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Unfortunately, there is great controversy in the debate over educational testing. This especially revolves around SAT scores, and other standardized tests that many believe are placing students at a disadvantage. Recently, SAT scores declined significantly, which made many in power to blame schools as providing inefficient educational programs. As a result, many states began increasing the number of tests and their weight in terms of school funding as a way to entice schools to achieve better scores. Essentially, some believe that standardized tests are not the most accurate ways to measure intelligence and student achievement. Many students do not perform well on tests, and research shows there may be a clear racial bias in regards to cultural elements not translating well into a standardized test methodology.
Despite loosing some power over the last few decades, parents do still have a number of choices in terms of their children's educations. Parents…
strongly disagree neutral agree strongly agree N/A
2. The skills that I have acquired through my education are put to good use in my current position.
strongly disagree neutral agree strongly agree N/A
3. The skills that I have acquired through my education are put to good use in my current field.
4. I receive proper financial compensation for my level of educational attainment.
strongly disagree neutral agree strongly agree N/A
5. I have a clear path toward advancement in my organization that is commensurate with my level of educational attainment.
strongly disagree neutral agree strongly agree N/A
6. I am receiving the training and support from my organization necessary to continue my professional education.
strongly disagree neutral agree strongly agree N/A
7. My organization supports or participates in certification,…
families on the educational attainments of the individuals. For this purpose, a social research interview was conducted and the response of the interviewee is taken as a base for making conclusions about the issue at hand.
Family has an influential impact on the educational attainments of an individual. It is a widely supported fact that if the individuals want to give an effective performance in their educational life then they must have complete support of their families, especially their parents. With the change in the structures and functions of the family in the contemporary times, the role played by the families in the educational attainment has somewhat changed but families still have great impact on the educational life of an individual. (Wilson, n.d.)
In order to analyze the impact of family on the educational attainments of individuals a social research interview was conducted. The interviewee was a college student. He…
Desforges, C. And Abouchaar, A. (2003). The Impact of Parental Involvement, Parental Support and Family Education on Pupil Achievements and Adjustment: A Literature Review. Alberta: Queen's Printer. http://bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/files_uploaded/uploaded_resources/18617/Desforges.pdf [Accessed: 19 Jun 2013].
Gorard, S., See, B. And Davies, P. (2012). The impact of attitudes and aspirations on educational attainment and participation. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/education-young-people-parents-full.pdf [Accessed: 19 Jun 2013].
Palmer, M. (2009). Long-term Effects of Parents' Education on Children's Educational and Occupational Success: Mediation by Family Interactions, Child Aggression, and Teenage Aspirations. Bethesda: National Center for Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2853053 / [Accessed: 19 Jun 2013].
Wilson, R. (n.d.). Families Matter: The Impact of Families on Academic Achievement. Lexington: University of Kentucky. http://www.familyimpactseminars.org/s_nmfis05ppt_rww.pdf [Accessed: 19 Jun 2013].
Summary and Conclusion
The community and church have a primary role to play in mitigating the negative effects of family poverty of the educational attainment and outcomes of children from these low-socioeconomic families. As demonstrated in the work of McLanahan and Garfinkel (2001) most parents at the time their children are born express a desire to raise their children together however, this many times does not happen. The church and community stand in a unique position to empower and enable these parents to do just this through provision of support in the way of resources and assisting the supervision of these children while parents work to move themselves and their children out of the poverty bracket and into a position that brightens the potential outcomes for their children and themselves. It is not the suggestion of this writer that members of the community and church should necessarily dig into…
Bladen, Jo, and McNally, Sally (2006) Mind the Gap: Child Poverty and Educational Attainment. Poverty 123, Winter 2006.
Chaikind, Stephen (1985) The Effects of Short-Term and Long-Term Poverty on Educational Attainment of Children. ERIC Digest. ED296017.
Danziger, Sheldon, and Haveman, Robert H. (2002) Understanding Poverty. Harvard University Press 2002.
Ferguson, HB, Bovaird, S. And Mueller, MP (2007) The Impact of Poverty on Educational Outcomes for Children. Paediatr Child Health 2007. October, 12(8):701-706.
Datcher-Loury researched a set of black children belonging to low income families from three regions to find out whether variations in educational performance were due to variation in behavior and attitudes within the families. Focused on the outcomes of the student's achievement on reading and math exams and also on the interviews with and examination of the mothers of the children; Datcher-Loury arrived at the decision that variations in family behavior and attitudes of course had huge and vital long-term impacts on the educational performance of children. From these outcomes, Datcher-Loury recommends that the programs concentrated at changing parental attitudes might be helpful in assisting to surmount the impact of economic shortcoming on the academic achievement on children. (Renchler, 1993) research undertaken by Judith Anderson and others demonstrated the association between poverty at public school and achievement of students among eighth graders, concentrating on the most poor schools…
Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.
Findings & Conclusion
In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.
Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…
Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).
Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.
Strehorn states that:
To begin, I try to design a syllabus/course outline that is not only readable, but something that will be utilized more than once per semester (the first day!). This document, aside from basic course information (names and dates), emphasizes my expectation that all students must accept responsibility for their own learning as well as my flexibility in teaching style. I try to make the course syllabus available on disk, and it is always useful to have a clear, legible copy that can be blown-up, or scanned if needed."
What kinds of materials or activities has the teacher used with success with English learners?
Answer: Strehorn states that materials used are: Dictionaries and thesauruses, audio tapes of each class period, books on tape, additional reading/reference sources, study guides, support information, sample problems however, it is not so much the fact in the type of the materials…
Strehorn, Kregg C. (2004) the Application of Universal Instructional Design to ESL Teaching [at] yahoo.com Universidad Cat lica de Temuco (Temuco, Chile) [Online available at http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Strehorn-UID.html
Education Teaching Methods - ESL
woman's rights were little recognized. As a creative source of human life, she was confined to the home as a wife and mother. Moreover, she was considered intellectually, emotionally and spiritually inferior to man (Compton's 1995), even wicked, as in the case of mythical Pandora, who let loose plagues and misery in a box. This was the early concept of woman in the West as an adjunct to man, although the woman in the East was not without property and individual rights and freedoms. Just the same, a woman was subject to man and could not own property, could not remarry and boys were preferred to girls. ut when allowed some rights, such as during the Middle Ages, a woman proved what she could achieve. A woman from an aristocratic family or line, for example, possessed power and prestige like a man in her class. England's Queen Elizabeth in the…
Barry, Ursula. Gender Issues and the Irish National Employment Action Plan. Final Report. Women's Education Research and Resource Centre. Dublin:University College, 2000. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www2.umist.ac.uk/management/ewerc/egge/egge_publications/lrl_Napev.pdf
Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia. Women's History in America. News Media, Inc., 1995. (accessed 15:05:03)
Evans, Karen. Overcome Barriers to Women's Technical Education. The Commonwealth of Learning, 1995. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www.col.org/barriers.htm
These researchers define poverty based on different thresholds and determine the child poverty rates resulting from these thresholds. The researchers found that in the three years studied, about 5.7 per cent of all Australian children were poor in all three years of the study, and this represented between 28 and 41 per cent of those in poverty in the first year. The study also suggested that there may be differences in the characteristics of families of children in persistent poverty and those in poverty in only one of the three years, with the families in persistent poverty representing the greatest problem to be addressed in any reduction effort.
