Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The revolution in Egypt of January and February 2011 led to the resignation of the nation's president, Hosni Mubarak. The revolution put the population in a state of potential chaos and some political commentators felt that it would be difficult for Egypt to become a functioning society in the near future. This was not the first time that the Middle Eastern region saw a political revolution within one of its nations, nor would it be the last. The recent public execution of Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi illustrates the fiery nature of the region and the continued likelihood of political unrest. Commentators made connections between the current situation and similar occurrences in the past without noting how these similarities could telegraph the potential successes of the revolution. The region, known for violence and quick temper, is unsurprisingly a location of frequent insurgency and revolution. History has a way of repeating…
Blunt, Wilfrid Scawen. The Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt. Dublin: Nonsuch,
Ibrahim, Tamer. "Egyptian Revolution of 1919." Egypt News. 2009. Print.
Shakry, Omnia El. "Egypt's Three Revolutions: The Force of History behind this Popular
g., education, employment, politics). Thus, the gender gap during this period was undeniably reduced, though not eliminated" (El-Safty, 2004) in this sense, the woman came to have a particular role in the society, especially in its development. Nonetheless, they were unable to express themselves to their full capacity precisely due to the religious aspect which is often invoked to limit the activities of women in the social environment as well as the political framework.
There are several examples throughout societies which underline the fact that women have militated for an improvement in their lives and in their social status. The issue of women in Egypt is therefore not singular. In this sense, "In countries such as Mongolia, India, Egypt, Uruguay and Sierra Leone, Now or Never grantees are documenting the testimony of women who have been assaulted in conflict zones, challenging fundamentalism" () Therefore, it can be said that in…
Cole, E. (2007) Egypt in Uproar Over Christian Convert Case. Christian Post Reporter. Accessed 21 April 2008, at http://www.christianpost.com/article/20070810/28847_Egypt_in_Uproar_Over_Christian_Convert_Case.htm
El-Safty, a. (2004) Women in Egypt: Islamic rights vs. cultural practice. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Accessed 21 April 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_51/ai_n9483888/pg_1
Global Fund for Women. (2005) Investing in Women. Annual Report. Accessed 21 April 2008, at http://www.globalfundforwomen.org/cms/images/stories/downloads/annual-2005.pdf
Global Fund for Women. (n.d) More Than Money: Strategies to Build Women's Economic Power. Impact Report No. 1: Economic Opportunity Initiative. Accessed 21 April 2008, at http://www.globalfundforwomen.org/cms/images/stories/downloads/impact-report-1.pdf
gypt's conomy Today And While Mubarak's Was In Charge And Who Has Taken His Place
gypt is located at a prime strategic location, which makes it trade hub. Hence gypt stands as North African economic super power and a cultural hub in the Arab world. This transcontinental country that shares its coastlines with the Red sea and the Mediterranean Sea, also its borders with the Sudan, Gaza and Israel stands as the 30th largest country on the world map.
Most of gypt's trade and economic activities take place at the river Nile, along its basin. After obtaining independence from the British, gypt had to struggle to rid itself of the feudal economic system left behind by the British, and started working towards creating an independent economy which had a stand of its own. However by the end of the twentieth century, gypt had not achieved its goals completely and still…
Egypt's current currency is no different from the rest; it consists of bank notes and coins, sometimes one amount available in both notes and coins, such as one pound. One pound is made up of 100 piaster's. The notes are distinguished according to their color for their value. It is very simple note, where one side is in English and the other is in Arabic. The central bank is in charge of issuing currency. The Egyptian pound is one of the most valuable currencies in Africa, Both because of its trade significance and also because it holds a national significance in the Arab world. Considering that Egypt was once a British colony, so now having its own currency and being the economic super power of a larger part of the Arab world holds a lot of meaning for the Egyptians.
Egypt introduced its bank notes at the turn of the 20th century. Notes are provided in piasters and pounds. The notes available are for 5, 10, 25, and 50 piaster's and for pounds, its 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 pounds. Every note is assigned with a particular tint to tell the difference, like reds and blues. The reason the Egyptian note holds such valuable significance is because it represents the Egyptian cultural the best. With ancient monuments and symbols and leader printed on the bank notes, for examples the 50 on the 50 pound note there the famous Abu Hurayba Mosque and on the front it's the Horus Temple at Edfu.
Egyptians trade significance is incomplete without its imports and exports. Egypt's 2010 exports trade grossed over U.S.$29 billion, a 22% surge from the previous year's level. Oil being the central almost everywhere in the Arab world, so is the case with Egypt. Egypt produces 630,600 barrels of oil a day, the exports per day for oil are155, 200 barrels per day. However the country has huge oil reserves in uncharted areas, approximately 37 billion barrels. Which if used in the right way can be used as fuel for decades. Apart from crude oil and petroleum products the country also deals in exports of metal products, textile, cotton and chemicals. Before World War II, cotton was the largest of Egypt's export. But with advancement in the oil sector it has now replaced cotton.
us/egypt/47.htm).As far as population, gypt is the most densely populated country of Northern Africa. gypt is one of the most populated countries not only in the African continent but also in the Middle ast and in the Arab world. According to the 2006 census conducted by government's statistics agency, the population of gypt has sprung up to 72.6 million with a growth rate of 2.0% each year in the past decade (gypt: (http://www.mapsofworld.com/egypt/egypt-population.html).
gypt is a republic; its government is headed by the president. gypt has been considered a key link to foreign affairs in the Middle ast for many years and is also critical to keeping peace between the Arab World and Israel; moreover, gypt and Israel are receiving half of U.S. foreign financial aid (Blakenship: 4). gypt has been a key link to Middle ast politics and military operations during crisis for many years. Since the early 1970s,…
Egypt Population." Maps of the World. http://www.mapsofworld.com/egypt/egypt-population.html
Egypt." Oxford Business Group. http://www.oxfordbusinessgroup.com/country.asp?country=3
Mekhail, Rania. "Market Brief: Water Treatment Needs in Egypt." http://commercecan.ic.gc.ca/scdt/bizmap/interface2.nsf/vDownload/IMI_2432/$file/X_8795122.DOC.
Egypt, located in Africa, is positioned on the Mediterranean Sea between the Gaza Strip and Libya.
It has a population of a little over 71 million people.
They have a birth rate of 27 per 1,000 people, 2% increase per year.
At this rate their population should more than double by the year 2050 to over 115 million people.
Egypt has about 157 people per square mile, with 40% of the population urban.
Egypt is a young country, with 34% of the population aged 14 or younger (CIA, 2002).
Egypt's population is growing more rapidly than any other country in the Arab world (CIA, 2002).
This is a potentially serious problem for Egypt in the future, because the country has limited farmable land, only 3%, to support its present population (CIA, 2002).
Egypt uses water from the Nile to irrigate some land.
Most people live in the…
Assaad, R., El-Hamidi, F., and Ahmed, A.U. 2000. "The Determinants of Employment Status in Egypt." Discussion Paper Briefs. Accessed via the Internet 11/8/02. http://www.ifpri.org/divs/fcnd/dp/papers/fcnbr88.pdf .
