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Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment by Dr. James Garbarino is a book for anyone interesting in studying the social environment of children. It's a book for educators who want to study the results of a poor environment and recognize the signs of it; it's for parents who want to know what's good and what's not so good for their children to see. And finally, it's for students like myself who are interested in learning just how much a child's environment affects a child's psyche and what they will grow up to be.
Most of us know that today's social environment is a danger to children. Without reading this book, we can figure out that today's world of violence, sex, pop, television, and gangster rap is not the best teachers to children. Dr. Garbarino obviously agrees about the danger of this environment but goes on to tell us why…
High-Quality Elementary Education
hat ingredients go into a high quality education for elementary school children -- and what does the literature reveal? hat has been the impact of "No Child Left Behind" in terms of achieving that seemingly unachievable goal? These and other issues are covered in this paper.
Improving Elementary School Quality: Social-Emotional / Character Development
A research study in the peer-reviewed Journal of School Health reveals that a school-wide program involving a "social-emotional and character development education program" can "significantly improve" the quality of the education experience for elementary school children (Snyder, 2012, 11). The program, called "Positive Action," was conducted involving 20 elementary schools in Hawaii -- racially and ethnically diverse schools -- between the 2002-2003 school years and 2005-2006 school years.
In brief, the six-unit Positive Action (PA) program utilized in Hawaii involved 140 sessions -- lasting 15 to 20 minutes each -- per elementary grade…
Berk, L.B. (2013). Development Through the Lifespan. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Snyder, F.J., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A., Washburn, I.J., and Flay, B.R. (2012). Improving
Elementary School Quality through the Use of a Social-Emotional and Character
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.
The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
" (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.6)
III. POST-WWII ENGLAND SCHOOLS
The work entitled: "Doing Comparative Education: Three Decades of Collaboration" relates the fact that the post-World War II world in England "left a series of emergencies for which immediate answers had to be found. There were shortages of staff, equipment and building..." (Eckstein, 1960) Eckstein additionally states: "Post-war legislation has generally been characterized by radical thinking and optimism. However, the euphoria brought by the end of a war is so often soon dissipated in the exhausting battle of the peace. At such a time, the ambitiously optimistic spirit of reconstruction may also be lessened. A more cautious planned expansion replaces the scheme for extensive reconstruction, ideas of reform have once again to vie with practices which are entrenched in the typical ways of thinking of a people. The educational legislation of the last five years or so has…
Chan, Sui-Mee; East, Pat, Ali, Sabia; and Neophytou, Maria (2002) Primary and Secondary Education in England and Wales: From 1944 to the Present Day - 8th Edition. August 2002.
Lopez-Muniz, Jose Luis Martinez; De Groof, Jan; and Lauwers, Gracienne (2006) Religious Education and Collective Worship in State Schools: England and Wales" published in the Religious Education in Public Schools: Study of Comparative Law - Yearbook of the Association for Education and Policy (2006)
M.A. Eckstein, "Present Trends in Public Secondary Education in Western Europe," the High School Journal, 44 (October, 1960): 8-19. Reprinted by permission of the University of North Carolina Press.
Riddell S. & Salisbury J., (2000) ' Introductions: educational reforms and equal opportunities programmes', in Salisbury J & Riddell S., (eds.) Gender, Policy & Educational Change: shifting agendas in the UK and Europe, London, Routledge
est Virginia's State education department has established English Language Proficiency ELP standards. A student is classified as an English Language Learner if their English proficiency is limited. In est Virginia a limited English proficient (LEP) is classified as such in accordance with the federal government definition as established by section Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
In addition once a student has been identified as an English Language Learner, they are assessed each year using the est Virginia Test for English Language Learners (ESTELL). These assessment measures the progress that the student has made during the school year. Students who score high enough can be identified as English Language Proficient (ELP). ESTELL is the tool that schools in est Virginia use to monitor ELL over time.
How are teachers informed of ELLs language proficiency status? hat accommodations do teachers make in daily assessments to ensure…
Assessment. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/assessment.html
e-learning for educators. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvde.state.wv.us/pd/elearning/docs/eLearning_Course_Catalog.pdf
Programs of Study for Limited English Proficient Students. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/elpstandards.html
This task can be performed with the support of animated movies. The teacher can introduce a certain character within the documentary, and seek the participation of the students for understanding of the traits and behavior of the particular character, and at the end of the day; the teacher can relate those traits with the essence of moral and ethical values. (Aristotle: (http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.htm)
It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. 1963. Collier Macmillan. pp.63
Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Adolescent Character and Personality. 1986. University Publications. pp.54
California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. Developing Moral-spiritual Values in the Schools. 1957. University Publications. pp.254
John R. Meyer, Brian Burnham, John Cholvat. Values education: theory, practice, problems, prospects. 1979. Longman. pp.54
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
Education Literature eview
Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between…
Cuero, K.K., & Crim, C.L. (2008). You Wish It Could Speak for Itself. Issues in Teacher
Education, 17, 117-140. Retrieved from www.eric.edu.gov.
Eipstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing Behavior
Problems in the Elementary School Classroom. IES Practice Guide. What Works
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…
Worth, Robert. (1999) Guess Who Saved the South Bronx? Big Government. Washington Monthly. Volume: 31. Issue: 4. Page Number: 26.
Zinsmeister, Karl (2002) The insufferable wonder. The American Enterprise. Volume:
13. Issue: 4. Page Number: 4+.
That leads to some problems with the new software.
We don't purchase some of the neat things that you can get. Fortunately, a number of us pressed for projectors a few years ago, and we have them in each classroom. That makes it easier for us to use the computer to teach the whole class. We don't use smart boards or other tools, other than the computers and the projectors.
What is the set up in the elementary school setting regarding labs and stations?
We generally have one or two computers per class in the elementary schools. Sometimes the teachers use it to do internet research, or to play a DVD for their class. The teachers sometimes assign remedial work to some students, who work on the computer doing exercises during school hours.
A understand from my elementary school teaching friends that there are no computer labs, and that they…
The obvious implication is that the pairing of hands-on, inquiry-based active-learning teaching methods with cooperative learning holds tremendous potential for improved learning and social development of grade school students. Naturally, that would be an appropriate and likely productive area for future research in the area of effective teaching methodologies.
