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There is an increase in reports of active shooter incidences in many colleges. This calls for the management of colleges to come up with strict measures that will enable them to respond effectively in case of the occurrence of such incidences. An emergency response plan establishes the policies, procedures and organizational structure for response incase an emergency that can cause a disruption of the college activities occurs (Nicoletti, Spencer-Thomas, Bollinger, 2010. ) The paper will give a description of the basic considerations which should always be included when developing response elements for a campus emergency response plan in a college with 3000 students that is located in a suburban setting incase of an active shooter incident.
It is important to ensure that there are guidelines on how the situation can be assessed. This will include what to look out for in order to establish whether the…… [Read More]
10). They also provide resources and supplies to those working with the department of health. The liaison officer must ensure that all agency policies, procedures and sovereignty are respected by all involved in the relief effort.
The public health nurse is expected to liaise with members of the public who are injured or traumatized by the events related to the disaster. The nurse is also expected to help provide for those in need of regular or immediate medications or vaccinations. Those in a state of fragile health need particular guidance when their support systems are compromised by the disaster.
The chain of command involved in the simulation included Chris Newhouse as the EOC Commander, who worked with five people in the positions of Safety Officer, Liaison Officer, Public Information Officer, Legal Officer, and EOC Coordinator. Directly subordinate to these positions were the Operations, Chief, Logistics Chief, Financial/Admin Chief, and Planning/Intelligence…… [Read More]
Community's Emergency esponse
Monroe County, New York
The relevance of an effective and well formulated emergency response plan cannot be overstated. This is particularly the case given that today, unlike was the case a few decades ago, the United States is a key target of extremist groups seeking to advance their twisted agenda. Events such as the 9/11 terror event and the Anthrax Attack remind us that preparedness and disaster management are key.
In this discussion, I focus on Monroe County's response to pandemic influenza. As per the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan of the county, response, on this front, "begins when there is a real threat or a perceived threat" (Office of Emergency Management, Monroe Country, 2009).
Weakness 1: Integration of Health Facilities into Disaster esponse Operations
To begin with, Monroe County's Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan does not take into consideration or identify the need to integrate health facilities such…… [Read More]
UK's emergency response and recovery plan on statutory guidance accompanying the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 (last updated October 2013, version 5) which is intended to improve the country's ability to absorb, respond to and recover from manmade and natural disasters and various types of emergency situations. Although many analysts believe the UK's emergency response and recovery plan is adequate for its purposes, some critics charge that it fails to provide guidelines for the private sector that are an essential part of the recovery process. To determine the facts, the evaluation of the UK's emergency response and recovery plan that follows below in Part A draws on relevant guidance in the peer-reviewed, scholarly, popular press and governmental literature concerning best practices in emergency planning. The evaluation and review of the UK's emergency response and recovery plan are followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview…… [Read More]
Community Emergency esponse
Private sector refers to organizations that are run by private groups or individuals. This is sometimes referred to as the citizen sector since it includes organizations that are largely out of government control. This term also encompasses non-profit organizations that are in place to offer emergency services that are critical, for instance American ed Cross and also businesses with resources to contribute. The private sector, both profit and nonprofit, have a role to play when it comes to transportation disasters. The private sector bears a great number of casualties as well as emergency costs, in an event of a transportation disaster and in most cases respond immediately in cases of transportation disasters. These include giving first aid to the casualties on the site of the accident. They also cover transportation costs of the injured from the accident site to the hospitals where they will receive…… [Read More]
WMDs and Emergency Response
Although it is still fresh, the most recent major terrorist incident was the most severe: the attack on the World Trade Center twin towers in New York City and on the Pentagon. Thousands of people died on September 11, 2001, but the severity of the terrorist attack is not only based on the total number of casualties. The attacks on the United States by Al Qaeda on September 11 were the most severe of the past decade because of the long-term implications of the attack. The world did change after that day, as the United States completely reworked its foreign policy approach and its domestic affairs as well. New security departments in the federal government have been created; intelligence agencies have been revamped, and new laws have been passed in the name of the national security. These laws, including the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act, have resulted in…… [Read More]
For example, a person barricaded in a bank after trying to rob it has different motives and priorities than someone who has kidnapped their child and is holed up in a house. The tactics will have to be different because what is driving the actions and how much the value the life and well-being of their hostage also varies a lot. A well-versed forensic psychologist should be on-site for any such crisis and should be giving advice to hostage negotiators and the police on the ground including SWAT and so forth.