However, as Bradbury (1999) states, the industrialized nations of the world have been more successful in reducing poverty among the aged, but in many countries the last two decades there has been a re-emergence of child poverty. ates vary widely, but evidence…
Abello, a. & Harding, a., 2004, the Dynamics of Child Poverty in Australia, Discussion Paper no. 60, University of Canberra, http://www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/pubs/dps/dp60/dp60.html .[University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia]
Barrile, S., 2993, May, Managing successfully... managing diversity, Business 11(2), pp. 5-7.
Bradbury, B., 1999, Spring/Summer, Child poverty across the industrialized world, Family Matters 54, pp.65-69.
Connell, R.W. & White, V. (1988). Citation missing.
High School Dual Programs
Current social, political, and cultural concerns have hastened the call for high school reform and have intensified an interest in producing high school graduates that are college ready (Kuo, 2010). Competition from up-and-coming economies such as China and India have challenged traditional American economic world dominance and are forcing policy makers to be concerned about making substantive changes in the educational system (Kuo, 2010). However, when positive attempts are made to reform high schools, they often are not sustained due to the fact that the people who initiated the changes moved on and the system reverted back to the way it was prior to the reform effort (Hamann, 2005). Thus, there is the need for wider-ranging changes in education.
Twenty-first century educational reform efforts will need to address three emerging issues related to the American educational system: globalization, the continuity of the system, and the wasted…
Cohen, J.S., & Smerdon, B.A. (2009). Tightening the dropout tourniquet: Easing the transition from middle to high school. Washington D.C: New America Foundation.
Cooper, M.A. (2009). Dreams deferred? The relationship between early and later postsecondary educational aspirations among racial/ethnic groups. Educational Policy, 23, 615-649.
Domina, T. & Ruzek, E (2010). Paving the way: K-16 partnerships for higher education diversity and high school reform. Educational Policy, 26(2), 243-267.
Hamann, E.T. (2005). Systemic high school reform in two states: The serendipity of state-level action. The High School Journal, 89(1), 1-17.
Educational Planning and Economics: How the needs of looked after children can be addressed through non-formal and formal education.
There are current trends in non-formal educational processes that allows for interesting, unique and relevant work within the educational environment that could likely lead to enhanced short-term educational opportunities for impoverished and/or at-risk students. Additional long-term benefits including; increased levels of societal education, higher incomes, better living conditions, a less impoverished lifestyle and a society that benefits with the input of the individuals who receive the education are also realistic results from a study such as the one being proposed.
A recent study determined that young orphan girls receiving psycho-social support helped in keeping the intervention group in school (n= 184) and that the girls comprising the intervention group were less likely to drop out of school (5%), had higher educational aspirations, higher expectations concerning the future, a more equitable attitude…
Holfors, D.D.; Rusakaniko, S.; Hyusan, C.; Mapfumo, J.; (2011) Supporting adolescent orphan girls to stay in school as HIV risk prevention: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe, American Journal of Public Health (in press)
Mhaka-Mutepfa, M. (2010) Types of services for children infected and affected by HIV and AIDS: Results and implications of a Zimbabwean study, International Journal of Psychology and Counseling, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp. 100-106
Mualuko, N.J. (2008) Empowering out of school youth through non-formal education in Kenya, Educational Research and Review, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 56-60
attainment of a desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward the situation, event, occurrence, or phenomenon being investigated. As such no research question can be answered by way of gathering and analyzing data if first investigative issue is not stated in testable terms or form. Once a research investigator has established and properly formatted the specific research design to be used to investigate and test a desired phenomenon attention can be given to the required method of data collection. On the basis of the method chosen the researcher will be permitted to draw the necessary conclusions from the data statistically analyzed. Should a research investigator not choose the best-fit method of data collection then any inferences drawn from the data analysis are subject to a tremendous amount of error and inaccuracy. In order to avoid data error and inaccuracy the research investigator must give particular attention to…
Furguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs.
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…
Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.
In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.
According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
What variable(s) and factors does each model include that the other overlooks? Integrate one reading of your choice to your analysis on how social class of families impact school-related processes and educational outcomes.
Laureau finds that the social class of parents affects the parent-school-child triad. Middle class parents get more involved in their children's activities than do working class parents. This involvement has a positive impact on the child's educational attainment. According to Lareau, due to the parents' education, occupation, income, and social networks, middle class parents feel more equal to teachers than do working class parents. This enables them to question and monitor teachers rather than deferring to teachers. Additionally, they have the financial resources to purchase educational resources and usually have more flexibility in their jobs to permit greater involvement. Therefore, they have more frequent abilities to participate in their child's educational pursuits, which results in greater educational…
Eder found that teachers' perceptions of students, and therefore their treatment of students, were based on students' family backgrounds and social mannerisms. Differences in social mannerisms were often misinterpreted as being reflective of the students' abilities. These attitudes toward students' intellectual abilities led to ability grouping in reading and math, which become sort of a self-fulfilling prophecy for these students.
Alexander considered the social class origin of the teacher and his or her perception of student abilities. Alexander found that teachers from high socioeconomic backgrounds perceived lower SES and Black students as lacking in maturity. Additionally, these teachers had lower academic expectations for lower SES and Black students. However, teachers from lower SES backgrounds did not have these perceptions. These perceptions impacted the grades the students received at the end of the year. In classrooms of lower SES teachers, there was no correlation between student's SES or race and his or her year-end grade. Conversely, in classrooms of teachers of high SES backgrounds, students of lower SES and Black students had significantly lower grades than those who were white or of higher SES. Alexander attributes this to the social distance between teachers and students.
