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Select five empirical articles from peer-reviewed journals that you consider critical to your understanding of your specialization
In the last several years, educational leadership has become an integral part of helping schools to outperform their peers. This is because the techniques which are utilized will have a dramatic impact on the teacher's ability to connect with stakeholders. To achieve these objectives, they will often turn to those who can inspire others and offer guidance for reaching key benchmarks.
There are a number of theories which are used to influence the practices educators are using. For instance, Darling (2009) found that leadership is essential in helping to inspire others around them. In this study, she is seeking to understand which leadership techniques are most effective in comprehending what motivates stakeholders. The research was conducted through utilizing the qualitative method. This is when different studies are examined to understand various…
Choo, H. (2010). Practicing Intersectionality. Sociological Theory, 28 (2), 129 -- 149.
Darling, L. (2009). Teacher Learning. How Teacher's Learn, 66 (5), 46 -- 53.
Gandara, P. (2010). The Latino Education Crisis. Educational Leadership, 67 (5), 24 -- 30.
May, D. (1997). School Readiness. Psychology in the Schools, 34 (2), 73 -- 84.
Merriam-Webster's New English Dictionary defines a leader as being, "a person who has commanding authority or influence" (Merriam-Webster's New English Dictionary, 2011). Most would agree that this definition adequately captures the essence of what is a leader. However, I believe that anyone in a leadership position (especially one in the educational arena) should be extremely proactive and thoughtfully responsive to the various issues presented to him or her on a daily basis. Furthermore, ideal leaders are charismatic and knowledgeable, with a wide skill set ranging from conceptual talent to interpersonal proficiency. In fact, according to leadership expert Dr. Warren ennis, "Only someone adept enough to motivate and mobilize people can be considered a truly effective leader" (ennis, 2010, p. 1). Therefore, with a wider idea of what exactly is required of leaders, I continue to consider myself a qualified candidate. Noting the broad nature of an educational leader's…
Bennis, W. (2010, June 30). Leadership and Change. Retrieved June 26, 2011, from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadchg.html
Merriam-Webster's New English Dictionary. (2011). "Leader." Retrieved June 26, 2011, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/leader
"hen Leadership Spells Danger" (Heifetz, et al.)
The article by Heifetz and Linsky takes the position that part of the job of leadership in education is not just teaching, but also "…mobilizing schools, families, and communities" in order to effectively confront serious issues. The issues the authors talk about sometimes get pushed aside: student health, student achievement and student "civic development" (p. 33).
The kind of leadership that the authors emphasize involves finding a way for citizens to "face up to frustrating realities" like budgets that cannot be stretched further (requiring cutbacks), dropout rates that are unacceptable, poor achievement test scores, and "…the revolutionary aspiration of leaving no child behind and the programmatic design and funding of NCLB" (No Child Left Behind) (p. 34).
hy is leadership difficult and dangerous in an educational setting? For one thing, leadership is dangerous because "…you are rarely authorized to lead," Heifetz…
Andrews, Paul, et al. The 21st Century Superintendent.
Collins, Jim. (2005). Level 5 Leadership: The Triumph of Humility and Fierce Resolve.
Harvard Business Review. Retrieved December 30, 2012, from http://www.hbr.org .
Heifetz, Ronald A., and Linsky, Marty. (2004). When Leadership Spells Danger: Leading meaningful change in education takes courage, commitment, and political savvy. Educational Leadership.
Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihaly, towards the end of the year 1995 composition for Daedalus wrote that with miserable promptness, the American society is coming back to the pains to perk up public school education. These pains more often than not fail for the reason that education is considered barely as schooling. However, developments in schools do not essentially match up to a development in the culture of children. Whether or not children will gain knowledge of the subject does not depend first and foremost on what happens in school, however, on the familiarities, behaviors, standards, as well as ideas they get hold of from the surroundings in which they live (Mihaly, 1995).
Ever since World War II, economic, as well as social transformations in American society have been speedy, as well as furious (Alexis, 1969). Some major fundamental changes that have taken place are listed below.
A speedy deterioration…
Alexis de Tocqueville. (1969). Democracy in America. Garden City N.Y. Anchor Books
Gary Crow and Robert Slater. (1996). Educating Democracy. Reston, Va. National Policy Board in Educational Administration.
Jeffrey Goldfarb. (1991). The Cynical Society Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
John R. Hoyle. (1999). If You Can't Love, You Can't Lead. Journal of the Intermountain Center for Education Effectiveness, vol. 1, pp. 40- 42.
Educational Leadership in Latino Students
Flow of Information:
Introduction/Preliminary Lit Analysis
Status of Performance of Latino Students
Why Study Latinos?
Why the Latino Performance is Low?
ow to change the situation?
Los Angeles Specific Data/Information
Increase & Improve Teacher/School Parent Communication
Train the teachers - Development
Improve Substitute Teaching
Set igh Expectations
Latino Experience in Princeton
Tracking of Students' Performance - Is it Right?
Latino Para-Educator Vs Latino Student
ow do teacher expectations affect student outcomes?
This study was intended to investigate whether teacher expectation of student performance directly or indirectly affects a student's likelihood for achievement and success. Specifically this study will examine the phenomena of teacher expectation on Latino students, though it is expected that the results of this study will be generalize able to the general student population, inclusive and exclusive of other minority groups.
It was anticipated that exploration of student performance would provide insight into…
How Teachers' Expectations Affect Results." AMERICAN EDUCATION 18 (1982): 25-32.
Hillman, S.J. CONTRIBUTIONS TO ACHIEVEMENT: THE ROLE OF EXPECTATIONS AND SELF-EFFICACY IN STUDENTS, TEACHERS, AND PRINCIPALS. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA, April 1984. (ED 247-290).
Kester, S.W., and Letchworth, G.A. "Communication of Teacher Expectations and Their Effects on Achievement and Attitudes of Secondary School Students." THE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 66 (1972): 51-55.
Educational Leadership & Student Assessment in Pennsylvania
Student assessment has recently become a matter of great controversy in Pennsylvania, as many critics argue that it is not an accurate measure of students' attainment of the state's academic standards.
For example, the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) is designed to assess the quality of public schools and make the information known to parents, teachers, school districts, and the general public (Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (2001).
However, the PSSA, has been criticized by many people within the professional education community, who say that standardized tests like the PSSA pose many problems and cannot be considered accurate and fair for all students (Kucinski, 2001).
For one, critics claim that there is little evidence that the PSSA, or any state test, is valid, as it fails to adequately measure attainment of the academic standards. Also, the "high-stakes" test places pressure on schools to achieve…
CourseWhere. (2003). SolutionWhere.com, Inc. http://www.solutionwhere.com/iu13/showcat.asp?39.
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. (2001). Retrieved from Internet at http://www.datarecognitioncorp.com/paparent/ .
Kucinski, Blair. (October 10, 2001). Select Committee on Public Education Funding Testimony. Armstrong- Indiana Intermediate Unit.
Zwerling, Harris L. (2002). "The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Readings Tests: A Critical Analysis."