Cooperative learning has demonstrated tremendous beneficial potential as a modern educational method capable of increasing learning. Evidence also strongly suggests that cooperative learning is an equally valuable tool for increasing the educational value of academic programs for mildly disabled student populations, as well as for their integration into the mainstream student population. Beyond academic achievement, cooperative learning seems to benefit students emotionally and in terms of their development of communications and cooperation skills. Ultimately, its greatest value may be in conjunction with the more general shift toward active learning instead of the traditional focus on passive learning that has long…
Adams D. And Hamm M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting
Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Huber RA. And Moore CJ. "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to Be Inquiry
Based." School Science and Mathematics, Vol. 101, No. 1 (2001): 32-35.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Gardner, like Emerson, Russell, and Einstein, also criticizes the substantive choice of subject matter and the ineficiency with which traditional educational methods inspire genuine understanding or long-term retention of what is learned that way.
I think that we teach way too many subjects and we cover way too much material and the end result is that students have a very superficial knowledge, as we often say, a mile wide and an inch deep. Then once they leave school, almost everything's been forgotten. And I think that school needs to change to have a few priorities and to really go into those priorities very deeply." (Gardner 3007)
Similarly, Gardner (2007) emphasizes the importance of transforming the educational environment from the accumulative approach of traditional education and the NCL approach to one that mirrors the suggestions of Emerson, Russel, and Einstein:
we need to have the individuals who are involved in education,…
BIBLIOGRAPHY Einstein, a. (1936) on Education (From Ideas and Opinions.) New York: Crown Emerson, R.W., (1884) on Education (From a World of Ideas). Friere, P. (1972) the Banking Concept of Education (From a World of Ideas)
Gardner, H. (2000) the Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests: The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves.
New York: Penguin Putnam.
Gardner, H. (2007): Multiple Intelligences and New Forms of Assessment. Edutopia: What Works in Public Education the George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved June 30, at http://www.edutopia.org/howard-gardner-interview#graph5
Russell, B. (1926) the Functions of a Teacher (From the Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London: Routledge.
Education and Society About Gender
The Perception of Gender Value Among Children
In Myra Sadker's book, Failing at Fairness, gender issues in the classroom are studied to evaluate how sexism is presented and to what extent it impacts female self-esteem. In a study entitled, "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl," the response to the hypothetical consideration of gender change was examined for eleven hundred Michigan children between 1988 and 1990. When asked what life would be like if they experienced a change to the opposite sex, the general conclusion that was drawn found that both girls and boys recognized weaknesses with the female sex as compared to males. This raises concern over the social impact of sexism that appears to exist even at a young age as the value of the female gender is compromised by views that males present the more advantageous sex. Thus, the evidence of sexism among…
Sadker, Myra. "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl." Failing at Fairness. New York: Scribner, 1994.
However, including progress reports that are not valued (no a and B. Or percentage grades) allow parents to follow a child's learning (assermann 386). This breaks the cycle of rewarding or admonishing children for subjects that may naturally be easy or difficult. Instead of creating situations that may lead to learning-related anxiety, progress reports give parents information while children continue along a natural learning process.
In the case of teachers, those who enjoy traditional structure may find an open style daunting and initially chaotic. However, giving it a chance may be in their best interest. Many of the common struggles that cause burnout in teachers (again, these include behavioral problems, student apathy, etc.) are lessened in the open classroom. Hertzog reports that many teachers are less stressed by this method (530). Additionally, Dunn reports that teachers often regain their occupational focus because for the first time they feel that children…
Brown, Monica R. "Educating All Students: Creating Culturally Responsive Teachers, Classrooms, and Schools." Intervention in School & Clinic 43.1 (2007): 57-62.
Cuban, Larry. "The Open Classroom: Schools Without Walls Became All the Rage During the Early 1970s. Were They Just Another Fad?" Education Next 4.2 (2004): 68-71.
Dunn, Mary Anna. "Staying the Course of Open Education." Educational Leadership 57.7 (2000): 20-24.
Heimlich, Joe E., and Emmalou Norland. "Teaching Style: Where Are We Now?" New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 93 (2002): 17-25.
For the at-risk students that NCLB was supposed to help, this could actually make their educational situation much worse.
As a consequence, the National Education Association has proposed a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2007 as an alternative to the rigid, punitive, and unscientific methods of NCLB (ESEA, 2006; Crawford, 2004). While the ESEA summary does include some of the same elements that are present in NCLB -- such as accountability standards -- it does so without the agreed upon flaws of the current law. The overarching purpose of the ESEA is to ensure that all necessary resources are available for educators, that the achievement gap can be closed quickly, that students leave schools with the skills the 21st century demands, and that educators and students will have more enthusiasm for the educational process (ESEA, 2006). These goals ask a lot of a single piece of…
Crawford, J. (2004, September 14). No Child Left Behind: misguided approach to school accountability for English language learners. Forum on Ideas to Improve NCLB Accountability Provisions for Students with Disabilities and English Language Learners. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
ESEA: it's time for a change! (2006, July). National Education Association. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.nea.org/esea/posagendaexecsum.html
Perstein, L. (2004, October 21). The issue left behind. The Nation. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20041108/perlstein
There are specific daily steps that students in these working class schools must take, and in math, for example, the teacher "told them what the procedure was for each problem, rarely asking them to conceptualize or explain it themselves" (Anyon 528). And so the emphasis was on memorizing the steps, not on understanding how or why they are taken. Language arts class was much the same (copy the teacher's notes from the board). In the middle-class school, it was all about "getting the right answers." In social studies, it was the old-fashioned routine of reading the chapter and answering questions, and the same was true in language arts. "Creativity is not often requested in social studies and science projects..." Anyon writes (532).
Things were different in the affluent professional school and fathers' careers included corporate lawyer, cardiologist, engineer; difficult assignments required specific projects like film-making and script-writing; children wrote essays…
Clayton, Victoria. "Public vs. Private School - which is best for kids?" MSNBC.com.
Retrieved April 1 at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/8743221/print/1/displaymode/1098/
Colombo, Gary; Cullen, Robert; & Lisle, Bonnie. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Mendez, Teresa. "Public Schools: Do they outperform private ones?" The Christian Science
Education and acism
There are many controversial issues related to education and racism, none the least of which is identifying the relationship between racism and student achievement (Constantine, 2002). The aim of this paper will be an examination of what attitudes and beliefs impact a students ability to achieve and succeed in the classroom, as well as an examination of what methods must be adopted to combat racism effectively in the classroom.
acism is an important topic to examine, particularly as more and more school systems within the United States are becoming racially and ethnically diverse (Constantine, 2002). Many teachers, school counselors and even students often feel unequipped to address the needs of students that come from diverse cultural backgrounds (Constantine, 2002). Conflict and chaos in the classroom often results when the needs of racially and ethnically diverse students are ignored.
One critical factor relating to the controversy surrounding racism…
Constantine, M.G. (2002). Racism attitudes, white racial identity attitudes and multicultural counseling competence in school counselor trainees. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41(3)162.
Donaldson, K.B. (1996). Through students' eyes: Combating racism in United States schools. Westport: Praeger.
Sue, D.W., Arrendondo, P. & McDavis, R.J. (1992). "Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 20: 64-68.
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…
Abdul-Adil, Jaleel. K. And Farmer, David Alan. "Inner-City African-American Parental
Involvement in Elementary Schools: Getting Beyond Urban Legends of Apathy." (NEED to PROVIDE REST of CITATION. WAS NOT PROVIDED to RESEARCHER.)
Boehnke, Klaus and Bergs-Winkles, Dagmar. "Juvenile Delinquency Under the Conditions of Rapid Social Change." Sociological Forum. 17.1 (2002): 57-79.
Bowling for Columbine. Michael Moore. DVD. a-Film. 2002.
Internet in Elementary ESL/EFL Classroom
Thanks to the technology, both teachers and students would find their learning sessions in class more enjoyable and more challenging than before. The Internet gives important experiences both for students and teachers, where they could advance their learning process very rapidly through the dynamic medium.
At the first place, Marco (2002) said, the using of Internet as a new medium with content-based approach in ESL and EFL classroom would:
Increase students' motivation and participation, give students more time to interact with language and content area, improve their reading and writing skills in meaningful contexts, and expose students to self-paced autonomous, learner controlled learning, rather than teacher controlled."
There are a lot of options to create classroom activities that include the using of web and e-mails. For elementary students in ESL and EFL classroom, it would give a breakthrough where not only they can learn English…
Ellinger, B., Sandler, S., Chayen, D., Goldfrad, K., and Yarosky, J. (2001). Weaving The Web Into an EAP Reading Program. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 39 No. 2. pp. 22-25.
Ellis, B. Nov 1996. Integrating Science & Technology in the Elementary Classroom. Retrieved November 20, 2002 from Texas A&M University Commerce. Web site: http://faculty.tamu-commerce.edu/espinoza/s/ellis-b-657.html
Green, D.W., and O'Brien, T. Jun 2002. The Internet and the Upper Elementary Classroom: Making a Difference? Retrieved November 20, 2002 from: From Now On The Educational Technology Journal. Vol. 11 No. 9. Web site: http://www.fno.org/jun02/impact.html
Marco, M.J.L. (2002). Internet Content-based Activities for English for Specific Purposes. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 40 No. 3. pp. 20-25.
Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the…
I never used to like math but now it is my favorite subject since I have been going to math tutoring. Now I understand it" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1). Few words could more delightful to the ears of an elementary math school teacher. But what prompted this student's enthusiasm? The student became excited about math because of a program created by a rural school district that was seeking to raise its students' standardized test scores. The district took proactive action and created a partnership with the local university to formulate an after-school tutoring program, staffed by university volunteers from the elementary education program at the university.
Elementary children in grades 3-6 were chosen to participate who had math scores below the 30th percentile on the standardized test used by the state of Pennsylvania, the results of their Stanford 9 Achievement Tests, and classroom teachers' recommendations. The ratio of elementary students to university tutors was two students to each tutor. Sessions included individual meetings with tutors, snack time during which tutors 'previewed' upcoming math lessons, homework assistance, and games. "Each child has a folder that contains an information sheet for classroom teachers to guide tutoring with assigned homework and skill areas to be practiced. Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the resources of the local university and solicited the input of school and district administrators to create an effective program. Despite the occasional logistical and emotional problems created by the difficulties of using the same tutor for individual students from grade to grade, the program was deemed a success.
NPSAS was the only study in 1996 that encompassed the people who enrolled in the for-profit institutions which is why not even the very basic criteria of the for-profit sector and its educational setup has been well-recognized (reneman, Pusser and Turner 2000; Chung, 2006).
The confirmation that the students who had some sort of shortcoming whether in the financial sector, minority aspect or admittance-timeline factor were the ones who mainly enrolled in the for-profit educational institution was made by Apling and Aleman in a study they conducted in 1990, and Lee and Merisotis in a study they conducted in the same year which were also then matched by Phipps et al. (2000) and JL Associates (2004).
Grubb was the only researcher who, in the year 1993, explored and assessed the influence and affect of the concept of the industrial market proceeds in relation to the non-profit institutions and education. He…
Altheide, D.L., & Johnson, J.M. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 485-99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Apling, R. & Aleman, S. (1990). Proprietary schools: a description of institutions and students. (Report No, 90-428EPW). Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.
Apling, R. (1993). Proprietary schools and their students. Journal of Higher Education 64:4, pp. 379-416.
Barone, T.E. (1992). Beyond theory and method: A case of critical storytelling. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 142-146.
According to Gutek (1995), the church in the medieval period exercised a virtual dominance of formal education through direct or indirect means. During this period, formal education was supervised by clerics though it was not a pre-requisite for practicing religious life or leadership. Since the church has a virtual monopoly over formal education, there were different kinds of educational institutions associated with chivalry, the guilds and the church during the medieval period. Even though access to education was limited during this period, these educational institutions, which were mostly church-related, conducted basic or elementary education. The institutions provided basic/elementary educational functions despite the fact there was relatively vague differentiation between elementary and secondary schools.
The educational institutions associated with the chivalry, the guilds, and the church in the early medieval era were parish, chantry, monastic, and cathedral schools (Gutek, 1995). Parish schools were presided over by a priest and…
The language of instruction in schools and universities is omanian, but Hungarian and German are also used for the benefit of the country's two largest ethnic minorities.
The Pre-University Level ("nv? mantul Preuniversitar) is structured in 4 cycles: Kindergarten, Primary school comprised or two 4-grade periods - grades I to IV and grades V to VIII, and High school (Liceu) - four or five grades (grades IX to XII/XIII). There are two categories of higher education: Vocational education ("nv? mant profesional ?i tehnic), which can continue or supplant High School to prepare students for careers that are based in manual or practical activities, and Higher education (Studii Superioare) organized (or in the process of being organized) according to the principles of the Bologna process, which aims at the construction of the European higher education area. It has the following four components: Bachelor-3 years in most disciplines, Master (Masterat) 2 years…
Capita, L and Capita, C. "Country Reports on Education: Romania," Education and Media in Southeast Europe. Retrieved January 27, 2007 at http://www-gewi.kfunigraz.ac.at/csbsc/country_reports/Education_Romania.htm.
Calin, M. And Dumitrana M. (ed.) "Values and Education in Romania Today," Romanian Philosophical Studies I, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Changes Series IVA, Central and Eastern Europe, Volume 14 http://www.crvp.org/book/Series04/IVA-14/contents.htm
Ryan, K. And Lickona, T, "Character Development: The Challenge and the Model," in K. Ryan and T. Lickona, ed., Character Development in School and Beyond (Washington: The Council for Research Values and Philosophy, 1992), p. 5.
Evolution of Special Education: Pre-1950s to Present
Special Education Evolutions
Special reduction has made tremendous evolutions since its inception. To effectively understand the current state of special education in public education, it is necessary to consider the full trajectory and how the perspectives on special education have developed over the years. The first special education programs were target at "at risk" children who primarily resided in urban slums and ghettos after a public education was made compulsory in the United States. They taught manual skills such as carpentry or metal work while other programs focused on teaching moral lessons to minorities. Later, special education began to focus more on children with disabilities. Although there were students that had physical and mental disabilities in the nineteenth century, making specific provisions for the inherent challenges that these students faced did not became a common educational priority until the 1940s. Since this time,…
Armstrong, F. (2002). The historical development of special education: humanitarian rationality or 'wild profusion of entangled events'? History of Education, 437-456.
Aron, L., & Loprest, P. (2012). Disability and the Education System. Future of Children, 97-122.
Lloyd, J., & Llloyd, P. (2015). Reinforcing Success: What Special Educaiton Could Learn From Its Earlier Accomplishments. Remdial and Special Education, 77-82.
Seave, P. (2011). Evidence-Based Practices Reduce Juvenile Recidivism: Can State Government Effectively Promote Implementation Among Probation Departments? American Journal of Community Psychology, 138-140.
He has found that in his experience, this method works best.
Grossman, Pam and Loeb, Susanna. (2010). Learning from multiple routes. Educational Leadership, 67(8), 22-27.
Grossman and Loeb talk about how alternative routes to becoming a teacher have grown throughout the past few decades. The necessity for teachers is mainly in urban areas as this is where most teacher shortages occur. They discuss how subjects such as math and science are in high demand and people with backgrounds in either area usually are successful at taking an alternative route. The authors make a point to note that not all alternative programs are the same. They praise the Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs as being top rated and highly selective, thus garnering the best candidates. Teach for American and New York City Teaching Fellows programs generally recruit applicants from competitive schools which is why both programs…
Kaye, Eileen Beverley. (2004). Turning the tide on marginal teaching. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision. 19(3), 234-258.
In this journal article, Kaye discusses what she calls marginal teachers and the best methods to assist teachers falling into this category. Her definition of marginal teachers are those whose teaching practices are borderline unacceptable. She favors the collaborative approach which requires input and goal setting from both the teacher and the supervisor. Going a step further, she looks at the formative and summative methods of evaluation to find out if either or both approaches would be helpful for teachers falling into the marginal category. Kaye also looks at factors that may cause marginal teaching. She notes that certain supervisory methods could be the blame and says that all areas should be examined.
She favors the formative approach in dealing with schools having a large number of teachers that fall into this category. Kaye feels that when there are several teachers not performing well, the programs should be examined for ways to improve them instead of placing the blame on the teachers.
This can shatter the confidence of the student and may even make him lose interest in the subject and teacher's views. For the development of students' critical thinking skills and their confidence, responsible teaching is highly desirable.
Teachers need to understand that while they can foster discussion and debate, it is not necessary to impose their views on any student. Students come from variety of backgrounds and hence may need some healthy debate and discussion to change or alter their views if they need to be changed. They shouldn't be forced to believe something or discard some view. In the case of Virginia Foster for example, we learned that when she didn't want to share a table with a black student, her supervisor told her that this was how things worked at the college and if she didn't want to do it, she could leave. This is a classic example…
Education is one of the critical aspects in the society especially in the case of the United States. The success of education relates to the ability of the relevant authority to adopt and integrate effective and efficient educational policy with the aim of addressing goals and targets in relation to elements of the society such as economy, politics, and social spheres. One of the critical federal educational policies is the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). This is the most recent iteration in relation to the context of Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). It reflects one of the major federal laws essential in facilitating federal spending on relevant programs with the aim of supporting K-12 schooling. NCLB educational policy should focus on integration of new qualification standards for teachers, concentrate on the improvement of schools, as well as include higher-thinking and problem-solving skills.
Tavakolian, H., & Howell, N. (2012). The Impact of No Child Left Behind Act. Franklin
Business & Law Journal, (1), 70-77.
Daly, B.P., Burke, R., Hare, I., Mills, C., Owens, C., Moore, E., & Weist, M.D. (2006).
Enhancing No Child Left Behind -- School Mental Health Connections. Journal Of
EDUCATION AND TEACHING Education and Teaching: Teacher Effectiveness and Years of ExperienceLiterature eviewIt has been well-observed that parents like to have their child admitted to a school or college whose teachers are hardworking and have the experience of teaching a class effectively. The teacher effectiveness could be gauged based on the students achievements academically. The following literature review provides an insight over the previously published articles relevant to the topic that whether teachers effectiveness is increased with their years of experience in teaching.esearch has shown that teachers years of experience have helped in improving their teaching quality, ultimately resulting in better student grades. For this, a study was conducted among 18 preparatory year teachers, 28 teachers taking classes of grade 1, 20 teachers of grade 2, and 14 teachers teaching grade 3 (Graham et al., 2020). The sample of these teachers was taken from primary schools in Queensland, Australia that…
ReferencesBurroughs, N., Gardner, J., Lee, Y., Guo, S., Touitou, I., Jansen, K. & Schmidt, W. (2019). A review of the literature on teacher effectiveness and student outcomes. IEA Research for Education (A Series of In-depth Analyses Based on Data of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)), 6. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16151-4_2 Graham, L.J., White, S.L.J., Cologon, K. & Pianta, R.C. (2020). Do teachers years of experience make a difference in the quality of teaching? Teaching and Teacher Education, 96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103190 Irvine, J. (2019). Relationship between teaching experience and teacher effectiveness: Implications for policy decisions. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 22. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1216895.pdf Muhammad, L. (2021). The effects of teachers academic qualification and experience on students achievement and interest in Accounting in Kaduna state. Global Journal of Education, Humanities and Management Sciences, 3(1), 242-252. Podolsky, A., Kini, T. & Darling-Hammond, L. (2019). Does teaching experience increase teacher effectiveness? A review of US research. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 4(33). https://doi.org/10.1108/JPCC-12-2018-0032
Education, M.A Education. "There Are No Shortcuts" Rafe Esquith, a 1981 graduate UCLA. As role model, Rafe Esquithe inspires standing side disadvantaged educated, poor people immigrants.
Statement of purpose: MA in Education
t is wonderful to have a terrific mind, but it's been my experience that having outstanding intelligence is a very small part of the total package that leads to success and happiness. Discipline, hard work, perseverance, and generosity of spirit are, in the final analysis, far more important.
Rafe Esquith, There Are No Shortcuts
Rafe Esquith, an innovative teacher of students who come from poor and disadvantaged backgrounds, is a living example of how great teachers inspire their students to do the impossible. Esquith's class of fifth graders, many of whom are the children of parents who cannot speak English, routinely perform Shakespeare and do higher-level science and mathematics. By putting in extra hours in the classroom, and…
I admire Esquith's methods as a teacher, but I also relate to the experiences of his students. I first began to learn English in middle school. My English teacher, Queen Lee, seemed like a sophisticated, inspiring, and worldly person. I later learned that like myself, she had been born in a rural area of Korea. In my small Korean village, there was no transportation, and only a small church. No school was located nearby, and I often had to walk for three hours to go to school. When I was in the class of Queen Lee, I resolved to become a teacher and inspire my own students to believe in the ability of education to transform their lives. Today, I am profoundly grateful to be living in the United States, a nation with seemingly no limits upon the individual's ability to succeed and transcend economic barriers.
In college, I majored in medical laboratory science because I knew I needed to support myself after I graduated. However, I still harbored an unfulfilled dream: to become a teacher. After getting a job in a hospital as a medical technician, I continued my education. Working a full-time job and taking a demanding course load was grueling, but well worth the effort. After receiving a B.A in Education in 2002 I accepted my first teaching position in a moderately-sized city. I continued my professional education while I taught, and received my B.A in English Language and Literature, enabling me to teach students in elementary, middle, and junior high schools.
During my six years as a teacher, I have taught -- and learned from -- my students. Being a teacher requires me to use my full intellectual capacity, but also requires me to give my students the nurturing and support they seldom receive at home. This is what I seek to learn in a M.A. program: how to help my students want to learn, even while they are dealing with seemingly insurmountable personal challenges. One of my proudest accomplishments as a teacher was when a 10-year-old boy in my class was being bullied, and I was able to notice this and, through my example and gentle pressure, encouraged my students to accept him. I would like to gain more skill in classroom management, motivation, and above all learn how to inspire my students to dare to do the impossible.
Education is important to me personally and where it fits in my life as compared to other priorities
Education has always been an important part of my life. Right from the start, I recognized its value in the perception that I was fortunate to be born in America rather than in India. As oldest son of immigrant persons, were I to live in India I would be part of the world's largest illiterate populations, and, although receiving a primary education (since the Indian government has made that compulsory), I might have been compelled to support my parents in struggle for livelihood, thus forgoing any opportunity for higher education
My recognition of my privilege was 'bulldozed' into me this summer when I collaborated with the Missionaries of Charity, a charity organization established by Mother Teresa in Kolkata. While teaching elementary mathematics and English to the poor and homeless children as part…
Harker is a top-notch non-religious high school with an expansive and challenging curriculum, outstanding faculty and a penchant for focusing on academic excellence. I would like to attend Harker to enhance myself academically, emotionally, intellectually and to embark on my journey of matriculating to prestigious universities for higher education.
Harker's vision of being an innovative leader with the use of state of the art technology for education will empower me to be creative and imaginative while still being bound to the confines of the challenging academic program. I am interested with Upper School club eCybermission, and greatly encouraged by the fact that Harker's students have received the highest scores in the nation for AP Computer Science. While reading the materials, I was intrigued by the fact that Harker's science and technology center, Nichols Hall was designated with prestigious Gold LEED-certification. I also hope to explore the area of facilities management, energy management with real time monitoring of operational data with an overall goal of achieving environmental and corporate sustainability.
Finally, the structured activities at Harker's athletic department emphasize core values such as commitment, dedication, leadership, respect and teamwork. An education at Harker with extensive after-school offerings will prepare me for a life where I can feel proud about my accomplishments and the positive impact I have made during my pursuit of success as a global citizen. Harker's philosophy is an intent to foster "academic excellence, self-discovery and personal integrity" (http://www.harker.org/). I see this as ebign importan to my life, and, therefore, I wish to attend Harker's.
education essential to my success. Since returning to school at XXX College of XXX, I have worked very hard to not only learn all I could from the courses, but to apply my knowledge to my professional life. Because my profession is in the financial industry, I believe that the degree program in Management Studies will be very helpful.
Unfortunately, I had to leave school because I was no longer able to afford tuition. I went into the workforce so that I could earn money for college and reflect on what I wanted from my university experience. I was very shy and reserved in my early college years and found it difficult to find my way in large universities. Because I came from a small private all girls' school, I was out of my comfort zone while attending a large university.
The working world taught me some lessons. I learned…
When creating a diversity portrait, the identified student group that faced an achievement gap compared with state averages was the black student group. It was identified that the two areas where the identified group performed lower than the state averages were mathematics and low attendance. It has been established in the previous papers that Black students find it easier to refer to their peers instead of their teachers for solving a problem. They can be mixed into groups of Black and White students, both best performing and low performing students, so that this intermix enables them to relate to the students more. They would be more committed to attending school and participating well in class, leading to lower absenteeism.
This paper aims at providing a specially designed lesson plan for an instructional remediation activity. The paper's foundation is that diversity is an inevitable part of our societies and that the…
Abbati, D.G. (2012). Differentiated instruction: Understanding the personal factors and organizational conditions that facilitate differentiated instruction in elementary mathematics classrooms (Master\\\\'s dissertation). Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/content/qt4kr1559n/qt4kr1559n_noSplash_4854756c2e2aeead29b88a2f7870d0d8.pdf
Al-Azawei, A., Serenelli, F. & Lundqvist, K. (2016). Universal design for learning (UDL): A content analysis of peer-reviewed journal papers from 2012 to 2015. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 16(3), 39-56. DOI: 10.14434/josotl.v16i3.19295
Courey, S.J., Tappe, P., Siker, J. & LePage, P. (2012). Improved lesson planning with universal design for learning (UDL). Teacher Education and Special Education, 20(10), 1-21. DOI: 10.1177/0888406412446178
Gregory, K. (n.a.). Lesson Plans: Fun fraction pizza. Teacher.org. Retrieved from https://www.teacher.org/lesson-plan/fun-fraction-pizza/
Rao, K. & Meo, G. (2016). Using universal design for learning to design standards-based lessons. Sage Journals, 2016, 1-12. DOI: 10.1177/2158244016680688
David Woods Elementary School takes into account the issues presented by the case study of James Clark. Action should be taken on multiple levels, including the structural, systemic, cultural, and power and influence dimensions. Because the problems facing the organization prove complex, many different approaches will work better than focusing on one of the images of organization as presented in Morgan (2006). Moreover, the development of an action plan for an organization resembles the intervention opportunities for communities as outlined in the CDC (n.d.) publication on addressing issues and problems related to at-risk youth. The problems addressed in the case study are structural, systemic, cultural, and power-oriented. From each of these perspectives, key leaders in the organization, the community, and all stakeholders can take action that resolve the problems and prevent related problems in the future.
To structurally address the problem, it is important to first assess the organizational structure…
CDC (n.d.). Planning, implementing, and evaluating an intervention. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/chapter1-a.pdf
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Richards-Gustafson, F. (n.d.). Eight steps for organizational development interventions. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/eight-steps-organizational-development-interventions-14144.html
Hernando County and NCLB: Mandate for Drastic Change
The Hon. Ginny Brown-Waite
North Main Street
Hernando County's Current NCLB Situation
The Hernando County Situation in a Larger Context
National Commentary on NCLB
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport -District Level, Hernando
1004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport, Hernando
FCAT Grades and AYP Status, Hernando County Schools
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act has stamped modern American education with the mark of mediocrity. In mandating that all school districts in the nation live up to a set of standards or lose important Title 1 funding for their disadvantaged schools, and by imposing sanctions that are draconian in their effects, the federal government is imposing the will of Congress on the choices of parents. In addition, the dissonant requirement that states set their own standards creates disparity of a magnitude unimaginable before the federal government decided to intrude into this…
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report-District Level, Hernando. Retrieved June 18, 2004, from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report. Retrieved June 18, 2004 from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm?action=report2&level=District&district=27 tough law deserves tough questions; Four Maryland elementary teachers examine the new "No Child Left Behind Act" and tell NEA Today exactly what they think. (April 2002) NEA Today, 20 (7), p. 14+. Retrieved June 18, 2004: www.questia.com.
Bacon, Deborah. (June 15, 2004) Seven county schools win A grades. Hernando Today. Retrieved June 18, 2004:
integration of computer technology (and especially reading software) into classrooms vis-a-vis improvement of reading development in early childhood education. For the purpose of this study, reading development includes a range of skills, including letter recognition, sound identification and basic comprehension and retrieval. The age ranged focused on in this study is birth through age eight, and is focused on a range of educational setting.
The primary source of information on this topic came from a survey of the literature, but this secondary information was supplemented by observation and surveying of two teachers with different approaches to teaching reading. The results of this observational study that I performed are somewhat inconclusive, due in large measure to the significant limitation placed on the story by the size of the group being studied.
However, while certainly more could have been learned if the sample had been larger than two (the sample had originally…
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…
1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America
University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971
2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard
University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
Ceasar and McGuinn (1998), "We are approaching the end of an era in educational philosophy." What was once a wholly Eurocentric framework for constructing an approach to the structures of the mind, psychology, and education, is shifting to include models of Eastern thought and new constructions of educational psychology. Western education has had for more than two millennia a singular purpose in mind - to make a better citizen of the community through learning, social development, and an initiation into the prevailing political, economic, and social structures of the community. Aristotle observed that there is no hard and fast rule to determining what should and should not be the focus of education. To determine what balance is "perfect" for education between practical and theoretical, between concrete and abstract, is a question that has been unanswered since Aristotle and, likely, will be unanswered over the course of the next two-thousand years.…
From Aristotle to Arendt...education has always served profoundly political functions, functions that inextricably link the social responsibilities of schools with their intellectual responsibilities. Indeed, noted reformers -- Thomas Jefferson, Horace Mann, John Dewey -- have amplified such purposes, viewing schooling as the process of creating an embryonic community life in which children's intellectual, personal, emotional, and social development should be nourished (Kagan, 1994)." However, beginning with the American cultural revolution of the 1960's and 70's, the focus of American education has been changing. Increasingly, schools are the developing point of the individual. Individualism is what guides most children through school now which is particularly true of higher education. The introduction of the child to the community was once based upon a very grand plan to mold minds into the shape of the ideal citizen (a very Roman ideal). Education, then, was intended to create citizens who would further the cause and ensure the longevity of the community / nation. While this approach continues today, it has been steadily changing. We continue to teach citizenship in schools by encouraging sharing of toys and ideas, joining in group activities, and feeling part of something bigger (i.e. patriotism and nationalism). But, one must ask, what is an ideal citizen?
Aristotle's question of whether education should be of the mind or the character of the soul, toward practice or virtue, is one that many individual schools have tried to take on in a small scale. While elementary level education is fairly universal, our national education system is peppered with Charter Schools, Magnet Schools, and other unique institutions that are conducting an experiment seemingly, on a larger scale, to answer Aristotle's question. What it is that makes a good citizen is what guides our educational system. The problem is, however, that in a culture so bent upon erasing barriers, of unconditional equality, of absolute access, and to complete political correctness, the definition of citizenship no longer acts as a unifying theme in education. Indeed, the very idea of "civic education" grows out of the connection with this kind of regime. As everything depends on education in a republican system - the city being formed more by the character of its citizens than formal institutions - it cannot be left to chance but must be legislated by the city (Ceasar & McGuinn, 1998). But, this too is in contention because of the concerns since the 1960's about the overreaching power of the government in controlling our minds and lives.
If education is to focus upon the functions of the body, the instinctual behaviors or
Furthermore, the nature and types of value, such as morals, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics are the core focal areas for this study. In other words, this field of study is related to ethics and aesthetics. Since all the human beings are different in terms of their backgrounds, thus they even think differently from one another and axiology is the science that examines and analyzes the thinking patterns of the diverse people (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
This hypothetical study of values is also vital in education because it promotes the learning of moral rules, principles, ethics and values; hence it leads the individual to gain knowledge related to the good deeds and actions. With the study of axiology, the individual would become cognizant of what is right and wrong, good or bad, ethical and unethical (Ornstein, Levine, Gutek & Vocke, 2010).
Logic is considered the fourth subdivision of philosophy…
Ornstein, a.C., Levine, D.U., Gutek, G.L., Vocke, D.E. (2010). Foundations of Education, 11th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.
Vang (2010). An Educational Psychology of Methods in Multicultural Education, Volume 6 of Educational Psychology, Peter Lang, New York.
school uniforms within a school system. Ideas such as school discipline, student behavior, and academic achievement are discussed along with examples of why different schools have implemented student use of uniforms. Various viewpoints are presented, along with proponents and opponents concerns for the actual implementation of uniforms.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS ITHIN A SCHOOL SYSTEM: AFFECTS ON DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Many schools across the United States have adopted school uniforms to meet the needs for a mandatory dress code. There are many opposing arguments on the issue of whether public school students in the United States should be required to wear uniforms or obey dress codes. Improvement of discipline and academic performance, reduction of fashion competition among students are a few of the reasons given in support of implementing school uniforms. However, the opposing viewpoints maintain that requiring school uniforms are a violation of students' First Amendment right to…
Brunsma, David. "Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use and Academic Achievement." Journal of Educational Research 92 (1998) 53-63.
Clinton, William J. Text of Presidential Memo to Secretary of Education on School Uniforms Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
Clinton, William J. Transcript of Presidential Radio Address to the Nation.
Washington DC: U.S. Newswire, 1996.
By working toward and arriving at a workable and agreeable solution, Tombaugh's principal and teachers together demonstrated the power and effectiveness of collective leadership.
Cushman (March 1997) further points out that in today's changing and increasingly demanding educational environment, with the best, most dedicated faculty often not given much credit for all they accomplish, and with increasing pressure placed on educational leaders and faculty alike due to national standards and emphasis on test score performance nationwide, the traditional school hierarchy of principal as leader and the rest as followers, works far less successfully than in the past. As Cushman states, leadership must instead spring from "reciprocal processes" that help to identify, and work toward, a common purpose. In other words, in today's complex and increasingly demanding educational environment, schools need all the leaders, working together, that they can get. It is also crucial to optimal school success, Cushman adds, that…
Cushman, K. (March 1997). Essential leadership in the school change Process. Horace. 13(4). Retrieved October 4, 2005, at http://www.essentialschools.org/cs/resources/view/ces_res/101.html .
Green, J.P, Forster, G., & Winters, M.A. (July 2003). Apples to apples: An evaluation of charter schools serving general student populations.
Educational working paper No. 1. The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ewp_01.htm .
Turnbull, B. (2001). The longitudinal evaluation of school change and performance in Title 1 schools. Policy Studies Associates. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved October 4, 2005, at http://www.policystudies.com/studies/school/lescp.html.
brain development opens up tremendous opportunities to improve education. In some aspects, the education community has embraced this research and used it to develop profoundly different approaches to learning. At the same time, the research conflicts with many systemic practices among school administrators and education policy-makers.
Five significant conclusions about the developing brain affect education. First, the capacity for lifelong learning begins during "critical periods" (temporary windows of opportunity for development). Once a critical period is over, it is too late to develop that part of the brain. Throughout, optimal learning occurs when the brain is appropriately challenged. Second, music and art help children develop brain functions related to logic/spatial abilities, illustrating that subject disciplines previously thought to be mutually exclusive are not. Third, emotions experienced while learning affect brain development for that particular type of knowledge. A more meaningful experience with which a student can identify results in more…
Begley, Sharon. "Your Child's Brain," Newsweek, Inc. 1996.
Hancock, LynNell. "Why Do Schools Flunk Biology?" Newsweek, Inc. 1996.
Learning Styles." Exceptional Children, Vol. 49, No. 6, April 1983
The 2009-2010 Accountability Progress Reporting System issued by the Department of Education from the state of California contains information necessary to understand the laws and requirements necessary for public educators to meet. The state of California issues adequate yearly progress report (AYP) to not only issued guidance but also to take accountability of what the new standards will be for the future of educators and what things they need to know in order to continue on with their profession.
This document first introduces the key changes that will be implemented throughout the new year and how they differ from the past. This report breaks down California's progress in two different methods by state accountability requirements and by federal accountability requirements. State mandated requirements stem from California's public school accountability act of 1999 and the federal mandated requirements stem from the Elementary and Secondary education act that was passed…
urban elementary school in Eastern, New York . That problem
Specifically, is the social promotion of fourth grade students with disabilities. Currently, nothing is being done to address the issue as social promotion which is supported by state education policies that benefit from children being passed to the next grade level. This benefit consists essentially of state and federal funding (Meier et al., 2004, p.8). Special education teachers are tasked with teaching students who have not mastered basic skills.
Meier, D. et al. (2004). Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child Left Behind Act
is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston: Beacon Press.
There is a gap in practice regarding the effects of social promotion regarding teachers and students, as the concept remains controversial (Frey, 2005).
Frey, N. (2005). Retention, social promotion, and academic redshirting. Remedial and Special Education, 26(6): 332-346.
There is a…
Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?
Technology is an integral part of society. People share and communicate ideas using emails, Skype, and public/private forums. For numerous organizations and businesses technology is a must to increase productivity. This is why schools have begun the process of creating an environment that immerses staff and students in technology, with school administrators taking on the technological transition (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Tarae Terry: Citation? How do we know this is true? Who is the source-Also the opening/introduction needs to be a little bit stronger an attention grabber. Introducing the issue up front is…
What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…
IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm
Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.
Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.
Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
Current state of American education
In the United States of America, both the public and private schools are liable for the provision of education within the entire nation. In accordance with funding and the full control by the local, state, and federal government, there is universal availability of public schools across the whole nation (Orland, 2011). Empowered by the jurisdictions over school districts, the locally elected school boards are responsible for setting the education policies, funding, employment, teaching, and the formulation of the public schools' curriculum (Frank, 2012). Additionally, the state governments control the standardized tests and educational standards for public school systems. On the other hand, private schools are free to determine their own staffing policies, as well as their curriculum via voluntary accreditation available with the regional independent accreditation authority. Educational statistics reveal that approximately 85% of school age children go to public schools, 10% attend…
David, B.S. (2008). College affordability about future. Burlington: Burlington Free Press.
David, L. (2011). The American education system is in crisis. Retrieved on 30th Sept, 2013 from https://dlshowonline.com/the-american-education-system-is-in-crisis/
Frank, D. (2012). The current state of the U.S. higher education. Top to bottom. The American
Education Journal, 7(3), 45-48.
Title: The title includes the precise identification of the problem; it contains the independent and dependent variables and target population. It must be clear, concise, and fully descriptive of the study. The recommended length is 12 words.
The Difference Between Fourth Grade Boys and Girls Attitudes Toward Physical Education
Abstract/Overview: The abstract summarizes the contents of the manuscript. The abstract should begin by broadly summarizing the problem and importance of the study in 2-3 sentences. The abstract should then clearly and concisely state the purpose of the study. Next, the abstract should contain a brief description of the target population, sampling methodology, description of the sample, and sample size. The abstract should also identify the research design and methodology. Finally, the abstract should name the instrument and explain the procedures for data collection and statistical analysis. The abstract should not contain any in-text citations. The recommended length is 200–250 words.…
Establishing Consultation and Collaboration in a School
Calgary Public School Board has hired a resource teacher for an elementary/junior high school, which has 16 teachers and 325 students i.e. 150 and 175 students at elementary and junior high levels respectively. The school principal has indicated his desire to create some form of consultation and collaboration in the school. While the school has in the past referred students with special needs to special education placements in other schools, those with learning and behavioral difficulties have been removed from the resource room because they could not be placed in a district program. The former resource teacher did not work in collaboration with other teachers and stakeholders. As the new resource teacher, it's important to establish suitable measures for consultation and collaboration to help address the needs of special education students. Such a platform will help in dealing with the different cases in…
Bos, C.S. & Vaughn, S. (2000). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Dettmer, P., Thurston, L.P. & Dyck, N.J. (2005). Foundations and Frameworks for Collaborative School Consultation. In Consultation, collaboration, and teamwork for students with special needs (5th ed., chap. 2, pp.35-66). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Feldman, E.S. & Kratochwill, T.R. (2003). Problem Solving Consultation in Schools: Past, Present, and Future Directions. The Behavior Analyst Today, 4(3), 318-330.
Stanberry, K. (2016, December 19). Transition Planning for Students with IEPs. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/transition-planning-for-students-with-ieps/
The idea that gender differences in education might be genetically-based is confirmed somewhat in other studies that suggest that some genetic differences might influence achievement in certain areas of education (Zohar, 1998). However, genetic influences only comprise a small portion of the available studies. Many other studies point out the tremendous influence stereotyping has on gender and education, and suggesting that males and females are traditionally assigned certain 'roles' within the classroom which they tend to live up to over time (Ayim, Diller, Houston & Morgan, 1996).
The most common of these beliefs is that males are more adept at mathematical and analytical tasks whereas females are better at achieving 'soft' skills including English, philosophy etc. (Ayim, et. al, 1996).
There is a body of evidence available which suggests that gender differentiation is evident in the classroom. The traditional views that males are more adept at analytical skills and…
Alsup, J.K & Sprigler, D.N. (2003). "An analysis of gender and the mathematical reasoning ability sub-skill of analysis-synthesis." Education, 123(4): 763
Ayim, M., Diller, a., Houston, B., & Morgan, K.P. (1996). "The gender question in education: Theory, pedagogy, and politics." Boulder: Westview Press.
Zohar, a.H. (1998). "Individual differences in some special abilities are genetically influenced." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21(3): 431-432
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).
Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…
Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/750707.htm
Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/bookpage/HIUSbookpage.html
Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html
Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/specialed.php
Lives on the Boundary by Mike ose
The achievements of ose with his students were successful and exceptional because most of his students were in the circumstances he was once in the discredits most of the educational fallacies and stereotypes that are applied on remedial students and literacy. He also shows how one can succeed in life despite of the background as it is seen when he becomes a teacher and later a director at UCLA
The main theme in this book is to show how life can be hard for the remedial students who he argues that they do not fail as a result of intelligence and poor skills but due to limited opportunity and little understanding. He tells this through his own life experience to show how both social and economic forces play a big role in influencing performance and perception of the unprepared students. He does not…
Rose Mike, 1990, Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America's Educationally Underprepared, Penguin Books publishers.
INGLEBY, E., JOYCE, D., & POWELL, S. (2010).Learning to teach in the lifelong learning sector. New York, NY, Continuum International Pub. Group pp 7-15
FRANCIS, M., & GOULD, J. (2009). Achieving your PTTLS award: a practical guide to successful teaching in the lifelong learning sector. Thousand Oaks, CA, SAGE Publications. Pp 5-25
AVIS, J., FISHER, R., & THOMPSON, R. (2010).Teaching in Lifelong Learning: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Milton Keynes, Open University Press. P 21
education of migrant students in Texas. The writer outlines the problems and difficulty often encountered by the school age children of migrant workers, both elementary and high school aged. The writer also addresses programs that have been designed to alleviate some of the difficulties and discusses their success and their impact on the students' educational path. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
The most recent Census told the nation what many already knew. Migrants are here to stay. Texas has known for many generations that migrant workers make up an important part of the state's agricultural workforce. The state's proximity to Mexico coupled with its varied climates statewide make it the perfect place for attracting large migrant populations. The migrant workers talk agriculture jobs that many residents would not accept and they move from area to complete them whereas others refuse to uproot their families (Jennings, 1996).…
Writer: Rod Santa Ana, III,
Contact: Celina Wille, http://agnews.tamu.edu/stories/AGPR/Mar2698a.htm
Instructional Strategies for Migrant Students. ERIC Digest. http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed388491.html
In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991). Based on this seminal initiative, improvements were cited in: (a) the coordination provided by the school councils; (b) school-based staff development activities; (c) support and services provided by the district central office; (d) data and reports provided to the individual schools; and (e) the value of the school improvement plans (Smith et al., 1991).
A relevant study of the school-based decision-making process in the State of Tennessee by Etheridge (1990) evaluated the impact of different leadership styles used by school principals on the effectiveness of the school-based decision-making process in seven local school councils in Memphis including their elementary schools following their first 15 months of operation. According to Etheridge, the composition of SBDM councils in Tennessee largely reflects those being…
California State Board of Education Policy #89-01. (2010). California State Board of Education.
Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ms/po/policy89-01-sep1994.asp .
Contract for excellence. (2009, December 31). New York State Education Department. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/10013.html .
Cowart, C. (2009). The Louisiana awakening: Church as portal for the emergence of a sustainable social reality. Anglican Theological Review, 91(4), 607-609.