According to the Wisconsin Social-Psychological Model, how we see ourselves depend on our interpretations of how other people see us. As has been stated in the other models, when parents and teachers have high expectations of students, they perform better. Mistry et al. (2009) found that both parents' and teachers' expectations of students impacted student achievement. They also found that teacher perceptions were based on the perceptions of earlier teachers, so if as indicated in the Eder and Alexander models, teachers base their expectations on misunderstandings
Stigma and Disability
The self-sufficiency of any person or group largely depends on the capacity to maintain a certain level of financial stability. As a group, people with disabilities are among those with the highest poverty rates and lowest educational levels despite typically having some of the highest out-of-pocket expenses of all other groups. Educational level is strongly related to financial status and independence in most of the studies performed on these variables. Despite regulations to attempt to provide an equal and fair education to students identified as having disabilities, the research indicates that the majority of these individuals do not reach the educational levels and financial status of their non-disabled peers. The limitations of a failed system of assistance for these individuals that creates a double-edged sword in the form of stigmatizing these students has resulted in it being next to impossible for this group to obtain even an…
Artiles, A., Kozleski, E., Trent, S., Osher, D., & Ortiz, A. (2010). Justifying and explaining disproportionality, 1968-2008: A critique of underlying views of culture. Exceptional Children, 76, 279-299
Bjelland, M.J., Burkhauser, R.V., von Schrader, S., & Houtenville, A.J. (2011). 2010 progress report on the economic well-being of working-age people with disabilities. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1284&context=edicolle ct&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den %26q%3Ddisabilities%2Band%2Bpoverty%26as_sdt%3D0%252C23%26as_ylo%3D20 10%26as_vis%3D1#search=%22disabilities%20poverty%22.
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)"
Burkhauser, R.V. & Houtenville, A.J. (2006). A guide to disability statistics from the current population survey - annual social and economic supplement (March CPS). In Rehabilitation research and training center on disability demographics and statistics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Retrieved on July 10, 2012 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/edicollect/1233/
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.
Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy
There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…
Antidote. 2008. Campaign for Emotional Literacy. Available at http://www.antidote.org.uk
Bastian, V.A., Burns, N.R. And Nettelbeck, T. 2005. Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, but not as well as Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, pp. 1135-45.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, a.Y.C. And Caputi, P. 2000. A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, pp. 1101-13.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Deane, F.P. And Anderson, S. 2002. Emotional Intelligence Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Mental Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, pp. 197-209.
Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.
Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:
"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."
Both of these…
Bluestone, B. (2001, December 10). The inequality express. The American Prospect. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://prospect.org/article/inequality-express
Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (1976). Education and inequality. In Schooling in capitalistic America: Educational reform and contraditions of economic life. New York: Basic Books Inc., 347-352. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://homepage.smc.edu/delpiccolo_guido/Soc1/soc1readings/education%20and%20inequality_final.pdf
Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York: Random House.
Murray, C. (2008). The age of educational romanticism. The New Criterion, Vol. 26, Issue 9, 35-42. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=c1982738-7db5-4e79-a111-f63982ce3e61%40sessionmgr111&hid=106
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…
AFDB. "Inflation Dynamics in Selected East African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda." AFDB Brief, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflatin%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyses the trend in Ethiopia's inflation rates vis-a-vis those of other countries in the Sub-Saharan region and was a valuable source of regional statistics, which formed the main basis for comparison.
Broussar, Nzinga, and Tekleselassie Tsegay. "Youth Unemployment: Ethiopia; Country Study." International Growth Center, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflation%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyzes the trend in Ethiopia's employment patterns. It reinforced my arguments that unemployment is more prevalent in urban Ethiopia, and that the country's informal sector contributes more to GDP than the formal sector.
Also, children who do not graduate from school are also at risk for negative and risky behavior during adolescence that can transcend into adulthood. These behaviors include delinquency, drug abuse and violence as well as long-term adjustment issues.
Essentially, children in foster care are at greater risk for not succeeding in school and do have more emotional issues than children of the general population. There must be the utmost emphasis on helping them to succeed. One study conducted suggested the difference between success and failure for a child could be determined with only a few steps and relatively minimal effort on the part of care givers and educational institutions. These include making sure transcripts transfer in a timely manner, a strong working relationship between educators and social workers, the care giver (foster parent) involvement in the education process, and social workers being involved in the direction of the child's education.…
Anne Havalchak, C.R. (2009). Foster Care Experiences and Educational. Social Work Journal, 3-7.
Fernandez, E. (2008). Unravelling Emotional, Behavioural. British Journal of Social Work, 14-16.
Sullivan, M.J. (2009). School change, academic progress, and behavior problems in a sample of foster youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 7.
Education and Fertility ates
Fertility and Educational Attainment
Women around the world are starting to become more empowered through higher education attainment levels. Millions of women are now finding more educational opportunities at their fingertips, which empower them as well as the economic capacity of their respective nations. Yet, education also has an impact on fertility rates; as education levels rise, fertility rates tend to decrease. Nations with higher education expectations thus tend to have women with decreased fertility rates and who tend to have children at much older age groups than in nations where there are less educational opportunities for women.
Education is a major factor of improving a woman's quality of life. At the same time, education also impacts the rate at which women give birth. The research suggests that "educational attainment has long been considered the most important measure of socioeconomic status in describing fertility differentials" (Center…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Birth and fertility rates by educational attainment: United States, 1994. Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 45(10). Web. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/mvsr/supp/mv45_10s.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). The World Factbook. Web. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2127.html
Gupta, Deepti & Gupta, Navneet. (2012). Higher education in India: Structure, statistics, and challenges. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(2), 17-26.
International Human Development Indicators. (2013). Chad: Country profile. Countries. Web. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/TCD.html
Discrepancies in Achievement: Aspirations vs. Expectations Among Students
HISTOICAL OIGINS OF DIFFEENCES
There is a large body of research that focuses on the educational and occupational aspirations and expectations of minority students as well as between male vs. female students. Expectation is defined as a concrete or realistic plan students have and may differ from aspirations, which are generally more abstract and ideological (Trusty, 2002). As Hanson (1994) describes, a student may well have a high aspiration, as evidenced in the national statistics, such as to achieve a college degree; however many students might not actually expect to earn that degree during the course of their education (Trusty, 2002).