Central Intelligence Agency, United States (CIA). 2002. "Egypt." World Factbook 2002. Last updated January 1, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 11/8/02. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/eg.html .
Citizen and Immigration Canada (CIC). Egypt: Cultural Profiles Project: "Looking at Health care." Accessed via the Internet 11/8/02. http://cwr.utoronto.ca/cultural/english/egypt/health.html (CIC, 2002)
The Columbia Encyclopedia. "Egypt. 2002: Sixth Edition Columbia University Press
The lower classes within the Sumerian community were assigned only for performing acts that would serve for the well-being of the society. There is no information concerning the exact place from where the Sumerians came from, but most suppositions revolve around their origins as being one of the islands in the Persian Gulf. (atkins)
The Sumerian civilization somewhat resembles the Egyptian one because of the fact that both of them have been formed around fertile regions in the close vicinity of rivers. The fertile terrains inhabited by the two civilizations have provided most of the reasons for the evolution of their societies.
Religion had been a decisive factor for both communities, as both the Sumerians and the Egyptians praised their gods, apparently in order for the heavenly entities to insure the safety of the people. The Sumerians, similar to the Egyptians, have been among the first people in the world…
Kinnaer, Jacques. The Ancient Egypt Site. 1st Dynasty. 2007. 7 Nov. 2008. http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html
Maisels, Charles Keith. Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India, and China. Routledge. 2001
Owen, Bruce. Dr. Bruce Owen. The emergence of civilization in Egypt: Naqada II and Naqada III. 2007. 7 Nov. 2008. http://bruceowen.com/emciv/341-07f-15-EgyptNaqadaIIandIII.pdf
Smitha, Frank. Macrohistory and World Report. The Sumerians. 1999. 7 Nov. 2008. http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch01.htm
We have numerous proofs that Egyptians already used contracts, testaments and other important institutes of developed society. Also any citizen was allowed to bring lawsuits against guilty person and try to prove that his right or interest was threatened by that person. This was a very important institute of a democratic society because open court was the only legal state organ of justice.
The New Kingdom is also characterized by many Egyptologists as a period of great changes in public knowledge. Many people became literate (mainly upper class representatives) and sure that education of this period was more universal and progressive. ich nobles and officials felt free sending their children to school; at the same time poor people didn't have such opportunity and it is not strange (if we remember Middle Ages we'll see that the situation was similar).
So, as we can see, Egyptian society was very progressive and…
Naguib Mahfouz Akhenaten: Dweller in Truth American University in Cairo Press, 2000
Ian Shaw The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt Oxford University Press; New Ed edition 2002
S. military presence in the area. It is frustrating that even so long after the end of the Cold War, there still persists a level of distrust and antagonism on the part of the Russians toward the U.S. In many respects, post-Soviet Communist Russia still provides tacit support for other nations to oppose or undermine U.S. international interests. nother example would be the difficulty the Russians have caused by opposing U.S.-led sanctions against Iran in connection with international pressure to stop enriching uranium and even more recently in connection with the joint Chinese-Russian opposition to forcing a regime change in Syria.
rticle # 3 Summary and Comment -- Syria
Syria has been in state of turmoil for fifteen months, during which time an estimated 9,000 civilians have been killed by Syrian authorities. Lately, the atrocities committed by the government have intensified and have included apparent cold-blooded murder of large…
Article # 3 Summary and Comment -- Syria
Syria has been in state of turmoil for fifteen months, during which time an estimated 9,000 civilians have been killed by Syrian authorities. Lately, the atrocities committed by the government have intensified and have included apparent cold-blooded murder of large numbers of unarmed civilians, including women and children, in their homes. According to Syrian authorities, those murders were perpetrated by criminal thugs and political extremists who were not associated with the regime. However, it appears that this is merely a tactical diversion by the authorities to disclaim responsibility. Eleven foreign nations expelled foreign ambassadors from Syria in protest and Syria responded by doing the same. The ongoing events in Syria illustrate why even as the Arab Spring is underway, oppressive Middle East regimes may become even more ruthless to preserve their power against any popular challenge. Unfortunately, the lack of cooperation from Russia and China only complicate the situation for international authorities trying to prevent further civilian bloodshed at the hands of corrupt and failing regimes.
ise and Fall of Egypt's Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom Egypt
The ise and Fall of Egypt's Old Kingdom
When most people think of Ancient Egypt, the first image that comes to mind is the Great Pyramids. These enormous structures are symbolic of the mystery and beauty of Ancient Egyptian culture, and they are a reminder of the rise and fall of even the most powerful societies. The culture that created the pyramids, the Old Kingdom of Egypt, was able to reach the height of civilization before internal flaws and environmental disaster led to its eventual collapse. But the same interdependence that allowed Egypt to organize a unified culture was also the very thing that became its vulnerability.
The Old Kingdom refers to the reigns of the 3rd dynasty through the 6th dynasty, roughly from 2575-2150 BC (Daniels et al. 2006). While certain hallmarks of advanced civilization were present in the…
Daniels, P.S., Iyslop, S.G., and Brinkley, D. (2006) National Geographic Almanac of World History, Vol. 10. Washington, DC: National Geographic Books.
Hassan, F. (1997) The dynamics of a riverine civilization: a geoarchaeological perspective on the Nile valley. World Archaeology, 29-1, 51-74.
Hassan, F. (2011) The fall of the Egyptian Old Kingdom. BBC History. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/apocalypse_egypt_01.shtml .
Hornung, E. (1999) History of Ancient Egypt. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Egypt hopes to gain economic and political momentum for itself and the region through ongoing partnership with the EU and Mediterranean cooperation within the Barcelona Process. The Association Agreement between the EU and Egypt is expected to enter into force soon. It has already been ratified by the majority of the EU member states (also including Germany) and the section on trade relations has already come into provisional effect, and of course, this is a significant accomplishment, given the diversity of political opinion among EU member states.
Relations with neighbouring Arab countries
Since Egypt's return to the Arab League in 1990, Cairo has once again become the seat - both physically and politically -- of the Pan-Arab organization. Amr Moussa, who served as Egypt's Foreign Minister for many years, became the Arab League's new Secretary-General in March 2001. Since emerging from its isolation in the Arab bloc following its peace…
The legal and regulatory environment for doing business in Egypt is challenging. The current deals with the international community to secure financing call for reforms to the structure of the Egyptian economy, which remains heavily dependent on government intervention. The state of economic reform is a work in progress, begun in earnest several regimes ago in the mid-2000s. During that period, one of the key reforms reduced the time it took to start a company from 55 days to 3 days, a positive step towards creating a more entrepreneurial country. Other Nazif-era reforms were to begin the process of establishing the role that government should play in each sector, as a precursor to specifying which reforms are truly necessary (OECD, 2008).
