An egoist African-American may oppose affirmative action for other self-centered reasons too. For example, the individual might not want to be accused of being hired on the basis of her minority status alone; their social life may benefit more from a less desirable job. In another scenario, a white man who was married to an African-American woman might support affirmative action even though it would ruin his chances for a promotion for the sole reason that his personal life would suffer otherwise. Thus, the egoists' decisions are usually situational and highly personal. What benefits one individual may not benefit another.
Affirmative action programs are egoist from the point-of-view of those they benefit. To some white males, especially egoists whose jobs are directly affected by such programs, affirmative action equals "reverse discrimination." However, egoist minorities who have been previously excluded from positions of power and who would benefit directly would support…… [Read More]
Egoism and Moral Skepticism
James Rachels's paper "Egoism and Moral Skepticism" begins by noting that he can trace his subject back to Plato's philosophical discussion of the myth of the Ring of Gyges -- Gyges gained the power of invisibility with a magic ring, and thus seduced queen, killed king, and seized the throne. In Plato's dialogue, the character of Glaucon argues that both virtuous man and rogue would be unable to resist the temptation in such a situation: Glaucon believes that, freed from fear of reprisal, man's behavior would quickly turn criminal, and Rachels traces back to Glaucon's argument two persistent philosophical positions (both of which he considers to be in error. The first he terms Psychological Egoism: this is the belief that men only act from self-interest; even supposed altruism is purely to the advantage of the person performing the act. Alongside this Rachels presents the related position…… [Read More]
The Olympus corporate governance and accounting scandal is and should be considered one of the largest business scandals in the history of business and the modern world. It is right up there with Enron (and in some ways worse) than the exploits and travails of Enron and Bernie Madoff. This report will look at the Olympus scandal through the prisms of utility, egoism and what precisely could or should be done (if anything) to finally put an end to the malfeasance perpetrated by Olympus and others. While some corporate-related laws are moderately to very effective in stopping wrong-doers, it is impossible to stop them all without clamping too hard down on the people that are not doing wrong.
SOX & AICPA
There are some legal, sociological, mental and corporate concepts that can be brought up here. Two of those would be Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) and AICPA Code of Professional…… [Read More]
Euthanasia and Ethical Egoism
Euthanasia is the practice or act of terminating a person's life in order to relieve pain and suffering AVMA Panel on Euthanasia, 2001.
Euthanasia is loosely termed as mercy killing since it is a deliberate action that is intended to end life in a painless manner. Physician-assisted suicide is another terminology for euthanasia. A person's life would be terminated either by a lethal injection or by suspension of medical treatment. When a decision is made that restricts the conducting of heroic measures when a patient is in a life-threatening situation, the term euthanasia would apply. Euthanasia is illegal in many countries. The National Health Service states that regardless of the person's circumstances, it is illegal to assist the person kill themselves. In the United Kingdom, assisted suicide carries a sentence of 14 years, while in the United States, the law varies based on the state.…… [Read More]
For example, things like a culture of silence, pressure to "maintain those numbers, a weak board, radical "innovation" and excessive goodness in certain areas to atone for evil and greed in others are all classic signs that a corporation is giving in to the executives fundamental level of psychological egoism and some serious poaching of company funds is likely occurring (Jennings, 2006). Having a consistent system of regulation in place as a well as a commitment to transparency are all clear ways that a corporation can prevent a culture of greed from taking over and offers a potential solution to the issue.
Within my personal body of ethics and values, psychological egoism is something that I acknowledge, as I do believe that the bulk of human behavior is inherently selfish. However, I realize that my other values and ethics, such as honesty, and good will towards others needs to be…… [Read More]
Psychological Egoism Theory
Egoism in every form necessitates explication of well-being, welfare, or self-interest. Two chief theories exist in this regard. Self-interest has been identified with personal desire satisfaction by desire or preference accounts. Usually, and most conceivably, such desires will be restricted to those that are self-regarding. Though what constitutes a self-regarding desire is debatable, clear instances and counter-instances exist: desires for one's personal pleasure will be self-regarding, while those for others' welfare won't. In objective account, self-interest is identified with state possession (e.g. knowledge or virtue) assessed separately whether or not they're desired/preferred (Shaver para.1).
