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Eleanor Roosevelt served effectively as the First Lady in the administrations of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, but her legacy goes far deeper than her advocacy activities as First Lady. This paper briefly reviews Eleanor Roosevelt's career, her advocacy as First Lady, and more fully her profoundly important involvement in the creation and adoption of the United Nations' Declaration of Human Rights.
Eleanor Roosevelt's Brief Biography -- and Involvement as First Lady
Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City on October 11, 1884 (she died November 7, 1962). Her father was Elliott Roosevelt (brother of President Theodore Roosevelt) and her mother was Anna Hall. She lost both her parents when she was a child and lived with her grandmother, Mrs. Valentine G. Hall; she was tutored privately until the age of 15 when she attended a boarding school for girls in England, according to the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and…
American Decades Primary Sources. "Letter of Resignation from the Daughters of the American Revolution. February 26, 1939. Gale Biography in Context. 2004.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. "Eleanor Roosevelt Biography."
Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu . 2008.
O'Farrell, Brigid. "Restoring Workplace Democracy: Eleanor Roosevelt and Labor Law
Eleanor was an activist for civil and women rights, in American political scenario, we have experienced the imbalanced gender ration in the house of congress, the states representatives in their various capacities, may be if Eleanor were alive today, we would not have seen this gender parity that exists. The issues pertaining to the civil rights would have been addressed more readily and respect would have been accorded to the various people who have now and then tried to move with the same spirit, issues of assassination would never have experience as a result of lobbying for civil rights, for instance, the death of Edgar Evers assassination in the year 1962 which saw more than 200,000 civil rights protester march in Washington. Perhaps many women leaders would have risen, with her support and her role of lobbying for women in their various capacities. The passing of civil rights act would…
Collard, S.B. (2008). Eleanor Roosevelt: Making the World a Better Place. New York:
Cook, B.W. (1999). Eleanor Roosevelt: 1933-1938. Michigan: Viking.
Pearson L. And Martin J (2007). History of America and its People, 5th (ed). Washington:
" Her intelligence enabled her to come up with solutions to various problems in the real world. As an illustration, she identified the fat that women reporters were being unfairly treated. She stood up for them publicly and this saw the situation change. his indicated that she had a high level of practical knowledge. Practical knowledge is described as the ability to comprehend the day-to-day problems (Mayer, 2007).
Eleanor Roosevelt was also very confident because she stood up for her beliefs, took a lot of risks to voice her opinion and tackled her challenges straight in the head. She was the society's mouthpiece and openly fought against racial segregation. As an illustration, she resigned from being a leader at the Daughters of the Revolution when they banned an African-American from singing in their meetings as pointed out by Williams (2005). Eleanor Roosevelt openly used her position as the first lady…
The Eleanor Roosevelt paper project, (n.d). Retrieved from
The White House (n.d)"Anna Eleanor Roosevelt." Retrieved from .
Williams, S. (Writer/Director). (2005). Eleanor Roosevelt [Motion picture]. United States
1. Describe the main tenants in the New Deal.
The New Deal was the set of federal programs launched by President Franklin D. Roosevelt after taking office in 1933, in response to the calamity of the Great Depression.
2. Draw a concept map of the New Deal.
3. The New Deal was a launching pad into World War II. Do you think that this process was helpful or not helpful in the long run?
The New Deal was helpful because it helped lift a country out of a depression. WWII was a necessary war that needed to be fought by America.
4. What is your opinion of Roosevelt exceeding the two term presidential limit? Do you feel that this was right? Would you like to see it happen again?
Roosevelt violated the Constitution and should not have been elected past a second term. This is the only time…
First Lady is to live in the spotlight. Like it or not, the First Lady is a role model for thousands of women, not just in the United States, but also worldwide. What she says, what she does, how she conducts herself in certain situations, even how she chooses to decorate the White House -- these things and more are all examined by the people and the press and given close scrutiny.
Three First Ladies who each had to deal with criticism, controversy, and pressure in their time are Eleanor Roosevelt, arbara ush, and Nancy Reagan. This paper will examine each of them in turn and compare and contrast their influence, impact, and character as First Lady.
Eleanor Roosevelt was a thoroughly modern woman for her time and refused to adopt the stereotypes and confining image of women as they were in her day. She was strong, outspoken (although painfully…
Biography of Nancy Reagan. Retrieved December 7, 2002. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/nr40.html
Bush, Barbara. A Memoir. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.
Roosevelt, Anna Eleanor. This Is My Story. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1937.
