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ducational Psychology Abstract: Teaching Left Behind
The article "Teaching Left Behind" by dward J. Mclroy, President of the American Federation of Teachers, comes from the 'Teacher to Teacher' section of the www.TeachingK-8.com Website for May of 2005. The main subject of the article is the Federal No Child Left Behind Act. While originally intended to help many children succeed, the implication may be that the Act is also hurting teachers with some of the provisions that it has. The intentions of the Act are good, as it was originally designed to raise standards and to especially help children that were disadvantaged in some way to catch up with their peers and remain there. Some of the ways that the Act intended to do this was to ensure that all classrooms had good quality teachers, and that both students and schools received help to turn around problems that they were facing.…
Educational Psychology Abstract: Teaching Left Behind
The article "Teaching Left Behind" by Edward J. McElroy, President of the American Federation of Teachers, comes from the 'Teacher to Teacher' section of the www.TeachingK-8.com Website for May of 2005. The main subject of the article is the Federal No Child Left Behind Act. While originally intended to help many children succeed, the implication may be that the Act is also hurting teachers with some of the provisions that it has. The intentions of the Act are good, as it was originally designed to raise standards and to especially help children that were disadvantaged in some way to catch up with their peers and remain there. Some of the ways that the Act intended to do this was to ensure that all classrooms had good quality teachers, and that both students and schools received help to turn around problems that they were facing. However, there have been upsetting consequences of this Act, such as assessment problems for students, and putting too much emphasis on one particular test over the other work that the student has done that school year. Schools also have to make 'Adequate Yearly Progress,' but if this is not met, the school fails -- regardless of the progress that it might have made. There is no reward for progress, in other words, unless it satisfies certain conditions set forth by the act. Students in schools that are failing can go to Supplemental Service Providers such as tutors, or they can get vouchers to attend charter schools. However, neither one of these options is held to the same standards as public schools, so there is certainly no guarantee that these children will learn more or fare better with these alternate arrangements. While it is easy to see why there should be accountability in schools, this article shows that there are many different ways of looking at the issue, and that there are problems that are being seen based on the Act. While it was only designed to help, it may be doing more harm than good and should not be abandoned but should be amended and adjusted until every student receives the promised benefits.
Educational Psychology: An Overview
The topic of educational psychology, or psychology as it is practiced within a school system, has become increasingly important in recent years as the number of special education demands on school systems and especially public school systems has increased. While educational psychologists tend to work in universities and other research settings rather than in the school system per se, they are continually affected by what is happening in schools as they seek to respond to the changing needs of student bodies. Thus the needs of school psychologists tend to be reflected at least in some measure in the research of educational psychologists, who in turn affect the practice of school psychologists. Thus one area of research that is becoming increasingly important to educational psychologists is one that is among the most pressing demands made on the school psychologist today. This topic is how to help autistic…
Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed.). Columbus, OH, USA: Prentice-Hall-Merrill.
Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology 97, 641 -- 655.
Furth, H.G., & Wachs, H. (1975). Thinking goes to school: Piaget's theory in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Koegel, R.L. & Schreibman, L. (n.d.) Pivotal Response Training. Retrieved from http://autismlab.ucsd.edu/about/pivotal-response-training.shtml
The results showed that 37% of those responding have had "some type of frequent involvement in bullying"; the data showed that 17.5% of those thirty-seven percent of the student population were victims, 11.7% were bullies, and 8.4% were both bullies and victims (bully/victim). Interestingly, and going back to the Handbook of Educational Psychology's view of bullying as acting out ethnocentrism, "minority youth were significantly more likely to be categorized as bully/victims and bullies, but significantly less likely to be categorized as victims than hite youth" (Bradshaw, p. 12).
Moreover, minority youth in the survey had "increased odds" of reporting that "rumors or lies had been spread about them," and that they had been "bullied with sexual comments or gestures" (Bradshaw, p. 12). No surprisingly, youth in the groups that were connected to bullying or being victims reported feeling "less safe and less connected to their school" than youth in the…
Berliner, David C., & Calfee, Robert C. (1996). Handbook of Educational Psychology.
New York: MacMillan Library Reference / Simon & Schuster MacMillan.
Bradshaw, Catherine P., O'Brennan, Lindsey M., & Sawyer, Anne L. (2008). Examining
Variation in Attitudes Toward Aggressive Retaliation and Perceptions of Safety
Or finally, students may have insufficient motivation to put into practice what they have learned, such as fears of making a serious mistake. (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2003, p. 444)
In the case of Jean she frequently failed because the motivation to achieve was undefined, and her inability to understand the connection between academic knowledge and achievement, through the modeling of her historical culture plagues her throughout her education.
People in the lower-lower class are largely unskilled laborers and the chronically unemployed. Life for them is a continual struggle for survival, a struggle that many of them feel they cannot win without outside help. Hollingshead says that they "give the impression of being resigned to a life of frustration and defeat in a community that despises them for their disregard of morals, lack of 'success' goals, and dire poverty" (25). (Lindgren, 1962, p. 102)
The value of her culture did much…
Lindgren, H.C. (1962). Educational Psychology in the Classroom (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Shafer, M.S., & Rangasamy, R. (1995). Transition and Native American Youth: A Follow-Up Study of School Leavers on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 61(1), 60.