More recent reforms have begun in 2015. One of the major reforms was to float the Egyptian pound, which has resulted in significant inflation. This inflation is…
Ghafar, A. (2018) Egypt’s long-term stability and the role of the European Union. Brookings Institute. Retrieved April 7, 2018 from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2018/03/01/egypts-long-term-stability-and-the-role-of-the-european-union/
OECD (2008) Background on the state of economic reform in Egypt. OECD. Retrieved April 7th, 2018 from http://www.oecd.org/countries/egypt/40252444.pdf
Transparency International (2016) Corruption Perceptions Index Transparency International. https://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview
US Department of State (2017) Egypt. US Department of State. Retrieved April 7, 2018 from https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2017/nea/269974.htm
World Bank (2016) Economy rankings. World Bank. Retrieved April 7, 2018 from http://www.doingbusiness.org/ranking
Beginning in December of 2010 in Tunisia, protests and grassroots political activism spread throughout North Africa and the Middle East. The Arab Spring resulted in regime change in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Libya and Syria. However, the Arab Spring evolved and impacted each nation differently. In Egypt, the Arab Spring began officially on January 25, 2011. Known as the January 25 Revolution, the Arab Spring in Egypt initially resulted in the ousting of Hosni Mubarak. Mubarak had been in power for almost 30 years when he resigned in 2011 and was widely considered to be a “dictator,” (Fantz, 2016: p. 1). As promising as it seemed to transition away from Mubarak’s autocratic regime, the Arab Spring destabilized the nation and resulted in few meaningful changes to Egyptian society, politics, or the media.
Uprisings in Cairo’s Tahrir Square and in other major cities like Alexandria had first been met with harsh…
Amnesty International (n.d.). The Arab Spring: Five years on. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/campaigns/2016/01/arab-spring-five-years-on/
Anderson, L. (2011). Demystifying the Arab Spring. Foreign Affairs 90(3): 2-7.
“The Arab Spring in Egypt,” (n.d.). Harvard Divinity School. https://rlp.hds.harvard.edu/faq/arab-spring-egypt
“Arab uprising: Country by country – Egypt,” (n.d.). BBC. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-12482291
Egypt Profile: Media (2016). BBC News. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13313373
Fantz, A. (2016). Egypt’s long, bloody road from Arab Spring hope to chaos. CNN. 27 April, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2016/04/27/middleeast/egypt-how-we-got-here/index.html
Hamid, S. (2015). Islamism, the Arab Spring, and the failure of America’s do-nothing policy in the middle east. The Atlantic. 9 Oct, 2015. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/10/middle-east-egypt-us-policy/409537/
“The January 25 Revolution,” (n.d.). Cornell University Library. http://guides.library.cornell.edu/c.php?g=31688&p=200748
Egypt is one of the most powerful African nations and has proved to be a reliable partner of the West, which invested massively in the development of the country. The fact that Egypt is a democracy through its constitution has contributed greatly to gaining the support of the West. The path chosen by Egypt can be an example to other African nations and democracy can be spread with the support of Egypt. Democracy and free elections in Egypt can have a great impact on neighboring countries, as they might be persuaded by this example. esides, a high level of democratization will increase the support offered to Egypt by more developed nations and it will grant even more power to the country in the international scene.
Consolatore, D., Living with democracy in Egypt, available at http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/Consolatore.Egypt.pdf;
Ibrahim, a., 2006. "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy." Journal of Democracy Vol. 17, No.…
Consolatore, D., Living with democracy in Egypt, available at http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/Consolatore.Egypt.pdf ;
Ibrahim, a., 2006. "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy." Journal of Democracy Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 5-12;
Kjeilen, T., Egypt: Political situation, available at http://www.lexicorient.com/e.o/egypt_1.htm;
Lipset, S.M., 2004 . "Economic Development and Democracy," in Patrick O'Neil and Ronald Rogowski (eds.) Essential Readings in Comparative Politics. New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 287-301.
Egyptian history is clouded in doubt and mystery. e do recognize however that the contributions from this great and ancient culture to estern Civilization are numerous and profound. The purpose of this essay is to explore one of the greatest and perhaps least knows rules of Ancient Ruler, Taharka. The purpose of this essay is to explore Taharka's life in an attempt to become more familiarized with his accomplishments in influencing today's world. By examining his life, we may be able to understand more about today's current situation, not only in the Near and Middle East but all around the world.
Silverman (1997) described the region before Taharka's birth around 880 BC, as a "fragmented condition where Egypt began to fall under the influence of a state that had once been its colony, " the Nubian kingdom of Kush. Taharka's father Piye. Kush had become a great power and…
Akintola, O. (2010).Nations of the World. How they Evolved. Hilldew View, New York.
Aubin, H. (2002). The Rescue of Jerusalem. Soho Press, New York.
Draper, R. (2008). The black pharaohs. National Graphic Magazine, February 2008. Retrieved from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2008/02/black-pharaohs/robert-draper-text
Kahn, D. (2004). Taharqa, king of kush and the assyrians. JESSA 31. 2004. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/234995/Taharqa_King_of_Kush_and_the_Assyrians
Battle of Kadesh
It is difficult for us to understand the concept of war in ancient days. In our era of modern warfare, computer guided munitions and instant communication with troops on the other side of a city of on the other side of the globe; our ideas of war have significantly changed over the past few decades. Even a war such as World War Two will likely never be fought again. During WWII, it was possible to hide troop movements, and move faster than enemy intelligence. However, today, the presence of airborne and waterborne weapon platforms allows individual nations to be positioned in the event of battle before the first shot is fired.
However, such was not the case in ancient times. Armies of stronger forces and overwhelming numbers could be defeated because of simple tactical mistakes. A single unknown troop could distract a superior force long enough to…
Aldred, Cyril. Egyptian Art. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994.
Kadesh." Battles of the World. CD-ROM. Cambridge: Compton's New Media, 1996.
Ceram, C.W. The Secret of the Hittites. Trans. Richard Winston and Clara Winston. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956.
Gurney, O.R. The Hittites. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books,1972.
Egypt, Fashion and Merchandising
Religion, culture, national pride and tradition all play a part in merchandising approaches and fashion businesses in Egypt. The tradition of the family, gender issues, the roles of men and women in society, the extent to which religious beliefs are promoted in the culture—all of this impacts merchandising and fashion. This paper will look at how religion influences merchandising approaches and fashion businesses in Egypt and discuss the effect that religion has on retail and whether or not religious customs appear to be changing.
Egypt is a predominantly Muslim country with a somewhat strong level of Coptic Christian communities. For that reason, the government adopts a secular attitude towards religion, but the religious culture and climate has a strong tradition for dictating dress and merchandising approaches. Other than in Cairo, where events like Cairo Fashion Week (2018) are annually held to promote fashion designs that are…
History Of Egypt
Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3
The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4
ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5
Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6
Conclusion & Suggestions
Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…
Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,
and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.
Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.
Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
Political History Of Egypt
Examining the History of an Ancient Land:
The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.
In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance…
"Search Results | The Economist." The Economist - World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
"BBC News - Egypt Profile - Leaders." BBC - Homepage. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
Goodman, Amy. "Arab Spring: A Discussion on Libya, Egypt and the Mideast with Palestinian Writer Rula Jebreal, Author of "Miral" & Journalist Issandr El Amrani." A Daily TV/radio News Program, Hosted by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, Airing on over 900 Stations, Pioneering the Largest Community Media Collaboration in the United States. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…
Amin, Hussein, and I- Chapter One: General Status. "Report on the State of the Media in Egypt." The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Project Title: Strengthening the Rule of Law and Integrity in the Arab World Report on the State of the Media in Egypt Second Draft Author: Dr. Hussein Amin. Arab Rule of Law. (n.d.). Web.