Eleanor Roosevelt. Retrieved from MSN Encarta Encyclopedia, December 7, 2002. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761577012
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…
The Manhattan Project was? The secret project for inventing the atom bomb
Who were the Scottsboro boys? Nine black teenagers accused of rape in a 1931 Alabama case. It revealed the deeply seated racism in Alabama due to its denial of a fair trail.
A. Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to? Desegregation of the armed forces.
The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…
references homo-eroticism in a coming of age drama; another might see critiques of the War on Terror subversive, while still another might find literary value in the works of art by someone like Robert Mapplethorpe. Thus, in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject. This documentary should be shown in the classroom for, much like the movie Saving Private Ryan, it brings the real story of history into the lives of people without over glorifying the issue. War and conflict are not pretty, not neat, and people do not die as they do in a John Wayne western. Of course, certain material is age dependent, but it is important to note that in Middle and High school, students appreciate the truth more than half-truths and old adages about history that are simply not factual.
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…
In the appendix to his book Certain Trumpets, author Garry ills states, "I was not looking for the greatest or best leaders but those who can be seen, at some point in their career, exemplifying a distinctive kind of leadership," (271). For each of the sixteen leadership styles ills outlines, he puts forth one notable human figure who he feels most aptly demonstrates through their life the essential features of that kind of leader. hat each of these disparate leaders demonstrates, in spite of their differences, is a sphere of influence specific to their lifestyles, cultural context, personality, and talents. Each of these leaders was successful in leaving an impact on the world even though their approaches to leadership differed greatly. Eleanor Roosevelt, an almost reluctant leader who walked solidly between the two poles of radicalism and conservatism, exemplified the ability to execute reform in American political and social…
Wills, Garry. Certain Trumpets: The Call of Leaders. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1994.
65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.
What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?
Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…
About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov / landing2_about.htm.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:
Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
The potentially socialist tone of these articles can explain a delay up through the Cold War, but it does not excuse delaying ratification into the twenty-first century. Upon further review, the socialist motive for delaying ratification does not stand.
Part 2, Topic 4: The wandan Genocide
On April 6, 1994, the plane of wandan President Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down over Kigali airport, the main airport for wanda, a small country in Central Africa.. Habyarimana was killed in the crash, as was the Burundian president, Cyprien Ntaryamira. The President was a Hutu, the majority in wanda. Many believe the Tutsis, the minority in wanda, perpetrated the shooting. Some say Hutu extremists, to give them an excuse for what happened next, committed the murder. Within hours of the president's death, angry Hutus took to the streets and sought out those who supported peace between the Hutus and the Tutsis. They did…
Glendon, Mary Ann. (2001). A World made new: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House.
Fromkin, David. (2001, April 22). Drawing a Line, However Thin. The New York
Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2001/04/22/books/drawing-a-line-however-thin.html?pagewanted=2
S. history would not have been fought if it had already been established that human beings were entitled to certain rights and not subject to enslavement.
3. Despite being a woman in a very male-dominated world, it is fair to say that Eleanor Roosevelt was absolutely instrumental in getting the UDHR passed. One of the goals in establishing the United Nations (UN) was to guarantee some type of protection for human rights; the problem was that the UN charter did not define human rights. Furthermore, there was no global consensus regarding the definition of human rights. Eleanor Roosevelt became chairman of the committee to draft the UDHR. Though Roosevelt was a well-respected and admired woman, who had political experience from her years as First Lady, she had no official diplomatic experience. Therefore, some questioned whether she was up to the task of engaging in such large-scale diplomacy. However, she proved…
spending time reflecting on the lives and accomplishments of Fannie Coralie Perkins, Betty Friedan, Eleanor Roosevelt, Margaret Louisa Higgins, and Ida B. Wells-Barnet, a number of responses come to mind. First, it is important to note what makes each of these women unique and how they contributed uniquely to society. Second, it is important to note how they are all similar and how the contributed collectively to the evolution of women in society.
Fannie Coralie Perkins was born in the late 19th Century and lived 85 years (until 1965). Almost 20 years after (1982) her death, Perkins was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, an honor bestowed upon her posthumously because of the substantial mark she left on history. One of the defining moments that sparked her interest in issues of social justice and, subsequently her life's work, was her witness of the "Triangle Shirtwaist Fire," where several…
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…
Vigilance and Discretion Defeat the Hun?