Comprehensive Exam - Educational Leadership
Theoretical and conceptual knowledge
There is increasing interest in educational leadership in this current century. This can be attributed to the belief that making differences in the educational sector and impacting student outcomes requires quality leadership. All over the world, there is increased recognition of the need of schools to have effective and efficient leaders and mangers in order to provide quality education to students. In addition to this, stakeholders in the education sector such as the government and private institutions are continuing to embrace the idea of human resources being their major asset in ensuring they stay competitive in the sector. Therefore they need to have a highly skilled workforce that is well trained and motivated to impart knowledge to the learners. However, these teachers also need highly effective leadership from the senior and middle-level managers. Educational leadership is thus a very…
Balyer, A. (2012). Transformational Leadership Behaviors of School Principals: A Qualitative Research Based on Teachers' Perceptions. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(3), 581-591.
Blanchard, K. (1989). The One Minute Manager Meets The Monkey. London: HarperCollins.
Bush, T. (1998). The National Professional Qualification for Headship: the key to effective school leadership? . School Leadership and Management, 18, 321-334.
Bush, T. (2003). Theories of Educational Management (3rd Edition ed.). London: Sage publishers.
A leader in the field of education -- whether a teacher, counselor or an administrator -- has certain specific obligations and moral duties to carry out. hat about the ability to show leadership? In this paper a review of two books that present examples of how educational leadership should be carried out for the best possible results.
Literature on Leadership in Educational Fields
A leader must be able to manage conflict in the classroom and elsewhere in the school (between teachers and staff or between teachers and other teachers, for example). In the book Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional Development, author Harry Tomlinson points to two types of behavior that are related to the handling of conflict. There is cooperativeness, which relates to the "extent to which one party wishes to satisfy the other" (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 81). And the other type of response to conflict is…
Tomlinson, Harry. (2004). Educational Leadership: Personal Growth for Professional
Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Williams-Boyd, Pat. (2002). Educational Leadership: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
I will and have been using a journal of activities to measure these goals as well as the total goals of my day-to-day work.
In this respect I will be trying to eliminate one of my flaws; that of being a know-it-all at times. There are certain points where I go off on tangents trying to solve the unsolvable. I can waste a great deal of effort tin trying to be right. I could just as easily step back and appreciate the polar opposites of a problem and try to remember that there is often more than one answer to a given situation.
In my time as a naval officer I certainly have discovered how to effectively lead a team and many of those skills can be applied to my current role as an effective teacher and section leader. In that respect I feel that I do possess the following…
Bandura, a. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.
Cohen, E., & Tichy, N. (1997). How leaders develop leaders. Training & Development, 51, p. 58-72.
ENJF." (2008) Typelogic. Typelogic.com. Retrieved on October 11, 2008 at http://typelogic.com/enfj.html
Fisher, R., & Ury, W. (1991). Getting to yes: Negotiating agreement without giving in 2nd ed.). New York: Viking Penguin.
This approach appears to be similar to "management by walking around" in the business world, but it appears to provide some profound results in educational settings. The principal in question was able to begin helping teachers identify activities and assessments that were more challenging and provided more substantive feedback for faculty concerning student performance, and there was the added bonus of additional opportunities for this educational leader to work one-on-one with the school's teachers to help formulate professional growth plans that address their specific needs and interests. The author concludes that the principal.".. also gets to know students well by being in classrooms so often. She asks them probing questions and extends their thinking because she has an intimate knowledge of what they're studying. - She knows the kids academically as well as personally" (quoted in Holland, 2008 at p. 5).
There are alternative models for teacher collaboration. In…
Berg, a.C., Melaville, a., & Blank, M.J. (2006, October). Community & family engagement: Principals share what works. Coalition for Community Schools.
Beyer, B.M. & Ruhl-Smith, C. (1998). The principal's role in school restructuring and reform: An examination of self-perceived leadership styles; Journal of Leadership Studies, 5, 116.
DeMoulin, D.F. (1997). Accountability in leadership training for school administrators acquiring competency in decision making pattern use. Education, 117, 97.
Farkas, S., Johnson, J., & Duffett, S. (2003). Rolling up their sleeves. Public Agenda, the Wallace Foundation.
In that regard, a leader who gets things done through coercion as opposed to consensus could be regarded a successful but not an effective leader. Looked at from another perspective, successful leadership differs from effective leadership on the basis of emphasis. While emphasis in successful leadership is on power and position, the emphasis when it comes to effective leadership is often on the personal attributes of a leader. It should also be noted that when a leader depends on both position/power and personal attributes to get things done, such a leader can be regarded both effective and successful.
Determinants of Organizational Effectiveness
In basic terms, organizational effectiveness has got to do with the ability of an organization to achieve its goals and objectives using the resources at its disposal. In the past, various authors including but not limited to Taylor have highlighted factors which in their opinion have an impact…
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2009). Organizational Behavior (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hodge, B.J. & Anthony, W.P. (1991). Organizational Theory: A Strategic Approach (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Lussier, R.N. (2008). Management Fundamentals: Concepts, Applications, Skill Development (4th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Leadership for Technology Enhanced Education
Organization of paper
This paper is divided into 4 sections. In section one, the paper begins by presenting a brief overview that includes how the paper is organized. Following this, the paper presents and defines the construct, Technology Education Leadership, and discusses the significance of the chosen concept. Then, the paper presents and describes the one seminal article identified, which is most central to Technology Education Leadership.
Thereafter in part 2, the paper presents seminal audit research table that summarizes and presents the content of 12 research articles that utilize and build on the concept of technology Education Leadership. In this section a literature table composed of four columns is created populated with the research findings. The table columns include title of the article, author(s) of article, article synopsis and contributions to the chosen construct.
Thereafter in part 3, the paper discusses the content of…
Allan P.O. Williams. Leadership at the Top: Some Insights from a Longitudinal Case Study of a UK Business School. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 2009.
Claude, L. Graeff. Evolution of Situational Leadership theory: A critical review; leadership quarterly, 8-2, 1997.
J. Richard Hackman and Ruth Wageman. Asking the Right Questions About Leadership: Discussion and Conclusions. American Psychologist, 2007.
James, P Spillane. Distributed Leadership. The Educational Forum; 69-2, 2005.
Through the role of the principal, we can consider a number of differing approaches to educational leadership and how they manifest in light of today's most pressing challenges. Considering Transformational Leadership, Political Leadership and Strategic Leadership, we will establish a greater understanding of the value in this diversity of perspective.
Such diversity is necessary because of the principal's unique role in both the lives of teachers and students, serving simultaneously as a figure of authority and as an advocate in the face of administrative and political demands. This makes the principalship a deeply complex position, imposed upon by the challenges of organizational stewardship, economic constraint and political imposition. The experience of developing into and serving in the position of the principal is of importance to those aspiring to evolve to the role.
Strategic Leadership is an approach which seeks to achieve a critical balance amongst these responsibilities through a carefully…
Davies, B. & Davies, B.J. (?). Strategic Leadership. The Essentials of School Leadership.
Glass, T. & Bjork, L.G. (2003). The Superintendent Shortage: Findings from Research on School Board. Journal of School Leadership, 13(3).
Lashway, L. (2003). Distributed Leadership. Research Roundup, 19(4).
Maccoby, M. (2000). Understanding the difference between management and leadership. Research Technology Management, 43(1), 57-59.