The empirical principle of psychological egoism states that the defining motive behind all voluntary actions is the desire for personal welfare. In this approach, despite all actions being considered self-interest actions, egoists readily highlight the fact that individuals normally attempt to mask the defining motives underlying their actions, since this concealment will often…… [Read More]
Ordinary thinking concerning morality from the author's perspective is "full of assumptions that we almost never question. We assume, for example, that we have an obligation to consider the welfare of other people when we decide what actions have to perform of what rules to obey" (achels, 2011 p. 51). In other words people have to generate some kind of filter for when they perform certain actions in order to avoid causing harm to others and respecting the interests and rights of those one comes in contact with. Furthermore other things that come into consideration within the thought process of morality is that people are not wholly selfish and to some degree have a level of selflessness in their interactions, acting in the interest of other individuals and groups. Moral sceptics on the other hand criticize such assumptions. These criticisms go back as far as in Plato's epublic. Using the…… [Read More]
Altruism or Egoism
The dating website has become an online phenomenon where people across the world find relationships, love and intimacy. The hottest trend in the online dating is that people who have been single for several years have finally found their true love. The theories of relationship, love, intimacy, social comparison, self-categorization, and social identity reveal that individuals develop a social relationship to boost their social esteem, and people are likely to cooperate with a group who belong to their social identity. Frisen, & Wangqvist, (2010) argue that people have been dating one another in Sweden without going through informal rules. The authors maintain that people continue to indulge in love relationship despite their social identity. Williams, & Russell (2013) argue that adolescent and younger adults quest for love, and increasing number of girls believe in intimacy relationship while boys adore sexual intercourse. Additionally, Finn, (2012) think that emotional…… [Read More]
Morals and Ethical Theory
Morals & Ethical Theory
The objective of this study is to read pages 1 -- 26 of Stephen D. Hales work entitled "This Is Philosophy" and to answer the questions of:
(1) Is morality just what God tells me to do? (Divine Command Theory);
(2) Is morality just my own personal code? (Egoism); and (3) Is morality just how society says we should act? (Moral Relativism) This study will state one reason why each theory is agreed with and one reason why is theory is not agreed with.
Is Morality Just hat God Tells Me To Do?
(Divine Command Theory)
According to Hales, morality could be based on an authority who commands individuals on their moral duties and who serves as an enforcer of these principles since the individual "without a lawgiver, a rulers to lay down the moral law" is simply "adrift with no deeper…… [Read More]
S. citizens. This is a popular argument offered by the same sex marriage movement and it is one that is compelling.
For many years homosexuality was considered illegal behavior in most jurisdictions in the United States but most such statutes have been abolished and so gays and lesbians are now full citizens who have the right to expect full rights of citizenship. This means that whatever one's ethical or moral standards might be does not mean that such standards must be expressed in the laws. Many Americans object morally and ethically to the display of pornography; the publishing of songs with colorful lyrics; and, suggestive books and magazines but each of these examples is protected by the First Amendment and the rights of gays and lesbians to marry should enjoy the same protection.
The proponents of virtue ethics are not alone in their support of same sex marriage. Followers of…… [Read More]
Moral Skepticism and Knowledge
Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge
Morality is a much debated philosophical idea, wherein the arguments range from ethical egoism being the perfect sample of moral ethics to altruism being the perfect -- and otherwise opposite -- viewpoint. Both ideas have strong followings, and ethical egoism along is broadened to even more branches within philosophical studies. There is still much reconciliation to be done between the various problems of philosophical thought and ethical egoism or lack thereof.
Ethical egoism is a particular form of egoism where one who is moral "ought" to do what is in one's self-interest. The morality behind egoism generally points toward the idea of self-interest; that a moral being's moral path is by focusing on one's self. This type of egoism should not be mistaken for psychological egoism, however. Psychological egoism makes a claim that beings act only in their self-interest.…… [Read More]
True Altruism Exist?
The objective of this study is to analyze the work of atson, et al., and Cialdini, et al. And to discuss whether true altruism exists.
atson et al. entitled "Is Empathic Emotion a Source of Altruistic Motivation" published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1981) holds that true altruism does exist while the work of Cialdini, et al. entitled "Empathy-ased Helping: Is It Selflessly or Selfishly Motivated? Published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology" (1987) holds that true altruism does not exist.
It is the belief of atson et al. that people assist others at time for reason that are purely altruistic and states specifically that the primary reason for altruism is that of 'empathy'. Cialdini et al. On the other hand do not believe that empathy is enough alone to motivate individuals to assist others but instead believe that individuals assist others…… [Read More]
Virtue Ethics Beats Egoism
One of the reasons that philosophy is such a fascinating topic that has endured virtually throughout the course of human history is because it presents the crux of human existence in the basic forms of what is right and wrong. Moreover, there are a number of different philosophies that present alternative versions of what values encompass what is right and wrong. Two of the most eminent such philosophies include egoism, championed by Ayn Rand, and virtue ethics, supported by Aristotle. Examining those philosophies with inheritance examples proves virtue ethics is better.
Inheritance itself is the basic notion pertaining to the concept of personal property, and is inherently linked to capitalism (Haslett 143). Essentially, inheritance means that after an individual dies, his or her personal property goes to someone else. There are a variety of laws surrounding this particular issue. In certain instances, people must take action…… [Read More]
These are ethics that know no cultural bounds. hat is perceived as ethical in one society as well as any other is an example of a natural law. These are typically based on the human desire for equality as well as the desire to do good ("hat is Natural Law?"). Furthermore, natural rights evolve legally from natural laws often. They also often see an intertwining of religious beliefs, although they can also be expressed as more an intertwining of moral beliefs that are then supported by religion. The primary weakness of natural law theory is that it is sometimes difficult to determine if a belief is truly universal, or simply cultural.
