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Reading First is a new grant program proposed by President Bush and endorse as part of the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The new program is part of Title I Part B, along with the Reading First program, which is focused on students in kindergarten through third grade.
Reading First provides competitive grants directly to the local level to improve the reading readiness of preschool age children. The funds are targeted to communities with high awareness of low-income families and communities in which there are high numbers of children not reading at grade level. The grants will be used to support the development of pre-reading development (including oral language skills) and professional development for teachers in research-based instructional approach. The program will support staff and children in child care, Head Start, school-based and family literacy settings.
Evidence has been gathered for a number of…… [Read More]
More recently, the student (and parent) demonstrations against desegregation in several southern American states after the Brown V. Board of Education decision in 1954 demonstrated how much students absorb perception and form fundamental beliefs by social learning.
That is not to say that social learning should not occur within the realm of education; in fact, it is inevitable and unavoidable that it would. The issue is that education systems must be insulated from the undue influence of specific beliefs and philosophies. The purpose of modern education must be provide students with the best possible opportunities to explore their interests and abilities and to become productive members of society in the way that best matches those interests. Because one of the most important goals of modern education is (or should be) to encourage intellectual independence and objectivity, educators have an ethical responsibility to refrain from injecting any personal beliefs or perspectives…… [Read More]
According to agan (and many others since his passing), the constitutional requirements that all religions be regarded equally is a perfectly appropriate social policy, but the continued deference to religious beliefs (in general) over strictly rational beliefs as an educational policy directly undermines the specific goal of teaching students to think logically and scientifically. In their view, the numerous recent attempts by various states to circumvent constitutional prohibitions against teaching religious values in schools only demonstrates how susceptible educational policy goals and objectives are to extraneous influence from inappropriate sources (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005).
Admittedly, identifying the optimal educational policy goals and objectives (at least outside of the most general ones) is a tremendously complex proposition. That is largely because it encompasses so many different variables and their respective interrelation. However, in the broadest sense, at least the first step toward establishing the most beneficial possible educational policy goals and…… [Read More]
School Voucher System
WHY WAS IT WRITTEN?
Proponents - believe voucher systems increase parent choice regarding school attendance for their children. (AFT, accessed 2002b).
Opponents - voucher systems do not give parents full choice - they are limited by size of tuition and fact that private and parochial schools can choose their students and may not admit the child in question
AFT Position - Supports the right to use private schools; opposes the use of public funds to help pay for it.
Reasons (AFT, accessed 2002b):
That money could go to public schools that are available to all children
That public school is essential to democracy
That public schools are more accountable to taxpayers than private or parochial ones
That private and parochial schools often pick their students in biased ways
That voucher systems do not improve student education
D. What research shows improves educational outcomes (AFT, accessed 2002b)
reducing…… [Read More]
This comparative analysis contrasts Rhode Island and Florida, on the one hand, with South Carolina on the other. Variables used in the comparative analysis include political culture, geography, voting policies, citizen referendums, and policy outcomes.
II. Comparative Analysis: State
Political culture refers to norms, attitudes, and beliefs “about the functions and expectations of the government,” (“State Political Culture,” n.d.). Demographics have a strong bearing on political culture, as political culture is often an extension of other cultural variables. The most common model for classifying American political cultures is the Elazar model. The Elazar model proposes three types of political culture: the moralistic, individualistic, and traditionalistic. Using the Elazar model, South Carolina and Florida are classified as traditionalistic, whereas Rhode Island is classified as individualistic (“State Political Culture,” n.d.).
According to the United States Census, as of 2010, Rhode Island is less than ten percent rural in…… [Read More]
Economic philosophies and policies become politically divisive issues because they pertain to deeply held values about the role of government in a society. Yet in spite of the vast chasm that disconnects economic conservatives from economic liberals, ultimately all persons share in common end goals that include quality of life improvements. The main difference between economic liberals and economic conservatives is, therefore, linked to how essential services and social services should be funded and managed. An economic liberal promotes social welfare and a collectivist approach, whereas an economic conservative believes in the free market and private sector solutions to social problems.
