Embryonic Stem Cell Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

Stem Cell Ethics Debating the Ethics of

Words: 1900 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10694307

Stem Cell Ethics

Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells

The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.

Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.

Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.

Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
View Full Essay

Stem Cells Are a Hot Topic for

Words: 1341 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76797705

Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bell, H. (2000) "Case Study: The Uninsured" American Medical Student Association. <  http://www.amsa.org/tnp/uninsured.cfm >

Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
View Full Essay

Stem Cell Differentiation the Need to Restore

Words: 3613 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42462808

Stem Cell Differentiation

The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…… [Read More]

Reference

Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50

Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.

Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural

Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
View Full Essay

Stem Cell Are Commonly Known

Words: 495 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73370232

Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:

Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).

Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).

Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).

And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).

orks Cited

Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521

Young, ise. Morality of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006.  http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521 

Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006.  http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt 

Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006.  http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt 

Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt
View Full Essay

Stem Cell Policies Scientific Breakthrough

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78401625



This controversial decision drew all kinds of reactions from different groups on each side of the issue. Some adversaries of hESC research expressed admiration for the decision limiting research to existing cell lines, while others said that no research should be allowed under any circumstances. Advocates of hESC research, meanwhile, generally praised the president for allowing some research to go forward, but criticized the restriction to existing cell lines as too strict, questioning whether enough research would be allowed.

Current U.S. Stem Cell Policy under President Obama

The March 9, 2009 EO changes the way the National Institutes of Health (NIH) can support and conduct human stem cell research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), through the NIH Director, is required to review existing NIH and other widely-recognized guidelines on human stem cell research and issue new NIH guidance within 120 days of the date of the EO…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AAAS Policy Brief: Stem Cell Research." 10 March 2009. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 27 March 2009  http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/stemcells/ .

Executive Summary." 2009. The National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research. 27 March 2009  http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/execSum.asp .

Register, Federal. "Presidential Documents Executive Order 13505." 11 March 2009. Federal Register. 24 March 2009  http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9-5441.pdf .
View Full Essay

Stem Cells the Ethical Controversy

Words: 2407 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87608673



Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.

On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.

Boston: Little Brown, 2002

Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.

Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
View Full Essay

Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html

"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from  http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html 

Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
View Full Essay

Stem Cell Stems Cells Are

Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12906512



eferences

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982

Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.

Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/

Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.

Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…… [Read More]

References

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at  http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982 

Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
View Full Essay

Stem Cells Without a Doubt One of

Words: 2215 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2707824

Stem Cells

ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?

Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
View Full Essay

Stem Cells It Will Consider the Current

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94244861

stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.

The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Stem Cells and Umbilical Cords

Words: 4604 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68647678

Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.

Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.

Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.

Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
View Full Essay

Use of Stem Cells in Parkinson's Patients

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79904362

Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's

Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges

was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").

ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?

There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from  http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .

Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.

Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.

Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
View Full Essay

Healthcare Ethics -- Stem Cells

Words: 577 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50662077

While freedom of religion absolutely guarantees the right to refrain from choosing to submit to stem cell-based treatment, the same freedoms and the concept of separation of church and state absolutely preclude religious beliefs about when life "begins" (or about anything else) from dictating laws that affect other people who may not share those particular beliefs (Dershowitz, 2002).

Beneficence and Non-malfeasance

Certainly, both the concept of beneficence and non-malfeasance absolutely prohibit the use of fetal stem cells from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to be considered a "person" as well as from any fetus that is sufficiently developed to sense pain. Medical authorities may debate where the exact point is where "personhood" first becomes an issue, but in principle, that characterization must be a function of objective criteria and never subjective beliefs of laypeople, especially based in religion (Dershowitz, 2002).

Both beneficence and the duty to avoid malfeasance prohibit…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. Dubuque, Iowa:

McGraw Hill.
View Full Essay

Political Influence Over Stem Cell

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14376102

Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).

Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little

Brown & Co.

Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"

The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
View Full Essay

Ethics Behind Stem Cell Research

Words: 1818 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74121630

Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).

So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.

orks Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.

Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.

Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005.  http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747 .

McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.
View Full Essay

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to

Words: 2115 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87064250



3.3 Data Collection

Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.

Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations

The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.

Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.

Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.

Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
View Full Essay

Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]

Bibliography

O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at  http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
View Full Essay

Stem Cell Genome Reparations

Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18920097

Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations

Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.

How are Stem Cells Formed?

When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…… [Read More]

James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at  http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/ 

Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at  http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html 

Research Issues
View Full Essay

Stem Research and the Anti-Discrimination Position Statement

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84820583

legislation introduced topic stem cell research. You find Library Congress website helpful research thomas.loc.gov. Pick a piece legislation interest give a summary bill.

The H.R.2433 -- 113th Congress (2013-2014) emphasizes the need for the U.S. To play a more significant role in achieving technological advancements in STEM-cell research. The act was introduced in June 19, 2013. The legislation relates to the idea of changing the Public Health Service Act with the purpose of introducing research processes that make use of human stem cells. The legislation is particularly interesting because of its studies in the field of stem cells involving human embryos.

Although the legislation bring forward problematic ideas because of the difficulty associated with actually coming in possession of human embryonic stem cells, the fact that there are numerous individuals willing to donate such resources with the purpose of promoting scientific advancement makes it possible for experts to progress in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell

Words: 3247 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35666810

Moral and Legal Questions of Stem Cell Research

Stem cell research is an experimental, and research-based study as to methods of repairing the human body. y introducing stem cells into a damaged, or degenerating area of the body, the medical profession hopes to prompt the body to regrow healthy tissue, and repair the damage. Degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, or macular degeneration of a patient's eye retina are conditions in which the healthy tissues cease to function properly. There is no overt damage. There is not a disease which has physically destroyed the affected body part. ut for varying reasons, such as old age, wear and tear, or reasons medical science does not yet understand, the affected body part simply ceases to function properly. Stem cells are the type of cells, which are more numerous in, but not limited to, human embryos. They are the building blocks of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Answers to your questions about Stem Cells. 2001. ViaCord. Retrieved 15 Dec 2002.  http://www.viacord.com/Preservation/Preservation.asp?section=1&s=sourceOfStemCells  2001>

Bush, George W. "The Bush Decision on Stem-Cell Research" National Review Online.

2002 Retrieved 15 Dec 2002.  http://www.nationalreview.com/document/document081001.shtml 

Critical Legal Studies." Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. 2000. Retrieved 10 Dec 2002.  http://www.law.cornell.edu/critical/theory.html
View Full Essay

Philosophy Required in High School

Words: 1096 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75998237

Obama endorsed an Illinois handgun ban while he was serving in the Illinois state legislature and also supports a ban on semi-automatic weapons. However, the current President professed his support for the Second Amendment, stating that he supports restrictions to keep guns out of the wrong hands, not a full prohibition. In Illinois he co-sponsored a 2000 to limit consumer purchases of firearms to one gun per month -- although he also supported 'conceal carry' laws for retired police officers ("Gun control," on the Issues, 2008).

The spike in gun sales has more to do with political posturing than reality: gun owners wish to demonstrate their opposition to Obama's system of values, as conceptualized in the red-blue divide that currently exists in the United States. In this polarized media positioning, Obama represents urban elitism and government control, despite his actual policies. The NRA and the gun industry has used this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Gun control." On the issues. 2008. June 5, 2010.

 http://www.ontheissues.org/gun_control.htm 

Kinzie, Susan. "GWU adds ethical focus to business school." The Washington Post.