Bredo, E. (2003). 4 the Development of Dewey's Psychology. In Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, DH (Eds.) (pp. 81-107). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, DH (Eds.). (2003). Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(Smitherman, 2000, p. 287) (Case Study 176) Motivation in education is a crucial aspect of success but it is often incongruent with social attitudes and with the actual educational environment one is exposed to. "Poor educational attainment and delinquency are often described as part of an 'oppositional youth culture' (Ogbu 1978)." (Sanders, 2002, p. 237) the oppositional youth culture that Betts experienced in St. Louis clearly demonstrates the extremes of cultural disenfranchisement. "Self-identity may be fluid, but the extent to which ethnic identity is optional varies by race." (Sanders, 2002, p. 237) Additionally the rigid manner in which Betts' mother and grandmother enforce broken English as reflective of his culture, is also evidence to the extreme disjointed nature of cultural diversity and disconnect. (Case Study 165) the reflection of the value of linguistic enforcement and the manner in which Betts must acclimatize his language to a given situation is a…
Harry, B., Klingner, J.K., & Hart, J. (2005). African-American Families under Fire: Ethnographic Views of Family Strengths. Remedial and Special Education, 26(2), 101.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1993). Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Sanders, J.M. (2002). Ethnic Boundaries and Identity in Plural Societies. 327.
Smitherman, G. (2000). Talkin That Talk: Language, Culture, and Education in African America. New York: Routledge.
Talisha was welcomed as a daughter by Barbara, even when the relationship was informal. Barbara intones while discussing the positive nature of Talisha and Nile's relationship as close and non-confrontational siblings that Talisha slept in Nile's crib before he did and that their bond is essential to Talisha feeling a part of the family. Talisha herself reiterates this when she discusses the manner in which herself and Nile partner in conflict resolution outside the home. (Case Study p. 3-5)
Barbara Williams, Talisha's "mom" has exemplified the role of mother caregiver and protector since the beginning of her relationship with Talisha, beginning with her recognition that Talisha's grandmother was overwhelmed by responsabilties and may have neglected Talisha if she, Barbara had not chosen to take on the responsibility to care for her. Barbara has also been paramount in Talisha's ability to recover from the grief of the loss of her mother…
Brainerd, C.J. (2003). 11 Jean Piaget, Learning Research, and American Education. In Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, DH (Eds.) (pp. 251-284). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Howe, D., Brandon, M., Hinings, D., & Schofield, G. (1999). Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment, and Family Support: A Practice and Assessment Model. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sacks, P. (2000). Standardized Minds: The High Price of America's Testing Culture and What We Can Do to Change it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Additionally, Frank may be deliberately acting out and acting lazy as a result of his resentment that he was not given the opportunities that his two high achieving siblings were given by living in a stimulating urban environment, as long as they did. Though Frank does not specifically intone resentment he is clear that he does not like the place they now live and that the people around him do not share his interests or intelligence. Addressing all these problems with Frank, by actually directly asking him if this is how he feels, and making sure to give him plenty of time to think about it would likely greatly help his predicament, as it would facilitate recognition for him of his uniqueness (something he desires) and would allow him to possibly overcome the hurdles of his current situation. The teachers in his school would also do better directly with Frank…
Bergman, Roger. "2 Identity as Motivation: Toward a Theory of the Moral Self." Moral Development, Self, and Identity. Ed. Daniel K. Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. 21-43.
Bronfenbrenner, Urie. "Thoughts on Teaching." Human Ecology 33.3 (2005): 26.
Evans, Richard I., and Erik Erikson. Dialogue with Erik Erikson. 1st ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.
Kaplan, Jeffrey S., ed. Using Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers Cope with Identity Issues. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Ethnicity may also affect how students perceive history, literature, and other aspects of the curriculum that are taken for granted. The perspective of a child who has lived abroad, or whose parents are first-generation immigrants can provide valuable context to a classroom discussion that would otherwise be one-sided.
It is incumbent upon the teacher as well to assume that a lesson plan does not make assumptions about the child's knowledge base. Certain contextual references particular to American culture may not be shared by all children; even celebrating highly Americanized holidays in class such as Thanksgiving and Halloween must be done so in a manner so that it is not assumed that every child observes these holidays as a regular part of his or her routine. Vocabulary and cultural reference should be defined if there is any uncertainty some children may not know them.
All children can benefit from multicultural learning,…
Burnett, Gary. (1994). Varieties of multicultural education. Eric Digest. 98 (1).
Retrieved May 5, 2011 at http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/multicultural.htm
Multicultural Education. (2011). North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. (NCREL).
Retrieved May 5, 2011 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/presrvce/pe3lk1.htm
Groups must be carefully balanced in terms of high achievers and low achievers, and also according to different student's innate abilities. A group project that is supposed to result in a multimedia presentation should be balanced between students with strong artistic abilities vs. students with strong verbal abilities. Laboratories should not group all of the most scientifically adept students together, but instead should have less apt students mentor others, unless stronger pairs of students are given more challenging 'extra credit' work.
The purpose of the assignment should reflect the nature of the group composition. Students should learn to work with students of different abilities and temperaments, but the teacher must be mindful if the assignment is supposed to produce a final outcome for which the student's performance in the entire class will be judged, versus an assignment which is designed to build skills and can benefit from student mentorship. Extended…
Davis, Barbara Gross. (2001). Collaborative learning. Tools for Teaching.