Two pressing economic policy issues of great interest to me personally include tuition costs and student loans. A related issue would be funding for public schools, and especially teacher salaries. I tend to waver between conservative and liberal responses to educational funding. On the one hand, I like the…… [Read More]
Policy Issues in Education
Over the past few years state legislatures and some agencies dealing with education issues have tried to reform public education by taking a close look at tests (especially standardized tests), at teacher tenure, and at the whole idea of evaluating schools through performance measures. An article in The New York Times points out that a group called StudentsFirst has been pushing for the changes mentioned earlier in this Introduction, and their efforts -- and accomplishments -- will be reviewed in this paper.
Eleven States Get Failing Grades on Public School Policies
Led by former schools chancellor in ashington State, Michelle A. Rhee, StudentsFirst has issued a report earlier in 2013 that ranks states according to how well they have applied important reforms to their educational policies. In addition to teacher tenure, standardized tests and the need for charter schools, StudentsFirst has also graded states on how…… [Read More]
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…… [Read More]
est Virginia's State education department has established English Language Proficiency ELP standards. A student is classified as an English Language Learner if their English proficiency is limited. In est Virginia a limited English proficient (LEP) is classified as such in accordance with the federal government definition as established by section Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
In addition once a student has been identified as an English Language Learner, they are assessed each year using the est Virginia Test for English Language Learners (ESTELL). These assessment measures the progress that the student has made during the school year. Students who score high enough can be identified as English Language Proficient (ELP). ESTELL is the tool that schools in est Virginia use to monitor ELL over time.
How are teachers informed of ELLs language proficiency status? hat accommodations do teachers make in daily assessments to ensure…… [Read More]
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…… [Read More]
Education 520 Business Law
To avoid an anti-discriminatory lawsuit regarding hiring practices, an employer should declare him or herself an 'equal opportunity employer.' To be compliant with the laws enforced by the EEOC, an employer must not discriminate based upon race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. The employer should also not discriminate on the basis of pregnancy, age, disability or genetic information (Laws enforced by the EEOC, 2012, EEOC).
If the institution wishes to pursue a strategy of affirmative action regarding the hiring and promoting of employees he or she should state it clearly in employment literature, usually in the form of the phrase that 'members of historically discriminated-against groups are encouraged to apply.' However, the employer must be careful not to use a quota system, or set a goal for how many members of such groups will be hired to positions, based upon their…… [Read More]
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…… [Read More]
While it is so that more experience tends to correlate with better experience, this only holds for about three years of experience, after which the correlation becomes more level with less teaching experience. One possible reason for this, according to Darling-Hammond (2000), is that teachers who have been in the profession for a long time may become tired of their jobs, or stagnate because of a lack of opportunity to further their own education. On the other hand, more experienced teachers who do focus on improving themselves constantly, yield consistently improving results in student performance. Darling-Hammond also emphasizes that well-prepared teachers with less experience also yield favorable results. In general, it therefore appears that more experience tends to yield better student performance.
Darling-Hammond, Linda (2000, Jan 1). Teacher quality and tudent Achievement: A Review of tate Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 1, No. 8. http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/
Public Policy…… [Read More]
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…… [Read More]
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…… [Read More]
Human esources Management is basically something that encompasses various activities in an office environment, some of them being: what sort of employees does a company need, what are the best methods to recruit as well as train these personnel, making sure that the performance levels of these people is at its optimum best, and also making sure that the rules regarding management issues are followed to the letter by the employees. Some other issues are those of employee compensation, employee benefits, and so on.
The first step in a human resources management policy is that of 'ecruitment' of the company's employees.
In order to prepare an Advertisement for the purpose of recruitment, certain guidelines must be followed. These are: there must be included, in the advertisement, a complete job description. This must state the 'job title' or 'rank' or 'position'. This means that the person who is interested will…… [Read More]
Education is one of the critical aspects in the society especially in the case of the United States. The success of education relates to the ability of the relevant authority to adopt and integrate effective and efficient educational policy with the aim of addressing goals and targets in relation to elements of the society such as economy, politics, and social spheres. One of the critical federal educational policies is the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). This is the most recent iteration in relation to the context of Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). It reflects one of the major federal laws essential in facilitating federal spending on relevant programs with the aim of supporting K-12 schooling. NCLB educational policy should focus on integration of new qualification standards for teachers, concentrate on the improvement of schools, as well as include higher-thinking and problem-solving skills.