Another common scenario for ET's where a forensic psychologist would come into play would be when children witness crimes and are thus traumatized or otherwise silenced including intimidation by parents and so forth. The science and tactics that would be used in such an instance when a perpetrator is on the run or in contact with children such as…… [Read More]
Hurricane Andrew made landfall in South Florida in August, 1992. Andrew had already devastated parts of the Caribbean, killing three in the Bahamas en route to Florida. Andrew struck just south of Miami, at Homestead, but did significant damage in Miami and the rest of South Florida. Hurricane Andrew killed 23 people in Florida and caused $26.5 billion in damage, mostly due to winds (ubin, 2012). The disaster was declared as a hurricane, since the damage was primary due to the winds.
The President at the time was George H.W. Bush. The FEMA Director was Wallace Stickney, but Bush appointed Secretary of Transportation Andrew Card to head the recovery effort. This was a deficiency in the response, because Card had no experience in disaster management, and moreover created problems for FEMA. One thing he did was to insist that FEMA pay money directly to people, rather than utilize…… [Read More]
Crisis management refers to the process of comprehensive risk assessment and strategic planning. A Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) provides proactive strategies for mitigating risk and managing crises through effective mobilization of human, financial, and technological resources, coordination of different support agencies and allies, and the implementation of recovery and response missions. There is no one central crisis management protocol, for each organization or community will have its own specific risks and resources (“Crisis Management and Emergency Response Plans,” n.d.). The CERT team works within the parameters of its community contingencies.
Emergency management refers to specific plans for responding to specific emergencies. While not all emergencies can be fully planned for, and unexpected situations will arise, CERT teams are trained and equipped to provide emergency management services for preventing fatalities, minimizing injuries, reducing loss and damage to property, reducing the environmental hazards resulting from an emergency, and…… [Read More]
Role of National Strategies in Emergency Operations Plan
Emergency and disaster planning is a process that entails development of a cooperative, coordinated process of dealing with urgent situations using available resources. Generally, this process is exploratory in nature and culminates in development of a plan that offers general procedures for management of unforeseen impacts. According to Alexander (2015), emergency planning basically entails preparing systematically for probable contingencies in the future such as major disasters and incidents. When creating emergency operation plans (EOPs), national strategies like the National Response Framework (NRF) and National Incident Management System (NIMS) should be taken into consideration. These national strategies provide guidance and a framework for creation of emergency operations plan. This paper reviews the NRF, NIMS and NECP in terms of their most useful elements for the county’s emergency management plan.
Brief Review of the NRF, NIMS and NECP
The National Response Framework (NRF) is…… [Read More]
Additionally, 60% of all motor vehicle deaths occur in rural areas.
Several 'action plans' could address this problem. First of all, clinical community care-style settings staffed with nurses could dispense primary care, ideally at a subsidized cost. A cheaper 'per item' cost might actually be more financially feasible for largely uninsured communities, than paying to have the bureaucracy of health insurance and administrative staff. The staff could be specifically trained in the needs of the community, whether this was primary care or agriculturally-related injuries. The clinics could offer some emergency care, or act as transportation hubs to hospitals when necessary. Doctors, in exchange for medical school tuition reimbursement, could staff the clinics, or doctors could make scheduled appearances at the clinic, on a rotating basis.
Rural emergency response: The safety and health safety net (2001). National Ag Safety
Database. (NASD). Retrieved February 17, 2009 at…… [Read More]
Business Name: MWV located in Covington VA
Number of Employees 190
Emergency management plan entails a system of managing resources, information analysis and decision making in the event of a tornado hitting the facility (Hubbard, 2009). The emergency management plan acts a guide to the responsible personal, the staff and residents within the facility on the steps to take upon the occurrence of a tornado. The emergency plan gives a description of the role that the pre-appointed Emergency Management Group (EMG) is expected to carry out in the event of a tornado. The Emergency Management group will serve as the overall authority over the activities in the facility relating to the occurrence of a tornado.
The emergency management policy is to ensure the safety of every individual within the facility and bring the facility to normal operations after an accident.