Retrieved May 5, 2011 at http://teaching.berkeley.edu/bgd/collaborative.html
There were also more subtle apparent connections between Steven's relative inability, (especially in light of his intelligence in other areas), to recognize moral issues provided they do not involve lying, physically overpowering, or overtly stealing from others. As a child, Steven used to trick his peers about the relative quantity of ice cream or candy in packages to trick them into unfair (but voluntary) trades. As an adolescent, Steven became very skilled at using his superior communications skills and his persuasiveness to split hairs and exploit contrived ambiguities in agreements to get what he wanted without "breaking" a rule or a promise in the strictest technical sense. In Steven's mind, his parents prohibited him from buying a custom skateboard; they said he could use his allowance to buy a bike and they never said anything about his not being allowed to trade his new bike for the skateboard. Steven expressed…
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gardner, H. (2006). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York:
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
psychologists, especially Freudians, considered experiences undergone at the tender, early childhood age to be crucial to social, psychological and mental growth. Newer studies reveal that even late-childhood experiences are influential, capable of altering a child's developmental course. A majority of contemporary psychologists discuss sensitive, rather than critical, phases, which are phases when an individual is found to be particularly reactive towards or equipped to handle particular experiences. Hence, while childhood is deemed to be the ideal age to independently learn any second language (i.e., without direct teaching on others' part), adults also can and have effectively learnt second languages (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2012).
Different Individuals' Development Occurs at Different Paces
Within classroom settings, one can witness several examples demonstrating varied developmental rates of pupils. While some pupils will be better, faster, organized or more responsible and conscientious with regard to their social relationships and attitudes, others may be relatively slower…
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience
Description of an education event experienced
I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…
Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.
(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus
Publishing/R. Pullins Co.
Baker, C. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators online, 7(1), 1-30.
Otherwise, there is probably considerable flexibility with respect to the manner in which specific group collaboration scenarios can be used to promote cooperation.
In one configuration, the group can be required to devise a detailed methodological approach to solving a problem by surveying the respective members of the group and then establishing a problem-solving strategy based on specific elements contributed by all of the different social constructs of individual group members.
In other configurations, the group collaboration process can also be used to promote effective learning. pecifically, both learning groups and working groups can often increase the ability of individuals to learn by expanding the range of the intellectual tools and perspectives in their skill sets (Myers & pencer, 2004). Exposure and structured practical application of problem-solving strategies using approaches other than those upon which individuals usually rely can improve learning in both educational and vocational contexts (Myers & pencer,…
Aronson E., Wilson T., and Akert R. (2003). Social Psychology. New York: Longman.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2009). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Pinker S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York:
They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?
Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…
Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm
Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth
Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ
educational curricula or the educational environment influenced by news media? By attitudes or activities of educators and facilitators? By community events or expectations? By regulatory or accrediting agencies?
The most recent example of the effect of the news media on educational curricula that comes to mind was the way that American business schools began increasing their attention to business ethics and ethics-related topics after the public disclosure of the major scandals in American big business. After the infamous Enron, Tyco, and WorldCom scandals, MBA programs began increasing the number of courses devoted to business ethics to prevent today's graduates from falling into the same traps as those that resulted in the highest-profile business scandals reported so widely in the media. omething similar seemed to have happened in healthcare education curricula in connection with problems like transmission of blood-borne pathogens throughout the 1980s and 1990s to prevent HIV transmission during routine…
Billings, D.M. And Halstead, J.A. (2009). Teaching in Nursing: A guide for Faculty.
Duffy, F.M. "Paradigms, Mental Models, and Mindsets: Triple Barriers to Transformational Change in School Systems: PART 1." International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, Vol. 4, No. 3 (July - September, 2009).
Lloyd, S. (2005). "Evidence-based educational methods." Educational Psychology in Practice, Vol. 21, No. 3: 252-253.
Lagging Ethics in the United States Today
Techniques for Teaching Ethics
Should Ethics Be Taught in Public Schools?
Controversies and Problems in Teaching Ethics in Public Schools
Implementing a Non-Controversial Ethics Program
We want our children to exhibit ethical behavior. Yet, it is all too common to see adults engaging in decidedly unethical activities in front of their children. What about the mother who tells her child repeatedly about the importance of honesty, and then switches price stickers on items in the department store in front of her child? What kind of example about honesty is she setting? What about the father who tells his child to treat others with kindness, then lets his child hear him shouting obscenities at a driver he thinks cut him off in traffic? Is this really showing his child the traits he wants his child to exhibit? Then there are more subtle…
Glazner, Perry. "Can Public Schools Teach Character?" Citizen Link. 1999. http://www.family.org/cforum/research/papers/a0004742.html >.
Madden, Kara. "Getting a Grasp on Ethics." The European Advisers Newsletter. 2002 http://www.bibl.u-szeged.hu/oseas/newsletter/02summer_madden.html .
Steinman, Sarah O., et al. The Ethical Decision-Making Manual for Helping Professionals.
Kentucky: Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1997.