Summary of…… [Read More]
Even under ordinary circumstances, the NCLB motivates teachers to spend more time teaching standardized test-taking and less time on substantive teaching.
The other principal set of interrelated problems currently plaguing American education is that teachers are underpaid, there is little if any correlation between performance and compensation, and tenure policies make it virtually impossible to remove bad teachers once they have achieved tenure. As a result, the teaching profession cannot attract top talent, simply because the highest performing graduates have no incentive to take on high-stress, low-paying jobs where they cannot earn more based on their superior performance. In light of the tremendous importance of improving the American education system for the well-being of the country, public education must make only very limited use of standardized testing. Public funds should be directed into programs to increase the compensation of all entry-level teachers instead of being wasted on standardized test preparation…… [Read More]
brain development opens up tremendous opportunities to improve education. In some aspects, the education community has embraced this research and used it to develop profoundly different approaches to learning. At the same time, the research conflicts with many systemic practices among school administrators and education policy-makers.
Five significant conclusions about the developing brain affect education. First, the capacity for lifelong learning begins during "critical periods" (temporary windows of opportunity for development). Once a critical period is over, it is too late to develop that part of the brain. Throughout, optimal learning occurs when the brain is appropriately challenged. Second, music and art help children develop brain functions related to logic/spatial abilities, illustrating that subject disciplines previously thought to be mutually exclusive are not. Third, emotions experienced while learning affect brain development for that particular type of knowledge. A more meaningful experience with which a student can identify results in more…… [Read More]
Social Promotion on Young Students With Learning Disabilities
Public school systems in the United States have been damaged by policies adopted by the Department of Education in recent years. For instance, "The No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB) has been responsible for moving the school system away from allowing teachers to teach (and by extension allowing children to learn and possibly discover their hidden talents, gifts, and greatest potentials). The No Child Left Behind Act has been in effect since 2001 and what it has instituted is a teach-for-the-test mentality, as so many schools are dependent upon funding that is tied to testing performance rather than to quality of education. In addition, teachers are held accountable when students do not meet adequate yearly progress (AYP) in terms of meeting grade proficiency levels. Students who are not promoted may be psychologically/emotionally damaged as a result. This study intends to scientifically investigate…… [Read More]
urban elementary school in Eastern, New York . That problem
Specifically, is the social promotion of fourth grade students with disabilities. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue as social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefit from children being passed to the next grade level. This benefit consists essentially of state and federal funding (Meier et al., 2004, p.8). Special education teachers are tasked with teaching students who have not mastered basic skills.
Meier, D. et al. (2004). Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act
is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston: Beacon Press.
There is a gap in practice regarding the effects of social promotion regarding teachers and students, as the concept remains controversial (Frey, 2005).
Frey, N. (2005). Retention, social promotion, and academic redshirting. Remedial and Special Education, 26(6): 332-346.
There is a…… [Read More]
Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity
Culture constitutes one of the important national resources, and is the accrued capital of the nation's continued creativity and ingenuity. It forms the storehouse of human memory and achievement, and the wellspring of innovation and uniqueness. In today's knowledge-intensive global economy, cultural capital is becoming increasingly valuable and constitutes an important social foundation as individuals in the U.S. and across the globe endeavor to understand the identities of others, whilst preserving their own unique legacy (Center for Arts and Culture, 2001).
Cultural policy represents a process as well as a product, a basis for decision- and rule- making informed by values and social relationships. It connects to every major societal issue: economic stratification, international relations, education, technology, community development, and race relations (Atlas, n.d).
Need for Cultural Policy
Every society requires a powerful cultural life. By way of its capacity to inspire and…… [Read More]
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…… [Read More]
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…… [Read More]
The United Kingdom (and Northern Ireland) used to provide free higher education to all native Brits, but contemporary economic realities have forced UK and Northern Ireland colleges and universities to charge up to the approximate equivalent of $6,000 annually to offset the enormous cost of education. Unlike Canada, Britain provides higher education at the same price for students from Continental European nations but charges students from other nations more than the maximum allowed to be charged to UK students (Ciccone & Peri, 2006). Unlike in the U.S., there are few opportunities to earn scholarships to UK colleges and universities. Similarly, higher education in Southern Ireland costs only the approximate equivalent of $2,000 in the form of registration and related fees for students from Ireland and the European Union.