This question cannot be answered satisfactorily without first acknowledging a conflict. The Hun (used to represent Nazi Germany in the article, but certainly with wider application) is an enemy against whom I am pitted. Winston Churchill told the U.S. Congress, also referring to the Germans, "The Hun is always at your throat or at your feet." In the contest between the Hun and me, there are but two roles -- the victor or the vanquished and I wish to be the former.
Vigilance requires that I never grow complacent. In the contest between us, there is no standing still. Like walking up an escalator the wrong way, if I stop walking I am moving backward. Thomas Jefferson said, "The price of liberty is eternal vigilance." Eleanor Roosevelt called it "constant vigilance." It is as if these Americans felt that the natural order of things,…
Although no sources were asked for, if you are curious about the quotes the Winston Churchill one can be found in:
Churchill to the U.S. Congress 19 May 1943 "Onwards to Victory" Cassell Edition p.100
The Thomas Jefferson and Eleanor Roosevelt quotes are abundantly available on the Internet.
John F. Kennedy
In contemporary times, John F. Kennedy is known for many things; winning a Pulitzer Prize, however, is not one of them (Coleman). Kennedy's awarding of the Pulitzer in 1957 -- a full four years before he was elected president of the United States -- for the biographical Profiles in Courage was one of his few achievements that he made prior to his election that did not directly involve his equally famous and influential family, including two brothers who also ran for president (Miller Center). Such a statement in no way detracts from Kennedy's prowess as a politician or as a leader. Yet it is highly difficult to extract his success as president from the intrinsic relationship between his family and his political life. In fact, there is a good deal of evidence that indicates that Kennedy's ensuing success as the commander-in-chief (for which he, of course, is…
Bates, Michael. "President Kennedy and the Mob." www.renewAmerica.com. 2009. Print. http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/bates/090114
Black, Allida, Hopkins, June, Sears, John. "The West Virginia Primary." The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers. 2006. Web. http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/ mep/displaydoc.cfm?docid=erps-wvp60
Coleman, David. "Life Before the Presidency." www.millercenter.org. 2010. Web. http://millercenter.org/president/kennedy/essays/biography/2
Dallek, Robert. An Unfinished Life. New York: Little, Brown and Company. Print. 2003.
Unfortunately, those not exercising this "right," that is the traditional two-parent families bear the brunt of these phenomena. Their incomes are heavily taxed to bear the burden of the "rights" of those who are passing the bill on without paying their fair share.
This brings up what Mr. Lloyd calls the other "R"-responsibility. The emphasis upon rights has impoverished the social discourse. For rights to be meaningful and workable, they have to have a context or framework to exist in. This is where responsibility comes in. hat differentiates Mr. Lloyd from other authorities is that he deepens the definition of responsibilities beyond simply recognizing and protecting other people's "rights." He is reaching for the stuff that holds countries together, that is the type of responsibility that builds communities. For this reason, advocates a return to the biblical heritage upon which British and American constitutional concepts rest (Lloyd, 2008).
Legal vs. moral rights, rights vs. responsibilities, freedom vs. equality. (2007, August 11).
Retrieved 23 July 2010 from http://www.thefighting44s.com/archives/2007/08/11/legal-vs.-moral-rights-rights-vs.-responsibilities-freedom-vs.-equality/
Perez, Matthew C. (2006, November 26). Rights vs. responsibilities: it is the "responsibility" of the citizens of a society to protect the "rights" granted to them by previous generations . Retrieved from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/89196/rights_versus_responsibilities.html?cat=9
Social issue: rights vs. responsibilities. (2008, Winter). Retrieved 23 July 2010 from http://www.vision.org/visionmedia/article.aspx?id=4750
She hid the severity of ilson's condition from the public, controlling access to him to everyone except herself and his doctors for a time (Thurston). However, historical evidence suggests that ilson was incredibly weakened by the stroke. Even controlling what reached him and what did not gave her a considerable amount of power. Her actions were barely within the confines of acceptability at the time. It is not surprising that many saw her as "President" at the time.
Historians debate whether to call her the first woman president, or whether, as she stated, she was only acting as ilson's help mate at the time. Certainly, in the context of her time period, she was acting as no women had ever dared in the past. Instead of going to the President's advisors and asking them for advice, she took on the role herself, essentially snubbing their authority as males. She did…
Ashby, R. Woodrow and Edith Wilson. Canada: Byron Preiss Visual Publications, Inc. 2005.
