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Educational Assessment Essays (Examples)

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Educational Assesment Should No Child
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 75434159
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Della-Piana's 2008 article "Enduring issues in educational assessment" the "key recommendations" in the report Nation at Risk called for standardized tests to measure "minimum competency" "at major transition points" to "certify the student's credentials; identify the need for remedial intervention, and identify the opportunity for advanced or accelerated work" (Della-Piana 2008). However, even for this early report, construct validity -- namely the question if the tests that 'raised the alarm' regarding student underperformance were valid -- was an issue. Tests that measure outcomes alone may not fully test necessary learning skills, like the ability to reason mathematically. But open-ended questions can be highly subjective in terms of grading. These were some of the problems critics had with the tests used in the report Nation at Risk and continue to plague many NCLB tests in states all over the union.

For example, an essay written by a student can be eloquent,…

All three articles examine NCLB and its current implications -- even Della-Piana's article, which is a historical overview of the report A Nation at Risk, as it mobilized support for greater use of standardized assessment amongst liberals and conservatives alike. Holland's review of current literature and data regarding current use of NCLB stands in striking contrast to Della-Piana's more focused examination of validity issues in standardized testing that have existed since A Nation at Risk. Hughes' book review, through which she examines how non-standardized testing can elevate performance in a specific context, provides a refreshing anecdotal approach to the generalizations of the other authors. All three authors grapple with the degree to which the loss of individualized curriculums helps or harms overall student learning, as well as with questions of validity regarding test results.

Points of agreement and disagreement

While all authors agree that the nation's schools are failing some of our children, the question remains how to address and improve this. Is a stress-ridden environment where some teachers even feel pressured to 'cheat' to save their jobs and schools really the answer, especially given questions of the validity and even the competent construction of such texts, as discussed in Holland and Piana? Hughes alone takes the brave stance that standardized assessment may not be useful or wise: "in an effort to leave no child behind, the United States is leaving many children behind," she writes (Hughes 2009). "Society must look beyond test scores and consider the impact of

Assessment and Special Education
Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 84617524
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Special Education

Assessment Options

There were a number of eminent points and observations regarding the methodology of assessment utilized within Maryellen Weimer's article, "Making exams more about learning," which initially appeared in The Teaching Professor in 2011. This article essentially functions as a case study in which an undergraduate instructor, Thomas Smith, employed a number of unusual methods to assist his students with the process of assessment. Among the measures that Smith adopted was grading the examinations students took individually with each student, as well as allowing them access to previous examinations on the same topic. While analyzing Smith's methodology, the author makes note of both positive and negative points that can aid additional instructors who want to incorporate some of Smith's techniques in the future. The overall effect is that readers and pedagogues are able to get a practical, compressive overview of alternate assessment methods that can easily be…

References

Osborn, J. (1998) "Assessing gifted children." Understanding Our Gifted Open Space Communications, Inc. 9-12. Retrieved from  http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10221.aspx 

The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. (no date). "Using classroom assessment to improve teaching." Education.com. Retrieved from  http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Using_Classroom/ 

Reschley, D.J. (1996). "Identification and assessment of students with disabilities." The Future of Children. 6 (1): 40-52. Retrieved from  http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/06_01_02.pdf 

Weimer, M. (2011). "Making exams more about learning." The Teaching Professor. 25 (2): 5. Retrieved from  http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/educational-assessment/making-exams-more-about-learning/

educational policy responses to case'study
Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89412788
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Responding to the needs of a failing school is one of the most pressing challenges education leaders face. This assessment of the Washington High School case study is astute, paying attention to the need for top-down organizational structure and culture change. It is important for all administrators and educators to be honest and self-assess the situation, in order to come up with the most cogent and meaningful solutions to the problem.
Indeed, the first step is total evaluation of the system. Unfortunately, even principles have their hands tied when it comes to being unable to transform educational policies. Educational policies are determined by politicians, often those with little knowledge of what actually occurs on the ground in the real world of education. In spite of this significant drawback to effective educational policy, education leaders and administrators can implement localized policies and programs that can change the normative cultures of their…

Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience Description of
Words: 3172 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29439383
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Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience

Description of an education event experienced

I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…

Bibliography

Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.

(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus

Publishing/R. Pullins Co.

Baker, C. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators online, 7(1), 1-30.

Educational Experience -- Peer Dialogue
Words: 761 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32095053
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Not at all. It simply means that, in the case of my high school, every learner has a different need for information and processes it differently. So teachers should provide educational strategies that facilitate learning for all students. In my class, there were those (including myself) who could have been given extra credit assignments because we were ahead of many other students.

My colleague had some similar experiences in high school, but not in all of his classes. In fact in some of his classes there were progressive teachers that helped minority students (some with English as a second language) from low-income homes by assigning advanced students to tutor those struggling students during homeroom periods. That wasn't exactly differentiated instruction, but in a way it was. He was one of the better students, and he was thrilled to be asked to work with some of the students struggling in math…

Works Cited

ASCD. (2012). Differentiated Instruction. Retrieved June 14, 2012, from  http://www.ascd.org .

Tomlinson, Carol. (2008). Fulfilling the Promise of Differentiation. Carol Tomlinson Ed. D.

Retrieved June 13, 2012, from http://www.caroltomlinson.com.

Educational Development Is a Mix of Both
Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92500107
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Educational development is a mix of both formal and informal learning conditions as assessment of my own educational experience has taught me. I cannot say that one is more important than the other; each segment together has taught me different elements -- made me grow -- and combined in producing the 'me' that you see today.

In his "Notes for an Obituary," Einstein once noted that the system of education was a deliberate intention on the part of the state to mislead youth. He distrusted all forms of education, and from his pre-adolescent days refused to be taught. Religious leaders, too, he felt were disillusioned and deluding society. Yet Einstein felt that the fault belonged, not to the rabbi or to the priest, but with the force behind them that disregarded liberty of thought and made education compulsory. As regards Einstein himself, he was determined that formal education would not…

Sources

Kolb, David (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Ottawa University. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from:  http://www.ottawa.edu/ .

Reaching In, Reaching Out.(RIRO) (n.d.) Children's storybooks that promote resilience. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from:  http://www.reachinginreachingout.com/documents/Guidebook%20-%20Storybooks%20that%20Promote%20Resilience.pdf 

4. Conclusion

Educational Situations
Words: 6837 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97521471
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Educational Situations

Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.

Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.

How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?