Virtue ethics determines whether an action is right or wrong by the virtue of the action.
Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that…… [Read More]
Rationality is at the base of secular humanism and has caused its proponents to view individuals as more self-reliant and less dependent on supernatural authorities.
Religion addresses concerns that are too often overlooked by proponents of individualism. Individualism is based upon the pursuit of happiness but happiness encompasses aspects that cannot be obtained through either the pleasure theory of hedonism, the self-interest approach of egoism, or the rational basis of secular humanism. Happiness is measured by intangibles such as the presence of hope and optimism that only religion and a belief in a supernatural being can address and provide. Religion provides the mechanism through which individuals are able to escape the realities of life that often result in deplorable and unpleasant conditions. Religion is able to provide an individual facing such conditions with a basis for looking forward and to look past their present condition. Instead of focusing on pleasure…… [Read More]
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…… [Read More]
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…… [Read More]
Military Orders that May be Unethical
Utilitarianism is a philosophical theory states that ethics are determined by the social group in which the moral determination is made. It has been described by various philosophers as the great happiness principle or pleasure principle. In essence, what is ethical or moral is determined by what makes a person or a group of persons the happiest. If a course of action brings the majority of people happiness, then it is ethical. On the contrary, if a certain set of actions brings the majority unhappiness, then it is unethical. Utility is thus the ultimate form of happiness and the best way by which to achieve happiness both for the individual and for the majority of the population within a given society. This seems logical but can become complicated when applying the concept of utilitarianism to a larger group, such as a government. hether the…… [Read More]
These are subjective values that represent the altruistic view of ethical behavior, and they apply to corporations as well as individuals within the corporations. Thus, the employees of the organization that sell phones to individuals who fit the profile of a terrorist or criminal are acting unethically, and it is the corporation's responsibility to ensure that does not occur. They should require some kind of identification or registration from all customers, and they should maintain the records so they can be searched and identified if necessary. Moral pragmatism demands that the provider use common sense as one of its ethical solutions to problems, and it makes common sense for the provider to require some kind of identification to protect and serve others in the community.
In conclusion, this is a true ethical dilemma in every sense of the words. Ultimately, it seems senseless to allow cell phone companies to sell…… [Read More]
Health Care ight or Privilege
Health Care ight Privilege
Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.
Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…… [Read More]
Because of their unwillingness to wear protective equipment they are putting the entire workforce at risk for injury.
The advantage of using this theory is that it allows one to come up with a fairly simple equation that can be used to determine the number of people affected and by how much. The disadvantage of this theory is that it is sometimes hard to figure out how to assign units of happiness to the actions that you are trying to measure (Shaw & Barry, 2007, pp. 45-46). There are many elements of subjectiveness when trying to apply this theory, but in this particular case I feel that the danger that all workers would be exposed to far outweighs some individuals that would be happier not wearing their protective equipment. Not only is their danger to the workers but there is also dangers to the plant as a whole. If a…… [Read More]
Yet, given the situation in which this decision cannot be overruled, it is necessary, under the libertarianism theory, to allow the same products to be distributed to other regions, without the imposition of any constraints.
3. Export commodities which have the potential for misuse. pecifically, did Nestle act irresponsibly in marketing infant formula to the third world?
The answer for this question is again a strong No, as the state should not become involved in market operations. Under the libertarianism theory, the role of the state is minimal and the political field is not to become involved in business decisions. Whilst the decision is in fact disputable in ethical terms, according to libertarianism, every consumption decision is to be made by individuals and the distributors and manufacturers should only be constrained by their clients, not by political regulations.
Machan, T.R., 2006, Libertarianism defended, Ashgate Publishing Ltd.,…… [Read More]
It is like a double-edged sword, one must understand the pros and cons to every option. Yes with option one, it appears that by having the bank take over that this offers the best case scenario for everyone but Joe must weigh the possible repercussions and how they will affect business. In other words, this may be saving everyone's job and the company but at what cost to quality of the job and the company? This bank intervention may not be worth the hassle if the culture of the company changes for the negative. This can have a direct influence on productivity and morale. Joe needs to keep all the details in mind before deciding.
Question 4: hat pressures does Joe face regarding honesty and telling the truth about his situation?
In this situation, Joe faces many pressures as most business owners would when faced with such challenges. He has…… [Read More]
PESONAL & OGANIZATIONAL ETHICS
Personal and Organizational Ethics Values for, for-Profit and Non-Profit Organizations
Ethics is a requirement of the society to both individuals and organizations. Ethics are applied to business and personal behaviors, and are used to determine how companies and individuals abide to policies. To indicate the application of ethical principles in organizations, an analysis is carried out of For-Profit and Non-For-Profit organizations, in this case Bank of America and Boys Club of America. This is by analyzing an ethical dilemma they are experiencing, their approach to the problem, and the legal, political, and social outcomes emerging from this cause of action.