"Egypt." Freedom House. 2012. Web.
Elmasry, Mohamed Hamas. Journalism with Restraint: A Comparative Content Analysis of Independent, Government, and Opposition Newspapers in Pre-Revolution Egypt. 2012. Web.
El Zahed, Hala. "Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy." Egyptian Press and the Transition to Democracy: A Study of the Conditions and Challenges Facing National Print Media Post. 2011. Web.
At the time of this report on October 27, 2010, the Brotherhood spoke out against boycotting the upcoming election, but projected a rather optimistic attitude towards resolving the conflict that confronted them. Still, in light of this optimistic attitude, they did not deny that it would oppose the anti-government in other ways (Arrott). Senior Brotherhood leader, Essam el-Eryan commented, "hat is urgent and a priority is to change the rules of the political game. e are ready to accommodate with any real political system…but we are living in a police state."
On December 1, 2010, it was reported that the Brotherhood planned to boycott the 2010 elections run offs (CNN Newswire). The boycott is being held as a protest to the irregularities in the first round of voting held on November 24, 2010. (CNN Newswire).
The Brotherhood did not win a single seat in Parliament in the 2010 election after…
Abd al-Monein, Said. "Modern Islamic Reform Movements: The Muslim Brotherhood in Contemporary Egypt." Middle East Journal 36.3 (1982): n. pag. Web. 7 Dec. 2010.
American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. "Hosni Muhammad' Mubarak." Jewish Virtual
Library, 2000. Web. 7 Dec. 2010.
Arrott, Elizabeth. "Egyptian Brotherhood Under Pressure Prior to 2010 Elections." VOA
At which point, they were seen as a neutral between the two different sides. ("Egypt Revolution," 2011)
The protestors played a role in the conflict, by pushing for various changes to take place. This is despite the fact that they were: attacked, some of their key leaders were sent to jail and access the Internet was shut down. Yet, despite these different obstacles the underlying message would spread through the social networking site Facebook. This is when many of the protestors would become united and galvanized under a common cause. Where, this would push them to continue with their demonstrations; until their issues surrounding: the frustrations with the government and lack of opportunity were addressed (starting with the resignation of President Mubarak). This is important, because it shows how the Facebook page would help to: unite the protestors under one common cause and it kept the momentum of the movement…
Egypt Revolution. (2011). Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/30/egypt-revolution-2011_n_816026.html
Freed Google Executive. (2011). Jerusalem Post. Retrieved from: http://www.jpost.com/International/Article.aspx?id=207292&R=R4
Newman, D. (2008).The Architecture of Stratification. Sociology. (pp. 292 -- 316). Los Angeles, CA: Pine Forge.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Old Kingdom Egypt
Egypt is known for its cultural and intellectual developments, because the Egyptians were focused on the afterlife. This paper will discuss the religious and cultural role of the pyramids. Funerals were very important to old kingdom Egypt and its conception of immortality. Immortality was the most important goal in the life of an Egyptian, whether they were rich or poor. Old kingdom Egypt began around 2686 BC, when King Menes united lower and upper Egypt and ran unbroken for nearly 3000 years (Koeller, 1999). It was generally run by approximately 30 family dynasties (Underwood, 2004). During this time, many pyramids were built for the rulers when they died. Although the pyramids were spectacular feats of architecture, they were also built for cultural and religious reasons. It was believed that the rulers of old kingdom Egypt were god-kings, and they would ascend from the pyramid after death and…
Koeller, David W. (1999). Old Kingdom Egypt. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/OldKingdom.html
Lamb, Annette, & Johnson, Larry. (2003). The topic: Ancient Egypt. http://www.42explore2.com/egypt.htm
Tangen, Turid. (1996). Pyramid building begins. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/Pyramids.html
The Great Egyptian Pyramid (2004). http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/7210/pyramid.htm
evolution in Egypt_
Modern citizens hardly make decisions in a social vacuum. This underscore the role social media plays in determining decisions that people make. Social media influences what modern citizens know and how they feel about it. It therefore plays an integral role in influencing the masses. Trends in groups start after one person has taken a stand. This person's stand then influences others creating a cascade effect (Krebs, 2006). Cascades and numbers are integral in unconventional warfare like the revolution that was experienced in Egypt. In today's world users of social networks readily use information received from search network. A person will most likely be drawn into a stand that has been taken by his family members, neighbors, and casual acquaintances. Groups in social networks are easily influenced by the behavior of their members, key opinion leaders, as well as those with connections with them. These groups, opinion…
Aziz, M.A. & Hussein, Y. (2002). The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt.
Arab Studies Journal, 9(10), 73 -- 88.
Gladwell, M. (2002). Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York:
Back Bay Books.
Social Systems (Egypt, Aksum, and Inland Niger Delta)
This paper makes comparisons between the early social systems of Egypt, Aksum, and the Inland Niger Delta.
Society in early Egyptian history was more structured than either of the other two societies to be reviewed in this paper. Egyptian society was structured like a pyramid, according to U.S. History's pages on Ancient Civilizations. At the top of the pyramid the gods were placed; Isis, Ra, Osiris and other Egyptian gods were most revered and respected because Egyptians believed that gods had control of the universe. They could "make the Nile overflow, cause famine, or even bring death" (U.S. History). Leaders called "pharaohs" were also considered gods (in human form), and they had a huge amount of power to enact laws and lead the military, so they were high on the pyramid. In fact the pyramids in Egypt were built specifically to…
Ancient Civilizations. (2008). Ancient Egypt / Egyptian Social Structure. U.S. History.
Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://www.ushistory.org .
Hirst, Kris K. (2011). Aksum of Ethiopia. About.com. Retrieved January 14, 2013, from http://archaeology.about.com .
McIntosh, Susan Keech, and McIntosh, Roderick J. (2009). Jenne-Jeno, an Ancient African
role sumed pipeline EGYPT international trade kind special services customers petroleum sector. notice: references internet .
Sumed Pipeline in Egypt
Traditionally, oil would be transported from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean region via the Suez Canal, which has also earned a remarkable historic resonance to its name. After a decade of construction, the Suez Canal was first used in 1869 and its aim is that of allowing transportation by water from Asia to Europe, without having to travel around Africa.
The Suez Canal is the traditional choice for transporting goods from one region to the other, and it is open to the access of all vessels, in times of war and peace, regardless of the flags carried by the vessels. Still, a shortage in using the Suez Canal is represented by the delays which can be encountered and the queues that can be created.