Power Tools: Assistive Technologies Help Students With Special Needs Keep Pace in the Classroom. Publication source
Supportive technology, or support aids, in the classroom enhances learning and listening skills for every child involved. AIDS such as touch tone computers, voice recognition systems, mobile conveyance devices (i.e., wheelchairs), and strategies for learning are becoming an increasingly important part of today's education programming. Even schools with a less than favorable budget can deploy technology across a school or school system in an affordable and efficient manner. Assisted technology not only provides the student in need with a means whereby he or she can master a learning objective but also provide the student with a meaning learning tool wherein the level of knowledge garnered is demonstrated.
One of the most important systems being brought to the attention of educators is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) wherein students with significant diversity…
The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.
Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)
3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.
1. To treat drug abuse
This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…
Crooked Brains. (2012, December 29). 20 Creative Smirnoff Advertisments. Retrieved from Crooked Brains: http://www.crookedbrains.net/2007/12/creative-ads-by-smirnoff.html
Experiment Resouirces. (N.d.). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/classical-conditioning.html
Prize, N. (2001, May 15). Pavlov's Dog. Retrieved from Nobel Prize: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.
The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…
The Impact and Importance of Psychological Testing
Defining Psychological Testing
A test is defined as a method or procedure for critical evaluation or as a means of establishing the quality, truth, or presence of something. (Webster's Dictionary, 2011). According to the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) and the American Psychological Association (APA) (1999), psychological test or psychological testing is a discipline most frequently characterized by the use of behavior samples in order to assess various psychological constructs such as the emotional and cognitive functioning of individuals. The psychological test itself is an instrument most often designed to measure constructs that are not observed, and often involve a series of problems or tasks that the participant or respondent must solve. These tests can resemble questionnaires; however, what makes psychological tests different is that they require the respondents' maximum cognitive performance (AERA,…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and Psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Cohen, r., & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment. McGraw-Hill.
Meeker, W., & Escobar, L. (1998). Statistical methods for reliability data. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from person's responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.
The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.
As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.
There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce…
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Psychology Law and Ethics
In presenting my analysis of the legal and ethical issues involved with Beverly's and Ron's situation, I've tried to push aside many of my own personal feelings that would bias me in my considerations. For starters, I've tried to consider that a woman can just as easily abuse a man despite my beliefs about traditional gender roles and that males are usually the aggressors in domestic abuse. I also believe there may be a class and educational bias on my part because of the way that Beverly has communicated her response to Ron's allegations. Here, she appears to be mentally unstable, but I've tried to consider that she may either lack the education and social skills to relay her feelings in a more meaningful way, may herself be the victim of abuse who is too traumatized to relay a calmer response, or that she may have…
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…
Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:
This handbook was compiled as a remedy in the form of a sourcebook or guide to current work on free will and related subjects for those who wish to keep up with the latest research. (p. 3)
What is often called "the free will issue" or "the problem of free will," when viewed in historical perspective, is related to a cluster of philosophical issues -- all of them to be dealt with to some degree in this volume. 3 These include issues about (1) moral agency and responsibility, dignity, desert, accountability, and blameworthiness in ethics; (2) the nature and limits of human freedom, autonomy, coercion, and control in social and political theory; issues about (3) compulsion, addiction, self-control, self-deception, and weakness of will in philosophical psychology; (4) criminal liability, responsibility, and punishment in legal theory; (5) the relation of mind to body, consciousness, the nature of action, 4 and personhood…
Kane, R. (2001). The Oxford Handbook of Free Will.: Oxford University.
Midgley, M. (2002). Beast & Man. London & New York: Routledge.
Spruill, D.A., & Benshoff, J.M. (2000). Helping beginning counselors develop a personal theory of counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 40, p.70.
ID 83416 psychology
Psychology of Gender in usiness
Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…
Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.
Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.
Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.
Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.
Many of these activities commonly focus on happy and positive feelings and thoughts, at the expense of allowing an examination of more painful issues. This is especially problematic for disenfranchised and failing students, who, through this type of structure, receive direct and indirect messages from the group structure to not deal with the depths of their pain, anger, frustration, sadness, hurt, anxiety, or fear." (Bemak, 2005, p.1)
The need for a culturally diverse approach must not be lost, either in the approach of education of counselors and educators, despite the need to build teams and effective groups. Controversially, Bemak entertains the suggestion that an ethnic and gender match between students and guidance counselors might be a needed additional support for students from at-risk groups, although he finally rejects the idea as impractical. (Bemak, 2005, p.5) the article is provoking and challenging to accepted norms, suggesting that the need to build…
253). When asking questions the teacher begins the cognitive process of understanding how the parents think and this is an important step for the educator to gather pertinent information to further analyze the learner's needs with the parents or guardians.
Step three in the LAFF process is for the teachers to focus on the issues throughout the communication process with the parents. The cognitive perspective encourages focusing and problem-solving when focusing on the mental process of how individuals think, perceive, remember, and learn (Sternberg & Mio, 2006). McNaughton and Vostal describe this as the time when a teacher begins the process of "checking for understanding" and once the understanding of the issues has been explored the teacher and parent can move forward on problem-solving solutions (2010, p.254).
The final step of the LAFF process is for the teacher to identify the first step. This part of the cognitive process displays…
McNaughton, D., & Vostal, B. (2010, March). Using active listening to improve collaboration with parents: The LAFF don't CRY strategy. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45(4).