II. Literature Review
The work entitled "Choosing a Direction for Leadership: The Principal as the Instructional Leader" states that many "forms of instructional leadership" exists which requires "a variety of adjectives" in description including "instructional, participative, democratic, transformational, moral and strategic" citing Krug (1992). Regardless of the form of leadership applied the "primary goals to be accomplished remain the same..." (IPAC 1005, nd) That is the assistance in disseminating which direction should be taken and motivating others to support and move in that selfsame direction. Indeed, Leadership "...without a doubt, is both simple and complex." (IPAC 100, nd) Leadership in education makes a requirement of: (1) a strong knowledge base of curriculum needs; (2) a strong idea of what skills are needed to put good instructional practices in place; and (3) a strong method of task assessment. (IPAC 1005, nd)
The work of MacNeil and Yelvington (nd entitled: "The Principalship:…
MacNeil, Angus and Yelvington, Michael (nd) the Principalship: Manager to Leader. IPAC 12005- the Principal as the Instructional Leader.
Choosing a Direction for Leadership (nd) IPAC 1005 - the Principal as the Instructional Leader.
For example, principals have very less knowledge of the classroom because they are not oriented in the academic content. The effective process skills are crucial to success of the learning process. In this case the principals must learn to give up some measures of control and encourage all the other staff to participate in the process.
Thus a management system with multiple participation and responsibility is behind the success of any program as this example with the learning community model shows. Thus building a value-based mission with a business like mission statement, visions and goals to be set for the education program. Though the insistence is on the current and future programs that involve academics like community learning for teachers, these principles are also part of the overall education management. Although this could be stated to be a part of the general professional learning the authors concentrate on counseling. (McLaughlin;…
Bennett, Nigel; Crawford, Megan; Cartwright, Marion. (2003) "Effective educational leadership" SAGE.
Duignan, Patrick. (2007) "Educational leadership: key challenges and ethical dilemmas"
English, Fenwick W. (2011) "The SAGE Handbook of Educational Leadership: Advances in Theory, Research, and Practice" SAGE.
McLaughlin, Milbrey Wallin; Talbert, Joan E. (2006) "Building school-based teacher learning communities: professional strategies to improve student achievement" Teachers College Press.
In addition, a New Jersey Court decision (Jerkins v Anderson, 2007) found that schools have a duty to provide reasonable supervision and care not only at school and during school times but at school release times as well. They must adopt a reasonable policy that is designed to protect all students at all times when "connected" to the school and must be "well-suited and well equipped" to oversee dismissal, recess, and at all times during the course of a school day.
2. Propose a reasonable and legally defensible action for a school administrator to take regarding supervision of students before school hours. A School District's responsibilities are mandated in state law (CW and WAC), district policy, accepted safety standards, and common practice. The idea is that they should provide "reasonable" services to prevent foreseeable accidents by: warning and informing, providing proper instruction, conditioning of participants, and proper and appropriate supervision"…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
"Jenkins v. Anderson" June 2007). National School Boards Association. a-49-06. Cited in:
Legal Update for District School Administrators. (October 2005). Miami-Dade County v.
A.N.; Ungaro v. Patchogue-Medford, 2005). Cited in:
Indeed, Castagnero according to Fultz (2006) "believes that the FCAT is destroying children." She could be right after all. The stress children are exposed to as they prepare for this particular test is also an issue that should raise serious concern. All year long, children are constantly reminded of how critical the test is. In my opinion, no single test should be used to determine whether or not a pupil should proceed to the next level or not. As a matter of fact, the pressure to pass exams in this case is largely two way -- to students and to teachers. As Whitford and Wood (2010) point out, the FCAT (to most teachers) is a high-stress test with the potential of affecting morale in schools.
Personally, I strongly support end-of-course exams (in place of the FCAT) for students in grade 6 through 12. In my view, in addition to testing…
Fultz, V. (2006, March 17). DOE Says Students Must Take FCAT. Retrieved June 28, 2013, from http://suwanneedemocrat.com/local/x66390756/DOE-says-students-must-take-FCAT?keyword=topstory
Whitford, B.L. & Wood, D.R. (Eds.). (2010). Teachers Learning in Community: Realities and Possibilities. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
The role of superintendent is highly politicized. The administrative leader of the school district is a figure with significant interest vested in him by the community. Likewise, the superintendent will possess some unique qualifications as an educational professional that will enable him to make hard decisions in the face of that pressure. This is the key to survival as a superintendent. Balance between acknowledging this responsibility to the community and between being a strong and decisive leader will be the prime determinant in how well the superintendent is able to protect the interests of an educational community.
It is therefore incumbent upon the effective superintendent to outwardly pursue a role that is politically savvy while remaining steadfast in the philosophical approach taken to maintaining and improving the school district or state system. This means that a superintendent must accept the politicization of the position and work hard to engage…
Donaldson, G.A. (2009). The Lessons Are in Leading. Educational Leadership.
There is also sharp line between teachers and the community. Abbot and Ryan decry the exclusion of individuals from the classroom with life experiences and knowledge that might be useful to students, even though they are not professional educators. A frequently-used example of how schools draw upon the experience of members in the community might be found in 'career days,' for example, where professionals come to speak to students. But Abbot and Ryan are suggesting are far more all-encompassing and consistent use of outside resources, where the school as a whole is more open to and integrated with the community. A possible way to do this would be to work with other professional colleagues and administrators to set up ongoing programs with professionals, volunteers, and parents involved in areas of student as well as faculty interest.
Abbot and Ryan stress that the influence of nature and nurture alike cry out…
The Masters of Education (M.Ed.) in Educational leadership is designed to assist aspiring school administrators in synthesizing and utilizing current research trends to practical real world environments. The purpose of this essay is to summarize the activities and learning achievements that were developed in understanding new competencies related to educational leadership. This essay will explore the five prescribed program outcomes and how I approached these outcomes with artifacts designed to illuminate the lessons behind the program outcomes. This essay will document the program activities that were specifically tailored to address each of the program outcomes.
Outcome 1: Visionary Leadership
The program Visionary Leadership is based on the ideals that school administrators drive the processes behind the educational system. Creating a goal or wide spanning objective that resonates with the entire school and community is the essence of this program outcome. Developing visionary leadership skills requires school administrators to…
American Cancer Society (2014). Relay for life. Retrieved online: http://www.relayforlife.org/
Brooks, V. (2002). Assessment in secondary schools (1st ed.). Buckingham [England]: Open University Press.
Chou, PT and Kuo, Y. (2012) Examining Factors Relating to Classroom Attendance and Performance. Journal of Studies in Education. Vol. 2, No. 2. Retrieved from: [HIDDEN]
Epstein, J.L., & Sheldon, S.B. (2002). Present and accounted for: Improving student attendance through family and community involvement. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), 308-318.
Uplift Triumph Preparatory is a public charter school in Dallas, Texas. Since 2013, Uplift Education has offered students at all grade levels the opportunity for personal, moral, and academic achievement. Although Uplift celebrates its successes in creating the type of supportive environment required for educational achievement, strong leaders understand the need to strategically plan for change and continually update goals. This Instructional Leadership Plan outlines the vision for Uplift Triumph Preparatory School, the K-5 segment of the Uplift Education group of charter schools. In this report are included an outline of the leadership team and its contributions to creating a purposeful community, a selection of three core goals that constitute the right work for our school, the ideal programs and practices to facilitate meeting goals, and how to overcome barriers to change.
The Uplift Triumph Preparatory School vision is multifaceted, addressing both learning outcomes and the environment…
“A Plan for Effective School Leadership,” (n.d.).
“About Uplift Triumph Preparatory,” (2018). https://www.uplifteducation.org/domain/3018
Castro, M, Esposito-Casas, E., Martin, E.L., et al (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review 14(2015): 33-46.