September 15, 2008. June 5, 2010.  http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/15/AR2008091502975.html" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

A Brief Overview of the

Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44940819

Though
this is, of course, never the case, anti-stem cell research activists
affiliate this issue as a slippery slope with the abortion issue.
However, to my perspective, this is an incredibly inhumane
politicization of a prospect which could save many lives and reduce much
suffering. Obstruction to advancement in this field are short-sighted and
cruel. The condition of cystic fibrosis is a good example of a condition
where the effective use of embryonic stem cell research would be considered
a means to reducing much pain in its sufferers. Here, the dysfunction of
the secretory glands creates excessive mucous production and can result in
life-shortening respiratory and developmental issues. If embryonic stem
cells are differentiated and transplanted to produce healthy, functional
secretory glands in the sufferer, this serious and distressful condition
could be diminished in presence.
This denotes the potentially broad-based benefits to pushing forward
with research, in spite of the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Biology and Technology in the Real World

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60692352

Stem Cells

Hello, my friend. I am truly sorry and sympathize as much as I can regarding your traumatic car accident and subsequent spinal injury. I appreciate that you have kept me abreast of your treatment options. Your team of physicians agree that you would be a fine candidate for treatment specifically with stem cells. Most people have heard of stem cells and are aware of the scientific and ethical controversies surrounding them, but not as many people have performed productive research to find out what they really are and what the possible medical applications (and pitfalls) that come with stem cells. I have taken it upon myself to do some research for you, so that you are in a better position to make a more informed decision regarding this option for treatment of your spinal cord injury. In the next couple of pages, I will do my best to…… [Read More]

References:

Mayo Clinic. (2013). Stem Cells: What They Are and What They Do. Mayo Clinic, Web, Available from:  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stem-cells/CA00081 . 2013 May 31.

National Institute of Health. (2013). Basic Questions about Stem Cells. NIH, Web, Available from:  http://stemcells.nih.gov/research/Pages/Default.aspx . 2013 May 31.
View Full Essay

Embryos and Fetuses in Research

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491935



3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.

orks Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html 

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
View Full Essay

Utilitarian Thinking

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57103808

stem cell research has been controversial for years. What are stem cells and why do they entail so much interest? Stem cells may be derived from embryonic, fetal, or adult cells and tissues. Potentially, the embryonic stem cells can serve as the machinery to repair, regenerate, and/or replace tissues and organs. In other words, they could prove invaluable in eradicating all illnesses and incurable conditions. Following an ethical perspective, the doctrine of Utilitarianism supports stem cell research.

Utilitarian theory proposes that the desirable consequences of an action justify it for the greater good, and for its short or long-term benefits (osenstand). In the matter of stem cell research, the desirable long-term consequences are those of scientific advancement within the healthcare domain, improved health value for all human beings, and financial preservation for all citizens of the world, that would no longer spend so much currency on medicines if they were…… [Read More]

References

Rosenstand, Nina. The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2012.
View Full Essay

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Fashion Ikedaa Etsuko 2009 Et

Words: 459 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99139671

113475).

esults

A fully functional tooth developed for the mouse as a result of the experiment. The authors proposed the use of such technology as a model for future organ replacement therapies. "The bioengineered tooth, which was erupted and occluded, had the correct tooth structure, hardness of mineralized tissues for mastication, and response to noxious stimulations such as mechanical stress and pain in cooperation with other oral and maxillofacial tissues" (Ikedaa 2009, p. 113475).

Conclusion

The ability to regenerate fully functional adult teeth could yield considerable improvement in the ease and lifestyle quality for individuals who would previously have to have dental implants.