The Boys Clubs of America is a non-for-profit organization founded in 1860s in Harford, Connecticut Formed with the aim of giving boys who roamed the streets a positive alternative. The club has undergone major changes beginning in 191 when several boys' clubs affiliated to…… [Read More]
Con: This approach can be excessively rigid and fail to take into consideration social nuances
Neutral: Kant, the developer of the categorical imperative and the founding father of this ideology, saw his view as a kind of middle path -- he did not believe that all actions set moral laws for all time, but that some types of moral principles should remain inviolate.
Virtue ethics or human nature moral theory
Pro: This stresses the need to be a good person, to make good moral decisions. It focuses on the good that 'doing good' can provide both for the actor and the subject of moral decision-making.
Con: Good people, even when they believe they are doing the right thing, can engage in actions that have very negative moral consequences.
Neutral: Virtue ethics has come into prominence in recent decades, perhaps because of the increasing focus upon the 'self' in modern culture,…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…… [Read More]
However, without taxation, the protective mechanisms that make up the state, such as a standing army to protect the economic apparatus of the nation would not exist. And if taxation must occur to preserve the state, should it not be redistributive, so as not to incapacitate the weakest members of society, and thus would it not cost taxpayers to not have redistributive taxes even more money in the long run, debilitating the coffers of the state still further? While the passage bifurcates the individual's right to private property and the state's duty to protect public welfare, it is not so easy to make such a distinction, for threatening the public good without redistribution ultimately harms private industry's ability to make money and to have a healthy and educated workforce. An uneducated and unhealthy employee without schooling or Medicare helps no company, CEO, or shareholder
Only the most dedicated advocate…… [Read More]
He has already placed himself under a cloud of suspicion by the community, and while he still possess the same essential rights, he cannot be regarded deserving of the same attention as the boy. Cappa's rights must be respected to the fullest because he, in so far as anyone knows, has always respected the rights of others. Smoot has not. The temporary abridgment of Smoot's rights in order to ensure the Natural Rights of Mickey Cappa would seem to be in accord with an ideal of happiness for all. In this kind of situation, the existence of a predator or abductor in the community represents a threat to everyone's natural rights. It is a threat that should be removed. If indeed, Sylvester Smoot is innocent, his interrogation can be viewed as means both of making sure that Mickey Cappa's rights were protected, as well as away of showing to the…… [Read More]
Ethics of Spider Man
The character Spider Man is a foundational superhero of the modern era. His history and life demonstrate the development of an ordinary and even some would say subpar or at the very least "un-cool" young adolescent into a super hero by a twist of fate, i.e. being bit by a genetically modified spider on a science filed trip. The early life of the Spider Man character as depicted in both comic books, television cartoons and movies in live action or animation depict a young man, who stumbles upon a great power and then struggles with how to use that power. In the 2002 film depiction, and true to the comic storyline Peter's/Spiderman's ethics are developed through the film as he struggles with his new found powers, seizing the opportunity to use them for personal gain, by attempting to win money as an amateur fighter/wrestler in a…… [Read More]
Ethics: Client epresentation
Ethics is the study of the rightness or wrongness of human actions, based on what society has identified as its moral values. Individuals are expected to observe ethical standards in their daily interactions as a way of preventing conflict and maintaining peace. For this reason, philosophers have focused on developing ethical theories to guide individuals towards making moral decisions. This text assesses these theories to determine how they inform the decision-making process.
One of your clients is accused of murdering her husband and she, as a result, faces the death penalty. An eyewitness has wrongly identified her as the killer, but she maintains that she was in an out-of-town hotel at the supposed time. However, there is no evidence of the same as she paid the hotel fee in cash, received no official receipt, did not sign the hotel register, and the clerk does…… [Read More]
Even in Sedgwick's iconoclastic, homoerotic reading, however, it is possible to argue that the moral of The Beast in the Jungle is the same: living in fear of disaster leads to a life without love, whether life is spent separating one's self from others because of fear of losing them, or fear of social censure. The story takes the form of a psychological narrative more than a conventional marriage plot: since it is about a man opting out of conventional social norms, rather than engaging in them. It features Marcher deciding to ignore May's obliquely expressed interest, a few dinners enjoyed by the two of them, and then her eventual demise. Marcher's "imaginative concrete image" of the beast, a metaphor made real, is the most dramatic aspect of the novel (Gottschalk 43).