A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…

Bibliography

Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota.  http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/comprehension.htm 

Education Queensland. Queensland Government.  http://education.qld.gov.au

Educational Reflections Background- Mr Billings
Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44867615
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This might also have an energizing effect upon the teachers as well.

Part 4 -- egarding mathematics, what can be done in the learning community to address the school's need? The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, an international organization of teachers who are focused on improving the math curriculum globally, presented new standards in 2000 designed to improve curricula, teaching and assessment. Within their rubric, six principles were established to address themes that were valid regardless of the school culture:

Equity -- There must be high expectations and support for excellence in math education from all levels; teachers, administrators, school boards, and parents.

Curriculum -- More than a collection of problems or activities, a math curriculum should be focused, well-articulated, and flow from grade to grade.

Teaching -- Appropriate and effective math teaching requires not only an understanding of math principles but of what students need to understand, and…

REFERENCES

Mastropieri, M. (1994). Text vs. Hands-On Math Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education, 15(2), 72-85.

McKee, J. a. (2005). Integrating Instruction - Literacy and Math. London: Guilford Press.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2009). Overview: Principles for School

Mathematics. Retrieved from:

Educational Lessons the Art of
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27111979
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g. Johnny Appleseed for history, etc.). Read aloud, pass out a blank matrix and ask students to fill in the matrix with questions using Bloom's taxonomy -- at least two questions per heading.

Assessment: using a rubric, students can self-assess their work by switching papers with a partner and checking to see if the questions listed are appropriate for the taxonomy ladder. Once this is done, divide class into six groups, each group taking the "Expert Role" of one of the categories. The group will present their own definition of that category and give examples using one of the fruits used earlier -- not just asking, but answering and explaining why these questions are important.

Special Learners: Advanced students should use their favorite television program to fill in the matrix, paying special attention to the types of questions most frequently asked? Higher or lower level? Why? Slower students should work…

Educational Vouchers
Words: 3125 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34155545
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Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory esults

The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.

Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…

Reference

ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory  http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scotus_vouchers020627.html .

American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students  http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/ .

Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works http://www.friedmanfoundation.org/schoolchoiceworks/schoolchoiceresearch.html.

Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine  http://www.educationnext.org/20012/46greene.html .

Educational Administration Rammer R A Call
Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 91025888
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Descriptive statistics were employed to describe the participants' responses and constant comparative analysis was used to quantify the survey data.

Results

According to the survey results, ninety-two percent of the school superintendents confirmed the validity of the twenty-one factors identified in the prior literature. However, fewer than eight percent reported having any methodology for applying those criteria to the school principal hiring process. Given the obvious correlation between the quality of school principals in relation to those factors, it is clear that school superintendents must develop practices and methods for using those criteria during the school principal hiring process.

Recommendations, Conclusion, and Implications

Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that public school superintendents develop specific assessment procedures and tools to enable them to better evaluate prospective candidates for school principals. Specifically, those methods and tools must relate to the factors about which there is a strong…

Educational Reform
Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58812790
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This continuous assessment approach also allows the teacher in better planning for the term and making regular and necessary adjustments as the term progresses. They will know in the course of the term what is working for the students, he will hence be determined to look for what else he can do to help the students and change in direction if need be.

Generally, the continuous assessment is the best way to go since the teacher and the students are able to work in unison towards complementing the weaknesses that the student may have and compensate with the strengths that they have, all in an effort to ensure the weaknesses of the student are not left undetected until it is too late and also that the strengths of the student are identified and used appropriately to help the student (University of Connecticut, 2014).

The counterpoint that stands for one shot…

References

University of Connecticut, (2014). Why Assessment. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from  http://www.assessment.uconn.edu/why/index.html 

Zakhe F., (2007). The role of continuous assessment in primary school. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from http://uzspace.uzulu.ac.za/handle/10530/531

Educational Gap Between Whites and
Words: 3172 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22641131
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They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?

Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…

References

Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm

Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth

Cengage Learning.

Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ

Educational Law How Lawful How
Words: 3482 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99959850
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Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…

Bibliography

Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research

National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group

O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.

Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company

Educational Theory and Philosophy in
Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21973033
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Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…

References

Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.

Educational Challenges for Special Needs
Words: 1771 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48078087
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Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.

Findings & Conclusion

In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.

Recommendations

Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…

Bibliography

Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.

Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).

Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.

Educational Diversity What Type of
Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5806087
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By making students familiar and comfortable with authorities outside of their home environments, students are more prepared to meet the educational challenges of the classroom, to receive a greater exposure to the language of classroom instruction, and also to become more solidly grounded in English language skills and simple English vocabulary. Resource room instruction on a one-on-one basis in reading and ESL can provide additional assistance to overworked teachers.

This does not mean that teachers must eschew all creativity in their lesson planning. In fact, they must grow more creative, when faced with a diverse cultural population. No longer can they fall back upon the mainstays of old children's literature, and even when classics such as E.B. White's Charlotte's Web are read to students, the ideas of a sense of alienation from the dominant culture may come up, rather than the issues that came to the forefront of saving a…

Student Assessment The Superiority of
Words: 2542 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 37255157
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This helps them deal with administrative tasks such as applying for grants, reporting their progress, appeasing parents, etc. In addition, teacher-based methods of assessment have at least one positive implication for students. According to Flood et al., teacher-based assessments allow teachers to enter the process of scaffolding with significant foreknowledge. Flood et al. (2003). suggests that all good assessment includes a component in which a teacher plans and sets goals, and then collecting data and interpreting it. This can be done in the classroom or at the macro level -- applicable to either the school itself or the state. Teachers can use the data gleaned from teacher-centered assessment as a means by which to identify areas of weakness and address them (Kearns, 2009). Standardized testing and teacher-based testing in classrooms allows teachers to determine where most students are having problems and use scaffolding techniques to intervene on the student's behalf…

References

Chall, J.S. & Adams, M.J. (2002). The Academic Achievement Challenge: What Really

Works in the Classroom. New York: Guilford.

Flood, J. et al. (2003). The Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language

Arts 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Importance of Technology in Assessments
Words: 1119 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45522050
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Leadership in 21st Century Support Systems

Conducting learning activities without assessing the success of those activities is like driving a vehicle without a clean windshield and a rear-view mirror. The instructor can still steer, put on the gas and brakes, but if the instructor cannot clearly see the road ahead and what is behind, this could be an exercise in futility, leaving learning by the roadside. Indeed, assessments have become a pivotal component to learning in the 21st century. Moreover, innovative technologies specifically designed to address student outcomes enhance the instructor's ability to present effective lessons. The following two units illustrate how technology can be integrated into the classroom to support 21st century learning and skills, and how innovative teaching strategies can stir interest in subjects for diverse student populations.

edesigned Lesson -- Effective Assessment

The 11th grade lesson in eligion class was originally related to learning about Hinduism, how…

References

Brengard, A. (2014). Creating a Culture for Deep Change: It's the Team that Counts.