Clinical

The clinical implications for the success of the study extend far beyond that of the field of dentistry. Stem cell therapy has the potential to restore the partial loss of organ function of neural cells in patients with Parkinson's disease and to generate new organs for…… [Read More]

References

Ikedaa, Etsuko. (2009, et al.). Fully functional bioengineered tooth replacement as an organ replacement therapy. PNAS. 106 (32): 113475-113480. Retrieved November 4, 2010 at  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/07/31/0902944106.full.pdf+html
View Full Essay

Bush Christian the Bush Administration's

Words: 4214 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83900730

ith the production of Dolly, we also entered a vast technological frontier of possibilities. The cloned sheep "was born after nuclear transfer from a mammary gland cell, the first mammal to develop from a cell derived from adult tissue." Taking a cell containing 98 per cent of the DNA, or its genetic blueprint, from the udder of a six-year-old adult sheep, they fused it to the egg of another sheep to produce a lamb that is virtually an exact copy." (Marsh, 1) Equally as groundbreaking as the creation of the world's first clone was the implication of its process, which indicated that there is a way to employ adult cells, already differentiated and specialized to their own organic functions, in order to fabricate new, un-differentiated genetic material. For researchers battling such diseases as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and paralysis all around the world, such a possibility began to hint at countless opportunities…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Albu, M. (2004). Bush's gay marriage ban is unjust. The Channels Online. Online at  http://media.www.thechannelsonline.com/media/storage/paper669/news/2004/03/03/Opinion/Editorial.Bushs.Gay.Marriage.Ban.Is.Unjust-625066.shtml 

Bazinet, K.R. (2009). President Obama Reverses Bush's Stem Cell Research Ban; Debate Rages Along Abortion Fault Lines. New York Daily News. Online at  http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/2009/03/09/2009-03-09_president_obama_reverses_bushs_stem_cell.html 

Campbell, D.E. (2007). A Matter of Faith: Religion in the 2004 Presidential Election. The Brookings Institute.

Chaddock, G.R. (2006). Veto Clash Looms for Stem Cell Bill.
View Full Essay

Altering the Universe From Gutenberg to Biotech

Words: 1421 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35230641

Altering the Universe: From Gutenberg to Biotech

Revolution is in the air. hile the digital revolution is transforming our view of the universe, the biotech revolution has the potential to alter the universe itself. The parallel with the invention of the printing press and the Renaissance is clear. (Blake, 2001). "Gutenberg's and Caxton's inventions turned the world figuratively and intellectually upside down and heralded new patterns of human activity and organization that were inconceivable prior to the early 15th century." (Blake, 2001, pg. 9). One of the great achievements of that era was the quick adaptation of this communications revolution to every aspect of human life. Today, "we are at the beginning of a new Renaissance...." (Blake, 2001, pg. 9). One of the more controversial elements of this new Renaissance is stem cell research. There is perhaps no field fraught with more possibility along with questions of morality and medical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000868504

Bartlett, Roscoe G. "Do Stem-Cell Research without Killing Embryos." Insight on the News 3 Sept. 2001: 44.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000903424

Blake, Christopher R.L. "A Different Reason for Worrying about Stem Cell Research." Matrix: The Magazine for Leaders in Higher Education Oct. 2001: 9.
View Full Essay

1950s to Scientific Technology of

Words: 1839 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96695070



Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:

No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.

Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.

Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.

Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.

The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.

National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell
View Full Essay

Human Progress Is the Ultimate

Words: 1620 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50546769

On the other hand however, it gives rise to an exclusive attitude and a multiple layer style of development and economic evolution because there will always be countries that fail to keep up with innovative technology, high tech research and revolutionary concepts which stand at the basis of today's creative industries. This is why the population in least developed countries does not consider globalization as being benefic for the improvement in their standard of living.

All in all, it can be said that the success and nature of a process is totally dependent of the perspective which is under analysis. Concerning stem cell research, arguments coming from the medical point-of-view favor the continuing of the research while those embracing the religious and ethical perspective strongly disagree. Similarly, depending on the point-of-view, globalization can be seen as both an inclusive and an exclusive process.

ibliography

Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie Zoloth (Editor). The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy (Basic Bioethics). Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.