Glatthorn, A.A., Jailall, J.M. & J.K. Jailall (2016). The Principal as Curriculum Leader. Corwin Press.
Goddard, R. & Goddard, Y. (2015). A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Roles of Instructional Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Support of Student Learning. American Journal of Education 121(4): https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/681925
Huffman, J.B., Hipp, K.A. & Pankake, A. et al (2001). Professional learning communities. In Journal of School Leadership 11(2001).
Jovanovic, J. & Devedzic, V. (2014). Open badges. Technology, Knowledge, and Learning 20(1): 115-122.
Kehm, R., Davey, C.S. & Nanney, M.S. (2015). The Role of Family and Community Involvement in the Development and Implementation of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policy. Journal of School Health 85(2): 90-99.
Marketing Success of Pfizer Pharmaceutical Company
Pfizer is undeniably the most successful pharmaceutical company in existence. It rated first in U.S. sales from April 2002 through March 2003, with a total sales number of $20 billion USD, which accounted for 10% of the market share, and 12% growth. It ranked #1 ahead of GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, and Merck & Co., which took the second, third, and fourth spots, respectively. Much, if not most, of Pfizer's success is due to the corporation's marketing genius, which is considered to be among the best in the industry. Pfizer also has one of the best safety records in the industry, which helps in gaining investors and trust in the company. Interestingly, unlike most large corporations, Pfizer draws revenue from a limited number of products. It is the marketing power demonstrated by Pfizer, in which brand recognition plays a huge role, that has resulted…
Arndt, M. (2003). Is Viagra vulnerable? Business Week, 3855, 70-73.
Hering, I. (2001). Defending the pharma frontline. Managing Intellectual Property, 112, 22-30. http://www.blonnet.com/iw/2002/06/16/stories/2002061600100900.htm
No Author Given (2003). Top 20 pharmaceutical companies. Modern Healthcare, 33(33), 33.
Diversity in Leadership
Kearney & Gebert argue for the validity and practicality of a style of leadership called transformational leadership in their 2009 publication, "Managing Diversity and Enhancing Team Outcomes: The Promise of Transformational Leadership." The authors immediately argue for the superiority of this style of leadership over other styles commonly found in educational management environments, such as transactional style and laissez-faire style. Most of the research cited by these authors before presentation of their study, is within the last fifteen years, approximately. Most of the research cited as precedence for the use and study of transformational leadership, in specific connection to diversity in educational leadership, was within the past decade. The use of modern and somewhat dated literature in the opening sections of the article were effective in establishing the context for the style of leadership and the research study performed.
Kearney and Gebert contend that transformational leadership…
Karanxha, Z. Agosto, V. & Bellara, A. (2013). The hidden curriculum: Candidate diversity in educational leadership preparation. Educational Leadership and Policy Studies Faculty Publications, Paper 12. Available from: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/els_facpub/12 . 2013 October 20.
Kearney, E., & Gebert, D. (2009). Managing Diversity and Enhancing Team Outcomes: The Promise of Transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 77 -- 89.
School/Educational Leadership Scenario
I think one of the key points of focus in adequately handling this situation revolves around making sure the rest of the faculty does not feel alienated or feel like they are under a microscope. I need to convey that I am not there to judge or criticize them but to work with them (and obviously not against them). One of the things that I would highlight is that I have confidence that everyone in the room is there because they genuinely love teaching and they love making a positive impact on the lives of children. I would stress how some of the children at our school come from difficult families: divorce, or have two parents who are married to their jobs and just aren’t available to their children. Many of the children at our school come from all the privilege in the world, however, they don’t…
1. What do you think about the "pot-stirring" approach that the new principal decided on? What are its advantages? What are its disadvantages?
The pot-stirring approach is necessary in this case, as leaders like Dr. Jack Prince need to serve their schools as “change masters,” who plan change proactively to help the school and its stakeholders meet core objectives (p. 348). This scenario is also an example of what can be called “essential change,” which is internally driven, based on the need to work toward performance outcomes and objectives (p. 348). As such, the situation “requires that persons within the system work cooperatively to transform behavior or system components,” (p. 348). While Prince is working to shake things up at Norden Township Junior-Senior High, he is also working cooperatively with allies like Dr. Amy Kim and a considerable number of faculty—as well as community members.
Antagonists like Bob Neuman represent…
Chapter 13: Systemic Change
Forde, C. & Dickson, B. (2017). The place of leadership development for change agency in teacher education curricula for diversity. In: Florian L., Panti? N. (eds) Teacher Education for the Changing Demographics of Schooling. Inclusive Learning and Educational Equity, vol 2. Springer, Cham
Manager or Leader
Management and leadership are two terms that are commonly used interchangeably though they refer to relatively different concepts. Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson (2013) define management as a process that involves working with and through people and groups as well as allocating resources toward accomplishing organizational goals. On the other hand, leadership is a wider concept than management since it involves influencing the behavior of a person or group for whatever reason. Since leadership is a wider concept, management is a certain type of leadership whose main focus is the achievement of organizational goals. This implies that management is limited in terms of its focus on organizational goals while leadership is wider since it emphasizes influencing others for whatever reason. The leadership process may entail influencing others for personal reasons or for the purpose and benefit of others. These goals may be in line with or differ from…
Hersey, P.H., Blanchard, K.H. & Johnson, D.E. (2013). Management of organizational behavior: leading human resources (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Change management theory, especially Kotter’s 8-step model, acknowledges the essence of formulating a vision for change (Duignan, 2007). A vision for change lays down the state the organisation desires to achieve in the future. An effective vision is one whose formulation involves the relevant stakeholders – a shared vision. This is especially crucial in the learning environment. As an organisation, the school is surrounded by a host of stakeholders, including the board, teachers, non-teaching staff, and parents, among others. It is imperative to bring each of these stakeholders on board given their influential role in the school (Kochhar, 2011). Involving stakeholders in developing a shared vision of learning for the school means that stakeholders are given an opportunity to participate in decision making by offering their feedback, perspectives, and concerns regarding the proposed vision. This can be achieved by using forums such as stakeholder meetings, discussions, internal memos, newsletters, as…
DeFlaminis, J., Abdul-Jabbar, M., & Yoak, E. (2016). Distributed leadership in schools: A practical guide for learning and improvement. New York: Routledge.
Duignan, P. (2007). Educational leadership: Key challenges and ethical tensions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kochhar, S. (2011). School administration and management. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.
Philpott, D., & Serluco, P. (2010). Public school emergency preparedness and crisis management plan. Toronto: Government Institutes.
Reading 1: Munro Issue 10; Article 10.1. Marx, G. (n.d). Using trend data to create a successful future for our students, our schools, and our communities.
Summary: This entire section addresses the various means by which educational leaders can respond effectively to emerging social, economic, and political trends. The first reading by Marx is about using trend data. Trends are broad patterns that are sometimes difficult to perceive when we are in their midst. Likewise, trends are not confined to one area. They can include changes to social norms, technologies, and demographics. Once the trends are recognized, though, we also need to respond to those trends and what they imply for education. Effective responses require good leadership, and the type of leadership needed most now is connected and collaborative.
Reflection: Although Marx does not specifically address “trend data” as the title promised, the article does show how educational leaders of…
Bottery, M. (n.d.). Educational leaders in a globalizing world.
“Educational Leadership in a Flat World.”