Why the discrepancy? In the past little effort has been made to differentiate between aspirations and expectations; and example given is a study conducted in 1991 by Marjoribanks, who used the term 'aspirations' to describe his study, but actually measured student…
Fisher, T.A., & Padmawidjaja, I. "Parental influences on career development perceived by African-American and Mexican-American college students." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 27, 1999: 136-152.
Hanson, S.L. "Lost talent: Unrealized educational aspirations and expectations among U.S. youths." Sociology of Education, 67, 1994: 159-183.
Kao, G., & Tienda, M. "Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education," 106, 1998: 349-384.
Smith-Maddox, R. "The social networks and resources of African-American eighth
The other sector of life where information literacy is vital and omnipresent is the career field. It is not simply a matter of preference or choice. Many businesses actively embrace the harnessing and day-to-day use of computer and informatics technology because the business being able to thrive in the marketplace or even survive in general as a business can literally depend upon it. Such a state of affairs requires employees and leaders that are well-versed and adept in literacy regarding information, computers and informatics, among other things such as project management skills, leadership traits, and so on.
Job descriptions discoverable online are bereft and thick with requirements that relate to information, computer and informatics literacy. Examples include prospective employees being familiar with the construction and/or use of database technology, internet technology, familiarity with operations systems such as Mac OS and Windows, software suites like Microsoft Office and so on. Failure…
Creedy, D.K., Mitchell, M., Seaton-Sykes, P., Cooke, M., Patterson, E., Purcell, C., & Weeks, P. (2007). Evaluating a Web-Enhanced Bachelor of Nursing Curriculum:
Perspectives of Third-Year Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(10), 460-
Edwards, J., & O'Connor, P.A. (2011). Improving Technological Competency in Nursing
Students: The Passport Project. Journal of Educators Online, 8(2), 1-20.
The educational system up to this point, very likely to continue in the future, has swung back and forth between these two philosophies (individualist and essentialist) in a pendulum effect, as educators seek to engender interest for knowledge in the student. Interestingly the application of the core principles in the Paideia Proposal can be applied to both swings of the pendulum as it demands that the core subjects be taught and demonstrated in a manner that meet individuals greatest possible abilities through presentation hands on and demonstration of learning, that is essential to the proposal. Each student is demonstrating his or her learning through the creation of presentations and/or projects that require analysis outside the classroom. For this to be effective many essential elements must come into play. Educators, in a broader sense, must view and critique the works of students, parents must be actively involved in critiques…
References www.alliance.ed.uiuc.edu www.paideia.org
Adler, M.J.(1998). The Paideia Proposal, New York, Touchstone.
Gutek, G.L. (2000) American Education 1945-2000. New York, Waveland Press Inc.
Roberts, T.. (2002) Learn to care, care to learn. Educational. Leadership, 60(1), 45-49.
Roberts, T. Trainor, a. (2004) Performing for Yourself and Others: The Paideia Coached Project. Phi Delta Kappan, 513-519.
Dual enrolment has become a popular phenomenon in the education realm in the last one decade. Community colleges are increasingly collaborating with high schools to enable high school students undertake college-level courses while still in high school. This prepares high school students for the realities of college education and socialises them into the norms, attitudes, behaviours, and expectations of college life, in addition to reducing the time and cost of college education. However, challenges such as difficulties in credit transfer, little or no confidence in dual credit courses on the part of colleges and faculty members, lack of a strong policy framework, and ensuring equitable participation abound. These are concerns that college administrators must handle if dual enrolment is to be more successful. It is particularly important for the leaders of community colleges to adjust structures, processes, and practices at their institutions if the fairly new collaboration between secondary and…
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Laptop Implementation Program - Action Plan
The ideal school in the modern era of global education evokes dynamic and progressive thought to what exactly enables a student population to excel and succeed in life's endeavors. Truly, this is central to any discussion regarding educational reformation via school and classroom development. The critical component to these decisions is inherent to the leadership at the school to understand that, according to Cause & Chen, "the children's active use of technology in making decisions, technology resources in writing and drawing, and logical thinking programs to solve problems and illustrate ideas." (Cause, Chen, 2010)
The ideal school will therefore target the way young children learn and teach accordingly. According to Cause & Chen, an appropriate method to educate the young is to "offer pictures and sounds to support the natural ways that young children learn." (Cause, Chen, 2010) The importance of vision…
Katie Ash. (2010, March). Building on a Decade of 1-to-1 Lessons: Sustaining a laptop program at a middle school in Michigan requires a wireless vision and parent purchasing power.. Education Week, 29(26), 12, 14, 15. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2030552671).
Cause, L., & Chen, D.. (2010). A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(1), 75-98. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2134707481).
Dawson, K., Cavanaugh, C., & Ritzhaupt, A.. (2008). Florida's EETT Leveraging Laptops Initiative and Its Impact on Teaching Practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 143-159. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1609084841).
Chris Kieffer. (15 September). Tupelo hopes to expand school laptop use. McClatchy - Tribune Business News,***[insert pages]***. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Dateline. (Document ID: 1859409821).
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
Teaching Young Americans What it Means to be a Good Citizen
Citizenship education, to give it a name, does not simply belong to the social studies teacher. -- Peter S. Hlebowitsh, Daniel Tanner and William G. Wraga, 2000
Statement of Generative Theme.
Children born today will probably never know a day and age when mankind does not have a permanent presence in outer space, and the world is becoming a much smaller place as the result of innovations in telecommunications, international commerce and transportation. In this changing environment, it becomes increasingly important for young Americans to understand what it means to be a good citizen, and what their responsibilities and obligations are to their local communities and their country. To this end, this paper provides an educational approach for promoting improved citizenship awareness at the community level through a small group approach to learning.
The small group format is particularly…
Beckerman, Marvin, Simon Kim and B. Sue Parks, "Effects of Participatory Learning Programs
in Middle And High School Civic Education," Social Studies, 87 (1996): 171.
Black's Law Dictionary, (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990).