IMF. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? 2000. 17 September 2006.  http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#II 

National Academy of Sciences. Potential U.S. Patient Populations for Stem Cell-Based Therapies. 2000. 17 September 2006.  http://www4.nationalacademies.org/onpi/webextra.nsf/44bf87db309563a0852566f2006d63bb/e5d8fdf14955556185256ac3000711c6?OpenDocument 

Reaves, Jessica. "The Great Debate over Stem Cell Research." July 11, 2001. TIME. 2001. 17 September 2006.  http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,167245,00.html
View Full Essay

Bush Religion the Religious Policies

Words: 2536 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90004907

Proponents of stem-cell research believe that it may be the secret to curing infertility, genetic imperfection and neurological degeneration, and on the premise of this supposition, have lobbied vigorously to prevent legislation that would protect embryos from harvest and use in research, espousing the idea that:

"Criminalizing human reproductive cloning in the United States will only make it less safe and more costly for these infertile couples. They will be forced to travel outside the United States to pursue their dream of creating a family. After all, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), infertility is a disability and reproduction is a major life activity for the purposes of the ADA (Bragdon v. Abbott, 118 S.Ct 2196; 1998). In light of this, it is the right of each and every American citizen to bear a child." (Speeches, 21)

In spite of this, there were very few legislative efforts which…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Brannigan, Michael C. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning: Cross-Disciplinary

Perspectives. New York; Seven Bridges Press, 2001.

Brownback, Sam. James Greenwood. Symposium. Insight on the News.

Vol. 17, Issue
View Full Essay

Beneficence the Field of Nursing Is Shaped

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57082843

Beneficence

The field of nursing is shaped by a range of ethical principles; while all of these concepts are important, one could argue that perhaps the most crucial ethical principle is that of beneficence. "Beneficence is the obligation to do good and avoid harm. Nurses help others to gain what is beneficial to them, which promotes well-being and reduces the risk of harm" (Young et al., 2009, p. 75). Having a clear understanding of beneficence is important as nurses are often presented with a range of complex ethical situations and dilemmas and they need strong principles to help guide their actions and nursing practice. As Young and colleagues explain, avoiding the harm that comes to a patient involves balancing this against the perceived amount of benefit. Other theorists see this concept in a slightly different perspective: "Beneficence is the principle of promoting the legitimate and important aims and interests of…… [Read More]

References

Addington-Hall, J.M., Bruera, E., Higginson, I.J., & Payne, S. (2007). Research methods in palliative care. Oxford: Oxford Publishing.

Cedar, S.H. (2006). Stem cell and related therapies. Nursing Ethics, 13(292),

Hitchcock, J.E., Schubert, P.E., & Thomas, S.A. (2003).Community health nursing: Caring in action. Clifton Park: Delmar.

Randall, F.M. (1999). Ethical issues in palliative care. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 43(9), 954-6.
View Full Essay

Controversial Bioethical Issues of the

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3993568

Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.

However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.

orks Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at  http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php 

BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm 

Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.

CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
View Full Essay

Christopher Reeve Case Study Christopher

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66192310

hat treatments did the individual seek? ere any available at the time?

Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.

Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crews, C. (1998, May 3). The role he can't escape. Washington Post. Washington Post

Company.

Hall, F. (2005). Christopher Reeve. UU World: The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist

Association.
View Full Essay

Enclosed Proposed Study The Future

Words: 2492 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94703707



The information gathered in this part of the study will be compiled in a written format and essay form.

EXPETS

The second method of research that will be used will be the interview of medical experts in the field. Those that agree to be in the study will be sent questions by email or interviewed by telephone. They will be able to choose the form of participation they want to provide. They will all be asked identical questions. Those questions will include:

1. Do you support stem cell research? Why or why not?

2. If you do please answer the following questions:

What field of medicine are you in? What is your specialty?