hile it is possible to use the still-unknown reasons for James' unmarried existence to interpret The Beast in…… [Read More]
Unlike hadcoe altuism, no assumption of elatedness is necessay. Soft-coe altuism is diected beyond kin as a simple exchange of favos. (Gachte & Falk, 2002, pp1-25) Unlike hadcoe altuism, the soft-coe vaiety is less fimly tiggeed by the spontaneous calculus of the genes and moe "deeply influenced by the vagaies of cultual evolution. (Yamagishi, 1992, pp267-87) Unlike the hadcoe species in which the altuistic act is genuinely diected at othes even though one's own genes ae benefited, soft-coe altuism is ultimately moe selfish and dependent upon ecipocation as a condition fo its aousal. (Bingham, 1999, pp133-69) Unlike hadcoe altuism which is lagely "iational," soft-coe altuism equies calculation, "often in a wholly conscious way, to ensue one's needs ae seved, even though emotive mechanisms like deceit and petense may also infom this behavio. Wilson's tem "softcoe" app11es to the pinciple of ecipocal altuism fist outlined in a pape by R. Tives…… [Read More]
Ethics and Social esponsibility:
Immigration and Amnesty in the United States
The question of immigration, especially in this country, is ever-present. From our past, and well into our future, the United States will be a nation of immigrants. However, as political candidates raise a number of questions relating to immigrants south of the border, one must wonder about how immigration has grown into such a hotly debated issue, and how it is separating this country. Though it is true that the United States needs immigration reform, one must also look at the traditions of the country, and how they can protect the less fortunate, especially in the area of immigration. The reason this must happen is because most come here with notions of a better place, where they can live safely and freely, and prosper as individuals. This nation ought to offer that to all individuals, for that is…… [Read More]
Ethics and Leadership Failures: The Enron Case
Gibney's 2005 documentary film Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room reveals some of the main ethical weaknesses in an unbridled neoliberal capitalist market system. Barely addressing environmental and social justice issues, the filmmakers instead choose to focus on organizational culture, leadership, and ethical decision making within the corporation. The film illustrates the core concepts of business ethics and shows how executives shape company values and behaviors. Disturbingly, the Enron case also shows how unethical corporate behavior is linked with unethical behavior in government.
Summarize in one paragraph how you would explain Enron's ethical meltdown
Enron's ethical meltdown is a result of two interrelated issues: unethical individuals making unethical decisions, and an organizational culture that enables unethical decisions to proliferate. The unethical decisions and behaviors mainly have to do with stock market manipulation and the falsifying of information related to the actual performance…… [Read More]
They seek pleasure and avoid pain in their assessment of the situation. Therefore, consequentialism is hedonistc and egotism. Using this argument, one could say that utilitarianism is more altruistic than consequentialism. However, utilitarianism is not completely altruistic either. Utilitarianism is neither altruistic nor egotistic. However, it is difficult to call consequentialism altruistic. Some acts might have a hint of altruism, but there are few that consider the consequences of others before direct consequences for ourselves.
Hedonism requires the absence of pain, in most cases. hen one is in pain, either emotional or physical, it is difficult to feel complete happiness. hat is considered pleasure and what is considered pain is up to interpretation. This is an open question to which there are no clear guidelines. Utilitarians are hedonists in that they consider pleasure to be the intrinsic good. They consider pain to be bad. However, this concept can be challenged…… [Read More]
For instance, some action by the government could produce numerous pleasures for a small portion of the population, or it could produce a small bit of pleasure for the entire populous; Bentham seems to endorse both outcomes, but it is easy to imagine situations in which the two might conflict. He leaves us with no way to address this dilemma. Perhaps Bentham believed that he properly attended to this objection by contending that pleasure comes in one variety -- only being separated by time interval and intensity -- but it is still possible to enjoy a finite number of singular pleasures, and he fails to indicate how such pleasures should be distributed throughout a just society.
Bentham's hedonism is psychological as well. He writes, "Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to…… [Read More]
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…… [Read More]
Ethics and IT
Ethics and Information Technology
Doing Ethics Analysis
This case concerns trade secret misappropriation and theft of intellectual property, as well as issues of surveillance and cybercrime. Sergey Aleynikov attempted to steal computer code from Goldman Sachs in order to build competing technology for his new employer. Goldman Sachs prosecuted Aleynikov and won a conviction. The case discusses applicable case laws, including the difficulty of enforcing non-compete and non-disclosure agreements.
Sergey Aleynikov was employed by Goldman Sachs, and as part of his employment, had signed a confidentiality agreement. Aleynikov found new employment with Teza Technologies, where he was hired to build a high-speed trading platform to compete with Goldman Sachs. On his last day of employment for Goldman Sachs, Sergey Aleynikov downloaded proprietary high-speed trading computer code for use in his new employment at Teza Technologies. Aleynikov attempted to cover up evidence of his theft by erasing and…… [Read More]
The first option is by far the most ethical from a utilitarian perspective. The first option allows the business to maintain its going concern condition. It will also help mitigate the damage of layoffs, wage restrictions, and benefit reductions to staff. This option, therefore provides the greatest amount of good to society at the lowest possible cost. The reputation of the business would also remain intact, further providing benefit to society, in that management is dedicated to its employees.