Grogan, M. (n.d.) Echoing their ancestors, women lead districts in the United States.
“How Will Educational Organizations Be Led in the Future?”
Smith, M.S. (n.d.). What’s next?
School Leaders Should Use Social Media to Engage the Community
This paper compares and contrasts seven articles related to the theme of the public relations role of school leaders. The articles in either look at the ways in which leaders can effectively engage with the public or they look at the importance of having a public relations role and what tools can facilitate the development of that role. The paper first discusses the similarities of the articles, then it discusses the elements that make them different from one another. Thus, each article is discussed at least twice over the course of the paper, once in regards to how it aligns with what the other articles say and once in regards to how it distinguishes itself from the others.
Keywords: public relations school leaders, social media public relations, schools social media
School leaders must be able to “negotiate with…
Barnes, N. G., & Jacobsen, S. (2013). Adoption of social media by fast-growing companies: Innovation among the Inc. 500. Journal of Marketing Development & Competitiveness, 7(1), 11-17.
DiMartino, L. (2018). The Role of School Leaders in Creating a Learning Ecosystem Through School-Community Partnerships. Educational Studies Dissertations. 141.
Hampton, S. C. (2016). Social media as a tool to effectively communicate with stakeholders: School administrators and superintendents' perceptions. Dissertations. 316. https://aquila.usm.edu/dissertations/316
King, D. L. (2015). Why use social media? Library Technology Reports, 51(1), 6-9
Larkin, P. (2013). Tweeting the good news. Educational Leadership, 70(7), 70-72.
Scott, J. A., & Halkias, D. (2016). Consensus Processes Fostering Relational Trust Among Stakeholder Leaders in a Middle School: A Multi-Case Study. International Leadership Journal, 8(3), 1-100.
Wei, W. (2017). Education policy borrowing: professional standards for school leaders in China. Chinese Education & Society, 50(3), 181-202.
Book Review and its Application in Educational Leadership
Educational leadership is one of the most important roles in the modern education system given its significance in establishing educational policy and processes towards enhancing the learning environment and outcomes. Therefore, an educational leader has an influential role in motivating, challenging, inspiring, and affirming educational practice and processes as well as pedagogy of educators. This process requires the application of principles that help in enhancing the learning environment and outcomes. As a result, the principles of educational leadership has been the subject of numerous publications and books. An example of a book that provides principles that can be applied in the role of educational leadership is Kingdom Education: God’s Plan for Educating Future Generations by Glen Schultz.
Overview and Summary of the Author’s Key Points
Kingdom Education: God’s Plan for Educating Future Generations was written by Glen Schultz to provide a biblical…
Schultz, G. (2003). Kingdom education: god’s plan for educating future generations (2nd ed.). Nashville, TN: LifeWay Christian Resources.
Case Study: The Case of the New Hire
Q1. If you were Valerie Rizzo, what steps would you take in the first 30 days of your incumbency as the middle school principal to introduce the previously mentioned change-related issues while establishing effective human relations with your building staff?
According to Vroom (1964), motivation to achieve a goal is grounded in the perceived desirability of the goal, the perceived ability to exhibit the necessary behaviors to achieve the goal, and the perceived ability to attain the goal (Razik & Swanson 2010). In this instance, faculty members, despite having tenure, must be convinced of the desirability of making needed changes in the curriculum to improve student results. Rizzo must create a sense of urgency for change; for example, underlining the need for the district to meet state-mandated standards of student performance. To maintain effective human relationships, it is important not to do…
Razik, T. & Swanson, A. (2010). Fundamental concepts of educational leadership and management, (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
An institutional self-assessment for developing a college or university strategic plan would have to include a measure of institutional autonomy, a common as well as unique offering of courses so as to make the university both competitive among others in the marketplace and differentiated—which allows an organization to stand out and define itself (Trout & Rivkin, 2006); it would have to include a measure of the university’s commitment to excellence as well plus the freedom to pursue the goals it sees fit for its students and staff.
Leaders could incorporate Alexander’s four characteristics by first developing a mission statement in which the key components of the four characteristics are included as guiding principles and values to ensure that the university always has this clear, concrete and public mission statement to serve as a visible guide and measure of success. Leaders could also turn to an external facilitator to assist in…
ASPA. (2018). Accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.aspa-usa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ASPA_AccreditationElements_Jun12.pdf
Conservation Gateway. (2018). Institutional self-assessment. Retrieved from https://www.conservationgateway.org/ConservationPlanning/partnering/cpc/Documents/InstitutionalSelfAssessment.doc
Hammond, J. S., Keeney, R. L., & Raiffa, H. (1998). The hidden traps in decision making. Harvard Business Review, 76(5), 47-58.
Trout, J. & Rivkin, S. (2006). Differentiate or die. In The marketing Gurus (ed.Murray). NY: Penguin.
Saudi Aramco's training department was underdeveloped, and therefore the potential of their employees was being squandered. Once armed with an advanced degree I will stand poised to help organizations like Saudi Aramco to improve their training departments. Ultimately I will be able to perform consulting work in numerous private, non-profit, and government sectors to expand my range of expertise and offer the best guidance I possibly can to my clients.
Having worked as a translator as well as a professional training director, I have developed solid communications and leadership skills that can easily be imparted to my clients. I also have proven experience in developing and implementing training programs for professionals. What I need now is a leap forward, to hone my ability to design optimal training programs that meet the needs of both individuals and organizations. The higher education doctoral program at the University of Massachusetts offers
The ISLLC Standards address educational leadership from a global perspective, showing how ethical principles interface with the practical realities of fiscal planning and community engagement. This case study highlights the importance of all six of the ISLLC standards, as it takes into account microcosmic elements as well as the “larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context” affecting East Ruxton (ISLLC Standards, n.d., p. 1).
1. If I were Valerie Rizzo, I would balance the need for strategic change management while also establishing effective human relations with the building staff. The new staff members are correct: visionary change is both necessary and possible. Even with the existing budgetary constraints, it is possible to engender the type of organizational culture in the school that will promote academic excellence. ISLLC Standard 6 refers to the specific and broad knowledge educational administrators have regarding “models and strategies of change and conflict resolution as applied…
The long-range impact of educational leadership is to empower others in the school community to nurture their talents and abilities and make them leaders in their own capacities. To realize this, the leader needs to adopt the transformational leadership framework, which requires them to be an intellectual stimulator, inspirational motivator, mentor, and coach. The process of leadership incorporates several leadership strategies including direction-setting, developing people, mentoring and coaching, and developing leadership programs. There is a need for continuous learning to enhancing the leader’s handling of people from diverse cultures, religion, and nationalities. The intermediate aim of the leader is to help followers realize their maximum potential.
Educational Leadership Philosophy
Strong educational leadership is a crucial determinant of effective student learning. On the basis of strong leadership, a struggling school can transform and a great one empowered to thrive even more. According to a report by the Wallace Foundation, educational…
Cambridge Assessment International Education (2017). Educational Leadership. Cambridge Assessment International Education. Retrieved from https://www.cambridgeinternational.org/Images/271192-educational-leadership.pdf
Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Anderson, L., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of Research: How Leadership Influences Student Learning. The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/How-Leadership-Influences-Student-Learning.pdf
Martin, B., Cashel, C., Wagstaff, M., & Breunig, M. (2006). Outdoor Leadership: Theory and Practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Spears, U. (2012). Coaching Leadership Families: Using the Leadership Family Model to Coach, Mentor, and Multiply Health Families. New York, NY: Xlibris Corporation.