The head of the Emergency Management group is…… [Read More]
Emergency Preparedness Planning: Denver, Colorado
Emergency Preparedness: Denver
The City of Denver is located in the state of Colorado, on the western edge of the Great Plains and the eastern boundary of the ocky Mountains (City-Data.com, 2009). The city is 5,332 feet above sea level and covers 153 square miles. The climate is sunny, semiarid, and the mountains to the west protect it from most severe weather events.
The Denver-Aurora Metropolitan area is much larger, encompassing 8,387 square miles (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). The population has rapidly increased between 2000 and 2008 (30.7%) and the most recent estimate suggests 2.5 million people make the Denver Metropolitan area their home. By comparison, the City of Denver had close to 600,000 residents in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). In terms of residents with special needs, close to 10% of the metropolitan population was over the age of 65 in 2008, 252,000 had…… [Read More]
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
In your opinion what were the main issues expressed by the States
Concerning Homeland Security and states rights at the 2002 State Emergency esponse Commission Conference? Please justify your position.
Most of the states attending the 2002 State Emergency esponse Conference expressed an overall sentiment that in relation to security, things are going to vary from state to state based on the capabilities of the emergency response agencies in each state, as well as the types of hazards that states are likely to face in addition to WMD's i.e. For example, states have to take into consideration whether they have chemical facilities, nuclear facilities and similar hazardous materials to address. State also has to take into consideration whether or not they have highways that are used to transport hazardous or nuclear waste materials.
Colorado made the point that secrecy regarding Homeland Security measures will not…… [Read More]
Emergency Terror Response
Roles and Responsibilities of Terror Response Incident Commander
In the event of an emergency incident such as the terrorist attack described in the case scenario, the National Response System (NRS) is immediately invoked. This places a previously designated Incident Commander at the helm of all efforts to control, contain and respond to a terrorist attack. In the present case, as the Incident Commander, it is incumbent upon me to employ the NRS and the resources which it has placed under my control in order to bring order to the chaos of a terror attack.
ith the initiation of the incident, my first priority is to gather together an assembly of delegates and representatives from concerned agencies. This would include personnel from local law enforcement (police, municipal personnel, HAZMAT teams), the Department of Defense (NORAD, NORTHCOM, etc.), Homeland Security and various affiliated and subordinated intelligence agencies as…… [Read More]
The exercises and training divisions work with similar divisions in Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, a Continuity of Operations department designed to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, and an Office of Domestic Preparedness and Law Enforcement Liaison work with local and federal authorities to coordinate comprehensive disaster planning efforts. (Maryland Emergency Management Homepage, 2006, Official Website)
Different organizations that are involved, how the organizations interact with or are apart of the EOC/What is the responsibilities of each member to the EOC
The federal government, including FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Authority), the Department of Homeland Security, and the state Emergency Management offices of Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are all involved, as is the National Guard. These organizations do not have specifically delineated legal responsibilities to the state of Maryland's EOC, other than to serve the citizens of the U.S. In the case of the federal government. (Maryland Emergency Management…… [Read More]
Emergency Plan for San Diego State University
Evaluation of Emergency Plan of San Diego University
San Diego State University has set out "emergency preparedness, response, and recovery guidelines for students, faculty, staff and campus auxiliary organizations so that the effects of campus emergency situations can be minimized." (San Diego State University, Division of Business and Financial Affairs, 2014, p. 1) San Diego State University has placed emergency numbers across the campus and on its webpage and includes the following:
(1) SDSU Policy (police/medical/fire) 9-1-1
(2) Environmental Health and Safety (chemical spills/toxic fumes) 46778 or [HIDDEN]
Also placed for information is the Emergency Operations Information Line 1- [HIDDEN] .
San Diego State University's Home Page is located at www.sdsu.edu and it is reported that in the event of an emergency on the campus that this webpage is updated. San Diego State University has developed a check list for what should be…… [Read More]
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Moreover, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Through FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (http://www.fema.gov).Moreover, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).…… [Read More]
It is the policy of the hotel that the guest, employees of the hotel and their families will be the first consideration in the event of an attack, threat of attack or disaster.
It is the policy of the hotel that this document does not imply a guarantee. The hotel can only endeavor to make every possible and reasonable attempt to provide response based on the specifics of the situation, available resources as well as information available at the time.