As a result of these…
Strumph, D., Whittaker, M. (2011). Egypt unrest strokes oil, gold. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704680604576110530618545842.html accessed on October 30, 2012
Wahba, A.L., (2011). Egypt's military deploys along Sumed oil pipeline, official says. Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-01/egypt-military-deploys-along-sumed-oil-pipe-adds-sentries-official-says.html accessed on October 30, 2012
(2006). Website of Sumed Pipeline. http://www.sumed.org accessed on October 30, 2012
(2011). No delays on Egypt's Sumed pipeline, Suez Canal: local sources. Platts. http://www.platts.com/RSSFeedDetailedNews/RSSFeed/Shipping/8501741 accessed on October 30, 2012
Another area where these two authors differ significantly is with respect to their views as conqueror and conquered. Cole illustrates the French point-of-view upon entering Alexandria as one of profound disappointment. The people's worth, for the French, was measured by the shabbiness of the city. The French then felt a noble duty to make the situation better for these people. Al-Jabarti, not surprisingly, takes umbrage with this. The righteous outrage embodied in his criticism of Napoleon's letter may seem over the top, harping on points of grammar, but it illustrates effectively the outrage at the French pompousness. Al-Jabarti does not accept the right of the French to rule Egypt, nor does he accept any of their half-baked arguments for the invasion. His outrage taints much of his narrative, but it is hardly unreasonable. He demonstrates contempt towards the French for being unlike Muslims; but the French are clearly demonstrating contempt…
Cairo Egypt.... I elementary
Egypt is largely considered to be one of the cradles of civilization when considering its history, its culture, and the numerous notable figures that it is responsible for holding throughout history. Even with this, its current capital, Cairo, does not have a significant connection to Ancient Egypt. Cairo's greatest connection to the area it is located in when considering the context of Ancient Egypt is the fact that it is located in the vicinity of the ancient of Memphis, an Egyptian inhabitance built by the first Pharaoh, Menes. The city's name originates from the Arabic expression Al-Q-hirah, which means the triumphant or the victorious. Cairo is the largest city on the African continent and is largely a center of cultural life and politics when considering the African region it is located in as a whole.
It would be safe to say that Cairo is both a…
Beattie, A. (2005). Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books.
Korany, B. & El-Mahdi, R. (2012). Arab Spring in Egypt: Revolution and Beyond. American University in Cairo Press.
"Destination Cairo," Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://www.egypt.travel/city/index/cairo
Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War
On June 5, 1967, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt which quickly spread to involve other neighboring states with both ground and air troops becoming involved in the conflict. Israel claimed that the attack was provoked by a massive Egyptian build-up of military forces along the Israeli border. On May 27 of that year the President of Egypt, Abdel Nasser, had stated that Egypt's basic objective was the destruction of Israel (BBC, 1967). Although Israel had consistently attempted to negotiate with its neighbors, their overtures were repeatedly rejected (Bard, 2008). Intelligence indicated the Arab states were preparing to go to war against Israel with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria being aided by Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Algeria. On May 16 President Nasser ordered the withdrawal of United Nations Emergency Forces from the Egyptian-Israeli border. Later that month Egypt had signed a…
Given the criteria presented in the spectrum of justification for war this conflict may be classified as an easier-to-justify preventative war. The Arab states had indeed demonstrated acts of hostile intent, preparatory steps toward hostile action, and made inflammatory rhetoric in the face of reasonable offers of negotiation. Since there is some room for doubt that an attack was pending this war cannot be classified as justified. Whether or not Israel was morally justified in taking this action is debatable, however when placed in the context of the time a strong argument may be made that it was.
On March 19, 2003, American and British forces began "Operation Iraqi Freedom" otherwise known as the Iraq War. There are several issues that may be pointed to as the basic reasons for the second major war between a United States led coalition and Iraq. First, there were lingering tensions and hostilities, remnants left over from the first Gulf war of 1991. At the close of that war the Iraqi government agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons including SCUD missiles and various Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The United Nations was tasked with sending weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and to search for any prohibited weapons the believed to be in hidden by the Iraqi government. Additionally, two "No Fly Zones" were established over northern and southern Iraq for the protection of Iraqi minority groups in opposition to the Saddam Hussein government. Allied aircraft patrolled the air over these zones in order to prevent Iraqi aircraft
This is largely due to the fact that, despite the constant sense of rejection of western influence among the older generation, the young generation of Muslim teenagers is more and more interested in the American lifestyle and every product that suggests a part of American culture. Dahlia Zayed, Regional Marketing Manager for TNS Middle East & Africa supports this point in her article "Fast food still sells in Egypt" arguing that the mirage of the American culture has made the society change. At the same time however, it is pointed out that the main part was played by the campaigns that tried to promote precisely the idea that companies have oriented their products according to the special needs of the Muslim religion which rejects pork meat or different other spices that otherwise make the basis of Pizza Hut products. This adaptability is important in a world of competition because it…
Barry Mike John W. Slocum Jr. "Slice of Reality: Changing Culture at Pizza Hut and Yum! Brands, Inc." Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 319-330, 2003.
Craig S. Smith. "The Market McDonald's Missed: The Muslim Burger." Clichy-sous-Bois Journal. The New York Times International. 2005. (4 March 2008) http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/16/international/europe/16halal.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin
Fenlon, Brodie. "China: Better Rich Than Red. Leashing the Economic Dragon." The Toronto Sun Toronto, Canada, Nov. 29, 2002. (4 March 2008) http://www.worldpress.org/Asia/895.cfm
FoxNews. "Pakistani Youths Set Pizza Hut on Fire to Protest Cleric's Death." Fast Food Jihad. 2006 (4 March 2008) http://www.jihadwatch.org/archives/012274.php
British Invaded Egypt
The Egypt Uprising -- the anti-British Involvement
easons for the war 6
The Nationalist eaction to British Influence
The British Invasion
The British invasion of Egypt occurred in 1882 and it is also known as the Anglo-Egyptian War. The war was between the British forces and the forces from Egypt and Sudan who were led by Ahmed 'Urabi'. The war was fought on the pretext to stop a nationalist uprising in Egypt that against the khedive Tewfik Pasha. The war helped establish and expand the British Empire in Africa (E-International elations, 2009).
The then ruler of Egypt and Sudan, Tewfik Pasha was considered a failed ruler and was accused of making wrong investments on behalf of the country. This led an Egyptian army officer, Ahmed 'Urabi also known as Arabi Pasha, to orchestrate a mutiny against the ruler. The reason of the mutiny was apparently…
Bbc.co.uk,. 2011. 'BBC - History - British History In Depth: The Suez Crisis'. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/suez_01.shtml .
Brendon, Piers. 2008. The Decline And Fall Of The British Empire, 1781-1997. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Cleary, Vern. 2015. 'Thesuez Canal And The British Conquest Of Egypt'. Webs.Bcp.Org. http://webs.bcp.org/sites/vcleary/ModernWorldHistoryTextbook/Imperialism/section_6/suezcanal.html .
E-International Relations,. 2009. 'The British Invasion Of Egypt, 1882'. http://www.e-ir.info/2009/03/23/the-british-invasion-of-egypt-1882/ .
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…
Chan, Michael J. "Egypt." Oxford Biblical Studies Online. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 15
Dec. 2015. .
Hicks, Derek. "Geography and the Early Greeks." Selinsgrove Area School District. Selinsgrove Area School District, 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2015. .
Zank, Michael. "Israelite History in the Context of the Ancient Near East." Boston University.
Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.
Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.
Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.
Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm
ar in Egypt, Israel, and Greece
How have wars impacted societies in Israel, Egypt, and Greece? This paper delves into those topics.
Not long after the United Nations approved allowing the State of Israel to come into fruition in 1948, Arab neighbors attacked Israel and tried to destroy the newly established Jewish nation. Egypt, Syria and other forces from nearby squeezed the borders of Israel in an apparent attempt to wipe Israel out. But the Israeli army pushed back on several fronts and by January, 1949, Israel had reclaimed all the lands from the attackers, and had regained the lands that the United Nations had originally agreed to grant to Israel (Swift Maps).
Meanwhile, in 1967, the Jewish state was just 19 years old but it was facing a serious military challenge from Egypt. According to the BBC, the "Voice of the Arabs," Egyptian strong man Gamal Abdul Nasser's…
BBC. "How 1967 defined the Middle East." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://news.bbc.co.uk .
Global Security. "Greek Civil War." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.globalsecurity.org . 2004.
History.com. "June 11, 1967: Six-Day War Ends." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.history.com . 2006
PBS. "General Article: Peace Talks at Camp David, September, 1978. Retrieved
Contributions of Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb to Egypt’s National Development and Banking System
Born on 25th November, 1867 in Cairo’s El- Gammalia, Mohamed Talaat Pasha Harb is considered one among the greatest personalities who contributed to Egypt’s overall national growth and development. He studied art, science, economics, literature, and French. After acquiring a law degree, he commenced his career in the role of translator in the Royal Circuits’ Lawsuits Section, responsible for state- owned farmland. Though favoring free enterprise, he was quick to climb the rungs of the career ladder, landing the position of lawsuits section manager (53-75)3.
His subsequent posts as manager were at various organizations including Kom Ombo Company (a firm that actively reclaimed and sold land) and the Egyptian Real- Estate Company (where he ensured citizens of Egypt held most of the shares). He penned numerous books, including “The Economic Remedy of Egypt and Creating the…
Egyptian Advertising Imagery
Marketing Considerations for Egypt
Egypt is a country prime for expansion by U.S. based companies. With a population of over 81 million people, there is great opportunity for growth. It is the second-largest county in the Middle East and Africa and citizens have a high appreciation for high quality and high-end brands, particularly American brands. Despite the global economic crisis that began in 2009, Egypt managed to sustain a 4.7% growth in GDP -- an enviable rate for most countries -- largely due to strong growth fundamentals, effective market reforms and a proactive government stimulus (Melewar et al., 2000).
Before a company ventures into the Middle East, certain considerations must be given to proper advertising and marketing. A comprehensive understanding of the culture is required. Given recent civil unrest in the region, it is important to always address respect for the individual. This concern for human rights…
Cavalluzzo, J. (2011). Egypt's Cultural Revolution. Social Policy, 41(4), 75-77.
Smith, P. (2011). Advertising in the age of revolution. Middle East, (423), 66-69.
Melewar, T.C., Turnbull, S., & Balabanis, G. (2000). International advertising strategies of multinational enterprises in the Middle East. International Journal Of Advertising, 19(4), 529-547.
Environmental Quality International in SIWA
Egypt has long been seen as a place rich in tradition and culture. With specific respect to Siwa, a region in the country, this was very much true when it was discovered by an investor in 1995, who described it as untouched by time.
Despite its recent rocky revolution, Egypt has strived to place itself in a position to be a model not just for Africa, but for the whole of the Arab World, and has done so by promoting freedoms and encouraging foreign investment through various liberal policies. This has helped alleviate the country's employment problem, but much remains to be done, and not all reforms have been wholly positive. The paragraphs below will focus further on the Siwa region, and the specific project which it entails, and will discuss the objectives of the project introduced here, as well as pertinent issues and…
Please note that this source, referenced here and throughout the paper, was provided in a PDF document by the customer.
This second source is referenced below:
No Author. (2012). Siwa Sustainable Development Initiative. International Chamber of Commerce: UNDP. Retrieved January 15, 2012, from .
Annibale Carracci, "Flight into Egypt" 1603-1604
This painting is a lunette, or a half-moon shape. However, the composition within the painting is triangular in nature, with the point of the triangle facing down at the precise point of Mary's feet. The center point of the composition is a waterfall leading from a castle into the estuary. The eye follows the flow of the water down, to settle on the figure of Mary carrying infant Jesus. The color palette also draws the eye toward Mary, who is bathed in white aural light that corresponds with the white tones in the rushing waterfall. In the foreground are three figures. The horizontal planes of the foreground and background terrain are complemented by the verticality of the trees, but the upper third of the painting is taken up by the sky. The content of Carracci's painting depicts the long journey Mary is undertaking…
..may establish schools for the education and care of the disabled and schools for special education in a way that matches their abilities and aptitudes." This article takes us back to the idea of isolation not integration, by establishing special schools for the disabled. This is a possibility, not an obligation, in accordance with the Minister of Education's inclinations and preferences." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) It is stated in Article 14 that conditions of medical fitness "...should be required for acceptance in all age stages." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) Specifically stated are the following:
(1) Article no. 1 states "The provisions of the child law shall be applicable and any other provision contradicting with the provisions of the said law shall be abrogated."
(2) Article no. 54 indicates "Free education in the schools of the state is a right of all children."
(3) Article no. 133 states "The…
Mittler, Peter (2003) International Experience in Including Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. Inclusion Theory and Practice. Enabling Education Network. 3 Mar 2003. Online available at: http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory_practice/internat_exp.shtml
Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.
Gaad, Eman (2004) Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 1 July 2004.
Wormnaes, Siri (2008) Cross-cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An arena for facilitating reflection? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol. 55, No. 3, September 2008, 205 -- 225
Journalists, Their Terminology and Terrorism
In the age of terrorism and in the age of the Internet, journalists are coming under more and more intensive scrutiny and are increasingly urged to act more sensitively to the power they have and the power which they can wield when it comes to reporting current events -- particularly those related to terrorism. As some scholars have illuminated, journalists are indeed arbitrators of rhetoric, and ones which have limited success: "Evidence of arbitration is seen in comparisons between how media personnel describe terrorist events and their perpetrators and how government officials make similar descriptions. Journalists serve as creators of rhetoric whenever they report terrorist events. The rhetorical tradition employed determines the nature of that rhetoric. The role of formats, the presentation conventions that are used to package information and determine the significance and the information that news packages carry, are also important" (Picard 1989).…
Ahramonline. (2013, August 14). Egypt police attack Muslim Brotherhood sit-ins in Cairo. Retrieved from ahramonline.com: http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/78982/Egypt/Politics-/UPDATED-Egypt-police-attack-Muslim-Brotherhood-sit.aspx
Ahramonline. (2013, August 14). Egypt police attack Muslim Brotherhood sit-ins in Cairo. Retrieved from Ahramonline:
International Accounting Culture
Changing something as important and far-reaching as the accounting standards followed by a business can be a massive undertaking. However, this sort of complex change can be made all the more complicated when there are intense or complicated social and international factors in play. The case study studied for this report describes exactly such a situation in Egypt. That study will be reviewed in this report and other sources covering the same general topic will also be explored.