Hlebowitsh, Peter S., Daniel Tanner and William G. Wraga, Research Review for School
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
ASL the Deaf Community
ASL: The Deaf Community
Although there has been a call for equality for all students with disabilities in the arena of education, the fact is that there are still inequalities that exist for individuals with deafness. It was reported September 23, 2013 that the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and Joseph B. Espo, attorney with Brown, Golstein & Levy, LLP in Baltimore, Maryland, "filed a lawsuit against the University of Maryland College Park and several of its officials over the university's long-standing and continuing failure to provide captioning of announcements and commentary made over the public address systems during athletic events at Byrd Stadium and the Comcast Center. The complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Maryland." (National Association of the Deaf, 2013, p.1) According to National Association of the Deaf, a new international human rights treaty, and specifically…
World Federation of Deaf (2013) World Federation of Deaf News. Retrieved from: http://www.wfdnews.org/
Kannapell, B. (n.d.) Hierarchies of Power in Deaf Community. Retrieved from: http://www.seattlecentral.edu/faculty/cvince/ASL125/125_The%20Power_Structure_In_The_Deaf_Community.htm
Cripps, J. And Supalla, SF (2012) The Power of Spoken Language in Schools and Deaf Students Who Sign. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 16 [Special Issue -- August 2012]. Retrieved from: http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_16_Special_Issue_August_2012/10.pdf
NAD Joins Celebration for International Week of the Deaf (2013) National Association of the Deaf. Retrieved from: http://www.nad.org/ news/2013/9/nad-joins-celebration-international-week-deaf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Though the longevity and stability of the program is in jeopardy due to reductions in revenues for the nation and an increasingly cash-strapped and debt-ridden government, if the development program continues to be carried out as planned the children of Antigua and Barbuda will be given every opportunity to lead happy and fulfilling childhoods that will prepare them for an adulthood that will contain a diversifying economy and a wide world of immeasurable opportunities.
There are children in the world that are far more impoverished and/or otherwise disadvantaged than are the children of Antigua and Barbuda -- children in the Caribbean and throughout Latin America that have harder lives with less opportunity, in fact. Yet many of the children of Antigua and Barbuda are still at an economic and socio-political disadvantage compared to their counterparts elsewhere, and meet the criteria for poverty established by the United Nations. Ensuring that…
Antigua-Barbuda.org. (2012). Acecssed 3 December 2012. http://www.antigua-barbuda.org/index.htm
Antigua Observer. (2012). New guide for measuring child poverty in the Caribbean. Accessed 3 December 2012. http://www.antiguaobserver.com/?p=71102
CIA. (2012). Antigua and Barbuda. World Factbook. Accessed 3 December 2012. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ac.html
Foundation for the Development of Caribbean Children. (2012). Antigua & Barbuda. Accessed 3 December 2012. http://www.fdcchildren.org/index/antigua-barbuda.html
Value of a BA Degree
The Value of BA Degrees
Would you say this statement is "True" or "False"? Too many people are going to college these days. Many experts in business say that the statement is true. People once thought that college degrees were the most important advantage that people could attain through their own efforts (uiz 2011). But the situation is changing. A look at employees and entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley underscores a more pessimistic and sobering view of college education (uiz 2011). People who work in technical jobs without the benefit of formal coursework in higher education can be free to follow their interests and creativity (uiz 2011). These new technology experts don't need to get locked into boring corporate jobs that pay well in order to pay off enormous student loan debt burdens (uiz 2011). The cost of higher education keeps rising and there are those…
Baum, Sandy and Kathleen Payea. "The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society." Trends in Higher Education Series, Revised Edition. 2005.
Edsall, Thomas. "The Reproduction of Privilege." The New York Times. 12 March 2012. < http://campaignstops.blogs.nytimes.com/ >
Hill, Kent, Dennis Hoffman, and Tom R. Rex. "The Value of Higher Education: Individual and Societal Benefits (With Special Consideration for the State of Arizona). Productivity and Prosperity Project (P3). October 2004. Tempe, Arizona: L. William Seidman Research Institute W.P. Carey School of Business Arizona State University? (2004).
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment. Economic News Release, Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Department of Labor. 2 November 2012.
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
(Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira, 2007)
The following labeled Figure 1 shows the factors associated with truancy among adolescents in the study conducted and reported in the work of Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)
Factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Swaziland
Factor or (95% CI)*
Schooling (years) to 8 to 11
Most of the times or always
Number of times bullied or 2
Most students kind and helpful
Most of the times
Parents checked homework
Most of the times
Parents understood problems
Most of the times
Most of the times
or (95%CI)* adjusted for all the factors in the model
Siziya et al. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2007 1:15 doi:10.1186/1753-2000-1-15
Source: Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)
The work of Stanton et al. (2004) entitled: "Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention" states that while "numerous interventions have been demonstrated…
Cookston, Jeffrey T. (1999) Parental Supervision and Family Structure: Effects on Adolescent Problem Behaviors. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 32(1/2) 1999
Stanton, Bonita et al. (2004) Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention: Parents Can Make a Difference in Long-Term Adolescent Risk Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 158:947-955. Online available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/10/947
Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; and McGarvey, Ayelish (nd) Background for Community-level Work on Educational Adjustment, Achievement and Attainment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors. Child Trends.
Carter, Rebecca (2000) Parental Involvement With Adolescents' Education: Do Daughters or Sons Get More Help? Journal of Adolescence, Spring 2000. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_137_35/ai_62958274/print
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
Additionally, the fact that the training is offered at all levels of the position -- not just entry levels -- and the fact that the training is offered to both employees as well as volunteers, further increases the odds that the individuals will accept the positions in the NFP sector.
"Nonprofit organizations owe it to their staff members to train them and develop their careers. […] the advancement of a nonprofit's mission requires staff training (that includes volunteers) at all levels and in all skills. Human resource development is the only way to sustained viable programming. That makes training an intrinsic component of strategic management, the very best means to changing the skills, knowledge and attitude of staff" (Chehade and Jassemm, 2010).
Employees in the not-for-profit sector often accept the lower salary in exchange for several other non-financial benefits, like the training opportunities, but also for benefits such as flexibility…
Anheier, H.K., 2003, Work in the non-profit sector: forms, patterns and methodologies, International Labor Organization
Boyd, C., 2003, Human resource management and occupational health and safety, Routledge
Brown, H.H., Ruhl, D.L., 2003, Breakthrough management for not-for-profit organizations: beyond survival in the 21st century, Greenwood Publishing Group
Buhler, P., 2002, Human resources management: all the information you need to manage your staff and meet your business objectives, Adams Media
. Health insurance is compulsory in Japan and all citizens are covered by health insurance either through an employee health insurance or through the national health insurance (Reid, 2008). In the U.., the Census Bureau reports that citizens 65 years old and older are the most health insured and that the lowest proportion of people who are not covered by health insurance are those who have higher incomes.
