The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of replacement of cells and tissues, which can help in treating the diseases, related to the kidney and lung failure. Some of the diseases related to the failure of the lungs include Alzheimer's disease, heart diseases and diabetes. Considering the importance of stem differentiation in acting as a substitute for transplantation, there is need to study how the process helps in restoring the lives of the individuals who may have lost either of their organs. This article illustrates some of the inevitable process that the stem cell differentiation process pass with the ultimate result being substituting the action of transplantation. Further, the article also lists some of the obstacles, and their possible solutions, associated with the use of stem cell differentiation.
The use of therapy proves to be beneficial as compared to the use of organ transplantation due to the health defects, which may associate to the latter. The organ transplantation involves incorporating an organ from a third party to the patient meaning there are possibilities of incompatibilities. The patient's immune system may end up rejecting the transplant consequently increasing the death chances. In order to avoid these complications, the patients normally stay dependent on pills for the rest of their lives. This is indifferent to the use of therapy, which does not always require the transfer of organ from a third party.
Mechanism of stem cell differentiation
It is important to study the mechanism of cell differentiation since it shows how the process can help in substituting the transplantation process. The stem cells represent those cells, which have not yet received specialization on the actual process that they should be performing in the body. The stem cell differentiation can usually end up into forming any type of cell in the body hence it is an important process for the patients having Alzheimer disease. In order to discuss the way in which a cell differentiates into different body cells, there is need to discuss the various types of differentiable stem cells (Cui et al., 2003). The stem cells represent those cells, which have not yet received specialization on the actual process that they should be performing in the body. This means that the stem cells have the capability of translating to any cell type in the body; consequently, leading to their association to the substituting the transplantation process. Since the stem cells have not yet received specialization, the medical personnel can always manipulate them in order to form other new cell types. The capability of using the stem cells into replacing other cells implies that the medical personnel can use this mechanism in replacing the transplantation process. It is essential to study the differentiation process associated with the stem cells in order to understand the capability of the stem cells.
The process of cell differentiation often involves the action of two sets of proteins, which enhance the whole process. One set of the proteins helps in binding of one set of the cells while blocking the whole differentiation process. The binding process involves the triggering effect of the proteins, which leads to the binding of the two sets. The binding of the two sets is what leads to the blockage of the whole process. The blocking process usually affects the movement of the existing proteins thereby leading to the screening process. The screening process forms the foundation for the differentiation of the cells.
Function of Tcf15
The Tcf15 plays a role in determining the presence of the differentiation process. This Tcf15 helps in triggering the cell differentiation process through its interaction with DNA. The tcf15 refers to transcription factor 15, a name that describes its function regulating transcription process. The start of the stem cell differentiation normally requires the presence of transcription since it helps in tissue specificity. The Tcf15 protein interacts with the DNA leading to the control of transcription. The binding action of the Tcf15 also contributes to the action of the protein in kicking off the whole process of stem cell differentiation. The binding event related to the Tcf15 has effect in activating the transcription process consequently forming the foundation of the cell differentiation. The Tcf15 contains a signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) comprises of a family of latent cytoplasm signal-dependent transcription factors (Wang, 2012). The STAT is essential for the regulation of genes expressions needed for such processes like proliferation and cell differentiation process.
There is need to study the different categories of cell differentiation in order to understand its substitution action on transplantation. There are five categories stem cell differentiation, that makes it suitable for replacing the need for transplantation including: pluripotent cells, pluripotent stem cells, oligopotent stem cells and unipotent stem cells (Cui et al., 2002). The study of the differentiation of these stem cells would help in illustrating the ability of the differentiation process to replace the transplantation process.
Totipotent stem cell
These stem cells represent those cells, which are essential for the sexual production. The totipotent cells are always useful when there is need to replace any of the sexual production organs. These types of cells normally have the capability of differentiating into any type of cells, especially those related to the sexual reproduction process. The totipotent cells can only develop during the sexual reproduction process since it depends on the fusing of male and female gametes. This means that the totipotent cells can only differentiate during the fertilization, which ultimately leads to the formation of zygote. It is the formation, which contributes to the differentiation process since the cells can lead to the formation of any cell type. Further, the zygote formation is also important for the differentiation of the totipotent stem cells because of the replicative abilities. The replicative ability helps in ensuring that there are enough cells for the differentiation process (Cui et al., 2002). The continuation of the specialization process is what leads to the development of variety of specialized cells with the accompaniment of maturation process. The specialization process, which ultimately leads to the formation specialized cells, needs the presence of continued division and maturation factors associated with the zygote cells (Clark et al., 2003).
Pluripotent stem cells
The pluripotent cells also have the ability of differentiating to different types of cells. This makes the pluripotent cells important in substituting the transplantation process since they can replace the degenerative cells found in any organ. The pluripotent stem cells normally have little specialization meaning that they can easily result to the formation of any type of cell. The medical personnel's can easily manipulate these stem cells in the quest of replacing any degenerative cell. Examples of the pluripotent stem cells include the embryonic and fetal stem cells.
Oligopotent stem cells
The oligopotent cells often have limitation to the result of their differentiation process. They can only result to formation of little new type of cells; consequently, the medical personnel always have little to do with these types of cells in the transplantation process. In difference to the bone marrow cells, the oligopotent stems cells often have no capability of developing into any type of cell (Cui et al., 2002). The differentiation of these cells normally results to the formation of the T cells.
Unipotent stem cells
The unipotent stem cells also have less capability of differentiating to other forms of cells being that they have specialization regarding the type of cells they can form. The futility of these cells in replacing the degenerative tissues always requires the presence of cell division considering that they are a result of a multipotent cell. The multipotent cells always associate to the need for cell division.
Reversion of the stem cells
There are less possibilities of reversal process leading to the formation of the undifferentiated cells provided the adult cells are unipotent in nature. The unipotency nature allows the adult cells to revert only to a one-cell type thereby resulting to the undifferentiated cells. The unipotency nature of the adult cells often restricts the latter into producing on a single cell type. Consequently, it is true that the possibility for undifferentiated cells only occur in the event of unipotency nature. There…