The Center for Educational Leadership (CEL) based out of the University of Washington (with a strong Web presence as well) is a good source of information and tools for strengthening one’s educational leadership skills. The description provided in this post about what the CEL offers is very good in terms of describing the organization’s unique approach to helping individuals obtain leadership knowledge. The Webinars area great source of info for example and give a lot of good tutorials on leadership growth, the principles of leadership, and guides for classroom observation.
The School Leadership website produced by the Wallace Foundation is also very good to know about, especially since it focuses on serving underprivileged kids by way of various programs and offerings. The Wallace Foundation is designed to promote equal opportunity for students. The Principal Pipeline is another good tool that principals can use to help them as they work towards…
The purpose of leadership is to assist followers in overcoming obstacles to their goals. Leaders help to inspire, communicate, support and develop followers so that they can eventually work independently at a level of self-actualization. Servant leadership is a method of leadership that can best be applied in educational leadership as it places the needs of stakeholders above one’s own. The servant leader recognizes what individuals need to overcome challenges and assists them through encouragement and guidance. The servant leader is selfless and devoted to others—and that is what true leadership, ultimately, is all about.
Leadership is like the star that shines brightly in the sky, pointing out the way for those traversing in the dark, giving light where it is needed, and giving hope in times of turmoil. Leadership is also like the sun that comes out in the day, that gives warmth and lets things grow…
According to the Ohio State University (2004), both could be equally appropriate in terms of overall company outcomes, as they are very similar in terms of valuing and inspiring follower excellence.
When considering the motivation towards leadership for each type of leader, the contrast is sharper. The servant leader, for example, leads from a motivations basis of egalitarianism. The leader's fundamental belief is that he or she is no better than followers. The company's collective goals are then reached by means of an egalitarian team effort, where both leader and followers learn from the experience. Servant leaders are therefore much more focused upon the non-traditional form of leadership, which exists in beign servants themselves (Patterson, edmer and Stone, 2003, p. 6). Followers are provided with a large amount of freedom to exercise the abilities they can bring to the promotion of the business goals. This means that a very high…
Bugenhage, M.J. (2006, Dec). Antecedents of Transactional Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A constructive-Development Theory Approach. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=aglecdiss
Changing Minds (2011). Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/bass_transformational.htm
The Ohio State University. (2004, Dec. 22). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Leadership Center. Retrieved from: http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2004/december-2004-transformational-and-servant-leadership-content-and-contextual-comparisons
Patterson, K., Redmer, T.A.O., and Stone, a.G. (2003, Oct.) Transformational Leaders to Servant Leaders vs. Level 4 Leaders to Level 5 Leaders -- the Move from Good to Great. Regent University. Retrieved from: http://www.cbfa.org/Patterson.pdf
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
Louis and Smith (1991) identify such congruence as an indicator of the quality of work life influencing levels of teacher engagement with their work."
An appreciation by teachers of a significant gap between their current practices and those implied by the changes being proposed within their schools." perception, on the part of teachers, that participating in the school's change initiative is a significant but achievable challenge. Shedd and Bacharach (1991) argue that teaching provides intrinsic motivation under those restructuring initiatives which conceptualize teaching as a highly complex act and help teachers significantly expand their technical repertoires and their capacities to apply them reflectively and constructively. Contributing to the perception of a goal's achievability are opportunities to learn more about how the goal can be accomplished." perception by teachers that they know, specifically and concretely, what they will need to do (or that such specificity can be developed) eventually to implement…
Hence, a more corporate attitude is being embraced by pro-vice-chancellors, but the salient question in this article is this: will a university be better off with corporate-style, bureaucratic leadership, or with leadership that pursues academic excellence and a pure mission of educating students?
Wang, Yong, and Poutziouris, Panikkos. (2010). Leadership Styles, Management Systems and Growth: Empirical Evidence from UK Owner-Managed SMEs. Journal of Enterprising
Culture, 18(3), 331-354. Doi: 10.1142/So21849581000604.
What these authors bring to light in this article is that a higher rate of sales and growth for medium sized businesses can be realized when run by an owner that also manages the business. This survey of 5,710 respondents in the UK further pointed to the fact that when the owner-manager delegates authority, the operation is more professional and successful.
Webb, Kerry S. (2009). Creating Satisfied Employees in Christian Higher Education: Research
on Leadership Competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8(1), 18-31.…
Zembylas, Michalinos, and Iasonos, Sotiroula. (2010). Leadership styles and multicultural education approaches: an exploration of their relationship. Leadership in Education,
13(2), 163-0183, doi: 10.1080/13603120903386969.
In this article the authors surveyed 17 principals in multicultural schools in Cyprus in order to find out what leadership styles worked best. The issue is relevant because immigration means new challenges for education leaders. About half of the 17 principals embraced a transactional leadership and "conservative multiculturalism" although another group adopted a style more in tune with what the authors call "critical multiculturalism embedded in critical and social justice leadership."
While the superintendent may feel or even firmly believe that they have covered all of the bases on expenditures and other relevant issues in school budgeting, the failure to connect to other stakeholders throughout the district, who may or may not add to the data that the superintendent has prepared for presentation, is likely to result in some among those stakeholders feeling slighted or ignored and often lead to complicated budgeting which could have been avoided through simply opening the communication channels during this critical process of school administration.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
This work in writing has related the various aspects of the school budgeting process which are the responsibility of the school superintendent as well as relating the various concerns of school budgeting and the importance of staying connected to the stakeholders in the community of the school district throughout the entire process of school budgeting. This work has…
Davis, Stephen, Darling-Hammond, Linda, LaPointe, Michelle, and Meyerson, Debra (2005) School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals. Stanford Educational Leadership Institute. (SELI). 2005. Online available at: http://www.srnleads.org/data/pdfs/sls/sls_rr.pdf
Joynt, T. (2002, December). School budgeting: Cost cutting through onion layers. The School Administrator. Accessed May 16, 2005 at www.aasa.org/publications/sa/2002/focJoynt.htm
Howley, C. (2003, October). Sustaining small rural high schools. The School Administrator, 9(60), 16-1.
Almack, John Conrad (1970) Modern School Administration, Its Problems and Progress. Ayer Publishing, 1970.
Those administrators that are able to provide educators with this will more than likely have favorable opinions of the current strategy (from the staff and the public). While those administrators that are unable to achieve this objective, will more than likely face possible resistance issues to new ideas that are being presented. This will make creating a change in the educational environment more challenging, as educators will often view what is happening, with a certain degree of skepticism. At the same time, the positive or negative views of the educational values of the administration, will affect the general public. As they will often, view what is happening in a more controversial light that could be played out in the media. The key for effective educational leadership is: to address these issues and then help everyone to see how the new values could improve, the overall quality of education that is…
Charter Schools Program. (2010). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www2.ed.gov/programs/charter/index.html
High School Drop Out Crisis Continues. (2009). CNN. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2009-05-05/us/dropout.rate.study_1_dropouts-enrollment-graduations?_s=PM:U.S.
Jamie Escalante Biography. (2010). Biography.com. Retrieved from: http://www.biography.com/articles/Jaime-Escalante-189368
Leadership Characteristics that Facilitate School Change. (2010). SEDL. Retrieved from: http://www.sedl.org/change/leadership/character.html .