Case & esearch Analysis
As for the case study itself, it is quickly noted that Egypt is a developing country but they are most certainly transitioning to a market-based economy on par with more developed parts of the world like North America and western Europe. Egypt, like much of the world, was under colonial control and that was not ceded until the revolution that occurred in the 1950's. The…
Carlo, A.M. (2006). "Overseas Adjustment," Home Channel News. New York: October
2006, Volume 32, Issue 13, Pages 26-28
Dahawy, K., Shehata, N., & Ransopher, T. (2011). The state of accounting in Egypt: A
case. Journal of Business Cases & Applications, 3, 68-79.
Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.
Statement of Thesis
The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.
Mesopotamia & Egypt
What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…
Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm
Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/indus_valley.htm
extra lines paragraphs. Use footnotes endnotes ( author, title book, page number needed).
The contemporary society largely owes its advancements to ancient peoples such as the Egyptians, considering the technological progress experienced in Egypt in times when the rest of the world was struggling to survive given the harsh conditions available. hile Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were diverse civilizations and spread over several territories, Ancient Egypt concentrated on a particular geographical area. Even with this, the complex nature of this particular civilization makes it difficult for one to describe it similar to how he or she would describe the other two.
In order to have a better understanding of Ancient Egypt one would first have to consider its location. Most people associate it with the African continent as a whole while others are inclined to associate it with the northern part of the territory, considering that these people generally…
Donadoni, Sergio, "The Egyptians," (University of Chicago Press, 1997)
Loken, Israel P. "The Old Testament Historical Books:
An Introduction," (Xulon Press, 30.05.2008)
Modrzejewski, Joseph, "The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian," (Princeton University Press, 27.10.1997)
. This was to lead to the inevitable interaction and cross -- cultural pollination between the cultures. Kline states that; " No wonder that such a large number of Egyptian loan words, phrases and intellectual ideas should be preserved in the Old Testament, along with a large number of idiomatic expressions, and two Egyptian units of measure" (Kline). However, while cultural interaction and the adoption of various phrases and words is not denied by most scholars, what is contested and debated is the extent to which this cultural interaction influenced and impacted the development of the religious foundations of both Judaism and Christianity.
4. How Egypt influenced customs and practices; fact vs. myth
There are numerous examples in the literature that refer to a more extensive cultural intersection and interaction with the Egyptian civilization. One can refer to the view that the name of the Divine Unity in this regard.…
Desborough W. Who Were the Israelites? May 17, 2010.
DUNN J. The ISRAELITE EXODUS FROM EGYPT. May 17, 2010.
208). Begin could tell the Israeli community that the Egyptian made extreme demands and the Americans didn't handle the negotiations very well. Begin's more "militant supporters" in Israel would back him up no matter the outcome, Quandt explains (p. 208).
A for Sadat, he believed that he and Carter already had a preliminary agreement that would "force the Israelis to make significant concessions"; hence, Sadat would put "all his cards face up on the table before the president," helping Carter to "manage the inevitable confrontation with Begin" (Quandt, p. 208). Sadat told the American delegation "repeatedly" that an agreement between the U.S. And Egypt "was more important to him than an Egyptian-Israeli agreement."
The only worry that Begin had, Quandt asserts on page 208, is that if the talks failed, Carter "might blame him for the failure, go public with that judgment, and try to mobilize American public opinion against…
Bard, Mitchell G. (1990). How Fares the Camp David Trio? Orbis, 34(2), 227-241.
Carter, Jimmy. (2009). We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land: A Plan That Will Work. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (1978). Camp David Accords. Retrieved February 27, 2011,
From http://www.mfa.gov.il .
The children also rent decorated bikes to ride around town on for the holiday. It is a time for families to get together and celebrate with food and music and fellowship.
For a lot of families from working neighborhoods, Eid celebration also includes picnics in green areas including parks, zoos, botanical gardens and even green islands on major roads (Osama, 2004)."
Most of Egypt is Islam. Like Christians, the Islam followers trace their roots to Abraham and believe in one God who is universal. In Islam God is referred to as ALLAH which means One Universal God.
The Quran is the final revealed Word of God and provides the complete guide for human behavior. Its text was revealed directly to the prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632 C.E. Muhammad is revered by Muslims as the last of God's prophets but is not worshipped (Ahmad, 2005)."
Men and women are…
Most of the people would define a myth as a story. But this is not the correct meaning of a myth. The debate over the accurate meaning of myth has been going through since last 2000 years. The most generally accepted definition of a myth is that, myths are stories regarding the gods. They are sacred stories and they give an explanation about the way the world is. They are traditional stories that contain knowledge and information. (Pinch 1-5)
Mythological stories have been told by the Egyptians for thousands of years. They, however, properly started recording and writing these mythological stories from 2000 BC. In the ancient times the Egyptians had a number of gods. People belonging to different regions had different gods whom they worshiped. ith the development of society, people of different regions started living together, and the stories regarding the culture, traditions, religion and way…
Bbc.co.uk. "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Ancient Egypt and the Modern World." 2010. Web. 1 May 2013. .
Center for Future Consciousness. "Ancient Myth, Religion, and Philosophy." 2013. Web. 1 May 2013. .
David A., Warburton. "Myth as the Link between Event and History." IBAES X. 283-292. Web. 1 May. 2013. .
Dijk, Jacobus. Myth and Mythmaking in Ancient Egypt. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2008. 1697-1700. Web. .
3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets
ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…
2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: [29 March 2010].
Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
Herodotus admires the practical as well as the religious achievements of Egypt, however. "Now if the Nile should choose to divert his waters from their present bed into this Arabian Gulf, what is there to hinder it from being filled up by the stream within, at the utmost, twenty thousand years... Thus I give credit to those from whom I received this account of Egypt, and am myself, moreover, strongly of the same opinion, since I remarked that the country projects into the sea further than the neighboring shores," (Chapter II) He even gives Egypt this final credit, in comparison to Greek "The Egyptians, they went on to affirm, first brought into use the names of the twelve gods, which the Greeks adopted from them; and first erected altars, images, and temples to the gods; and also first engraved upon stone the figures of animals. (Chapter II)
Nagle, D. Brendan. The Ancient World. Fifth Edition.
Bailkey, Nels M. Readings in Ancient History.
Herodotus. "Histories." Chapter II. Retrieved in total at Internet Classics Archive., http://classics.mit.edu/Herodotus/history.2.ii.html .
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…
Ashmawy, A.K. (1995). Cleopatra: The Last Pharoah, B.C. 69-30. History
of Alexandria. Online at <
Burstein, S.M. (2004). The Reign of Cleopatra. Greenwood Publishing
Ramesses exerted significant effort to build monuments and grand statues within various parts of the empire. Tyldesley explains that these statues fulfilled a personal purpose of allowing the soul to survive eternally within the Kingdom of Osiris.