France provides (essentially) free education that is paid for by public funds and only imposes a nominal annual enrollment fee that is…… [Read More]
Policy Issues in Education Settings AB
Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU). (2010). "A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning"
Retrieved from: http://www.aplu.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=311
"The A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning was formed in May 2007 to engage the A-P-L-U Presidents and Chancellors in a discussion about the utility of online education as a means to achieve broader institutional priorities, such as diversity, retention, internationalization and accountability." This resource specifically examines the policy and infrastructural issues dealt with by four-year colleges and universities experimenting with online learning and/or hybrid courses. The longitudinal study is meant to offer comprehensive data about the specific challenges of integrating online learning into traditional college experiences.
C.J. Bonk, The Perfect E-Storm: Emerging Technologies, Enhanced Pedagogy, Enormous Learner Demand, and Erased Budgets (London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2004)
This is a comprehensive publication reviewing the infrastructural challenges, including policy concerns, effecting colleges who integrate e-learning…… [Read More]
Other departments dealing with issues relating to sexual harassment are Foundation Personnel, Judicial Affairs Officer, or even the University Police Dispatch (in case of sexual assault).3
VIOLENCE PREVENTION POLICY at CUMB
Violence is defined as "to use force so as to injure or damage." It is recognized as part of CUMB policy that violence is as a result of emotional distress. Also that it is a rare occurrence which results from such extreme frustration so as to make the student break all the barriers of emotional control. Another reason cited as the instigator of violence is the undue use of liquor or other drugs. The recommended course of action in such a situation is to stay calm, and to seek help (through the Public afety Department), to stay safe (to have some form of defense like furniture between the student and yourself), and in no circumstance to coerce or threaten…… [Read More]
" (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.6)
III. POST-WWII ENGLAND SCHOOLS
The work entitled: "Doing Comparative Education: Three Decades of Collaboration" relates the fact that the post-World War II world in England "left a series of emergencies for which immediate answers had to be found. There were shortages of staff, equipment and building..." (Eckstein, 1960) Eckstein additionally states: "Post-war legislation has generally been characterized by radical thinking and optimism. However, the euphoria brought by the end of a war is so often soon dissipated in the exhausting battle of the peace. At such a time, the ambitiously optimistic spirit of reconstruction may also be lessened. A more cautious planned expansion replaces the scheme for extensive reconstruction, ideas of reform have once again to vie with practices which are entrenched in the typical ways of thinking of a people. The educational legislation of the last five years or so has…… [Read More]
The empirical design and its results, not age, should determine the validity and relevance of a given educational theory. Too often, educational policy makers and the professional support system skip from level one research (theory and conjecture based on correlations) to policy. A shared knowledge base might be created from theory alone and as Grossen (nd) points out, it often is. "Most of the educational practices that become widely disseminated in our university teacher-training programs and across the nation do not even have level two research support, nevermind level three," (Grossen nd).