In addition, he is a fine speaker, and his opinions would be interesting to combine with the other guests. Along with Clinton, I would invite Eleanor Roosevelt, because she became known as a premier political leader after her husband's death, and she helped draft the Global Bill of Rights for the United Nations after World War II. I would want her perspectives on the world today, and what she would to help solve the world's problems. I would ask Theodore Roosevelt to attend, as he would add a note of frontiersman to the event, and I would especially like to hear his take on the world today, since he was known as a "maverick" of his time. I would also want to know his feelings on global warming, since he was such a champion of the National Parks, the West, and the outdoors. Finally, I would invite Thomas Jefferson. I…
The lack of public support is one of the key factors that resulted to the failure of the U.S. There were false claims that the American government acted against people's aspirations and that the American youth protested against the war. Early initiatives of the United States under Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Truman obtained a lot of support. Only two members of the United States congress voted against giving Johnson the opportunity of waging the war in Vietnam
It was difficult to identify the enemy as Viet Cong merged with locals and only ambushed often at night. American terror campaigns hit their target, but failed to make the North Vietnamese surrender. A small portion of America considered their government as evil as even Walter Cronkite a CBS newscaster raised concern on the effectiveness of pursuing the war
In January 1973, President Nixon signed a truce that officially ended the resentments. Communist forces…
W. Faragher. Workers and farmers, big business & imperialism. Chapter 20
W. Farager. The civil rights movement 1945-1966. Chapter 28
W. Farager. The Vietnam War.
W. Farager. Progressivism 1900-1917. Chapter 21
omen to History
omen have contributed to the history of the world from the beginning of time. Their stories are found in legends, myths, and history books. Queens, martyrs, saints, and female warriors, usually referred to as Amazon omen, writers, artists, and political and social heroes dot our human history. By 1865, women moved into the public arena, as moral reform became the business of women, as they fought for immigrant settlement housing, fought and struggled for the right to earn living wages, and stood up to the threats of the lynch mobs. The years beginning in 1865 is known as the Civil ar era and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. It was a time of great changes, especially for African-American women such as Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. omen of all races had to fight for equal rights, even the right to vote (http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html).omenhave indeed 'come a long…
Women in American History. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. http://women.eb.com/women/nineteenth09.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads05.html. http://women.eb.com/women/crossroads12.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica06.html. http://women.eb.com/women/modernamerica02.html.
A accessed 07-04-2002).
Bryson, Donna. "MOTHER TERESA LED LIFE OF HARD WORK AND LOVE DIMINUTIVE NUN NEVER WAVERED FROM HER SELF-IMPOSED MISSION TO BRING COMFORT TO THE WORLD." Denver Rocky Mountain News. September 14, 1997, pp 3A. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Denver_Rocky_Mountain_News&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~InsideDenver.com~S~&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Donna+Bryson&title=MOTHER+TERESA+LED+LIFE+OF+HARD+WORK+AND+LOVE+DIMINUTIVE+NUN+NEVER+WAVERED+FROM+HER+SELF%2DIMPOSED+MISSION+TO+BRING+COMFORT+TO+THE+WORLD++&date=09%2D14%2D1997&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=7.(accessed07-04-2002).
Lloyd, Marion. "Nun's Sainthood effort moves fast; Callers report miracles of Mother Teresa." The Washington Times. August 28, 1999, pp A6. http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=The_Washington_Times&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.washtimes.com&querydocid=:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Marion+Lloyd&title=Nun%27s+sainthood+effort+moves+fast%3B+Callers+report+miracles+of+Mother+Teresa++&date=08%2D28%2D1999&query=+Mother+Teresa&maxdoc=90&idx=6 accessed 07-04-2002).
d.). They moved among several homes before settling on a large farm they named "Peacefield." With Adam's absences, Abigail not only helped maintain the farm but managed it and handled the finances along with raising their three sons and two daughters -- three of which she would outlive.
After his election, Abigail Adams, despite her "activist" roles, was quite aware of her position as the President's wife and First Lady of the land. She served as hostess to the public. She greeted guest seated formally, a technique she learned at uckingham Palace. It was not that she considered herself royalty, but Abigail was a short lady at 5'1" and she felt more comfortable seated. Like all first ladies, she influenced fashions of the day, believing that the mode of dress in that day was too revealing (The National First Ladies Library, n.d.).
She was the first Lady to reside in…
Adams, J.Q. (n.d.). Abigail Smith Adams. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from John-adams.org: http://www.john-adams.org/abigailadams.net/
The National First Ladies Library. (n.d.). First lady biography: Abigail Adams. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from Firstladies.org: http://www.firstladies.org/biographies/firstladies.aspx?biography=2
Vinci, J. (2004, January 5). Abigail Smith Adams. Retrieved July 9, 2009, from Colonialhall.com: http://colonialhall.com/adamsj/adamsAbigail.php
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…
Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,
and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 1978.
Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
IV. ARRIERS to 'JUSTICE 'FOR ALL'
There are barriers that stand in the way of all individuals experiencing the same level of justice as other experience and these barriers may include those which are structural and socio-economic as well as other barriers to justice which include gender, race, and ethnicity. In other words, there are barriers effectively in place barring individuals from being on the receiving end of an equal level of justice based upon their socio-economic status even if the barriers of race and ethnicity are not present while someone of the same race in another region of the world or a different country area that will be on the receiving end of an inequity in justice based solely on the individual's race.
V. EXAMINATION of FACTORS AFFECTING JUSTICE
Cultural and societal barriers for justice include the barriers faced by individuals in a society that does not speak the…
Houseman, Alan W. And Perle, Linda E. (2007) Securing Equal Justice for all: A Brief History of Civil Legal Assistance in the United States. Center for Law and Social Policy. Online available at http://www.clasp.org/publications/legal_aid_history_2007.pdf
Most personal activities are dependent upon the input of smaller groups like the immediate family or friends or cousins or colleagues which could include academic choices, outings, etc. Most social activities are founded around and are bound to the formation of a large group and the success of that group in working together whether it is in offices, industries, sports, NGOs, media, etc.
The deficiency of a firm foundation and structure of social needs does negatively affect an individual's social behavior and interaction with others. Some of the affects of the absence of social needs is that the individual can go through elements of frustration, loneliness and depression (Wahba & Bridgewell, 1976).
In Turner's case, the absence of the fulfillment of the social needs was the biggest factor that caused him to react the way that he did and behave the way that he did. As aforementioned, he came to…
A.H. Maslow, 1973, "A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review," 50, 370-96.
Cwisfa; Khruschev, Vesh, 2002, "Maslow's Pyramid - a necessity?," 12, 15-17.
Herzberg, F., 1966, "Work and the Nature of Man," Cleveland: World Publishing.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B.B., 1959, "The Motivation to Work," John Wiley, New York.
71), and female pilots became indispensable for getting the air "ships" where they needed to go.
omen with strong ambition and patriotic goals began fervently taking flying lessons to join the ferry crews. Yvonne Pateman finished her seventy-five hours of required flying time to become eligible for the program, but had never learned how to drive a car (illenz p.72).
Two groups of women pilots became formally recognized by the U.S. government, although not part of the military. The omen's Airforce Service Pilots, or ASPS, were trained by Army personnel at the U.S. Army base in Sweetwater, Texas, and included the Air Transport Command, or ATC, directed by Nancy Love.
The ASPS began flying more dangerous missions, participating in training and test piloting. Pilot Yvonne Pateman recalled,
They were also called upon to fly planes with targets so that troops could practice shooting at them. There were casualties, both during…
Carl, Ann B., a WASP Among Eagles: A Woman Military Test Pilot in World War II Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.1999
Higham, Robin Air Power: An Overview, U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Air_Power/AP-OV.htm
Keil, Sally Van Wagenen, Those Wonderful Women in Their Flying Machines: The Unknown Heroines of World War Two. Rawson, Wade, Publishers, New York: 1979.
Kerber, Linda K. And Jane Sherron DeHart, Women's America, Oxford University Press, New York: 1995.
Many women took up the cause of temperance. omen like Jane Adams, worked to expose political corruption and economic exploitation and established philanthropic programs for the poor.
By 1900 over one-third of the wage-earning women in this country were employed as domestics or waitresses." As business grew, the privileged class grew. Domestics were in demand and were expected to do every kind of household chore in addition to cooking, serving, laundry, sewing, and anything else required by her mistress.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1865 joined in their work to equalize the rights of men and women. They declared that women had a natural right to happiness, and the opportunities and advantages, and denied that women were made simply for men and that her best interests must be "sacrificed to his will" (Kerber, pg. 225).
In 1923, a feminist conference in Seneca Falls, New York developed a…
Modern Feminism and American Society, 1965 to the Present, Publisher, city, date?
Kerber, Linda K. And Jane Sherron DeHart Women's America, Refocusing the Past, Oxford University Press, New York: 1995.
Jane Addams: Honor Before Popularity
Jane Addams wanted many things in her life, but first and foremost, she wanted to live a life that was useful and of service to others. Before orld ar I, Addams was probably the most beloved woman in America. "In a newspaper poll that asked, "ho among our contemporaries are of the most value to the community?" Jane Addams was second, after Thomas Edison." (p. 28) Jane Addams promoted her democratic ideals as the founder of a settlement house, educator, author, labor advocate, and suffragist. But more than that, she maintained a lifestyle that reflected those beliefs and left a legacy of democratic values behind her.