The relationship of status to age and gender differs in terms of country. Perhaps one plausible reason is that the difference between the two countries can be a function of other factors such as difference in culture and in value system.
DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B.D., & mith, J.C. (2009). Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United tates: 2008. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/p60-236.pdf
Doogue, G. (Interviewer) & Marmot, M. tatus yndrome -- How Your ocial tanding Directly Affects Your Health and…
Status. (n.d.) in Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary
The Conference Board of Canada 2009. Society: Gender Income Gap. Retrieved from http://www.conferenceboard.ca/HCP/Details/society/gender-income-gap.aspx
United Nations Statistics Division. Statistics and Indicators on Women and Men. Retrieved from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/indwm/ww2005/tab5g.htm#fn
Of course, Western culture often holds material consumer products in high regard as status symbols, such as homes, automobiles, elaborate clothing, and the like. In the case of the Nepalese, however, the case is vastly different. In the mountain villages, land is the primary commodity that is held in the highest regard as a symbol of status, wealth and power. This is so for very specific reasons, given the fact that land is in short supply in Nepal, land is vital in a mostly agrarian society such as that of the Nepalese villages, and the very simple way of life that the villagers lead makes many of the common Western status symbols unnecessary at best and outright ridiculous at the very least.
The status symbol of land in Nepal seems to be mostly centered on the males of the culture; for the females, who are generally prohibited from owning land,…
Childs, G. (2004). Tibetan Diary: From Birth to Death and beyond in a Himalayan Valley of Nepal. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hitchcock, John T. (1980). Mountain Village in Nepal (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.
Palomar. (2006). Sex and Marriage. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site: http://anthro.palomar.edu/marriage
Palomar. (2006). The Nature of Kinship. Retrieved July 27, 2006, from Cultural Anthropology Tutorials Web Site: http://anthro.palomar.edu/kinship
ace, Discrimination and Education
acism and discrimination have been long-lasting impediments to equality of education in the United States. It was only in the mid-20th century that African and Native Americans won legal access to equal education. Much of America's early history of racism still lingers within the educational system. Today, poverty and poor literacy skills often plague African-American and Hispanic students, and Native American groups continue to pressure the government for self-determination and equality in educational attainment. Groups like the NAACP continue to work to see racism and discrimination in education eliminated in the United States, and significant progress has been made over the last decades, although racism continues to be a problem in American schools.
The history of racism and discrimination in the United States is almost as long as that of America itself. The fledgling nation of the United States reserved education largely for its white, male,…
American Indian Education Foundation. History of Indian Education in the U.S. 02 May 2004. http://www.aiefprograms.org/history_facts/history.html
Corley, Mary Ann. Poverty, Racism and Literacy. ERIC Digest, Publication Date: 2003-00-00. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. 02 May 2004. http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-5/poverty.htm
Francisco, Richard P. 2001. Racism: the real enemy that will destroy the United States. Black Issues in Higher Education, Oct 11, 2001. 02 May 2004. Available at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m0DXK/17_18/80087603/p1/article.jhtml
McLean Donaldson, Karen B. 1987. Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
The United States and China as today's political and economic world leaders still suffer from the consequences of gender inequality and inequity. Combined economic, sociological and historical factors hamper and resist the achievement of equality between the sexes. Man's dominance for thousands of years will be strenuous to eliminate or minimize. It will not be an easy achievement but, nonetheless, an ideal objective for which every man and every woman on earth should pursue unrelentingly. #
East Asia Environment & Social Development Unit (2002). China country gender review. World ank. Retrieved on February 15, 1020 from http://www.worldbank.org.cn/English/content/gender-en.pdf
Gaddis, R. (2010). Gender Equality in the United States. Associated Content:
Associated Content, Inc. Retrieved on February 20, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/pop_print.shtml
Haussman, R. et al. (2009). The global gender gap report. World Economic Forum:
Weforum.org. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2009.pdf
Jordans, F. (2006). U.S. slips in gender equality survey.…
East Asia Environment & Social Development Unit (2002). China country gender review. World Bank. Retrieved on February 15, 1020 from http://www.worldbank.org.cn/English/content/gender-en.pdf
Gaddis, R. (2010). Gender Equality in the United States. Associated Content:
Associated Content, Inc. Retrieved on February 20, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/pop_print.shtml
Haussman, R. et al. (2009). The global gender gap report. World Economic Forum:
Ananat & Michaels (2008) concur with the emphasis on income being the deciding factor upon the divorced child's success. They found that divorce significantly "increases women's odds of having very high or very low income. In other words, while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal earnings through child support, welfare, combining households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly unsuccessful. e conclude that by raising both poverty and inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences" (Ananat & Michaels 2008). Some women use divorce as a vehicle of self-empowerment, for other women who are unable to compensate, poverty becomes more severe in a single-income household. Another interesting finding of Ananat & Michael's research is that "having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up," and this may account for the lower incomes of children with divorce, if women still tend to earn less than…
Ananat, E., & G. Michaels. (2008). The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of women with children. The Journal of Human Resources, 43(3), 611. Retrieved August
9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1521034461).
Steele, F., W. Sigle-Rushton, & Y. Kravdal. (2009). Consequences of family disruption on children's educational outcomes in Norway. Demography, 46(3), 553-574. Retrieved
August 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1799973811).
General Electric (Collis, Montgomery, 2008) pioneered the development of this framework, working in conjunction with the oston Consulting Group to tailor its specific market sizing and profitability measures to the conglomerate of businesses that comprised GE at the time. One of the key assumptions of the CG Growth/Share Matrix is that there must be continual monitoring of the market, specifically competitors and relative market share growth over time. Only by continually measuring and monitoring these two attributes can the Growth/Share matrix be an effective framework for strategic planning. GE, through their Crotonville Learning Center in Connecticut also defined a series of external customer-facing processes that managers at GE could use to gain the critical information they needed to populate the CG Growth/Share Matrix and use it as a planning tool. Soon other larger multinational corporations (MNCs) with complex value chains and series of unrelated businesses also relied on the key…
Stewart Adam, Andrea Vocino, David Bednall. 2009. The world wide web in modern marketing's contribution to organisational performance. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 27, no. 1 (January 1): 7-24.
Deborah F. Beard. 2009. Successful Applications of the Balanced Scorecard in Higher Education. Journal of Education for Business 84, no. 5 (May 1): 275-282.
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.