Greater gatekeeping is necessary to restore the integrity of the educational policy system and the professional networks that support it. Current gatekeepers do not draw their policies from science but from opinion. Almost all of the most popular educational theories touted today have little to no empirical support. Grossen lists a litany of common teaching methods and theories…… [Read More]
Because spelling is such an important concern to me, my first step would be to appoint a person who is concerned with this area as I am. My first strategy would therefore to create a job advertisement in which the wording would indicate the importance of this concern for me. I would also emphasize the need for excellent research skills, so that the existing policy can be modified according to the latest information on the importance of teaching spelling, as well as strategies on how to do this. During the interview phase, I would ensure that all candidates are questioned on their devotion to teaching spelling, as well as whether they have any ideas on how to implement a policy regarding this across the curriculum. The candidate will also need considerable leadership qualities to handle not only the English department at the school, but also to help implement the…… [Read More]
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…… [Read More]
Their recommendations, which focused on prevention and response to campus emergencies such as the deadly shootings at Northern Illinois University, included suggestions for detecting early signs of and treating mental illness. esearch has indicated that the risk of violence may increase when other risk factors are involved, such as substance abuse. Training should be targeted to campus security forces and first responders, health services personnel counselors, resident advisers, coaches, and student/minority affairs staff according to the report. The group surveyed more than 112 higher education institutions in Illinois and found that about 64% have mental health counseling services. The task force's other recommendations for colleges and universities in Illinois included: becoming part of the federal government's standardized incident management process called the National Incident Management System, implement methods such as e-mail and speaker systems to alert students of an incident on campus, engaging in practice emergency drills at least twice…… [Read More]
Data collection tools that will prove especially useful in the research will include online electronic database search features and both online and hardcopy items published as a matter of public record by the City of Richmond. Analysis of the data retrieved will take place on a qualitative basis, with specific policy features correlated to institutional changes based on past evidence as well as ongoing scholarship and hypotheses.
ryamn, A.; ell, E. & Teevan, J. (2009). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L.; Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods.…… [Read More]
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…… [Read More]
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]
Policy Strategy Innovation
A Policy Strategy of Innovation
Organizational survival and success are predicated on the establishment of a strategic orientation and a set of clear, realistic and relevant policies intended to drive this strategy. From these features, an organization will ultimately derive goals, procedural norms, role designation, organizational culture, leadership orientation and a host of other defining features. It is thus that the Policy Strategy driving a company will ultimately come to define the company itself, with the resultant productivity, reputation and industry position helping to project a certain identity, image or set of consumer expectations. As the discussion hereafter will show, many times the selected policy strategy of an organization can be the long-term difference between success and failure. As a subsequent section of this discussion will show, there is a direct connection between a meaningful policy strategy and the opportunity for long-term viability and success.
This is…… [Read More]
Policies and Procedures for Interactive Training for Pastors
Policies and Procedures for Interactive Training
a) What is the relationship between formal training and none formal training?
Training in both cases is based on certain principals (religious) that guide the person facilitating the training program. However, while formal training is primarily based on biblical teaching, informal training involves general references to everyday experiences in life.
b) What is the relationship connecting availability of training programs and instructors in formal training?
The basis of training programs both formal and informal is to provide knowledge that facilitates a certain activity within the given institution. Availability of training program mainly concerns the educative session that are introduced alongside the main course in an institution. Such training is formal, but act as an added advantage to the learners as it provide extra lessons to higher performance in the respective field. Hence, instructors in the formal…… [Read More]
Policies and Procedures
eliance Healthcare Computer Policies and Procedures
The installation of a new computer system requires many considerations from a managerial standpoint. Computer usage, particularly access to the Internet is controversial, as there is significant room for abuse by staff. The new system will help to streamline processes in the organization, but it will also provide opportunities for non-productive time. The forthcoming policies and procedures are designed to allow employees access to the technology that will make their lives better, but also limit liability and loss due to unauthorized Internet use.
Security is of utmost importance in the new system. The computer system will need to have the highest level of security possible, as it contains personal information about patients. It contains private healthcare information that is protected by the Federal Government. It also contains sensitive company information. The nature of the information makes it necessary to have the…… [Read More]
While popularly associated with the advent of web-based technologies, DE is not a new phenomenon (agusa et al. 2009, 679)." The author asserts that during the nineteenth century many universities had correspondence programs. These programs remained popular for many years because they were different from more conventional learning environments. At the current time, distance education is driven by the pace of technological change and such changes are occurring globally in a manner that is rapid and complex. There are currently more than 130 countries in which institutions of higher learning provide students with distance courses (agusa et al. 2009). These courses often have as a foundation new information and communication technologies. The author also explains that
"In Australia, DE has particularly been embraced, at institutional and policy levels, as a means of extending higher education to rural, isolated, and often structurally disadvantaged learners (little or no access to a reliable…… [Read More]
Gardner, like Emerson, Russell, and Einstein, also criticizes the substantive choice of subject matter and the ineficiency with which traditional educational methods inspire genuine understanding or long-term retention of what is learned that way.
I think that we teach way too many subjects and we cover way too much material and the end result is that students have a very superficial knowledge, as we often say, a mile wide and an inch deep. Then once they leave school, almost everything's been forgotten. And I think that school needs to change to have a few priorities and to really go into those priorities very deeply." (Gardner 3007)
Similarly, Gardner (2007) emphasizes the importance of transforming the educational environment from the accumulative approach of traditional education and the NCL approach to one that mirrors the suggestions of Emerson, Russel, and Einstein:
we need to have the individuals who are involved in education,…… [Read More]
Accordingly, the ties between the psychological aspects of learning and the social aspects tend to be quite strong. Since the student's early social encounters take place within the classroom, he is learning far more than the step-by-step processes of test taking. Knowledge of his social conditions is necessary for the proper development of the student's abilities. Social and psychological features of education are so fundamentally related that they cannot be separated from each other without a sufficient loss of understanding concerning the other.
Primarily, the purpose of education is to produce functional members of society who value both each other and the work they perform. As simple as that may sound, it is an exceedingly difficult goal. In the United States the philosophical basis outlined by the Constitution demands that public institutions not only be employed, but also that they provide an equal level of schooling across geographic and social…… [Read More]
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…… [Read More]
Students who have low self-efficacy will be likely to give up easily, avoid challenging tasks, focus on their failings, and quickly lose confidence at the first sign of criticism (Cherry, 2013). Bandura's social cognitive theory and the concept of self-efficacy can be applied to this classroom with regard to the differences between genders. Clearly, boys had a high sense of self-efficacy vs. The girls, and the teacher did not recognize this fact. Again, refraining from offering feedback immediately after a verbal presentation might help the students with low self-efficacy address challenges in a safe way. As they build self-efficacy, learn to enjoy the art of failing gracefully, and see difficult tasks through to the end, the girls may increase their self-efficacy. The teacher can achieve this through gentle encouragement.
Self-regulated learning is related to social learning, motivation, and self-efficacy. In this classroom, the teacher already incorporates activities that will encourage…… [Read More]
As the population grows older there becomes more of a need for educational attainment to stretch beyond the traditional years in which one would think of it being. Older adults are playing a bigger and bigger role within our society and educating this group will benefit everyone involved. I feel that not only does there need to be a push to make sure that education institutions are offering opportunities to older adults there needs to be a campaign of information geared towards this group so that they know what is out their and available to them. The percentage of people in this age group taking advantage of post secondary education needs to be increased for the good of the overall workforce.
Adult Learning. (2007). etrieved November 24, 2009, from National Center for Education
Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2007/section1/indicator10.asp
Framing New Terrain: Older Adults & Higher Education. (2007). etrieved November 24,…… [Read More]
Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.
Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.
Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…… [Read More]
How are these expectations communicated to your students?
I communicate my expectations to my students in written and verbal form when possible. At the beginning of each lesson, I hand out the overview of the lesson, which outlines the key deliverables and points of assessment. This helps students understand exactly what I will be looking for, and provides them with a focus for their learning experience. I also send students periodic updates when necessary, if my expectations change or if I want to check-in with students.
How would you promote these expectations during instructional time?
During instructional time, I promote my expectations of the students differently depending on the lesson. I try as best I can to provide examples of what I am looking for, so that students are clear about my grading parameters. Moreover, I promote instructional expectations sometimes by showing why the lesson is relevant to the students'…… [Read More]
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…… [Read More]
Education today has become more interesting and challenging than it has ever been before. This is particularly the case with the teaching and learning of English as a second language. Immigrants to the United States and other English speaking countries, for example, are faced with the challenge of not only learning a new language sufficiently to be able to communicate in their new environment, but also of fitting in with a lifestyle and culture that is more often than not completely foreign to them. These challenges can have both a motivating and demotivating effect on EFL and ESL learners. Teachers who are aware of these effects can then more effectively plan their lessons and work with such students to help them obtain optimal results. Hence, a myriad of research articles have seen the light regarding the challenges faced by this sector of learners. "EFL learners moving to an ESL context:…… [Read More]
Education Literature eview
Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between…… [Read More]
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…… [Read More]
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…… [Read More]
John Gatto is one of the few teachers who are speaking out against the current educational culture who knows what he is talking about. After teaching the state of New York, which has one of the highest per student budgets in the nation, uses many progressive teaching theories, and still produces some of the lowest test scores in the nation, his frustration comes from a wealth of experience. Teachers who start their careers with a sincere desire to educate students have their hands are tied by multi-cultural disconnectedness and a socialist teaching culture which discourages individual accomplishment. The frustration expressed by Mr. Gatto (Berlau, 2003) is likely only the tip of the iceberg representing the depth of the nationwide problem. From Atlanta to Minneapolis, news papers are filled with stories of failing students, failing schools, and school systems which are confused as to the source of the problem. Maybe…… [Read More]
Most of the time research results are often used as the basis for a lot of other research. If a particular piece of research is done in an unethical way or has a hidden agenda to it then the ramifications of this could be very widespread.