Sternberg, R.J., & Mio, J.S. (2006). Cognitive psychology (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Recruiting group members is not terribly difficult these days, but screening the selection might be problematic. One needs to take care not to turn away potentially useful members nor to injure feelings in the process. It should never be made public who applied and who was not chosen. For this reason, an initial screening with a survey which all employees fill out using numbers instead of names would probably be the most useful initial recruitment tool. The surveys could be labeled confidential and distributed in such a way that the counselor would know who each one is, but nobody is ever told they can be identified by the counselor. They will probably assume they are totally anonymous.
Questions on the survey should be designed to reveal attitudes concerning sexual assault, gender equality, human rights, and social responsibility. I would use the questionnaire to identify people who were willing to learn,…
Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.
Findings & Conclusion
In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.
Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…
Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).
Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…
Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/4173/1/Choice-and-Free-Will-Beyond-the-Disease -
Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm
Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/addiction_disease_model.asp
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
To ensure that the constructivist approach functions optimally, teachers must therefore ensure that the interactional and social situation within each group is managed effectively as well.
Young (2003) notes that another challenge facing teachers and students is the implementation of technology in the constructivist classroom. The specific challenge here is that, more often than not, computer technology has been subject to the traditionally constructed classroom, where knowledge about and by means of computer technology has been divulged under the assumption of static, learned skills. Young (2003) suggests some important and dynamic changes to implement technology in the classroom.
First, the assumption must be cultivated that computers and knowledge about and by means of computers, just like all other forms of knowledge, are continually in flux. Indeed, this is even more so for information technology than other academic fields. To teach students as if this is not the case is particularly…
Derry, S.J. (1996). Cognitive Schema Theory in the Constructivist Debate. Educational Psychologist, Vol. 31, No. 3/4.
Dubinsky, E. And McDonald, M.A. (2010). APOS: A Constructivist Theory of Learning in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Research. Retrieved from: http://www.math.kent.edu/~edd/ICMIPaper.pdf
Hardy, I., Jonen, a., Moller, K. And Stern, E. (2006). Effects of Instructional Support Within Constructivist Learning Environments for Elementary School Students' Understanding of "Floating and Sinking." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 98, No. 2
Harris, K.R. And Alexander, P.A. (1998). Integrated, Constructivist Education: Challenge and Reality. Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 10, No. 2.
Furthermore, the nature and types of value, such as morals, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics are the core focal areas for this study. In other words, this field of study is related to ethics and aesthetics. Since all the human beings are different in terms of their backgrounds, thus they even think differently from one another and axiology is the science that examines and analyzes the thinking patterns of the diverse people (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
This hypothetical study of values is also vital in education because it promotes the learning of moral rules, principles, ethics and values; hence it leads the individual to gain knowledge related to the good deeds and actions. With the study of axiology, the individual would become cognizant of what is right and wrong, good or bad, ethical and unethical (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
Logic is considered the fourth subdivision of philosophy…
Ornstein, a.C., Levine, D.U., Gutek, G.L., Vocke, D.E. (2010). Foundations of Education, 11th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.
Vang (2010). An Educational Psychology of Methods in Multicultural Education, Volume 6 of Educational Psychology, Peter Lang, New York.
For many years psychologist have tried to piece apart how humans learn, evolve, and develop identities. Many theories have been observed and explained, but none can ever be perfect. For as long as the human mind has been a subject of study, psychologists who study it will always be asking certain questions, such as: do humans learn through observation or through experience? Which carries more weight, experiences in the environment, or being taught step-by-step procedures? For example, if a mother sees her child reach for a hot stove, she will probably slap the child's hand away telling him to not do that because he will be burned and it will hurt. The child then has two options: to not touch a hot stove because the mother told him not to, and the mother knows best, or to touch the hot stove and find out for himself that stove…
Brace, N, & Byford, J 2010, Discovering Psychology, The Open University, London.
Cialdini, RB 2005, 'TARGET ARTICLE: Basic Social Influence Is Underestimated', Psychological Inquiry, 16, 4, pp. 158-161, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.
Darnon, C, Butera, F, & Harackiewicz, J 2007, 'Achievement Goals in Social Interactions: Learning with Mastery vs. Performance Goals', Motivation & Emotion, 31, 1, pp. 61-70, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.
Kutnick, P, & Kington, A 2005, 'Children's friendships and learning in school: Cognitive enhancement through social interaction?', British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 4, pp. 521-538, Education Research Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 5 April 2011.'
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
Social Education of Psychology
Melinda Solmon's article "Impact of Motivational Climate on Students' Behaviors and Perceptions in a Physical Education Setting" uses videotape to determine what impact different motivational climates have on student practice behaviors in physical education classes. The article, published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, details a study conducted by the author that was designed to build on past research in the same area, especially regarding goal theory. The difference between the current study and past attempts to discover the causal connections between motivational setting and student practice behavior is that Solmon employed direct observation rather than relying solely on self-report measures. Solmon's results are generally consistent with other literature in the area, confirming much of what was demonstrated by studies that use self-report measures.