Rob Docters, Christine Durman, Tracy Korman, Bert Schefers. 2008. The neglected demand curve: how to build one and how to benefit. The Journal of Business Strategy 29, no. 5 (September 1): 19-25.
Feminization of Poverty and Education in Canada
It is often assumed that gender divisions in the economy and major political and social institutions are higher in the developing countries than in the developed nations of Western Europe, Japan, and the United States. Many UN, UNDP, UNIFEM and other reports suggest that women suffer from greater inequality of opportunities in the non-industrialized world. Estimates suggest that from sixty to seventy percent of the poor people in the developing world are female (Marcoux 1998). While these reports are not without merit, they are sometimes misleading as the level of gender inequality is still quite high in much of the industrialized countries.
Available data suggests that poverty in the developed countries is also unevenly distributed among men and women. This paper will discuss the specific case of Canada where feminization of poverty has significantly influenced the so-called "equality of opportunity" for education in…
Curtis, B., Livingstone, D. & Smaller, K. 1992. Stacking the Deck: The Streaming of Working-Class Kids in Ontario Schools. Toronto: Our Schools Ourselves/Garamond.
Dooley, M.D. 1994. Women, Children and Poverty in Canada. Canadian Public Policy, 20(4): 43-443.
Gaskell, J. 1993 Feminism and Its Impact on Educational Scholarship in Canada. In Stewin, L., & McCann, S. (eds.), Contemporary Educational Issues: The Canadian Mosaic 2nd ed., Toronto: Copp Clark.
Lessard, C. 1995. Equality and Inequality in Canadian Education. In Ghosh, R, & Ray, D. (eds.), Social Change and Education in Canada, 3d ed. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.
In order to assess the means in which Mary Johnson is performing her job duties, it is necessary to assess her features in light of the criteria presented above. This objective is attained throughout the table below.
Yes / No
Employee has an innate ability to interact, additionally developed in over three years on the job
Customer escort to the table
Take the order
Serve the order
Employee can carry up to three plates at a time
Serve food and beverages
Employee has learned and experienced how to adequately serve the foods and beverages
Provision of information
Employee can naturally and easily interact with people
Input on specials
Employee knows information on specials
Employee can make recommendations as she knows the details in…
In grade four white males performing "At or Above asic" math skills is stated at 90% while black males were performing at only 59% "At or Above asic" skill levels. White males in the "At or Above Proficient" skills level is stated at 49% with black males in this category stated at a mere 13%.
The following labeled Figure 2 shows the statistical report of NAEP (2005) in relation to achievement differences among African-American and White American males.
NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT: Minority Male Achievement Gaps Relative to White Males, Grade 4, 2005
Source: NAEP STATISTICAL REPORT (2005)
y the time these students reach 8th grade white males "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" totals 76% while only 43% of the African-American males are "At or Above asic Achievement Levels" the negative value in the Achievement Gap of African-American Males as relative to White Males indicates that a lower percentage of…
Henry, Ardail Rashad (2005) Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in African-American Students with Learning Disabilities. July 2005 School or Education Curriculum and Instruction, Special Education, Williamsburg VA. Online available at http://www.wm.edu/education/599/05Projects/Henry_599.pdf
David, James Earl (2006) Early Schooling and Academic Achievement of African-American Males. Abstract. Sage Publications. Online available at http://uex.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/38/5/515
Babco, Eleanor (2004) Uphill Climb: the Status of African-Americans in Science and Engineering. Making Strides. Online available at http://ehrweb.aaas.org/mge/Reports/Report1/Uphill.html .
McMillian, Monique M. (2003-2004) Is No Child Left Behind 'Wise Schooling' for African-American Male Students?" published in the High School Journal - Volume 87, Number 2 in December 2003-January 2004, and on pages 25-33.
RE: APPLICATION FOR LEGAL ASSISTANT POSITION
Dea Judge Smith:
This lette epesents my application to you hono fo the position of legal assistant which you have stated though the State and County publications is open and needs to be filled. I come with excellent qualifications as pe my educational attainment and my educational achievement and commitment. I have attended Cumbeland School of Law and while I have not yet gaduated, I am in my final yea of law school.
I have genuine love and inteest fo the law and the legal secto of ou society because the law is eve-changing and this makes it vey inteesting as I follow the changes and shifts in the laws of ou county and this state. Indeed it is these changes that initially attacted me to this field of study as I have always been inteested in the legal pocess and since…
references from my work in my Externship with the Federal Judge. I assisted the Federal Judge in writing post-trial judgments and in writing briefs on many levels including appeals. My grade point average is 3.9. My genuine love for the field of law makes me an ideal candidate to serve as your legal assistant and my high level of educational attainment and excellence demonstrates my commitment to excellence.
Therefore, this letter of application is a formal request that you consider me for the position of legal assistant with the office of your honor based upon my qualifications, my educational attainment, my high grade point average, my experience working an Externship with a Federal Judge who will give me the highest reference.
March 19, 2015
Performance Measurement Index
What follows in this report is the answers to a series of questions relating to the ARC and their use of performance indexing and measurement to gauge and measure the need for and efficacy of their services. The ARC is responsible for a number of different governmental programs and efforts and they use a number of metrics to measure how well they are doing their job, what the level of need happens to be and so forth (OPM, 2017; ARC, 2017).
There are active questions as to whether the metrics chosen by the ARC as applied and used from the OPM's performance management framework are proper and best for what is being looked at and assessed. Thus, looking at whether ARC is looking at the correct items, whether they are being looked at the right way or if perhaps they should be drilling down a bit further…
As a caveat, it must be noted that the measures of turnover varied across centers. epresenting 62% of the treatments centers, hospitals overwhelmingly constituted the largest group, with only 31% of centers classified as for-profit. Centers of both types averaged approximately 115 clients each, ranging, on average, over four or five levels of care. The demographic composition of the couselor workforce was 57% female, 13% minority group members, 50% with graduate degrees, 56% certified, and 37% in recovery. Counselors' salaries averaged $30,134, with a range of $15,000 -- $62,640. With respect to the client population, an average of 54% had experienced a relapse. Twenty-nine percent will in a program due to a court mandate. Twenty-six percent of clients were covered by Medicaid and 18% were covered by managed care.
McNulty et al. tested ten hypotheses in four conceptual blocks of variables. Their "key hypotheses" (p. 173) concerned the role…
McNulty, T.L., Oser, C.B., Johnson, J.A., Knudsen, H.K., & Roman, P.M. (2007).