3. Do you believe that stem cell research is necessary to the advancement of the medical field?

4. What disorders or diseases do you believe it can be used to cure?

5. Do you believe it is…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Biology meets ethics: the controversy behind human embr yonic stem cell research.(Book review)

From: Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science | Date: July 1, 2005 | Author: Bradley, James T. | More results for: stem cell research history review of the National Institute of Health's "Guidelines for Research Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells." From: Issues in Law & Medicine | Date: March 22, 2002 | More results for: stem cell research future

The great stem cell race: scientists around the world are scrambling to unlock the potential of stem cells. Governments trying to balance research and ethics have quickly learned that they have little control. Competition for top researchers and private capital is pushing the pace -- and punishing those who stumble. From: Foreign Policy | Date: May 1, 2005 | Author: Paarlberg, Robert L. | More results for: stem cell research future review of pressing ethical issues relevant to stem cell transnational research.

From: Health Law Review | Date: March 22, 2006 | Author: Ogbogu, Ubaka | More results for: stem cell research future
View Full Essay

Physiological Perspective the First Trimester of Pregnancy

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79022915

physiological perspective, the first trimester of pregnancy is when the majority of fetal development occurs, and also when the full development of the placenta occurs. The first twelve weeks or so after conception see the transformation of a fertilized egg cell into a fetus that shares blood flow with the placenta through the umbilical arteries and vein. As a result, these twelve weeks are particularly crucial for the health and development of the fetus at its most vulnerable stage. Among numerous other physiological changes, the mother's nutritional intake needs (which include vitamins and minerals) increase substantially, so nutrition is crucial. The avoidance of alcohol is necessary to avoid birth defects caused by the substance: as Blackburn notes, "drinking alcohol at any stage of pregnancy can affect the brain and other areas of development" (Blackburn 2007, 221).

Zoey's preganancy undergoes what is termed induced labor, in which she is given a…… [Read More]

References

Blackburn, ST. (2007). Maternal, fetal, and neonatal physiology: A clinical perspective. St. Louis: Elsevier.

Childress, J. (1997). Practical reasoning in bioethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
View Full Essay

Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
View Full Essay

Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

Words: 3339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19327581

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]

References

AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human

Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at  http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/ 

Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"

Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
View Full Essay

Bioethical Concerns Regarding the Use of Human

Words: 1707 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88538511

bioethical concerns regarding the use of human stem cells involve their source and their research implications. Ethical issues surrounding the source of human embryonic stem cells used in research has historically evoked the most intense debates and other ethical issues have surfaced concerning the origin of other human embryonic stem cell -- like cells that have the capability to differentiate into all different types of human tissue.

From the time human embryonic stem cells were first isolated and cultured in 1998 human embryonic stem cell research has been generated vast controversy (Cohen, 2007). Much of the controversy is related to the historical public suspicion concerning the potential negative impact of scientific progress and research centered around genetic cloning. Human embryonic stem cell research has become equated with fears about human cloning, the modification of human biological material, and myths of regenerative immortality in wealthy people. All of these vague fears…… [Read More]

References

Byrne J.A., Pedersen, D., Clepper, D., Nelson, M.., Sanger, W., Gokhale, S., Wolf, D. & Mitalipov, S. (2007). Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature, 450 (7169), 497 -- 502.

Chung, L., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J. et al. (2006). Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature, 439(7073), 216 -- 219.

Cohen, C.B. (2007). Renewing the stuff of life: Stem cells, ethics, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hyun, I. & Jung, K.W. (2006). Human research cloning, embryos, and embryo-like artifacts. Hastings Center Report, 36(5), 34 -- 41.
View Full Essay

Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
View Full Essay

Perspectives from the Liberals and Conservatives about Government Functions

Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36812635


Liberals and Conservatives
Liberals postulate that the government should act towards ensuring equality for all. The government has a responsibility of protecting human rights, civil rights and eliminating social ills. Therefore, the government’s major role is to ensure that no one is needy. Generally, they insist on the necessity of the government to handle difficulties. (Graham et.al 2009)
Conservatives emphasize on individual liberty, personal responsibility and free markets. In this case the government’s role should be to empower people to be able to pursue their goals and solve their own problems. (Lakoff, 1997)
Both liberals and conservatives have various policies. The first policy we will talk about is death penalty. According to liberals, death penalty is ‘cruel and unusual’ and it should be abolished as every instance such an execution is made, there is a risk of killing an innocent person. However, conservatives believe that death penalty is the ideal…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Isolate One Issue That Could Be Called