The problem is clearly stated in Solmon's article as being related to students' development of adaptive vs. maladaptive learning strategies. Moreover, the…
The author of this report has been asked to find an article relating to education. Of course, that topic is very widespread and wide-ranging in nature. The author of this report decided to center on ethics in education. Specifically, the article chosen was written by Maughn Gregory. Its title reveals that ethics education should exist and manifest as philosophical practice. There is material drawn from Socratic, critical and contemplative pedagogies. The remainder of this page and the next page will serve as a summary of that article. While it is indeed possible to engage in navel-gazing and over-thought when it comes to ethics in education, the topic is extremely important…without a doubt.
The article starts off by quoting the words of John Dewey when he said that moral education is growth from impulsive behavior to what is known as a "reflect morality" (Gregory, 2015). Further, Dewey…
Gregory, M. (2015). Ethics Education as Philosophical Practice: The Case from Socratic, Critical and Contemplative Pedagogies. Teaching Ethics, 15(1), 19-34.
Urdan, Tim, and Carol Midgley. 2001. "Academic Self-Handicapping: What We Know; What More There Is to Learn." Educational Psychology Review 12:2, 115-130.
Urdan and Midgley's paper is a summary of their recent research on the topic of students, especially college students, who use self-handicapping in response to academic challenges. They explore the reasons for it as well as the short- and long-term effects of such behavior.
Their theoretical basis is goal theory, looking to see how goal-setting affects academic performance and the behavior of academic self-handicapping. They conducted four studies over the five years before this article was published, looking at academic self-handicapping from several perspectives and refining their approach with each study.
They defined "self-handicapping" very specifically. They noted that most researchers view it as deliberately setting obstacles in their way of good school performance. Some of those behaviors include procrastination, lack of effort or practice, excuse-making, lack…
The conditions that surround the process of data collection like the location and time of day must be standardized and the observation must be carried out by trained observers. This is done in order to encourage consistency which is crucial in the periods of transition prior and after the given phenomenon is studied.
epeated measurements- A given behavior is measured repeatedly. This techniques is never employed in many other experiments that involve the measurement of the dependent variable in only a single instance. The need of the repeated variables is in order to get a clear pattern and consistency in terms of the behavior being monitored over an extended period of time. There is a control for behavior that is anticipated over the short period of time and intervals. Such a move can be seen s similar to the ones involved in time series studies that are used in the…
Dunlap. G., & Kern, L. (1997). The relevance of behavior analysis to special education. In J. L Paul, M. Churton, H. Roselli-Kostoryz, W. Morse, K. Marfo, C. Lavely, & D. Thomas (Eds.), Foundations of special education: Basic knowledge informing research and practice in special education (pp. 279-290). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Gresham. EM.. Gansel, K. A, & Kurtz, P.F. (1993). Treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis with Exceptional Children . Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 257- 263.
Martella, R., Nelson, J.R., & Marchand-Manella, N. (1999). Research methods: Learning to become a critical research consumer. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
McReynolds, L.V., & Kearns K.P. (1983). Single-subject experimental designs in communicative disorders. Baltimore: University Park Press.
Unfamiliar vocabularies relating to learning and cognition emerged in the course of Week 4's readings and research. These include "mnemonics," "mental representation," and "domain knowledge." Mnemonics may essentially be defined as the techniques an individual uses to enhance memorization. These techniques are useful for learning as they help retain crucial information in the long-term memory. When information is retained in the long-term memory, it is organized in a certain manner. This is referred to as mental representation. Mental representation plays an important role in learning as learning generally occurs when the learner has a clear picture of a given phenomenon in his/her mind. Domain knowledge simply refers to knowledge relating to a given area or field. For instance, seasoned doctors have extensive knowledge of the domain of medicine. They acquire this knowledge not inherently, but through continuous learning.
A major focus of research in the area of learning…
1. If I were designing my research study in the field of psychology, I would most likely use a t-test as the method of data analysis. A t-test is best used when the researcher wants to determine deviations from a normal distribution curve. If there are one or more normal distributions (bell curves), t he researcher can compare the two groups using the t-test method. The variances do not need to be known to perform a t-test either, which is another reason why I would select this method of data analysis in my particular research question. Furthermore, the researcher can use the t-test to measure the differences between two populations regardless of how small or large the sample size. The t-test, also known as the student t-test, is one of the best methods applied to studies using a small sample size. If my research were to progress to where I…
Educational Planning and Economics: How the needs of looked after children can be addressed through non-formal and formal education.
There are current trends in non-formal educational processes that allows for interesting, unique and relevant work within the educational environment that could likely lead to enhanced short-term educational opportunities for impoverished and/or at-risk students. Additional long-term benefits including; increased levels of societal education, higher incomes, better living conditions, a less impoverished lifestyle and a society that benefits with the input of the individuals who receive the education are also realistic results from a study such as the one being proposed.
A recent study determined that young orphan girls receiving psycho-social support helped in keeping the intervention group in school (n= 184) and that the girls comprising the intervention group were less likely to drop out of school (5%), had higher educational aspirations, higher expectations concerning the future, a more equitable attitude…
Holfors, D.D.; Rusakaniko, S.; Hyusan, C.; Mapfumo, J.; (2011) Supporting adolescent orphan girls to stay in school as HIV risk prevention: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe, American Journal of Public Health (in press)
Mhaka-Mutepfa, M. (2010) Types of services for children infected and affected by HIV and AIDS: Results and implications of a Zimbabwean study, International Journal of Psychology and Counseling, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp. 100-106
Mualuko, N.J. (2008) Empowering out of school youth through non-formal education in Kenya, Educational Research and Review, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 56-60
Psychology of Multiculturalism: Identity, Gender, And the Recognition of Minority Rights
This paper looks at the issue of multiculturalism, its development, its use by society and the ways in which the field of psychology have reacted towards, and used, multiculturalism. Firstly, a brief history of the meaning of multiculturalism will be entered in to, next a brief discussion of the work of five authors (in particular Kymlicka, Taylor and Gerd) who have been influential in the development of research about multiculturalism will be presented, and then the psychology of multiculturalism will be discussed, from the viewpoint of how multiculturalism has been embraced by psychologists.
What exactly is multiculturalism? Everyone has a different idea of the meaning of this word in their minds, and consequently many different meanings of multiculturalism float around in the literature and in popular speak. Multiculturalism has gained particular significance in the United States, where there have…
Gerd, B. (1999). The Multicultural Riddle: Rethinking National, Ethnic, and Reliogious Identities (Zones of Religion). Routledge.
Gordon, W and Newfield, W. (2000). Mapping Multiculturalism.
Kymlicka, Will. (1995). Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford University Press.
Kymlicka, W. And Norman, W. (2000). Citizenship in Diverse Societies. Oxford University Press.
He helped us to understand more about his culture and beliefs, and we helped him to understand why he made us feel strange. In the time span of a few weeks, most of us were able to suspend prejudice where he was concerned, and simply see him as another human being on the same basic journey that we were all on - from birth to death and wherever we went after that. No one was forced to accept anyone else's beliefs, and everyone was encouraged to be who they are, while still keeping an open mind toward themselves and others.
I would be surprised if any of the people that remained in that class throughout the semester (and most of them did - we lost only three) left without having a deeper level of understanding, both about themselves and about humanity. I do not know whether it will make them…
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).
This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.
Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…
Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.
Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.
Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,
Divorce on the Lives of Children
In today's society, half of all marriages end in divorce. Many of those marriages involve children. Parents who are involved in a divorce are often concerned about the effect of the divorce on their children. During the time of a divorce the parents may be preoccupied with their problems but still hold their roles as the most important people in their children's lives.
While a divorce may be devastating or relieving to a couple, children are frightened and confused by the terrible threat to their security. However, if a child feels secure and loved throughout the divorce, he or she may not be harmed by the divorce at all. Reflecting on these concerns, this paper aims to determine the effects of divorce on the lives of children.
etween the years 1950 to 1983, divorce broke up more families than parental death did in the…
Amato, P.R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 23-38.
Brown, Alec. Young, Ellie. Allen, Melissa. The Effects of Divorce on Children (November, 2003). NASP Communique, Vol. 32, #3.
Hyatt, K. (November, 1999) Children's Adjustment to Divorce Largely in Hands of Parents, with One Exception: Dad's Departure Depresses Boys. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 44.
Newberger, C. (December, 1986). The American Family in Crisis: Implications for Children. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Vol. 16: 686-688, 713.
SOS 492 WA 3 social sciences
What are the education trends of women in the United States?
One of the most surprising and significant recent trends in higher education in the United States is that women now make up a larger percentage of college students and graduates than men; once upon a time there were jokes that women merely went to college to obtain their 'MS.' Today, that could not be farther from the truth. "Both men and women complete more schooling now than in the past, but beginning in the mid-1980s, women's college completion rates began to surpass men's in the United States" (Schwartz & Han 2014: 605). There is increasing evidence that women regard education as critical for personal advancement and economic stability. "Among whites in 2006, women obtain 57% of bachelor's degrees while among Blacks, women receiving bachelor's degrees made up 66% of college graduates.…
Bae, Y (et al. 2000). Educational equity of girls and women. National Center for Education
Statistics. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000030.pdf
Bidwell, A. (2014). Women more likely to graduate college, but still earn less than men.
U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from:
Terrorism and the Low Numbers of Practicing Terrorists
Horrific acts of terror have plagued this planet for centuries. The contemporary prevalence of such acts has spawned the term 'terrorism' which has been precisely defined by Merriam Webster's New English Dictionary as "the systematic use of terror (which is defined as a violent or destructive act in this context) especially as a means of coercion" (Merriam-Webster's New English Dictionary 2011). Though despite the recent popularity of this term, its origins go back to the French Revolution. Surprisingly enough, this period of terror was actually perpetrated by the French Government . Eventually entitled "The Reign of Terror," the infamousness of this historical era brought the horrors of violent oppression (in this case it was a government oppressing its population) to the world stage . Similarly to the atrocious deeds committed by the French Government during the Reign of Terror, activities that would…
Bar, Shmuel. "The Religious Sources of Islamic Terrorism." Policy Review 125 (2004).
Choueiri, Youssef M. Islamic Fundamentalism. London: Continuum, 1997.
Douki, S., F. Nacef, A. Belhadj, A. Bouasker, and R. Ghachem. "Violence Against Women in Arab and Islamic Countries." Archives of Women's Mental Health 6, no. 3 (April 2003): 165-171.