Overall, Tyldesley's book is an amazing chronicle of the life of Ramesses, there are so many myths surrounding this character that it is extremely hard to dissect the truth from the myth. The author uses a blending of archaeological and historical evidence to piece together and narrate the life of Ramsses. Although this book is extremely rich in its detail, it does have some significant shortcomings. It chronicles Ramesses story but at the same time does not establish the specific circumstances immediately preceding or after his rule. There is a dearth of background information about the real scope of his rule, and thus, the reader cannot get an explicit sense of the scope…
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
Hymn to Aten
In Ancient Egypt the king Akhenaten completely altered the lifestyles of all his subjects by demanding that they give their singular devotion to the sun god Aten. Before him, Egyptians had a different system of beliefs with many gods whereas Atenism held that Aten was the central god. Egypt had been a polytheistic society wherein each god had a specified set of abilities and limitations to their powers. Each person chose a god to whom they would dedicate themselves and to which they would give most of their devotion. The god was the choice of the individual, a choice which was no longer available when the pantheon of gods deteriorated to a single all-powerful deity. All Egyptian peoples were forced to embrace the new religion and with it forgo the traditions and customs of their ancestors. The changing religion was only one of the aspects of the…
"The Great Hymn to the Aten." The Western Humanities Vol. 1. Ed. Roy Matthews & DeWitt
Platt. McGraw Hill, 2010. Print.
At the same time, the presentation of his work, the lives of the community in which he lived and the way in which he succeeded in forming a family must be relevant for the actual depiction of the historical background, the environment, and the customs of the time. For instance, the fact that he was given to marry the elder daughter of the ruler of the land he had chosen as his next home, Amunenshi, represented indeed an appreciation of his qualities and virtues as an Egyptian. Therefore, it can be said that the piece of writing is also an important source of history of the Near East.
Another important perspective of the story is the historical one which offers a view on the current situation of the time in Egypt. Therefore, the story focuses on the way in which king Sesostris was involved in political actions and maneuvers that…
The Story of Sinuhe. (n.d.) Retrieved 19 May 2008, from the Ancient Egypt Online web site: http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…
Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.
Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html
Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm
Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
Overview/Biography -- In many academic circles, the man Imhotep (He who comes in peace) exemplifies the rich tradition of Ancient Egypt. He was an Egyptian royal, but not a ruler, who served under the Third Dynasty King Djoser as his Chancellor and then High Priest to the sun god Ra in the city of Heliopolis. His accomplishments were quite numerous; many consider him to be the first recorded expert planner in architecture, engineering, and physicians (Osler).
hat is particularly interesting about Imhotep is that he was one of the very few mortals to be honored by being depicted as part of a pharaoh's statue. This was extremely rare in Egyptian history, and shows the tremendous importance Imhotep had to the political and cultural hegemony of the time period. He was also given divine status after his death, with the center of the Imhotep cult centered around the city of…
Davidovits, J. They Built the Pyramids. Sant-Quentin, France: Institute Geopolymere, 2008. Print.
Dunn, J. "Imhotep, Doctor, Architect, High Priest, Scribe and Vizier to King Djoser." 24 October 2011. Touregypt.net. Web. December 2011. .
"Imhotep." January 2011. NNDB. Web. December 2011. .
Kemp, B. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.
Horus History Of the Egyptian God, Horus
Horus is one of the most important Egyptian gods and the Pharaoh was seen to be his earthly embodiment. At the same time, the Pharaohs were the followers of Ra and so Horus became associated with the sun as well and was seen as the son of the God, Osiris. In the common perception of Egyptian mythology, Horus is known as one of the offspring of the original pair of Egyptian gods, Ra and Rhea. Horus' siblings were Set, Isis, and Nephthys.
The mythological story continues with Osiris succeeding Ra as king of Egypt. Osiris is credited with bringing civilization to the Egyptians. Among the things he taught them were the uses of corn and wine, weaving, sculpture, religion, music and law. Set slew Osiris, and dismembered the body; but Osiris' consort, Isis, reassembled the body and brought Osiris back to life. Osiris…
1911 Encyclopedia. Horus. May 23, 2004. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/H/HO/HORUS.htm
Acharya, S. The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold. 2004. Accessed May 23, 2004.
Egyptian Myths. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology. May 24, 2004. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/horus.htm
Horus: He who is above. May 24, 2004. http://members.aol.com/egyptart/hormyth.html
International Crisis on Businesses.
In this paper, I will assume the task of a consultant at McKinsey and Co. It is my duty to analyze the effects on international and local businesses of the problems which are erupted in Middle Eastern/Northern African countries particularly Egypt, Tunisia and others. This paper will be produced for the clients of McKinsey and Co in order to assist them in their respective strategies for the region. The main four topics which would be addressed in this paper are as follows, the local impact on business, the global impact on businesses and industries, the impact on shareholder value and wealth of the most affected companies and finally the short, medium and long-term political influences which might affect businesses.
Local Impact on Businesses
During the times of severe political or social unrest which is now seen in countries like Egypt, Tunisia, Syria and others, the overall…
Stiles, Kendall. (2002). Civil Society by Design. Connecticut: Praeger.
Hironaka, Ann. (2005). Never-ending Wars. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Madison, G. (1998). Political Economy of Civil Society and Human Rights. London: Routledge.
Cardenas, Gilberto. (2004). La Causa. Houston: Arte Publico.
Palette of Narmer is one of the most significant Egyptian archeological finds. The palette is given very high importance because it dates back to 31st century BC and it contains certain hieroglyphic inscriptions that are considered to be some of the earliest. The fascinating inscriptions on the palette are said to depict the unification of Egypt under the rule of king Narmer. Following is an analysis of the both sides of the palette in light of the scholarly literature.
How does the Palette of Narmer describe the unification of Egypt?
After a detailed analysis of the inscriptions on both sides of the palette, it has been determined that the palette represents the unification of Egypt. The top of the palette features similar inscriptions on both sides. The top consists of two bovine heads with the name of a king inscribed in the middle in what is said to be 'serekh'.…
Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt: Strategies, Society and Security. New York: Routledge, 2001. Print.
Davis, Whitney. Masking the Blow: The Scene of Representation in Late Prehistoric Egyptian Art. Oxford: University of California Press, 1992. Print.
health care system has focused on the prevention and cure of disease and illness. When people got sick, every bit of energy and finances went into trying to figure out how to stop it. This was true even when the patient had a disorder or a disease that was deemed incurable. For many years when someone got a disease in which there was no cure, it did not change the method of treatment. The medical community, the family and the patient continued to try every possible avenue to stop the progress. Often times the patient would submit to painful and disorienting treatments, because they didn't want to disappoint their family members or their doctors. At the same time the medical community was expanding the length of life so that many people were living longer than ever before. These two things began to clash. At what point do people stop trying…
Public health system suffers from chronic underfunding http://home.aigonline.com/content/0,1109,16263-694-ceo,00.html
NEWS FROM AROUND AFRICA http://www.hospicecare.com/Newsletters/july2003/page8.html
Healthcare & Medical Market in Morocco http://www.tradepartners.gov.uk/healthcare/morocco/profile/overview.shtml
What is Hospice? http://www.hospicefoundation.org/what_is/
History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing
The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.
Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.
Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…
Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm
The Ancient Maya.
Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004. http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm
Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm