A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
Trace conditioning involves
CS beginning and ending before U.S.
US beginning and ending before CS
US and CS overlap
CS and U.S. are presented at the same time
Variations in contiguity and presentation include backtracking conditioning forward conditioning delayed conditioning operant conditioning
According to Pavlov, repeated pairing of CS and U.S. is necessary only with animals is a normal part of acquisition indicates mental impairment is necessary due to forgetting
Contiguity may be described as that which is ongoing, a process the effect of a stimulus that which occurs after a response simultaneous, or near, occurrence of an event reflex may be described as U.S.-UR unit
Selective breeding of race horses may be described as capitalism eugenics stimulus discrimination transfer
According to Guthrie, One Shot Learning applies to the intellectually gifted all learners laboratory animals those who receive a particular type of instruction
The best explanation for Movement Produced Stimuli is habitual response reinforcement contiguity
One Shot Learning
Guthrie believed that punishment changes habits due to interruption of the habit behavior modification contiguity
Movement Produced Stimuli
Thorndike's law of effect fits well with the theory of Pavlov
Trying all the keys on a key ring only to find that none fit the lock is an example of insight reinforcement readines trial and error
Shrinking from Aunt Bertha's kiss illustrates the existence of reinforcer an annoyer introspective learning bad manners
Satisfiers and annoyers are associated with which of Thorndike's laws?
A law of readiness law of exercise law of effect law of multiple response
Which of the following does not describe solving a math problem?
A stamping in a connection satisfying state of affairs learning multiple response
Predisposition to act in a given way is a definition of set attention readiness connection
The following concept of Hull is conflict with the "black box" approach to learning.
A input variable output variable intervening variable response amplitude
Intervening variables are mathematically determined educated guesses determined by
Skinner assumed classical conditioning was in error punishment has no effect on behavior human behavior is lawful laws do not exist in the social sciences
According to Skinner, behaviors emitted are biological stimulus controlled called operants included next time stimulus elicited behavior is referred to by Skinner as an operant respondent mediating variable instrumental act
Operant is to respondent as elicit is to emit stimulus is to response mediate is to intervene act is to react
Which of the following not an example of observational learning?
A imitation modeling instrumental learning social learning
What is "blocked" when blocking occurs is information to be recalled new learning reinforcement biological predispositions
Learning which occurs without the new behavior being reinforced is known as blocking operant conditioning automatic learning autoshaping
Prepotency of a behavior pattern is an explanation for instinctive drift counterconditioning biofeedback blocking
Which of the following bring into question the importance of reinforcement?
A reflexes and instincts taste aversions and blocking instinctive drift and blocking autoshaping and instinctive drift
When previous learning interferes with new learning the effect is called
Contrapreparedness genetic predisposition blocking autoshaping
The study of animal behavior in a natural habitat is known as biology ethology sociobiology psychobiology
Who argued that humans are biologically prepared to acquire language?
Which of the following is not a biological constraint?
A biofeedback autoshaping taste aversion instinctive drift
An important function of taste aversion is weight control specie distinctiveness behavior flexibility survival
Hebb's approach to studying behavior could not have been established if psychology had dealt with animals only humans only less fully developed organism mediating processes
The property of an organism that allows for change as a function of repeated stimulation is plastivity reactivity plasticity reacticity
Which of the following take place during the refractory period?
A transmission of electrical impulses the neuron is discharged muscles contract glands secrete
The movement of the electrical impulse across the gap between neurons is known as electrical potential resting potential action potential synapse
Neural transmission involves electrical and chemical activity electrical activity only chemical activity only psychic activity
Hebb assumes cell assemblies for due to reinforcement biological preparedness contiguity synapses
Selectivity among input is set attention reactivity plastivity
Which corresponds best with a cell assembly?
A musical note musical line musical composition musical stage play
What you see is what you get" illustrates normalizing physical field behavioral field insight pocket knife may have been a small blade, a large blade, or a serrated blade. This is an example of a conjunctive concept relational concept isolated concept disjunctive concept football field is 100 yards long and approximately 50 feet wide with a goal post at each end. This is an example of a disjunctive concept relational concept conjunctive concept isolated concept
According to Bruner, the central concept of psychology should be genetic structure information processing meaning stimuli.
Referring to a whale as a mammal is an example of coding inferring generalizing discriminating
Which of the following concepts in Piaget's theory relates to logical thought?
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals,
Educational Psychology: An Overview The topic of educational psychology, or psychology as it is practiced within a school system, has become increasingly important in recent years as the number of special education demands on school systems and especially public school systems has increased. While educational psychologists tend to work in universities and other research settings rather than in the school system per se, they are continually affected by what is happening
The results showed that 37% of those responding have had "some type of frequent involvement in bullying"; the data showed that 17.5% of those thirty-seven percent of the student population were victims, 11.7% were bullies, and 8.4% were both bullies and victims (bully/victim). Interestingly, and going back to the Handbook of Educational Psychology's view of bullying as acting out ethnocentrism, "minority youth were significantly more likely to be categorized as
Apa.org). Critical thinking input: Good teachers that truly understand how distracted today's young people are (with technology, etc.) learn how to get the most out of students by combining proven strategies of engagement with scholarship challenges that are both entertaining and compelling to their active minds. B.F. Skinner Historical views of transfer. When something is said to you and it reminds you (without you having to conjure up memories) instantly of something from
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in
Although the teacher is the authority figure and the rules are clearly established, the students are allowed to voice their opinions. This setting creates the best learning environment because the children know their boundaries but are able to participate in the decision-making process. In addition, the teacher can improve instruction by generating feedback about lesson delivery and instructional techniques from his or her students. Question 3: Assessment Standardized testing is a