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 9(20).

Burnaford, G., and Brown, T. (2014). Teaching and learning in 21st century learning environments: A Reader. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

Kirchner, N, Reilly, M., and Rohrbaugh, M. (2014). Games: The Heart of a Transformed

Chinese Assessment Task Item to
Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41455585
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The is a lack of clear instructions and of a proper indication of the level of student knowledge. Also, there is indication with regard to the Teacher's guidelines, only contain basic assessment information was available. From both the student and the instructor's viewpoint, there were no overall guidelines to describe how to implement Assessment task for ninth grades. In addition, the student descriptions of the task were very brief. The materials were not well organised. Also, the assessment task description and rubric is one document rather than well organised and separated as compared to the QSA Sample assessment.

The assessment is not suitable as presented for the Year 9 Chinese level. Also the assessment has little relevance to the required course objectives as reflected in teaching and learning.

Therefore, it has no real quantifiable ability to provide students with adequate opportunity to demonstrate the performance of particular criteria, especially in…

References

Queensland Government. (2010). Quality assuring senior assessment instruments: A tool for schools. Available: http://www.qsa.qld.edu.au/downloads/approach/qual_assur_snr_assess_tool.doc.

Last accessed 20th Sept 2011.

Queensland Government DET Education. (2008). Queensland Curriculum,

Assessment and Reporting (QCAR) Framework. Available:

Why Are Portfolio Assessments the Best Tools to Use in Education
Words: 2840 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 10718052
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performance assessments. There will be a determination concerning how it assists in attaining educational goals. Educational assessment background will be presented and information on the way performance assessments are made use of in achieving goals will be analyzed.

Assessing Student Performance

The effect professional development has on improving mathematics instruction was examined in a few studies. The first study was carried out and involved thirty-six teachers who took up professional development for 3 years. The fidelity in learning the professional development hugely affected judgment accuracy (Thieda, et al., 2015). The second study was done with sixty-four teachers drawn from eight schools that had been randomly selected to serve as controls or get professional development. Judgment accuracy was higher in teachers who received professional development and those with better ability to perceive computational skills of students than those teachers who didn't.

For instance, field education is widely appreciated as a key…

References"

1) New Hampshire Physical Education K-12 Assessment Document. (2007, January 1). Retrieved April 7, 2015, from

2) 2015 Educator's Manual for MCAS - Alt. (2014, January 1). Retrieved April 7, 2015, from

3) Thiedea, K., Jesse, D., Brendefura, J., Osguthorpea, R., Carneya, M., Bremner, A., Sutter, J. (2015). Can teachers accurately predict student performance? Teaching and Teacher Education, 49, 36-44. Retrieved April 7, 2015, from

4) Tapp, K., Macke, C., & McLendon, T. (2012). Assessing Student Performance in Field Education. Field Scholar, 2.2. Retrieved April 7, 2015, from

content and reliability of assessments and job
Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37224250
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1. Why are reliability and validity important for assessment? How are content validity and criterion-related validity used to establish construct validity? Support your position.
Assessment instructions, whether for measuring cognitive ability or intelligence, or for psychometrics like personality, need to be both reliable and valid; otherwise, their results would be meaningless. In fact, using unreliable or invalid assessment instruments could lead to distorted judgments and biased beliefs. The decisions made based on reliable assessments can be sound and productive, whereas decisions made based on invalid or unreliable assessments may be unethical. Assessment reliability refers to how consistent the results are, and validity refers to how well the instrument measures what it intends to measure (“Reliabiity and Validity,” n.d.). The same test administered to the same population at a different point in time should yield similar results—the “test/retest” effect (Sullivan, 2011, p. 119). Likewise, assessment reliability takes into account how the…

Minimizing Bias and Student Diversity in Assessment
Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19434182
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Abstract

No teacher can entirely avoid the realities of student standardized assessment. But teachers must make informed choices in the classroom in regards to how students are instructed, based upon individual student needs and awareness of student diversity. There are significant questions regarding the potential biases of many standardized tests, particularly in regards to historically discriminated-against racial, ethnic, and socio-economic groups. Teachers must be aware of these questions and biases and act as advocates for their students on a schoolwide and statewide level to ensure fairness.

Ethical Standards in Assessment:
Minimizing Bias and Student Diversity in Assessment

Education is supposed to be a great social leveler. Unfortunately, many concerns have been raised regarding the ability of commonly-used educational assessment tools to provide unbiased information about all students, regardless of students’ demographic characteristics. Teachers must balance the need to prepare students for these highly pressured exam environments with the need for…

Bias High Stake Assessments High Stake Assessments
Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65494392
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Bias

High stake assessments

High stake assessments are purposed to improve the achievement of students. They are aimed at holding individuals accountable for their performance in the tests. However, the system is far from achieving its goals. The high stake assessment does not improve learning in fact the system creates disparities in the system. Only a few students benefit from these assessments while the rest do not get any benefit from the system. The 2010 college bound seniors average SAT scores shows the students performed differently. The performance of the students was categorized according to the age, ethnicity and income. These assessments are bias when issues of ethnicity, socioeconomic status are addressed. The differences in the scores are a reflection of the difference in the educational opportunities and resources available for the students (Neill, 1998).

The students in the different categories performed differently due to the stereotype threat which the…

References

Neill, M. (1998). High Stakes Tests Do Not Improve Student Learning. Retrieved May 8, 2013 from  http://www.fairtest.org/k12/naeprep.htm

Learning as Well as Assessment
Words: 3633 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8900464
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(Singer, 2003, p. 36) Education should be a constructive process. Palinscar states that the teacher must assume an active and directive role by establishing the pace, content, and goals of the lesson. (Palincsar, 1998) Byra also described such a process of "task progression" through which content is broken down and sequenced into meaningful learning experiences. (Byra, 2004) the lesson learned from receiving fifty percent credit on a late assignment is not necessarily the lesson intended.