Addams lectured and wrote widely on her views. She published the first of many books, Democracy and Social Ethics, in 1902. She influenced children and women's labor laws, welfare procedures, industrial standards, workplace safety, and the juvenile court system,…
Davis, Allen F., American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams, Oxford University Press, 1973.
Maslow gave them that self-meaning and appreciation and became one of the pioneers of a movement that brought the focus of individual feeling, yearning and wholeness into psychology. He sort of read them out and spoke their thoughts, feelings and aspirations for them. He devoted much energy to humanistic psychology and the human potential and inaugurated the "fourth force" in psychology towards the end of his life. The first force consisted of Freud and other depth psychologists; the second force, the behaviorists; his own humanism and European existentialism, the third. This fourth force was made up of transpersonal psychologies that derived from European philosophies, which examined meditation, higher consciousness levels and para-psychological phenomena and which reacted against the then dominant psychoanalysis and behaviorism schools of the 20th century. Among the most prominent European philosophers were Kierkegaard, Husserl and Heidegger and the most prominent in the humanist/existential group were Carl Rogers,…
Beneckson, Robert E Personality Theory. Florida International University. http://vorlon1.com/PersonalityTheory2b.htm
Boeree, George C. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow. Understanding Human Motivation. Personality Theory, 1970
Dickinson, Dee. Revisiting Maslow. Transforming Education: New Horizons for Learning, 2002. http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/dickinsonmaslow.htm
The teacher smiles, full of joy at the opportunity to teach. As an idealist, he or she embodies the optimal instructor, hearkening to the model of the ancients like Socrates. Classics of philosophy and literature form the basis of the teacher's educational philosophy. Educated at one of the best universities in the nation if not the world, the idealist educator uses his or her educational credentials to pass on wisdom to new and younger students. Serving through example, the educational idealist teaches in the vein of the ancient wisdom philosophies.
Classics, such as the texts of ancient Greece, Rome, India, and China, serve as the fundamental models for teaching. The teacher is at once an authoritarian figure and a friend: one who is hip to the current social norms but also strictly versed in the classics. ith one foot in the world of progressivism and the other in the…
Dolhenty, Jonathan. (2003). "Philosophy of Education: An Example of Applied Philosophy." The Radical Academy. Online at .
'Idealism, Philosophy, Terms And Concepts." (2003). AllRefer.com. Online at .
Kurtus, Ron (2001). "Philosophies of Education." Online at .
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
1939, John Steinbeck published his novel The Grapes of rath, and that same year the film version of the story was released. The film was directed by John Ford and was very popular, and the book and the film together reached millions of people. In writing this novel, Steinbeck reflected many of the social, economic, and political currents of the time. The story is set in the Great Depression era, and the Depression was still have its effect in 1939. hat would bring about the end of the Great Depression was already starting in Europe, meaning orld ar II, which does not impinge directly on the story of the Joad family but which we can see from our standpoint today was about to bring about massive changes in American society. The very nature of the story of the Joads, however, links that story to the Depression and its effect on…
Banks, Ann. First-Person America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980.Caldwell, Mary Ellen. "A New Consideration of the Intercalary Chapters in The Grapes of Wrath." Markham Review 3 (1973), 115-119.
Ford, John. The Grapes of Wrath. Twentieth Century-Fox, 1939.
The Grapes of Wrath." Contemporary Literary Criticism, Vol. 59. Chicago: Gale, 1989.
Groene, Horst. "Agrarianism and Technology in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath." Southern Review (9:1)(1976), 27-31.
Mabel Keaton Staupers
Leaders that have shaped the nursing profession over the years have demonstrated a tremendous capacity for growth and development and have had a profound impact on the progression and expansion of the field. In addition, nurse leaders have also provided inspiration and guidance to those considering a career in nursing through their commitment and example. In today's society, a nursing shortage requires that nurse leaders and managers must make sacrifices and develop new methods to manage staffing problems, quality of care issues, and ethical foundations for nursing care. Furthermore, nurse leaders must assure that their staff members receive continuous education and training opportunities to expand their knowledge base in order to provide the best possible patient care. Nurse leaders are often considered one of the key factors in the retention of younger nurses in the field, and their influence expands beyond the nursing unit.