Enders, Walter, and Todd Sandler. "What Do We Know About the Substitution Effect in Terrorism?" April 2002. http://126.96.36.199/scholar?q=cache:ZHFBPRPTOqUJ:scholar.google.com/+terrorist+recruiting+tactics&hl=es&as_sdt=0,5 (accessed May 11, 2011).
riginality, Applicability, and Relevance; Interdisciplinarity; Literature Review;)
It is the typically the norm for many offender programs follow the long-standing conventions that have been developed in the last few generations. However, the traditional route does not seem to consider fully the psychosocial factors that influence individual engagement in intervention settings. While factors related to offending behavior are known throughout the research community, their influence on what causes the behavior or motivational engagement still remains unclear. Brooks & Khan (2015) provided an effort to pursue these gaps in knowledge by creating a study that attempted to examine the precursors to behavior and engagement by interviewing and monitoring 109 juvenile offenders. The sample existed within a non-custodial community intervention and the researchers explored the antisocial behavior, influence of aggression, and disruptive and problematic behavior during school hours. They also monitored and explored self-esteem and parental bonding as possible moderators and reported on…
Other research efforts also suggest that the positive role evidence-based practice has a positive influence on juvenile offender rehabilitation. Another study found that "the intervention had a beneficial impact on antisocial influence potential of adolescents' friendship networks, with p < .05 for both of the primary composite measures. Current evidence-based preventive interventions can alter adolescents' friendship networks in ways that reduce the potential for peer influence toward antisocial behavior" (Osgood et al., 2013, p. 174). Furthermore, diversion programs and preventative programs can also benefit from evidence-based practices (Schwalbe, Gearing, MacKenzie, Brewer & Ibrahim, 2012, p. 28). The value in such models is based on the premise that the research examines reasons why juveniles offend, or could offend, and take into consideration various psycho-social factors and influences that lead to juvenile crime (Sim, 2014).
More insights into effective rehabilitation are provided by a 2014 study which identified the juvenile offenders' need for stimulation, which represents a common behavioral predisposition. "Results showed that need for stimulation, "irresponsibility," and callous & unemotional were sensitive to changes in respondents' varying psychopathy levels, whereas lack of realistic, long-term goals; superficial charm; and revocation of conditional release were less so" (Tsang, Piquero & Cauffman, 2014, p. 1333). By studying factors such as the lack motivation, long-term goals, and other behavioral characteristics commonly associated with offenders provide insights on the complex nature of the criminal offenses. Rehabilitation of criminal offenders, especially juvenile offenders, must clearly involve the study of individual motivations and behaviors to be effective (Ward, 2012). Traditional methods of offender rehabilitation have yet to apply such considerations despite substantial amounts of evidence that suggests that treatment psychosocial factors are more effective in preventing negative outcomes such as juvenile re-offense among others.
In a 2013 study, researchers sought to investigate the usefulness of two main methods for interpreting research into evidence-based practice within the juvenile justice setting. These methods were introduced in the form of brand-name programs, which are recognized via lists of several expert groups, and also come with quality guarantee packages presented by the program's developers. From an investigation that included large-scale meta-analyses, researchers have presented a number of universal approaches that may be applied for the purpose of refining existing programs. For example, the results of the study suggest that brand-name programs have a big benefit in the form of application success when compared to universal programs. In fact, they found brand-name programs had the top expected values offering conclusions that support statements such as that both "brand-name programs and meta-analyses represent two rigorous and transparent approaches for advancing evidence-based practice in juvenile justice. State governments should consider the merits of both approaches through a decision-tree model" (Welsh, Rocque & Greenwood, 2013, p. 207). Such studies can help to clarify salient factors that would otherwise be overlooked in a vague intervention model, and have the potential to significantly refine and strengthen rehabilitation and prevention programs in the future.
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…
Baker, David P. And Deborah Perkins Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-national Gender Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66:91-103.
Bassili, J.N. (2008). Attitude strength. In W.D. Crano & R. Prislin, (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change, Frontiers of social psychology. New York, NY; Psychology Press, pp. 261-286.
Cialdini, R.B. 2001. Influence: Science and Practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Eagly, A.H. & Chaiken, S. (1993) The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
" It is worth separating the two here, as the differences between the two highlight the diversity of the discipline. Behavioral learning is defined as "a change in behavior brought on by experience." (Psychological Approaches to Learning). Made famous through the Pavlov experiment, where dogs were shown to salivate at the sound of a bell once they had learned that food followed the noise, behavioral therapists seek to "re-condition" their clients. Thus, like their cognitive colleagues, behavioral therapists work with their clients to bring about conscious changes in their lives. epeated practice with different responses to troubling stimuli may allow a patient to adjust his/her behavior to be more productive.
In addition to these sub-disciplines, the diversity of psychology is further deepened by Humanism, Structuralism, and Functionalism, just to name a few. So much diversity has made the science appealing to a great diversity of practitioners, from therapists to patients.…
Cherry, Kendra. 2010. Psychology Theories. Available at: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychology101/u/psychology-theories.htm
Psychological Approaches to Learning. Available at: http://www.wcupa.edu/_ACADEMICS/sch_cas.PSY/Career_Paths/Educational/subfield2
Types of Psychological Treatment: A Guide to Psychology and its Practice. Available at: http://www.guidetopsychology.com/txtypes.htm