National Educational Technology / State Leadership: The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) has released its 7th annual National Educational Technology Trends Report and it indicates that technology is playing "an increasingly important role" in K-12 school improvement efforts. Leadership in technology training in schools is vital if the future needs of all students are to be met, according to an article in Yacht Charters Magazine (Marketwire, 2010). The article quotes Secretary of Education Arne Duncan: "Schools can't be throw-backs to the state of education fifty, twenty, even ten years ago."
Peabody Faculty Recognized for Research, Leadership: Several faculty members from Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute have been selected as American Education Research Association Fellows due to the leadership they demonstrated in scientific and scholarly educational research initiatives (Vanderbilt University). Meanwhile Robert Rodosky, who is adjunct professor of Leadership Policy and Organizations at Vanderbilt, has won the 2010 Excellence…
Brown, Linnea. (2010). Kaplan University Launches New Online Programs, Including Two New
Master's Degrees. Business Wire. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.businesswire.com.
Court, Marian. (2007). Changing and/or Reinscribing Gendered Discourses of Team Leadership
In Education? Gender and Education, 19(5), 607-626.
Many of these activities commonly focus on happy and positive feelings and thoughts, at the expense of allowing an examination of more painful issues. This is especially problematic for disenfranchised and failing students, who, through this type of structure, receive direct and indirect messages from the group structure to not deal with the depths of their pain, anger, frustration, sadness, hurt, anxiety, or fear." (Bemak, 2005, p.1)
The need for a culturally diverse approach must not be lost, either in the approach of education of counselors and educators, despite the need to build teams and effective groups. Controversially, Bemak entertains the suggestion that an ethnic and gender match between students and guidance counselors might be a needed additional support for students from at-risk groups, although he finally rejects the idea as impractical. (Bemak, 2005, p.5) the article is provoking and challenging to accepted norms, suggesting that the need to build…
The book of Proverbs is one of the more unusual books of the Bible, given that rather than storytelling or prophesy, the book consists of a series of homilies or inspirational phrases intended to encourage the reader to honor his or her father and mother and to place wisdom over riches and worldly success. The book as a whole is a reminder to cherish the important, simple lessons of life. The lessons conveyed by the book are both religious and ethical in nature. One idea which comes to mind when reading the book is that rather than talent, sometimes simply the willingness to be kind, to show up on time, and to behave in an estimable manner is more important. From an educator’s perspective, all of the lessons of the book highlight the importance of creating a moral environment in the classroom that inspires others to treat one another well.…
This study was similar to the third study in that both involved a retrospective review of data based on prior studies and program data. This study differed from the third study in that the prior study involved only a review of published literature, whereas the third study consisted of action research through both off-site data collection conducted through interviews of participating faculty members as well as a more in depth on-site action site case study of one educational institution. Additionally, while the second study concerned issues pertaining to the training of medical students in professional teamwork and collaboration skills in the professional medical setting, the third study concerned the manner in which community colleges establish and implement in-house "grow-your-own" staff development programs
Reille, a. And Kezar, a. "Balancing the Pros and Cons of Community
College 'Grow-Your-Own' Leadership Programs" Community College
Review 38 (1) 2010: 59-82.
This study consisted of action…
They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?
Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…
Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm
Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth
Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ
Education leaders note barriers to effective leadership with are unique to the educational setting. Politics and bureaucracy, fear of litigation, teacher unions and school boards are all noted by superintendents and principals as elements which hamper organizational excellence (Finn, 2002). In the same survey, leaders also noted a lack of freedom to accomplish managerial tasks, like hiring and firing or even rewarding outstanding performers. A review of job descriptions posted for superintendent and principal jobs across the United States demonstrates the wide variety of skill required for these positions. Samplings of descriptions include "experience as a principal"; "earned doctorate from an accredited institution"; there also exist a long list of complex organization and managerial tasks which accompany these basic requirements. As a result, the number of individuals completing Ed D. degrees has increased significantly. esearch completed in 2007 (Baker, Orr and Young, 2007) reported the number of programs offering educational…
Kotter, JP, Force for Change: How Leadership Differs From Management, the Free Press, 1990.
Kotter, JP. "What Leaders Really Do," in J.T. Wren (Ed.), the Leaders Companion, the Free Press, 1995, pp. 114-123.
Goffee R, Jones R. (2000) Why should anyone be led by you? Harv Bus Rev 5; 62-70
Finn, CE. (2002) Bureaucracy and school leadership - policy research organization Public Agenda survey on finding strong leaders for schools. Reason. Accessed online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1568/is_1_34/ai_84841777
This single entity can also more consistently value the differences of both the students and teachers in a meaningful, useful way. "Good leaders seek to bring together sets of different realities to form a holistic identity for the organization" (Walker & Quong, 1998) it is through the acknowledging and valuing of differences that this leadership can empower teachers to commit fully to the task of self-appraisal, realizing that they all have different strengths and weaknesses and that's valid and to even be expected in any school setting. it's using these differences as a springboard to motivate continuous improvement on behalf of the teachers that presents the most real and significant challenge.
Finally, it needs to be acknowledged that even the most effective form of leadership is a dynamic animal and is not something that is static. Leadership suffers when it is not supported; even the best leaders still need professional…
Earl, L., & Katz, S. (2010). Creating a Culture of Inquiry. In a. Blankenstein, & P. Cole, Data Enhanced Leadership (pp. 9-30). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Gronn, P. (2008). The Future of Distributive Leadership. Journal of Educational Administration, 141-153.
Robinson, V., & Le Fevre, D. (2011). Principals' Capability in Challenging Conversations. Journal of Educational Administration, 227-255.
Santamaria, L. (2011). Applied Critical Leadership in Education. New York: Routledge.
Leadership on Organization Effectiveness
MedShare is an organization engaged in the provision of health care services. ecently, the company gave me an appointment as the Chief Financial Officer to manage the organization's financial operations and lead it to a successful path. MedShare is the parent company of the subsidiary On-site Healthcare Facility that also owns www.onsite.com Domain. It is a global corporation with strong representation in leading markets throughout the United States. This is a Texas corporation with international headquarters in Texas. The business was organized in 2008. It has demonstrated itself as a top competitor in the healthcare industry since its inception. It made an initial public offering in 2009 and has proven to be a profitable business venture (Bass & Avolio, 2010). For this reason, investors were fast at purchasing stock and trusted the organization with their investments. MedShare services portfolio includes:
II. Cardiothoracic Services
Bass, B.M., & Avolio, B.J. (2010). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Borkowski, N. (2009). Organizational behavior, theory, and design in health care. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ginter, P.M., Duncan, W.J., & Swayne, L.E. (2013). Strategic management of health care organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Krause, T.R., & Hidley, J.H. (2009). Taking the lead in patient safety: How healthcare leaders influence behavior and create culture. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Leadership: Succeeding in the Private, Public, and Not-for-Profit Sectors
Competency-Based Approach (Federal Government). The "competency-based" approach to leadership helps leaders "fully explore the challenge before them" so they can come up with solutions on a collaborative basis. The competences presented include: a) paying close attention to the situation; b) tapping into person life experiences to better tackle "group challenges"; c) using images (metaphors, photos, stories) to make sense of "complex information"; d) gaining knowledge through improvisation; e) being collaborative with others; and f) "synthesizing issues, objects, events and actions" so they have meaning (Sims, et al., 2005, 159). I fully agree that these competencies are what government leaders must adhere to.