Each step in the academic process contributes to the learning process. An assignment is not merely research. It is not merely a grade. It is the sum total of the student's entire experience vis-a-vis that experience. (Bailey, Hughes & Moore, 2004, p. 32) a student who receives a grade of fifty percent because he or she completed an assignment late sees that arbitrary judgment of his or her work as a "lesson" too. Studies show…

References

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104841091 

Alderman, M.K. (2004). Motivation for Achievement: Possibilities for Teaching and Learning (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108116439

Bailey, T.R., Hughes, K.L., & Moore, D.T. (2004). Working Knowledge: Work-Based Learning and Education Reform. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.

Educational Setup We Provide an
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The conditions that surround the process of data collection like the location and time of day must be standardized and the observation must be carried out by trained observers. This is done in order to encourage consistency which is crucial in the periods of transition prior and after the given phenomenon is studied.

epeated measurements- A given behavior is measured repeatedly. This techniques is never employed in many other experiments that involve the measurement of the dependent variable in only a single instance. The need of the repeated variables is in order to get a clear pattern and consistency in terms of the behavior being monitored over an extended period of time. There is a control for behavior that is anticipated over the short period of time and intervals. Such a move can be seen s similar to the ones involved in time series studies that are used in the…

References

Dunlap. G., & Kern, L. (1997). The relevance of behavior analysis to special education. In J. L Paul, M. Churton, H. Roselli-Kostoryz, W. Morse, K. Marfo, C. Lavely, & D. Thomas (Eds.), Foundations of special education: Basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education (pp. 279-290). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Gresham. EM.. Gansel, K. A, & Kurtz, P.F. (1993). Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with Exceptional Children . Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 257- 263.

Martella, R., Nelson, J.R., & Marchand-Manella, N. (1999). Research methods: Learning to become a critical research consumer. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

McReynolds, L.V., & Kearns K.P. (1983). Single-subject experimental designs in communicative disorders. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Assessment and Special Education
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SPED Assessment

In 2002 the American Association on Mental etardation (AAM) made changes to their manuals regarding the assessment of mental retardation (M). The revisions were designed to affect changes in professional practice regarding assessment of M, public policy, and the science and understanding of M. Key in this change was the attempted change from the M term to a more politically correct term Intellectual Disability. Assessment was to consider both IQ scores and adaptive behavior (AB) which was to be termed "adaptive skills as well as the individual's cultural background and in the context of associated strengths. Instead of following a deficit model of explanation the goal was to follow a needs model. The definition of intellectual disability then includes three core criteria: significant impairment of intellectual functioning (defined by decreased IQ scores), significant impairment of adaptive/social functioning and, onset before adulthood. Polloway et al. (2009) looked at the…

References

Gordon, S., Duff, S., Davison, T. & Whitaker, S. (2010). Comparison of the WAIS-III and WISC-IV in 16-year-old special education students. Journal of Applied Research and Intellectual Disabilities, 23, 197-200.

Polloway, E.A., Patton, J.R., Smith, J.D.., Antoine, K., & Lubin, J. (2009). State guidelines for mental retardation and intellectual disabilities: A revisitation of previous analyses in light of changes in the field. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44, 14-24.

Silverman, W., Miezejeski, C., Ryan, R., Zigman, R., Krinsky- McHale, S. & Urv, T. (2010). Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ differences and their implications for adults with intellectual disability. Intelligence, 38 (2), 242-248.

Whitaker, S. (2008). The stability of IQ in people with low intellectual ability: An analysis of the literature. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 120-128.

Educational Theory Meaning of Authentic
Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92827016
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Instead, it is rigid and reinforced with bureaucracy and red tape, thus making it a poor system for education and children.

Educating the whole child." Educating the whole child is an idea that took root in the early 20th century and is making a comeback in education. The educational model is conducted throughout the child's education - from kindergarten through high school, and recognizes the child is a complete being, with spirit, mind, and body, and each item must be addressed in the educational model. The model attempts to educate the "whole" child - heart, head, and hands, by offering education in a variety of areas, from academics to art and practical, hands-on activities. The children are encouraged to play as well as study, to help develop fully rounded personalities and ideas. Teachers also use storytelling, fairy tales, and other folk art as models for teaching and involving the children…

References

Editors. (2007.) Ism book. Retrieved from the Ismbook.com Web site:  http://www.ismbook.com/intellectualism.html17  March 2007.

Gur-Ze'ev, I. (1999). Knowledge, violence, and education. Retrieved from the Encyclopedia of philosophy in education Web site: http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm17 March 2007.

Waghid, Y. (2005). Action as an educational virtue: Toward a different understanding of democratic citizenship education. Educational Theory 55 (3), 323-342. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.2005.00006.x  http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2005.00006.x

Educational Technologies and Online Learning
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There are varying educational backgrounds and levels in distance education and the delivery method must be in a way that is interactive using visuals, charts, graphs and other stimulating realia.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design and the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional design are both excellent models for developing both traditional and distance learning materials. However, the differences among the types of ISD Comparison 6 learners must be clearly identified and defined in order for either of these models to be successful. With technology changing the face of education, instructional design models will also need to change in order to best educate and meet the needs of the different types of learners.

eferences

Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers,…

References

Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers, Inc.

Brown, Frederick G. (1981). Measuring Classroom Achievement. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Dalton, William. Assessing Student Learning: It can be more than a survey. Retrieved May 25, 2006 at http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie95/2c1/2c14/2c14.htm

Educational Essentialism as a Theory
Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26689686
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The launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 -- an event which marked the beginning of the space race and showed a significant Soviet lead -- renewed the vigor of essentialist practices and theories in the United States especially, but this event also helped to spur on the spread of essentialist practices in countries less involved with the Cold War (Nayak 2008). Cultural literacy programs are all essentialist when viewed as a set of basic theoretical trappings; as multicultural understanding has become a greater part of the educational process and system in many countries, essentialist programs have also become more widespread and more deeply engrained (K12 2010). Growing industrialization and development have also produced many basic educational systems, and essentialist practices are inherent to many of them (Siddiqui 2008).

There have also been political pressures brought to bear on various educational institutions that have supported and proliferated the…

References

K12. (2010). "Educational essentialism." Accessed 14 August 2010.  http://www.k12academics.com/educational-philosophy/educational-essentialism 

Nayak, a. (2008). Educational philosophy. Delhi: APH Publishing.

Siddiqui, M. (2008). Philosophical and sociological foundations of education. Delhi: APH Publishing.

Educational Evaluations in Culturally Diverse
Words: 7024 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51600783
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This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).

This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.

Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…

References

Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.

Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.

Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,

Educational Trends in U S and
Words: 1312 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10531225
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Boys, Kosciolek, Spicuzza & Ysseldyke (2003) points out that during the third International Mathematics and Science Study students in the United States scored below "the international average in mathematics," with 20 countries scoring significantly higher than U.S. subjects (p. 163). They suggest that principles of learning can be adopted and utilized in the United States to improve student outcomes. The study does not compare U.S. liberal arts education with European education.

Trends in Education

Sarason (1998) proposes that the U.S. educational system has "all of the features of a non-learning system" (p.1). He clarifies by proposing that students are incapable of learning because the educational system as it stands at present is a system of parts that are uncoordinated, rather than a structured system where agreement exists with regard to schooling, goals an achievement. His examination suggests that the trends currently occurring with the United States are resulting in negative…

References

Assenova, M. (2003 - Jan). "Educating the European way." World and I, 18(1): 62

Boys, C., Kosciolek, S., Spicuzz, R. & Ysseldyke, J. (2003). "Effects of a learning information system on mathematics achievement and classroom structure." The Journal of Educational Research, 96(3): 163

Cetron, M.J. & Gayle, M.E. (1990 - Sept-Oct). "Educational renaissance: 43 trends for U.S. schools." The Futurist, 24(5): 33

Darlington, Y. & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field. Crows Nest, N.S.W, Allen & Unwin

Educational Sector Is Often Approached
Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 26890402
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These techniques gather information and create networks of people and they help promote the interests of the unions at the level of policy making.

In terms of the future, this is difficult to foresee. Nonetheless, a feature which gains more and more popularity is the possibility for the No Child Left Behind Act to further increase the bargaining powers of the teacher and their unions. In such a context then, the policy making process would be more influenced by the teachers' unions.

At the same level of impasses which need resolution, Joan E. Pynes and Joan M. Lafferty take a more distant approach. Unlike Paul Manna, who emphasizes on the specifics of the NCLB act, Pynes and Lafferty take a more objective stand to the problems in the public sector and create a list of the means to be used in resolving impasses; their approach is more distant and more…

References:

Gewertz, C., Collective bargaining bumping up against No Child Left Behind Law, Education Week,  http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2004/09/08/02philly.h24.html  last accessed on November 9, 2011

Manna, P., Teachers unions and No Child Left Behind

Pynes, J.E., Lafferty, J.M., Impasse resolution in the public sector

Educational Challenges Spelled Out in Specifics
Words: 3347 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37702565
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diversity of learning styles and needs represented in a typical 21st century classroom. As the United States continues to see an increase in multi-ethnic, multinational populations, the children of immigrants that bring diverse cultures and ethnicities to American shores are represented in the classroom. This presents a serious challenge for the educator, since the diversity of students reflect a wide range of competencies, skills and levels of intellectual comprehension. Within the context of that diversity the instructor must embrace a pivotal 21st century learning challenge -- meeting the learning needs of students who may fall behind without one-on-one instruction and the learning needs of more advanced students seeking to surge ahead while many students in the classroom may be struggling simply to stay up with the assignments.

In order for students to reach their optimum level of academic achievement, the system must change and the philosophy of instruction must change…

References

Ashford University (2014). Assessment in the 21st century. Retrieved November 30,

2014, from  https://student.ashford.edu .

Framework for 21st Century Revision. Creativity and Innovation.

Leston-Banderia, C. (2013). Methods Teaching through a Discipline Research-Oriented

Assessments and Readability of Texts
Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 37746844
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personal experiences with assessments is an ongoing and continuous life event; every individual on earth is either assessing or being assessed in almost every interaction one can think of. Assessment is especially important in the educational communities. Heeneman, Oudkerk Pool, Schuwirth, Vleuten, & Driessen (2015) found that most experts agree with the viability of student assessments saying that "it is widely acknowledged that assessment can affect student learning" (p. 487). If what Heeneman et al. found to be true, is true, then assessing student progress (or lack thereof) through the use of assessments benefits the students by helping them learn.

My personal experience with being assessed and with creating assessments is quite extensive. Throughout my educational career I have taken (and done quite well overall) a large number of assessments in an equally as large number of courses, clinics and programs. Some of the most effective assessments that I can…

References

Heeneman, S.; Oudkerk Pool, A.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P. & Driessen, E.W.; (2015) The impact of programmatic assessment on student learning: Theory versus practice, Medical Education, 49(5) p. 487-498

Saint, D.A.; Horton, D.; Yool, A. & Elliott, A.; (2015) A progressive assessment strategy improves student learning and perceived course quality in undergraduate physiology, Advances in Physiology Education, 39(3) p. 218-222

Suskind, D.C.; (2015) Living assessment passes the test, Phi Delta Kappan, 97(1) p. 38-41

Text Readability Consensus Calculator (2015) accessed on October 5, 2015 at  http://www.readabilityformulas.com/freetests/six-readability-formulas.php

educational administration and research methods assessment
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This course fulfills its promise to help students understand research methods in education and educational administration specifically. Concepts of research have been covered clearly, to allow students better insight into how they might construct their own research from the proposal stage through the analysis and interpretation of results. Through encounters with original research like the Porter, Polikoff, Goldring, et al. (2010) study, students in this course also become more familiar with how researchers develop and implement assessments to evaluate the efficacy of different school leadership models.
Moreover, this course empowers students to adopt a professional mindset to evaluate the research of others, consider gaps in the literature, and contribute to the growing body of evidence on educational administration. The course has also covered theoretical orientations in educational research, encouraging students to consider their own points of view and the directions their research and their careers will take them. Ultimately, students…

Educational Leadership Philosophy
Words: 1446 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87526975
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Abstract
The long-range impact of educational leadership is to empower others in the school community to nurture their talents and abilities and make them leaders in their own capacities. To realize this, the leader needs to adopt the transformational leadership framework, which requires them to be an intellectual stimulator, inspirational motivator, mentor, and coach. The process of leadership incorporates several leadership strategies including direction-setting, developing people, mentoring and coaching, and developing leadership programs. There is a need for continuous learning to enhancing the leader’s handling of people from diverse cultures, religion, and nationalities. The intermediate aim of the leader is to help followers realize their maximum potential.
Educational Leadership Philosophy
Strong educational leadership is a crucial determinant of effective student learning. On the basis of strong leadership, a struggling school can transform and a great one empowered to thrive even more. According to a report by the Wallace Foundation, educational…

References
Cambridge Assessment International Education (2017). Educational Leadership. Cambridge Assessment International Education. Retrieved from  https://www.cambridgeinternational.org/Images/271192-educational-leadership.pdf 
Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Anderson, L., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of Research: How Leadership Influences Student Learning. The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from  https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/How-Leadership-Influences-Student-Learning.pdf 
Martin, B., Cashel, C., Wagstaff, M., & Breunig, M. (2006). Outdoor Leadership: Theory and Practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Spears, U. (2012). Coaching Leadership Families: Using the Leadership Family Model to Coach, Mentor, and Multiply Health Families. New York, NY: Xlibris Corporation.

