analysis of "Life" Magazine dated November 17, 1958
Lexicoczar (All Hail!)
As you know, the recent discovery of a cache of "magazines" has provided our department with an opportunity to better understand the colorful but largely heretofore-baffling mid-20th century. The graphics and pictures contained in one of the "magazines" entitled "Life" appear to be particularly illustrative of the customs and values that were predominant during this period in Western history. Some sample illustrations, together with this analyst's interpretation of the contents of an issue of a "Life" "magazine" dated November 17, 1958 and their likely functions and purposes as they apply to female gender issues, are provided below.
General Description and Contents of "Magazine."
This copy of "Life" "magazine" is comparable to the other specimens discovered in "gar-[b?]ages" in recent years; this copy, though, is especially well preserved, due in…… [Read More]