Counselor turnover in substance abuse treatment centers: An organizational-level analysis. Sociological Inquiry, 77 (2), 166 -- 193.
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…
American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231 .
Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
.. hungry, cold.... The big problem is poverty. I spend 50% of my time taking care of them other than teaching, and this includes downtime because of behaviors such as fistfights, tantrums, aggression. (Harry, Klingner & Hart, 2005, esearch and design section ¶ 8)
Hispanic Males//Females Educational Pursuits
Although Hispanic females frequently outperform Hispanic males, cultural values that limit the range of school choices and career paths, frequently restrict the females to opportunities to access higher education. In addition, many Latina/o students, male and female, do not recognize that higher education currently constitutes a financially feasible, realistic option for them (Dosal, 2008, ¶ 5).
Erica Tortorella (2009) reports in "EACH prep program helps boost Latino presence in private education," that the fact Hispanics and other minority groups are underrepresented in private schools throughout the U.S. reveal that minority students, at all member schools account for only 21.9% of total enrollment.…
Anonymous. (2005). The health, education and welfare of Hispanics. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Bergstrom, C.A., & Heymann, S.J. (2005). Impact of gender disparities in family carework on women's life chances in Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 36(2), 267+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009876863
Casado, M.A., & Dereshiwsky, M.I. (2007). Cultural diversity in higher education: Implications for hospitality programs. Education, 128(2), 294+. Retrieved March 24, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5025695726
And Vela-Gude's article offers several of the main points of this paper's research; the services must be ready, and the counselors must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the cultural implications as well as the academic realities facing those Latino students (2009).
Racism Against Latinos
This paper alludes to the high number of Latinos in California and Texas, but according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's research, the South is home to one of the "fastest growing populations of Latinos in the country" (Bauer, et al., 2009, p. 4). But though the typical Latino immigrant comes to the South to escape "crushing poverty in their home countries" they often encounter "…widespread hostility, discrimination and exploitation" (Bauer, 2009, p. 4).
hat kinds of discrimination do Latinos come up against in the South? Mary Bauer and her chief researcher, Sarah Reynolds, claim that Latinos are "…routinely cheated out of their earnings…
Barneclo, Nick Anthony. (2008). El Laberinto del exito: A Mixed methods investigation of resilience within the context of Mexican-American late adolescents lives. Dissertation at New Mexico State University in Counseling Psychology. ProQuest Publication Number:
Cannon, Edward, and Levy, Marielle. (2008). Substance-Using Hispanic Youth and Their
Families: Review of Engagement and Treatment Strategies. The Family Journal: Counseling
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
(Added value from associate degree 2003)
Indeed, in addition to gaining access to jobs in corporate America, college graduates also have other advantages over non-graduates. The most obvious advantage is upward mobility. College graduates have a higher lifetime earnings than non-graduates. As a result graduates also have a better quality of life than non-graduates do.
Post Secondary education is also important later in life. An article found in the journal Social Work esearch, explains that the attainment of a college degree it especially significant with women during pre-retirement (Pandey and Zhan 2002). The article asserts that having a college degree can help in solidifying a woman's well being after retirement (Pandey and Zhan 2002). The author explains that this is significant because retired women are twice as likely as retired men to live in poverty (Pandey and Zhan 2002).
The article contends that, "Economic well-being after retirement is determined largely…
Added Value from Associate Degree. (2003). Monthly Labor Review, 126(4), 2.
Boesel, D. (2001). The College Movement and Its Critics. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(7), 537.
Labeling, Life Chances, And Adult Crime
Jon Gunnar Bernburg and Marvin D. Krohn build on a body of criminology research related to labeling theory in their report entitled "Labeling, Life Chances, and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood." The report reflects in-depth research and statistical analysis conducted by the researchers. Specifically, Bernburg and Krohn attempt to fill in gaps in prior research by addressing three specific areas. First, the authors examine "the effect of police intervention and juvenile justice intervention on subsequent early adulthood crime," (1295). To do so they use a random sample taken from a population of adolescents. Second, Bernburg and Krohn look at "the long-term effect of official intervention during adolescence on young adult criminality," and whether "educational attainment and periods of nonemployment mediate this effect," (1295). Third, the researchers try to determine "whether the effect…
Bernburg, Jon Gunnar and Krohn, Marvin D. "Labeling, Life Chances and Adult Crime: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Official Intervention in Adolescence on Crime in Early Adulthood."
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).
That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.
But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE
History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…
Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)
Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
In light of the evidence in this literature review then it is of great import that monitoring of the health of pregnant women is vital in reference to LW infants not only in the sense of present terms but as well to lifelong health considerations for the LW infant which is probably why stated further is: "Given the relative neglect that mothers and newborns have suffered, their centrality to the Millennium Development Goals, and the cost-effectiveness of maternal and newborn health interventions, a greater emphasis on safe motherhood and newborn health is clearly needed within many health sectors." (JHPIEGO, 2003)
Stated in the publication "Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies (2003) is that: "The health of a newborn is inextricably linked to the health of the mother; the majority of newborn deaths are caused by the poor health of the mother during…
Krieger N. & Smith, G.(2004) Bodies County and body counts: Epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Review Journal 200:26:92-103
Coker, AL et al. (2004) Partner Violence During Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Pediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology 2004 Jul; 18 (4): 260-9. University of Texas School of Public Health.
Bohn, D.K. et al. (2004) Influences of Income, Education, Age, and Ethnicity on Physical Abuse before and During Pregnancy. Journal Obstetrics Gynecology Neonatal Nursing 2004 Sep-Oct; 33(5): 561-71.
Salihu, Boy a. (2004) Intimate Partner Violence and Birth Outcomes: A Systematic Review International Journal of Fertility Women's Medicine 2004 Jul-Aug; 49(4): 159-64. Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama.
The mechanism of scientific classification, or traditional science in general, is an "encryption" process wherein access is only available to individuals who knows the language of science. Access to information and knowledge is oftentimes dependent on external factors such as socio-economic capability, age, educational attainment, and race, among others. In this mechanism, not all extant and observable information is understood, thus providing little or no venue for understanding and critical thinking on the part of the individual who does not know the language of traditional science.
A6. Financially benefiting or profiting from healthcare and the medical profession is a latent example of how scientific classification has made healthcare a very expensive and exclusive sector wherein specific groups of people are given access to it. Medical practitioners who are able to educate themselves in the field of biological science have gained access to information and knowledge about the field, which also…