Assessment and Technology
Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76554828
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BrainPOP

IT instructional technologies in the classroom

In The Study of the Effectiveness of BrainPOP (2009) a multiscale tool to facilitate learning and assessment of curricula content is analyzed in the interest of development in education (SEG esearch,2009). Designed to enhance student centered learning competencies in standardized education, BrainPOP stimulates instructional learning through web based, multi-media interactions and teacher guided interface.

From introductory lessons to complex subject matter, BrainPOP is in accordance with U.S. federal department of education standards, and offers a 'real time' compendium of searchable topics continuously advanced by educator contribution to its repository of data. The web based, animated instructional tool was used in a study of 1,100 students in 46 classrooms in Palm Beach County, Florida and New York City, New York (SEG esearch, 2009). Outcomes to the experiment revealed that students were supported by the tool, and significantly improved SAT scores in Language, eading Comprehension…

References

Allodi, M. (2010). Goals and values in school: a model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments. Social Psychology of Education, 13 (2), 207-235.

Drame, E.R. (2010).

Measuring Academic Growth in Students With Disabilities in Charter Schools. Education & Urban Society, 42 (4), 379-393.

Elliott, S.N. (2010).Effects of Using Modified Items to Test Students With Persistent Academic Difficulties. Exceptional Children, 76 (4), 475-495.

Assessment and Testing
Words: 795 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 61926631
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Measuring special abilities can be limited in its application due to unstructured settings like unstructured interviews eliciting thematic life narratives. These kinds of interviews although useful in examining and measuring abilities, can be confining due to the range of topics "considered and abiguities inherent when interpreting this information; (b) structured interviews and self-report instruments elicit details concerning patients' conscious understanding of themselves and overtly experienced sypmtomatology" (Shum, O'Gorman & Myors, 2006, p. 149). Interviews like these help the psychiatrist/psychologist hone in on any unique or special abilities, even vocational abilities. Personality inventories or self report inventories, along with work and personal values measures like, the importance of family, help determine what kind of interests/abilities the person may be good in or be passionate about. As it concerns possible issues in regards to vocational ability or interest testing, certain things may be lacking such as suitable range of options to explore…

References

Larsen, M., Berglund, E., Joseph, R., & Pratt, H. (2011). Psychological Assessment and Testing. Springer, 29 -- 52.

Shum, D., O'Gorman, J., & Myors, B. (2006). Psychological testing and assessment (1st ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.

Assessment and Feedback
Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52714799
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Differentiated Learning

Simply because a teacher treats all students 'the same' does not mean that all of his or her students are being treated fairly. For example, expecting a child with dyslexia to read an assignment as quickly, without support, as his or her non-dyslexic peers, does not promote the child's ability to learn. This is why differentiated instruction is so essential. "Differentiation is a philosophy that enables teachers to plan strategically in order to reach the needs of the diverse learners in the classrooms today to achieve targeted standards. As individuals come to school with varying learning styles and numerous intelligences, differentiated instruction becomes a means of addressing the learning needs of everyone in the classroom" (Assessment strategies, 2011, BOE). Differentiated instruction requires teachers to use a variety of strategies and have a flexible lesson plan.

Teachers must have many different pedagogical 'tools' on hand to teach. For example,…

References

Assessment strategies. (2011). BOE. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at http://boe.ming.k12.wv.us/teachers/di/di_rubrics/introduction%20to%20DI%20assessment.htm

Chalupa, Eric. (2004). The effects of differentiated learning on gifted and talented students.

Published dissertation. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at  http://www.graceland.edu/pdf/soe/Eric_Chalupa.pdf 

Differentiated learning. (2011). National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).

Assessment Activities
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Activities

Activity #1: Discuss the pros and cons of testing from two perspectives: (1) as a test-taker and (2) as a test-giver

From the point-of-view of the test-taker, the 'cons' of taking a test seem obvious. Besides the nerves and the fear of being put under pressure, from the test-taker's point-of-view being tested requires subjecting something quite unique, namely their individual human mind, to an objective test that cannot take into consideration adverse circumstances, from a lack of engagement with the material, poor teaching, or an eccentric learning style. Testing can thus discourage creativity and a sense of fun in learning for the test taker. Test can also encourage students to learn how to take a particular teacher's tests, rather than to truly learn and actively engage with the material on an individual basis like a research paper.

This is also the downside of testing from the teacher's perspective as…

Works Cited

ABC Teach. (2004). "Charlotte's Web." Retrieved on July 13, 2004  http://www.abcteach.com/directory/theme_units/literature/charlottes_web/ 

Bloom's Taxonomy. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004  http://www.fgcu.edu/onlinedesign/designDevd.html 

College Board. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at collegeboard.com

Fair Test. (2004) Retrieved on July 13, 2004 at  http://www.fairtest.org/facts/nratests.html

Assessment Program for Poverty Reduction
Words: 1595 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86459321
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Poverty eduction Programs in Urban Communities

Needs Assessment For Poverty Programs In Urban Communities

Many countries around the world have made poverty reduction a policy priority by adopting the goals of the Millennium Declaration or similar objectives. The Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program to enable it to analyze income and poverty trends in individual counties such as Wilson County. The application of the SAIPE Program in the State of North Carolina in 2012 revealed that despite some major poverty-reduction plans being implemented, the overall rates of poverty still remained relatively high. It has been estimated that Wilson County, N.C., has a population in which approximately 18.5% of the population (representing around 13,747 people) and 13% of families live below the federal poverty line; the second poorest county in the state.

The rates of poverty are worrying because there have been several attempts to attempt to alleviate poverty…

References

Besharov, D., & Call, D. (2009). Income Transfers Alone Won't Eradicate Poverty. The Policy Studies Journal, 599-631.

Bollinger, C., & Hagstrom, P. (2011). The Poverty Reduction Success of Public Transfers for Working Age Immagrants and Refugeees in the United States. Contemporary Economic Policy, 191-206.

Cornwall, A., & Brock, K. (2006). What do buzzwords do for development policy? A critical look at 'participation', 'empowerment' and 'poverty reduction'. Third World Quarterly, 1043-1060.