Words: 1970 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 318768

isolate one issue that could be called the most controversial issue of the last decade, then it would have to be stem cell research. Federal funding for stem cell research has come under serious criticism on ethical grounds. Stem cell research has been the most explosive genetic research subject in recent years. It has occupied political, legal, ethical and social debates without any specific resolution to the question if stem cell research is ethical and if yes how and if no, why. The debate is grounded in the source of cells required for the research. Stem cells are obtained from two or three different sources like the umbilical cord and the very early stage embryo but the main contentious source is the early embryo which is rich in stem cells but has not yet turned into a person because at this stage it is simply a cyst called blastocyst. We…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

[1]The President's Council on Bioethics, White Paper: Alternative Sources of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, May 2005, at [http://www.bioethics.gov/reports/white_paper/index.html].

[2] ibid, Personal Statement of Michael S. Gazzaniga, p. 76 and Personal Statement of Dr.

Janet D. Rowley, p. 90.

[3] Pittenger, M.F., Mackay, A.M., Beck, S.C., Jaiswal, R.K., Douglas, R., Mosca, J., Moorman, M.,
View Full Essay

Start Off With an Introductory

Words: 4948 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54115181

Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)

Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…… [Read More]

bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml . Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at  http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf . Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005

Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at  http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
View Full Essay

Patenting Living Things and What

Words: 1362 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44511846

A "New York Times" reporter notes, "But unlike some other patents on animal cloning, this one does not specifically exclude human from the definition of mammals; indeed, it specifically mentions the use of human eggs" (Pollack). Another writer notes that there are virtually no limits on what a patent can be issued for, and so, the patent office can potentially issue patents on any number of controversial or ethical procedures and creations. He writes, "Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on 'anything under the sun made by man'" (Bagley). Clearly, this policy can lead to muddy waters and questions of morality in the future. Most people agree that human cloning should not occur for any number of reasons, including the ability to create humans and even "perfect" humans to serve as workers or in effect "slaves." This is a moral and…… [Read More]

References

Bagley, Margo a. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Editors. "Can Living Things be Patented?" Bio.org. 2008. 15 Feb. 2008.  http://www.bio.org/ip/primer/livingthings.asp 

Kevles, Daniel J. "Of Mice & Money: The Story of the World's First Animal Patent." Daedalus 131.2 (2002): 78+.

Pollack, Andrew. "Debate on Human Cloning Turns to Patents." New York Times. 2002. 15 Feb. 2008.
View Full Essay

Life Science Current Event Report Current Events

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69136107

Life Science Current Event eport

Current Events on Cloning and Evolution

Topic and Date: The Ethics of Egg Manipulation (Evolution), August 27, 2009

Nature

The article "The Ethics of Egg Manipulation" published in Nature investigates the research challenges in reducing diseases that can be identified prior to egg fertilization. Scientists have questioned if it is necessary for humans to give birth to offspring that are at high risk for genetic diseases. Their hypothesis is: If we remove the bad parts of the DNA from one egg and replace it with good DNA from another egg and use the new egg for in vitro fertilization, can we reduce the number of babies born with disease (Anonymous, 2009)?

Current experiments have been performed on monkeys. The experiments have been successful and scientists believe the research is ready to move to humans, but many laws are in place to deter this type of…… [Read More]

References

Anonymous. (2009, August 27). The ethics of egg manipulation. Nature, 460(7259), 1057. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.