In a historical…
Determined RNs making history today. http://www.nysna.org/publications/report/2003/feb/bhm.htm
Dreachslin, J., Hunt, P., and Sprainer, E. (2000). Workforce diversity: implications for the effectiveness of health care delivery teams. Social Science & Medicine 50, 1403-1414.
Keep the race police out of our hospitals. Daily Mail 27 Jan 2002: 1-2.
Mabel Keaton Staupers, 1890-1989. http://www.nursingworld.org/hof/stauperm.htm
1948?" It will inform the reader of important events that occurred in the world in 1948. For America and the world, 1948 was a year in transition. World War II had ended, but there was still war in the world. America was entering into an era of prosperity, and families were engaging in the "baby boom." 1948 was a banner year for many improvements and innovations that would prove to be important in the years ahead.
War and Peace
It would seem that 1948 would be a year of peace, and that the world would be at peace after the horrors of World War II, but that is not the case. The State of Israel became reality in May 1948, and the day after it was created, the neighboring Arab nations of Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia declared war on the fledgling nation. First created as Palestine…
References (17 April 2004). 1948. Retrieved from the Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948
Author not Available. (2004). 1948 in History. Retrieved from the BrainHistory.com Web site: http://www.brainyhistory.com/years/1948.html21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (2004). Highlights of 1948. Retrieved from the BabyBoomers.com Web site: http://www.babyboomers.com/years/1948.htm21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (2004). IBM Archives: 1948. Retrieved from the IBM.com Web site: http://www-1.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1948.html21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (1999). The 1948 Tucker. Retrieved from HenryFord.org Web site: http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/showroom/1948/tucker.html21 April 2004.
American Beauty and Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
Abraham Maslow established the theory of a hierarchy of needs, believing that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied (Maslow's pp).
Rather than studying the neurotic or mentally ill, Maslow studied exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglas to determine how they came to be successful (Maslow's pp). Unlike Skinner and Freud, he believed that people are "basically trustworthy, self-protecting, and self-governing...and that humans tend toward growth and love" (Maslow's pp).
Maslow felt that although there is a continuous cycle of negativity, such as wars, murder, and deceit, he believed that violence is not what human nature is meant to be like, and occurs only because of and when human needs are thwarted (Maslow's pp). In other words, people defend themselves by violent means, only…
American Beauty." Director: Sam Mendes. Dreamworks. 1999.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM
This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.
The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…
Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.
Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Artistic Overview of the Taj Mahal
Though monumental tombs had a long history in the Islamic architecture in India, they were not a part of either the Buddhist or Hindu traditions. Numerous tombs were erected in India by the Delhi sultans but the Taj Mahal at Agra was incomparable in magnificence. Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, as a memorial to Mumtaz Mahal, his beloved wife, constructed the huge tomb, though it ultimately ended up as the ruler's tomb too. The central block's dome-on-cube shape contains antecedents of earlier Islamic tombs and other Islamic structures like the Alai Darvaza located at Delhi, but the refinements and changes in Agra tomb's design have turned the earlier immense structures into a magnificent structure of sparkling white marble. The Taj Mahal appears to be magically floating above the tree-lined reflecting pools that punctuate the garden that leads to it (Art History 280 lecture notes).
Art History 280 lecture notes. (N.D). Late Islamic and Arabic Court Art. Retrieved from: http://www.public.iastate.edu/~tart/fall2003arth280website/arth280.html
Asher, C. B. (2009). Belief and Contestation in India: The Case of the Taj Mahal. ASIA Network Exchange, XVII (1), 8-25. Retrieved 21 June 2016 fromhttp://asianetwork.org/ane-archived-issues/2009-fall/anex2009-fall-asher.pdf
Begley, W. E. (2011). The myth of the Taj Mahal and a New Theory of Its Symbolic Meaning. The Art Bulletin. Retrieved 21 June 2016 from http://www.collegeart.org/pdf/artbulletin/Art%20Bulletin%20Vol%2061%20No%201%20Begley.pdf
Koch, E. (2006). The Taj Mahal: Architecture, Symbolism, and Urban Significance.128-149. Retrieved 21 June 2016 from http://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/5423/original/DPC2168.pdf
World War 2 Women
World War 2 offered unprecedented opportunities for American women to take up jobs that were previously reserved for men, especially in the defense industry. Before 1940, women were only allowed to work in traditionally female professions like typing or sewing, and they were expected to leave when they gave birth or got married (Anderson). However, World War 2 changed all this and women were allowed to enter into the labor force. Women were mainly taking up the positions that were left vacant by the departing soldiers. World War 2 resulted in many women taking jobs in factories and defense plants across the country.
Due to these jobs, the women had unprecedented opportunities to move into occupations that were exclusively reserved for men. For instance, in the aircraft industry, a majority of workers was women by 1943. There were approximately 350,000 women who joined the military during…
Her son was far more democratic in spirit, and he would even allow his personal secretary "Missy" to act as hostess when Eleanor was away (120). Of course, this raises the question if Missy and Roosevelt were lovers, especially as Missy would occasionally wear nightgowns as evening gowns to these affairs -- out of poverty or another motive, one wonders?
However, it was Eleanor who took Franklin's place at the Democratic National onvention, when Democrats balked at granting her husband a third chance at the White House, even though Eleanor, for all of her popularity and political acumen was looking forward to a quieter life. hapter 5 paints a picture of a nation, a White House, and a couple coming to terms with the extraordinary demands of the first half of the 20th century. But although war was on the horizon, ultimately…
Chapter 5 is entitled "No Ordinary Time." It begins with a reminder that Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the first president to seek a third term in office. Then, the two-term limit was a "tradition," not a law (126). Republicans and even some Democrats resisted Roosevelt's attempt to win a third term but other politicians agreed with the sentiments of one senator who stated: "If times were normal, I would not favor a third term...but I consider 1940 an abnormal year" (93). Of course, none of the events presided over by FDR during his first two terms were ordinary, like the magnitude of the economic effects of the Great Depression. President Roosevelt was weary, and part of him looked forward to retirement, but he had groomed no clear successor (90-91).
As well as detailing the controversy over Roosevelt's third term, the chapter also contains a great deal of personal drama. It depicts a comic dinner party between the Democratic party chief, Franklin's mother Sara who still presided over dinners as if her son was unmarried, and mourned that he had to go into politics and mix with such "dreadful" (that is, lower class) people (95). Her son was far more democratic in spirit, and he would even allow his personal secretary "Missy" to act as hostess when Eleanor was away (120). Of course, this raises the question if Missy and Roosevelt were lovers, especially as Missy would occasionally wear nightgowns as evening gowns to these affairs -- out of poverty or another motive, one wonders?
However, it was Eleanor who took Franklin's place at the Democratic National Convention, when Democrats balked at granting her husband a third chance at the White House, even though Eleanor, for all of her popularity and political acumen was looking forward to a quieter life. Chapter 5 paints a picture of a nation, a White House, and a couple coming to terms with the extraordinary demands of the first half of the 20th century. But although war was on the horizon, ultimately the American public had confidence in its leadership.
Pit Bulls: The Bad ep
The American Pit Bull -- also known as the American Staffordshire Terrier -- is a descendent of the muscular fighting dogs bred by the Molossi tribe of ancient Greece. Physically powerful and possessed of an intelligence that rendered them trainable, these ancient fighting dogs fought alongside their masters in territorial warfare over tribal lands. Between the years of 50 AD and 410 AD, it is believed that the Molossi dogs were sold and traded throughout Greece and crossbred to create the first breed of bulldog -- the American Pit Bull's immediate ancestor. While the omans essentially used the dogs as canine gladiators in arena blood-sports, early Norman butchers used them to control unruly cattle. Later evolving into the horribly inhuman sport of "baiting," the dogs were trained to nip, herd, and essentially harass a bull for hours in a spectacle for the crowd.
Best Friends Animal Society. (2011). The Vicktory Dogs. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.bestfriends.org/vickdogs/
Coile, C. (2001). Pit Bulls for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Dog Breed Information Center. (2011). American Staffordshire Terrier. Retrieved February 25, 2011 from http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/americanstaffordshire.htm
Fleig, D. (1996). The History of Fighting Dogs. Neptune: TFH Publications.
United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama ruled correctly in awarding partial summary judgment in this case. The summary judgment was granted in accordance with Rule 56(c) (3), Ala. R. Civ. P. Under Rule 56(c)(3), "summary judgment is proper when there is no genuine issue of material fact and the moving party is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law."
"If the moving party makes a prima facie showing that no genuine issue of material fact exists, then the burden shifts to the nonmovant." Bass v. Southtrust Bank, 538 So. 2d 794,798 (Ala. 1989). This burden requires the nonmovant to show "substantial evidence" in support of his position. id at 798.
Porter fails to show substantial proof of exposure to HIV on which his claim of emotional distress is based. Lacking proof of actual HIV exposure the plaintiff cannot move ahead with a claim based…