From an egoism perspective, the second option would be the most ethical. It allows for Joe Woodman, to serve his own needs at the expense of lost jobs, wages and benefits to others. Under the assumption that Joe wants to maintain control of the business, this alternative allows him to do so, while also helping the company generate stable and consistent cash flow. The use of expert management, would also…… [Read More]
I realized that so much of my anxiety and trouble resulted from things I truly didn't care about. Who was that person who cared? I couldn't tell. It was a relief to find that beneath all the anxieties of daily life, anxieties propelled by rapid turnover and cliched expectations, that I had a personality. Beneath all the extraneous troubles, I had a conscience that would lead me where I needed to go.
Consequently, the peril of too much ambition also became clear to me. So much of life is spent idealizing far off things that when present seem to do little to enrich my life. The burning question of "and then what?" seemed to pervade me. Go to school. And then what? Get a job. And then what? I knew that even if all my goals and ambitions were to be at some point acquired, there would still be that…… [Read More]
hat all this shows is that "there is something about a crowd of bystanders that inhibits helping behavior" (101).
The results of Latane and Darley's research were shocking. hy do some people act in altruistic or pro-social ways while others do not? To act altruistically means to work in a way that goes beyond our selves, our own egos, and work for the benefit of someone else. A true act of altruism has two properties: It must benefit someone else and it must be potentially costly to the benefactor (Clarke 6). alster and Poliavin define altruism as, "helping behavior that is voluntary, costly to the altruist and motivated by something other than the expectation of material or social reward" (6). This definition is a good one as it makes clear that there is a great distinction between egoism and altruism. True altruism is a regard for others without the concern…… [Read More]
In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…… [Read More]
"So ieland wrought a goodly store of rings alike to that his Swan-wife gave him, and strung them on a hempen cord against his wall: amongst them all she should not recognize her own" (agner 102). A king named Neiding (Envy)takes ieland captive, but eventually by making himself wings he sets himself free, and finds his beloved once again (agner 103). The theme of the lost ring of course recalls the Ring cycle, and the idea of an enchanted beloved reappears not only in the Ring but also Tristan and Parsifal. agner's great love of this myth also shows his fascination with 'quest' narratives, like the Ring and the Grail sagas.
This planned Buddhist opera was said to be inspired upon Schopenhauer's writings which linked Christianity, Buddhism, and Brahmanism as sharing a lack of a 'will to live' along with heroic quest tales (Beckett 11). The plot revolves…… [Read More]
Orwell presents a rather romantic picture of the life of a writer. A writer is someone who is driven internally, psychically, spiritually. The desire to write might initially be due to an admiration of a famous author, or a personal affection for the Harry Potter books. Or, the desire to write might be due to a want of recognition, fame, or even fortune. Writing can be used as a weapon as with bitter letters to politicians or ex-girlfriends.
Some writing is purely journalistic in tone, whereas other writing is all fluff. With his characteristic humor, Orwell takes a dig at journalists when he states, "Serious writers, I should say, are on the whole more vain and self-centered than journalists, though less interested in money." The essay "Why I Write" is an effective piece of prose because the author is credible, and bolsters his argument with humility as well as…… [Read More]
In other cases, preserving confidentiality or entrusting the doctor with treatment-related decisions may be in the best interest of the patient and his or her family or community. Health care workers should carefully weigh consequences, in light of deontological ethics and institutional regulations.
Health care professionals working with patients with HIV / AIDS must be careful to temper consequentialism with deontology, to balance the psychological needs of the patient for confidentiality and autonomy with the practical needs of public health; or to balance the physical needs of a patient with HIV / AIDS with medical paternalism. Furthermore, discrimination against patients with HIV / AIDS is commonplace and often occurs inadvertently. Health care workers are obliged to confront their own biases regarding HIV / AIDS because to withhold adequate treatment is to violate a series of ethical principles including those based on deontology and on utilitarianism. For example, a health care…… [Read More]
00pm today. 70 words questions.
The competing ethical claims regarding the hiring of the three workers are as follows: one is assumed to be more in need because of an objective claim of financial hardship (Dinu); another subjectively feels more aggrieved because of reduced circumstances (Bishanno), and the third is seen as worse off because of her health status even though she is neither as poor or unhappy as the other workers (Rogini). Implicit in this argument is that 'need' rather than objective qualifications of the workers is the most important aspect of deciding who gets the job.
Of the three claims, Bishanno's is the weakest -- yes, he may be unhappy now, but will eventually have to acclimate to his new circumstances. Rogini is ill, but her illness may impede her ability to do the job, which will ultimately not advance the happiness of anyone. Thus Dinu's claim seems…… [Read More]
Housing Support on Teenager Parents
Housing Support on Teenagers
The Impacts of Housing Support on Teenagers Parent in United Kingdom
UK leads Europe in teenage pregnancies in Western Europe with 35,966 conceptions in the under 18s in 2009. Majority of these unplanned pregnancies are the cause and consequence of social exclusion in UK. (UNICEF, 2001) There are 90K teenagers under 20 years and 8k under 16-year's pregnancies in England each year; it is the highest rate in Western Europe (SEU, 1999).
Teenage pregnancy can take place before first menstrual period (12or 13 years), which can result into pregnancy but usually occurs between 13 to 20 years of age. The National Health Services spends over £63 million a year on teenage pregnancies in UK. (Dennison, 2004).
Teenage parenthood is a serious social problem; it has adverse effects on parents and children. These young mothers have greater chances of being poor, less…… [Read More]
Tono-Bungay diverges from the author's more popular science fiction (Costa 89). Tono-Bungay is ripe with social commentary, and many literary critics have gone so far as to describe the novel as a "galvanic fictional chronicle of the intellectual and moral history of England at the close of the 19th century," (Costa 89). Indeed, ells does capture prevailing trends in political, economic, and social thought, as well as currents in English history. A preoccupation with issues related to social class status and capitalism permeate the Edwardian novel. Although ells deftly refrains from overtly didactic or pedantic moralizing, Tono-Bungay cannot be understood without reference to the author's message related to ethical egoism, vanity, and human behavior within a capitalist system.
One of the overarching themes of Tono-Bungay is upward social mobility, and the ethical tradeoffs taken to achieve a boost in social status. George's upward social mobility takes place on a weak…… [Read More]
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…… [Read More]
SADDAM HUSSEIN VS ICHAD BANSON
COMPAISON OF LEADESHIP SKILLS AND ABILITIES
In comparing two very successful leaders we will be able discern the key qualities and actions that made them either a good leader or a bad leader. The path both Saddam Hussein and ichard Branson took to elevate themselves to the high level leaders each of them became will be discussed and I will compare and contrast the methods of leader development and the advantages and disadvantages each provides.
Born in Tikrit, Iraq in 1937, Saddam Hussein endured a humble existence and difficult childhood. Nevertheless, the secularist Hussein was a political animal who rose through political ranks with the Ba'ath Party, learning his leadership methods by studying Josef Stalin (Hickman, 2003). In 1968, a bloodless coup by the Ba'ath Party resulted in the Presidency of Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and the high government position of al-Bakr's Deputy…… [Read More]
company's corporate social responsibility is to rectify the fraud and return the money to the customers. Moreover, the company needs to report the culprit to the authorities. If the culprit is my spouse's sibling, I would have a personal ethical responsibility to alert my spouse prior to taking action, but I would not allow any personal pleas for leniency to impede justice. Potential challenges might be the relationship with my spouse, but that is a personal challenge that has little to do with how to proceed with Dell. The concept of corporate social responsibility has more to do with broader issues, such as Dell's commitment to the environment or its policies about LGBTQ employees (Thorpe, 2013). However, this case does demonstrate more fundamental ethical tenets.
How I act in this scenario depends on whether or not the course is meaningful to me. Given I am performing at only 60%,…… [Read More]
Booker Prize-winning novel Amsterdam by Ian Mcewan is not really about euthanasia per se; it is about the twisted relationships between the two main characters, Clive Linley, composer, and Vernon Halliday, newspaper editor. Deeply affected by the death of their mutual friend and lover Molly Lane, Clive and Vernon agree that if they should ever exhibit the symptoms of some deadly illness, that they agree to assist the other in euthanasia. Thus, the two friends initially start out by presenting a view of euthanasia that is strongly ethical; euthanasia is a meaningful and sometimes even necessary means to alleviate unnecessary suffering. After all, life is already filled with enough suffering. Extension of life by a matter of days, weeks, or even years does not necessarily equate with promoting the values inherent to a good quality of life.
As the events of the novel progress, however, Vernon and Clive demonstrate that…… [Read More]
662). In other words, individuals coalesce around environments repetitively to form the collective. The collective structure stays even when the individual is alone. This is close to the collective representations of Durkheim, but it is based on innate or genetic structures that connect during the repetition of social encounters (which in Allport are not religious). The social bonding function is similar: "The collective-structure event-format (so called 'reality of the group') is thus preserved, though the particular contacts of individuals may vary in space, time, and number" (Allport, 1955, p. 662).
This interweaving with the collective has lasting effects on the individual structure. He says, "It is also worth noting that the collective structure itself is often represented, usually in a schematic or abridged format, in the meaning-cycles of the individuals involved, on the basis of their contacts with other individuals in the regular and repetitive course of the structure's operation"…… [Read More]
The question is, how does one decide which path is more beneficial?