Anonymous. (2008, November 13). Clones of the dead. Nature, 456(7219), 144. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
View Full Essay

Final Portfolio Project

Words: 3811 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21112707

Ileana Final Portfolio

Bioethics Final

This portfolio documents performance of key class and personal objectives for HU280-01: Bioethics 1103C, specifically analytical skill building, knowledge acquisition and practical application. The samples demonstrate achievement by presenting excerpts from submitted assignments, Discussion and Seminar interactions, interactions with the instructor and reflections on progress mastering central concepts, ideas and perspectives in bioethics. This work demonstrates a progression from identification, synthesis and recapitulation of selected relevant ethical systems, placing those systems in the contexts through which they arose, and applying those precepts to emerging controversies in modern life. The underlying benchmark this presentation attempts to demonstrate is that if learning is indicated by a change in behavior, then my implementation of new methods considering bioethical dilemmas and also improved critical reasoning and research methods, indicates learning over this process of course inquiry.

This process has provided a structural framework that translates directly to my work…… [Read More]

Klimanskaya, I., Chung, Y., Becker, S., Lu, S., and Lanza, R. (2006). Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature 444 (7118), 481 -- 485. Retrieved from: doi:10.1038/nature05142

Parks, J.A., and Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.
View Full Essay

Abortion Pro Life Not Many

Words: 4592 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24093857

"It is not just a Catholic and Protestant Debate"(13).

Some Catholic statements, like the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae Vitae, condemn the practice on grounds of the created order, which is thought to be structured in such a way that all sexual expression must be open to procreation. Other statements, notably various declarations issued from 1969 to 1989 by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) in the U.S. appeal instead to the nature of the human person and the idea that life begins at conception. Abortion must be rejected, such statements argue, because it terminates a human life. Yet a third subgroup can be identified. Statements like the NCCB's well-known 1983 pastoral on peace and the Catholic bishops of France's 1979 declaration do not emphasize the doctrines of creation and human persons but argue against abortion by granting priority to the gospel.

In addition, in the Protestant Church, several statements…… [Read More]

References

Beckwith, F.J. Politically Correct Death: Answering the Arguments for Abortion Rights Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1993.

CPN. "Topics." 6, May 2005.  http://www.cpn.org/topics/families/prolife.html 

Currie, Stephen. Abortion. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2000.

Do No Harm. Coalition of Scientists for Research Ethics. 6, May 2005.  http://www.stemcellresearch.org/
View Full Essay

Insufficient or Inadequate Information Is Usually Seen

Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70736691

Insufficient or inadequate information is usually seen as the greatest threat to the integrity of an argument. However, the fact is that even arguments, which are supported with a great amount of information, can prove to be faulty because of structural weaknesses. For example, suppressed, ignored, or unconsidered evidence can invalidate conclusions. Similarly, biased assumptions, failures in logic, and the neglect of counter-arguments can all lead to fallacies in reasoning (UNB, para 1). Thus, it is evident that critical thinking necessarily involves the consideration or avoidance of logical fallacies if it is to succeed in being "...purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based." (Facione, 1998, p. 14) There are a multitude of logical fallacies that may occur in reasoning or arguments. Since it would not be possible…… [Read More]

References

Ess, Dr. Charles. (1987). Questionable Analogy. A Database of Informal Fallacies. Retrieved July 8, 2004: http://www.drury.edu/ess/Logic/Informal/Questionable_Analogy.html

Ess, Dr. Charles. (1987). Questionable Analogy. A Database of Informal Fallacies. Retrieved July 8, 2004: http://www.drury.edu/ess/Logic/Informal/Slippery_Slope.html

Facione, P.A. (1998). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Texas Collaborative for Teaching Excellence. Retrieved July 8, 2004: http://www.calpress.com/pdf_files/what&why.pdf

Garlikov, R. "The Slippery Slope Argument." Retrieved July 8, 2004:
View Full Essay

Environmental Settings of the Cambrian

Words: 3368 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86724624

" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.

Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996

Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at  http://www.trilobites.info/Chengjiang.htm 

Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at  http://www.trilobites.info/Emu.htm .