Research must be designed and carried out so that it is as accurate as possible. Many times there are important things in people's lives that hinder on how a particular research study turns out. Another big implication is that particularly with educational research, there is usually a major university or institution that is sponsoring the research. If research is done poorly or with any major flaws then this ends up reflecting upon whoever sponsored it. This is one thing that these institutions and universities do not want to happen as it ends up doing damage to their reputations. A school with a bad reputation…… [Read More]
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…… [Read More]
Imagine that you are providing professional development on these topics. Which strategies from your reading would you use? Which strategies would you omit if time constraints did not permit you to use all of them? How would you assess their understanding and implementation of the training?
Adjustable assignments, compacting and grouping are used in conjunction with one another to improve the quality of education. This is accomplished through using each method to increase the student's comprehension of key concepts. In differentiated instruction, this is addressing individual styles of learning through various formats. (Gregory, 2007, pp. 71- 86)
Adjustable assignments are when there is a focus on understanding different skill sets of the student and identifying potential strengths / weaknesses. The way that this can be implemented, is by pre-assessing individual capabilities through: quizzes and other formats. Compacting is when specific curriculum is presented to the student that will address their…… [Read More]
The ease of use of email systems for example generally tend to relate to high satisfaction levels. According to the study, students find it extremely convenient to be able to contact instructors at any time according to their convenience and available time frame. This does away with the inconvenience of specific office hours or telephone availability. This satisfaction is however also related to the ability of the instructor to respond to email in a speedy fashion. In Enockson's study, for example, the instructor made an effort to consistently respond within 24 hours. Students also experienced the online system as particularly convenient, as physical barriers to communication were eliminated, and students were able to set their own hours for instruction and communication. The time and costs of commuting are also eliminated by the use of such a system. This is the basic advantage of a generally online system of instruction as…… [Read More]
This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…… [Read More]
Each institution must have an acceptable use policy for access to all systems including the Internet/World Wide Web. This policy must include provisions for:
protecting the confidentiality of students protecting intellectual property rights, licensing agreements and legal/ethical standards for sharing of resources with other educational entities upholding the integrity of systems, programs and information resources
The duties and responsibilities to carry out this policy are placed upon institutions, IT officials, and instructors (District Technology Plans: Essential Components and E-ate Plan Criteria, n.d.).
The Florida policies do a good job in making sure that each institution has a policy in regards to intellectual property. It deals with protecting the use rights of the systems that are being used in the course of distance learning along with student confidentiality. This is an advantage to both the institution and the individual student. What this policy does not address is how reasonable technological measures…… [Read More]
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…… [Read More]
An act, the pupose of which was the elimination of pejudice and the povision of equal oppotunity fo all, could not possibly have been endosing the setting up of a new system of evese discimination. To select applicants solely on the basis of thei acial backgound is to deny the oppotunity of othes on the basis of thei acial backgound. Unde the plan advocated by the Jounal fo Blacks in Highe Education, Blacks would simply "cowd out" othe membes of the student and faculty bodies. The othes who would be cowded out would include not only membes of the majoity White acial goup, but Hispanics and Asians as well, themselves membes of minoity goups. It is, I think, a plan to pomote an incease in Black student and faculty populations, and not a poject fo the ceation of a colo-blind society.
Nevetheless, I can also see and undestand the poweful…… [Read More]