The President's Management Agenda (Federal Government): Since the Federal Government is such a vast and expensive workforce it makes sense that the federal government sub-contracts some of the duties of government out to private vendors. Sims claims that the…
Northouse, P.G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE
Sims, R.R., and Quatro, S.A. (2005). Leadership: Succeeding in the Private, Public, and Not-
for-profit Sectors. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
leadership capability relation accepted model leadership management. Part 1. 'Situational leadership redundant a task .' As a future leader teams, present arguments statement.
The internal environment within economic agents is suffering dramatic changes within the modern day society and this is the result of numerous pressures from the internal and external environments, such as technology, competition or increasing demands from the various categories of stakeholders. In such a setting, the role of the leaders and managers gradually increases, as these come to portray the link between executives and employees, and they are more essential in ensuring that the firms attain their overall objectives.
As the role of leaders and managers increases, the emphasis placed on the formation of the leaders and managers must also increase. In such a setting then, the current project sets out to discuss the situational leadership model through the lenses of its applicability within…
Haydon, G., 2007, Values for educational leadership, SAGE
Humphreys, J., Zhao, D., Ingram, K., Gladstone, J., Basham, L., 2010, Situational narcissism and charismatic leadership: a conceptual framework, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, Vol. 11, No. 2
Ireh, M., Bailey, J., 1999, A study of superintendent's change leadership styles using the situational leadership model, American Secondary Education, Vol. 27, No. 4
2012, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online, http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/feedback last accessed on May 22, 2012
Among the best ways to shape organizational culture and still be sure that the employees and their socially diverse cultures are being represented and honored is through ethical leadership models. Three of these models are: P4, Complexity, and 4-V. Each of these models will be discussed here. The P4 model stands for Purpose, People, Planet, Probity (or Purity or Principles) (Ethical, 2014). These four things are the cornerstones of sustaining success when it comes to any organization or business in the modern day, and require those who are in leadership positions to really think about what they are offering to their company, their employees, and their customers and stakeholders (Ethical, 2014). The goal is to show that the organizational purpose is strong, and that it is reconciled with proper care of others in order to keep the company moving forward without causing any harm to the people who…
Ethical leadership, decision-making, and organizations. (2014). Businessballs. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/ethical_management_leadership.htm .
Macaluso, T. (n.d.). A model for ethical leadership. Complexity model and ethics. New Thinker. Retrieved from http://www.newthinker.com/NewThinking%20about%20ETHICAL%20LEADERSHIP.pdf .
McQueeny, E. (2006). Making ethics come alive. Business Communication Quarterly, 69(2), 158-170.
Reilly, E.C. (2006). The future entering: Reflections on and challenges to ethical leadership. Educational Leadership and Administration, 18, 163-173.
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
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Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
" (Ying-Feng, 2006)
As mention earlier, the leadership at GE was able to pull of years of having the best leadership; for instance, in eptember 7, 2001, when 44-year-old Jeff Immelt was picked as being the company's twelfth leader after Edison, he faced an intimidating challenge. Not only would he be guiding a $130 billion global company managing businesses from lighting to aircraft engines to monetary services, nonetheless he would do so following Jack Welch, a legendary CEO who, over two decades, had generated an average annual total return to shareholders of more than 23%.
As Immelt took on one of the biggest management jobs in the world, some wondered whether GE's vaunted management development process had prepared him to lead such a complex organization. But for the new CEO, the bigger question was, how could he ensure that GE's talent machine kept developing executives who could continue driving the…
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Tivendell, J., 2003. Teams that lead: A matter of market strategy, leadership skills and executive strength. Canadian Psychology,, 44(4), pp. 428-430.
Ying-Feng, K., 2006. Influences on employee career strategy adoption in the information service industry: Superior leadership style or employee achievement motivation?. International Journal of Management,, 23(1), pp. 176-186. .
educational curricula or the educational environment influenced by news media? By attitudes or activities of educators and facilitators? By community events or expectations? By regulatory or accrediting agencies?
The most recent example of the effect of the news media on educational curricula that comes to mind was the way that American business schools began increasing their attention to business ethics and ethics-related topics after the public disclosure of the major scandals in American big business. After the infamous Enron, Tyco, and WorldCom scandals, MBA programs began increasing the number of courses devoted to business ethics to prevent today's graduates from falling into the same traps as those that resulted in the highest-profile business scandals reported so widely in the media. omething similar seemed to have happened in healthcare education curricula in connection with problems like transmission of blood-borne pathogens throughout the 1980s and 1990s to prevent HIV transmission during routine…
Billings, D.M. And Halstead, J.A. (2009). Teaching in Nursing: A guide for Faculty.
Duffy, F.M. "Paradigms, Mental Models, and Mindsets: Triple Barriers to Transformational Change in School Systems: PART 1." International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July - September, 2009).
Lloyd, S. (2005). "Evidence-based educational methods." Educational Psychology in Practice, Vol. 21, No. 3: 252-253.
Instead, it is rigid and reinforced with bureaucracy and red tape, thus making it a poor system for education and children.
Educating the whole child." Educating the whole child is an idea that took root in the early 20th century and is making a comeback in education. The educational model is conducted throughout the child's education - from kindergarten through high school, and recognizes the child is a complete being, with spirit, mind, and body, and each item must be addressed in the educational model. The model attempts to educate the "whole" child - heart, head, and hands, by offering education in a variety of areas, from academics to art and practical, hands-on activities. The children are encouraged to play as well as study, to help develop fully rounded personalities and ideas. Teachers also use storytelling, fairy tales, and other folk art as models for teaching and involving the children…
Editors. (2007.) Ism book. Retrieved from the Ismbook.com Web site: http://www.ismbook.com/intellectualism.html17 March 2007.
Gur-Ze'ev, I. (1999). Knowledge, violence, and education. Retrieved from the Encyclopedia of philosophy in education Web site: http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/main.htm17 March 2007.
Waghid, Y. (2005). Action as an educational virtue: Toward a different understanding of democratic citizenship education. Educational Theory 55 (3), 323-342. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.2005.00006.x http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2005.00006.x
Responding to the needs of a failing school is one of the most pressing challenges education leaders face. This assessment of the Washington High School case study is astute, paying attention to the need for top-down organizational structure and culture change. It is important for all administrators and educators to be honest and self-assess the situation, in order to come up with the most cogent and meaningful solutions to the problem.
Indeed, the first step is total evaluation of the system. Unfortunately, even principles have their hands tied when it comes to being unable to transform educational policies. Educational policies are determined by politicians, often those with little knowledge of what actually occurs on the ground in the real world of education. In spite of this significant drawback to effective educational policy, education leaders and administrators can implement localized policies and programs that can change the normative cultures of their…
seeing shifts in the spirit of education. Such a positive upheaval has occurred before; but, never in a forum where so many minds could be molded in so myriad ways. I see myself as a pivot in the grand scheme of things. And I wish to make a contribution. I wish to apply to Lynn University to pursue a degree. And I hope I can convince the admission committee that Lynn University is a place where my life's goals can get a direction. I also feel particularly confident that I can make a worthwhile contribution in the enrichment of the ideals for which Lynn University stands.
In high school and in my current academic setting, I have always excelled in academics. My high school and college transcripts are a testament to that fact. I have translated this high scholastic achievement into being a role model to those that follow me.…