John Stuart Mill in Utilitarianism in the Philosophy of J.S. Mill, raised similar concerns when he stated:
"…any, even unintentional, deviation from truth does that much toward weakening the truth-worthiness of human assertion, which is not only the principal of all present social well-being but the insufficiency of which does more than any one thing that can be named to keep back civilization, virtue, everything on which human happiness on the largest scale depends" (p. 349).
Considering that human happiness is a subjective commodity that varies for every individual in its "truth," then whether or not one perceives the mommy track trend to be in line with utilitarian principles ultimately depends on one's personal definition of the greater good. From the utilitarian perspective (i.e. Mill), the wishes of the individual must be forsaken for the long-term "big picture."…… [Read More]
God is wherever humans are, which can lead to the belief that where the human soul or heart is, then God will be there too. Heaven is the City of God, according to St. Augustine, but we can have access to God here on Earth through his Son, Jesus Christ. One must be meek and be thankful for Christ's sacrifice if God is to live within them and if they are to go on to the City of God after their death.
4. Don't let it end like this. Tell them I said something.
Descartes said, "I think, therefore I am." If one is no longer thinking, it means that they are no longer here. Man has always been and forever will be afraid of not being anymore, afraid of not being able to think and exist and he once was able. Pancho Villa said, "Don't let it end like…… [Read More]
Reflecting on literature can provide inmates with a second chance to imagine and begin trying to create a new life for themselves. In order for this to be successful there needs to be a high level of self-awareness and honesty with oneself, no matter how painful. Through books, poetry, song lyrics and other mediums of artistic expression inmates like everyone else have many options available to them and can choose authors that reflect their inner voice and also provide examples of role models whom they would like to identify with. Literature encourages self-exploration and honesty and this opens up the potential for sincere reflection over the crimes that an individual has committed and but has not made peace with or moved on from.
Managing powerful emotions is a challenge for all people. For persons who have learned negative behavior patterns and/or had others enable such behaviors, who struggle with substance…… [Read More]
Mencius saw Tian as the source of morality and social sanction (if the king was good, Heaven enabled him to rule). Hsun Tzu, on the other hand, perceived heaven as dispassionate and unresponsive at best to human predicament and existence, He therefore advocated that man should not look to Tian for assistance or attempt to placate or please tian, but rather endeavor to craft his own fate (Watson, 2003). The intellectual conflict between Mencius and Hsun Tsu reminds one of the differences between an atheist and theist, and, indeed, tian was given associations that are reminiscent of God. It was from this premise that Mencius who perceived Tian to be benevolent affirmed that human nature was intrinsically good, whilst Hsun Tzu who saw Tian as the reverse perceived human nature to be born faulty and replete with greed, strife, and Freudian attributes that if not curbed and socialized would lead…… [Read More]
. . And in the ways I had managed to fulfill almost all of them. My uniqueness, I realized, came in the specifics of all the dreams -- form incredibly meaningful to decidedly quirky -- that defined my forty-six years of life." (p. 10)
As Pausch arrives at this revelation, it is knowing full well that he is fast approaching death, but it has allowed him to view this not with bitterness but with a sense of his good fortunate at having been able to accomplish so much of what he desired in that short space of time allotted. Of course, we can also see on a psychoanalytical level that there are elements of importance attributed to certain aspects of Pausch's life that are not explicitly stated in the text. Namely, one is inclined to consider the professional aspirations that have marked his time on earth and the degree to…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, that might have also contributed to some of the difficulties we have experienced understanding one another and getting along as well as we might have otherwise.
On my end, I recognize that I might have been responsible for some of the friction we have experienced working together and that some of my actions and decisions could very well have been perceived as being motivated by egoism. That is unfortunate, because my primary concern has always been for the welfare and continued success and strength of ____. Finally, I would like you to know that I have used my more recent perspective of our relationship and the nature of our past difficulties working together as a learning experience that has helped me advise others how to avoid some of the problems we experienced. You should know that in that regard, I have always referred to you only in the most…… [Read More]
Best Ethical Approaches and Alternatives
Frankly, the Satyam case is not one that requires splitting the proverbial hairs sometimes associated with more complex ethical analyses. Virtually every known ethical system other than egoism would condemn aju's conduct (osenstand, 2008; Shaw & Barry, 2007). Unfortunately, the magnitude of the harm caused and the vast numbers of individuals detrimentally affected by aju's subterfuge absolutely defies any conceivable ethical solution that relies on restitution or compensation to the victims.
In the Satyam case, aju would not benefit from any of the ethical systems considered. Act utilitarian ethical analysis would condemn aju's actions simply by virtue of their consequences on the countless victims of his conduct. ights-based ethical analysis would reach the same conclusion regardless of whether the system relies on objective or conventional ethical rules. Justice-based ethics would condemn aju's conduct because it violated both objective ethical principles and the formal rules governing…… [Read More]