DeClerck, F. (2012). Integrating Ecology and Poverty Reduction: Ecological Dimensions. Springer Science & Business Media.

Educational Trends U S Women
Words: 1424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81164337
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Education Trends

SOS 492 WA 3 social sciences

What are the education trends of women in the United States?

One of the most surprising and significant recent trends in higher education in the United States is that women now make up a larger percentage of college students and graduates than men; once upon a time there were jokes that women merely went to college to obtain their 'MS.' Today, that could not be farther from the truth. "Both men and women complete more schooling now than in the past, but beginning in the mid-1980s, women's college completion rates began to surpass men's in the United States" (Schwartz & Han 2014: 605). There is increasing evidence that women regard education as critical for personal advancement and economic stability. "Among whites in 2006, women obtain 57% of bachelor's degrees while among Blacks, women receiving bachelor's degrees made up 66% of college graduates.…

References

Bae, Y (et al. 2000). Educational equity of girls and women. National Center for Education

Statistics. Retrieved from:  http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000030.pdf 

Bidwell, A. (2014). Women more likely to graduate college, but still earn less than men.

U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from:

Educational Analysis of Student Testing
Words: 1084 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66506615
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Education and the Analysis of Student Tests: Current Trends and ecommendations for Practice

In both the practical realm of educational provision and in education policies and legislation, the need to effectively and accurately measure the efficacy of various teaching methods and educational program is of paramount concern. There is a legislative mandate that all children in the United States have a right to a free and equal public education, and ethical principles also insist that all students receive the same opportunities for learning and growth. Given the practical constraints of providing public education on such a broad scale, it is also important that most students progress at approximately the same rate, so that instruction can be kept meaningful for all students. While this often translates to teaching towards the bottom of knowledge and skill levels represented in the class, it ought to mean being able to identify struggles and problems…

References

Garcia, E. (2001). Hispanic Education in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Phelps, R. (2005). Defending Standardized Testing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sacks, P. (1999). Standardized Minds. New York; Da Capo Press.

Spring, J. (2001). American Education. New York: McGraw Hill.

Assessment or Response to Intervention
Words: 503 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56887818
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Intervention

Early identification of learning disabilities in children is critical to the development of a child's abilities. Identification allows for tailored interventions sooner, which optimizes outcomes (ilkinson, 2010). Unfortunately, a wide array of problems exists in attempting to identify a disability. Difficulties include the family's denial of problems and an incomplete evaluation. The authors discuss several approaches for identification of learning disabilities with a detailed discussion of each one (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities [NJCLD], 2007). After a discussion of risk indicators that may be linked with learning disabilities and protection factors linked with the lack of learning disabilities, the authors note that these indicators are not conclusive (NJCLD, 2007). The authors support systematic observation and comprehensive evaluation to assess learning disabilities (NJCLD, 2007). Finally, the authors conclude that tailored intervention for students and professional development for those involved in special education are critical for interventions (NJCLD, 2007).

The…

Works Cited

Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L. (2009). Responsiveness to Intervention: Multilevel Assessment and Instruction as Early Intervention and Disability Identification. Reading Teacher, 63(3), 250-252.

National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2007). Learning Disabilities and Young Children: Identification and Intervention. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(1), 63-72.

Wilkinson, L. (2010). School-age children with autism spectrum disorders: screening and identification. European Journal of Special Needs Education 25(3), 211-223.

Assessment of the Validity of a Research Design
Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74592429
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Accept This Conclusion?

This conclusion is spurious because there are too many potential intervening variables. For one, the students are enrolled and being taught at two different schools. There is no mention of their ages, grade levels, background, or any other pertinent data that could affect reading habits or scores on reading tests. Any number of factors could influence their literacy levels, including demographic issues and the reading resources available at their respective schools.

Second, there is no definition of terms or operational definitions that would be critical for clarifying issues related to literacy. Simply noting that the word method and phonics method were being used is not specific enough. The researchers need to indicate what tools and techniques are being used, in what manner, and in which classrooms, in order to classify one group as "word" and one as "phonics." Finally, the participants were not given a pre-assessment of…

Educational Development Choices by Teachers
Words: 722 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 85517564
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Professional Learning and Development -- the Teacher's Perspective

The recent debate over standards-based education has tended to focus upon student performance in regards to standardized testing and the rise of common core standards. However, an equally critical component of the question of improving our nation's schools is the training and education of teachers. eceiving a degree in education is only the beginning of the teacher's development as an educator. This proposed research project will examine teacher perceptions of professional development exercises and how they believe it has influenced their efficacy in the classroom and student performance.

According to the 2013 report issued by the Center for Public Education entitled Teaching the teachers, "recent education reforms have urged teachers to foster collaboration, debate and reflection amongst students, in order to develop cognitive processes like those called for in the new standards. Ironically, districts rarely apply these same learning techniques to developing…

References

Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13 (4): 544-559. Retrieved from:  http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-4/baxter.pdf 

Gulamhussein, A. (2013). Teaching the teachers. Center for Public Education. Retrieved from:

http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Staffingstudents/Teaching-the-Teachers-Effective-Professional-Development-in-an-Era-of-High-Stakes-Accountability

Action Plan Assessment and Communication Strategy
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Assessment Strategies

Communication Strategy

The principal along with other teachers should convey the significance of the parents’ part as being a provider in their children’s accomplishment. Members of staff ought to make endeavors to make sure parents really feel delightful in the school and give significant and frequent interaction to ease the sense of distrust usually common among parents as well as school personnel. A premium ought to be put on the nice things pupils do, as limitations are put on the unfavorable things they carryout. Research outcomes backed an optimistic recommendation program within the school works well; while schools send updates to parents in the event that their kids are exceptional. Occasionally parents are trying to learn certain parenting abilities. The principal or members of staff can help parents to learn those parenting abilities required to make the house a place of learning and expand school learning straight into…

Recent Important Educational Laws
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Educational Law Summary:

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act (IDEA)

One of the most recent and controversial works of educational legislation passed by Congress has been that of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The rationale behind NCLB is to use standardized testing and other quantitative benchmarks on a regular basis to monitor the extent to which students are making adequate progress in school. To receive federal funding, all states must test at least 95% of students enrolled in public school grades 3-8 and at least once in high school. There must also be reports on the results of historically underserved subgroups such as ESL students; students in historically discriminated against racial and socioeconomic classes; and special education students (Klein 2015; Cortiellia 2006). The type of testing to which students are subjected, as well as the required proficiency level may be determined by the state…

References

Cortiellia, C. (2006). NCLB and IDEA: What parents of students with disabilities need to know and do. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, National Center on Educational Outcomes. LD Online. Retrieved from:

 http://www.ldonline.org/article/11846/ 

IDEA. (2015). NCLD. Retrieved from:

 http://www.ncld.org/action-center/learn-the-law/individuals-with-disabilities-education-act-idea/

Social Work Assessment From My
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Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.

Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…

References

Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf

Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from  http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm 

Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from  http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling 

Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72.  http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu  / (accessed April 1, 2010).

Louisiana Education Educational Excellence Review Goals Put
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Louisiana Education

Educational Excellence eview goals put Educational Excellence All Children Act (1999). Goal 1: eady learn year 2000, children America start school ready learn. Goal 2: School Completion year 2000, high school graduation rate increase 90%.

Educational Excellence for All Children Act (1999):

How does Louisiana measure up?

When President Clinton reauthorized the Elementary & Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 in the form of the Educational Excellence for All Children Act (1999), he intended to reinforce such concepts as 'high academic standards, top-quality teachers in smaller classes, safe schools" and emphasize the need for a greater degree of accountability of schools and teachers (Kickbush & Winters 1999). The Act set six major goals for all schools. Sadly, the state of Louisiana has received a failing grade from a number of independent, objective review boards in relation to its ability to meet these six goals. The National Center for…

References

Drug and alcohol abuse amongst teens in Louisiana. (2012). Inspirations Youth. Retrieved:

http://inspirationsyouth.com/Teen-Rehab-Louisiana.asp

Ernest Gallet. (2011). Louisiana Schools Report Cards. Retrieved:

http://www.louisianaschools.net/reportcards/

Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions
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In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.

Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…

Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis the University
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Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis

The University of San Diego Counseling Center (USDCC) has been established to provide enrolled students with access to quality counseling and healthcare services. Employing a diverse selection of the university's most accomplished psychiatrists, psychologists, medical doctors, registered nurses, and other healthcare professionals, the USDCC operates a high-volume Critical Intensive Care Unit with the assistance of a 50-member nursing staff. Although the USDCC has built a reputation for delivering competent and qualified critical care services across a number of years, the organization's management structure has become concerned that educational priorities have not been updated to reflect modern advancements in the field. To that end, the USDCC recently elected to conduct a comprehensive Learning Needs Assessment and Analysis to identify the paramount educational needs in place, and the institutional forces working to facilitate or impede the implementation of these needs. Empirical research on the efficacy of various…

References

Lewin, K. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: Concepts and methods.

Journal of Sociology, 44, 868-896. Retrieved from  http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2769418?uid=3739552&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=7 

0&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21101323864143

Morrison, G.R., Ross, S.M., Kalman, H.K., & Kemp, J.E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Organizational Health

Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.

Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…

References

Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.

Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.

____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.

Clinical Assessment of Learners Clinical Assessment Involves
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Clinical Assessment of Learners

Clinical assessment involves the evaluation of technical skills, communication skills, professionalism, knowledge base, and teaching skills, where applicable, of students who are about to enter independent practice. Technological changes have made it possible to assess clinical performance in ways that are far more advanced than pencil and paper tests relied on in the past (Dauphinee, 1995). In the late 1970s, clinical training programs utilized continuous practical assessments to evaluate learner competencies and as means of providing formative assessment feedback. These continuous practical assessments were considered to be "a much more valid, reliable, and realistic method of assessment" (Quinn, 1989). As clinical placements grew shorter and the number of staff, including those with "supernumerary status" grew larger, the quality of continuous practical assessments was substantively impaired (Girot, 1993). The goal of assessment has always been to identify a "competent practitioner" and to support the educational efforts required…

References

Andrews, M. And Chilton, F. (2000) Student and mentor perceptions of mentoring effectiveness, Nurse Education Today, 20 (7), 555-562.

Atkins, S. And Williams, A. (1995) Registered nurses' experiences of mentoring undergraduate nursing students, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21, 1006-1015.

Cahill, H.A. (1996) A qualitative analysis of student nurses' experiences of mentorship,

Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24(4), 791-799.

Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation
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Differentiated Learning & Assessment -- PLC Presentation

Differentiated instruction and assessment recognizes that the individual needs, strengths and weaknesses of students must drive learning (Wormeli, 2007). Changing the outcomes of traditional lesson plans to account for differentiated learning is a fundamental part of ensuring student success. Each student's readiness, interest and learning profile is at the core of this approach. Students are diverse; therefore, instructional and assessment practices should be as well, to improve student outcomes in all content areas.

Many teachers design lessons that have a set of specific learning objectives and standardized assessments for students. However, today's learning models ask teachers to adopt multiple objectives and use different levels of assessment for more individualized learning (Dobbertin, 2012). Differentiation of process, then, refers to the way in which a student accesses material (i.e., one student may explore a learning center, while another may conduct an online search for information).…

References

Dobbertin, C. (2012). Just How I Need to Learn It. Educational Leadership, 69(5), 66-70

Forsten, Char, Grant, J., & Hollas, B. (2003). Differentiating Textbooks: Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension & Motivation. New Hampshire: Crystal Springs Books.

Heacox, Diane. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom: How to Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing.

Painter, D.D. (2009). Providing Differentiated Learning Experiences Through Multigenre Projects. Intervention in School & Clinic, 44(5), 288-293.

Facilitating Teaching and Assessment Facilitating Teaching and
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Facilitating Teaching and Assessment

Facilitating, Teaching and Assessment

Facilitating, teaching and assessment in practice

The facilitation, teaching and assessment of nurses are important and critical jobs. Hospitals understand that it is cost effective for them to have a senior employee mentor the junior employees so that they are soon trained enough to be on their own at work. Mentors are employees that have supervisory as well as leadership qualities to teach and facilitate learners. The nurse mentor carries on the job by assessing and evaluating the methods that can be used to facilitate the nurse. These methods may include but are not limited to lectures and discussion. The processes of facilitation and teaching depends on the capacity of both the mentor as well as the learner. The following discussion will focus on mentor and learner backgrounds, learning needs of the learner and the responsibilities of both parties. It also offers…

References

American Medical Association, 2013, "Continuing Medical Education," Retrieved from:

 http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/continuing-medical-education.page 

Brown, J.S., 2005, "New Learning Environments for the 21st Century," Retrieved from:

 http://www.johnseelybrown.com/newlearning.pdf