In the event of a bomb threat it will be imperative that the heating/cooling unit in the hotel be shut off as well as all kitchen appliances, laundry facilities, and all systems attached to the swimming complex. Evacuation of guests and employees is a foremost consideration as well as shutting down of the hotel computer system. A team should be trained and assigned to evacuation in the event…… [Read More]
Emergency response is critical component to a natural disaster. In some instances, natural disasters are unexpected in regards to both their duration and destructive capabilities. In other instances, natural disasters can be seen ahead of time, while the damage can still be unknown, as is the case for hurricanes. In either circumstance, a proper response can mitigate hardships within a particular community. The proper response is often a coordinated and integrated approach to remedying a situation. Florida is a state that is particularly prone to natural disasters and in particular hurricanes. In recent occurrences, it was not the actual hurricane that caused so much destruction, but instead the residual effects. For example, flooding, power outages, and debris often cause more damage than the actual hurricane did. It is for these reasons that a robust emergency support system is needed.
In regards to the emergency support system of Florida, it appears…… [Read More]
In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.
According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…… [Read More]
("Lessons from New Orleans," 2005, pg. 58)
The idea behind relying on ones self to provide a backup plan for communication is only truly realized when mitigation occurs. The infrastructure of the local, state and federal governments may seem strong, but the idea that individuals and individual organizations will have less to deal with in quantity, when it comes to meeting people's immediate needs in a disaster, and can therefore ensure a better quality of response is one that all emergency managers should learn from this particular mitigation situation. Communication is key to ensuring a reduced loss of life as well as resources. One lesson learned was that the most successful of organizations in the process of communication, in the Katrina disaster were those that recognized that people came first and property second, as the largest asset of any business or region is the people who are employed by it…… [Read More]
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida
Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…… [Read More]
The United States is a large, complex nation and requires a sophisticated and multifaceted response The National Response Framework (2016) is a guide, released by the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) that offer direction in responding to national disasters to state, county, and local agencies as well as to individuals and non-government organizations which strive to assist in disaster relief. Scalability and flexibility is a critical concern of the model. Either part or all of its structures can be implemented, depending upon the nature of the event. For example, some areas of the nation are more likely to be impacted by natural disasters such as hurricanes or tornadoes, and concentrating resources and planning with knowledge of the specific circumstances of such likely areas of impact are ideal.
Even regarding human-generated disasters like terrorism requires advance planning to some degree, and areas of likely targets may be more apt to be…… [Read More]
Every individual in this community will face an emergency or disaster that may result in the loss of life, property, or business. Being prepared to react and respond to a natural disaster or emergency is in everyone's interest and that of their community. Emergency management distinguishes the two. Emergencies are " 'routine' adverse events that do not have communitywide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources…to bring conditions back to normal….what constitutes a disaster depends on…the jurisdiction's size, its resource base, and its experience with a particular hazard….a precept of emergency management that each community establish distinct levels…that define the progression from an emergency to a disaster" (Drabek, xviii). Different disasters have different impacts upon people's responses to them. The "death and devastation of disaster represent the worst of human fears….many costs involved in the various stages of disaster response: the preparatory and preventative, counterdisaster, rescue…… [Read More]
Memoir of a Public Information Officer: When an Earthquakes Strikes: The First Five Days
On Thursday the 15th of last month, at 7:31 A.M., an earthquake of 5.9 Moment Magnitude struck Southern California. The epicenter was near Santa Clarita, a small suburban community about twenty miles north of Los Angeles along the I-5 freeway. I am the Public Information Officer for the Emergency esponse Office for the City of Santa Clarita. The following is an account of the five days following that earthquake.
I was attending a breakfast meeting with City and County officials discussing items in the proposed budget for our Emergency esponse Office. Over danishes, bagels, coffee, and juice, we were itemized the needs required by my office. The main sticking point was the cost to training more CET (Community Emergency esponse Team) graduates. It is an 18-hour course taught by U.S. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Our…… [Read More]
training in the field of emergency management is particularly complicated. The reason for the complication is the astonishingly broad latitude of situations for which emergency services and personnel might ultimately be required. Now obviously there are certain limitations that are based on simple geography: emergency management personnel in California may be called upon to deal with mudslides or earthquakes, and emergency management personnel in Kansas will be summoned for tornados. But a large-scale terrorist incident could conceivably occur anywhere that is populated. Meanwhile certain types of disaster almost perfectly defy any attempt at preparation altogether -- the example of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed over two hundred thousand people, is particularly pertinent, because there existed no detection system for such an event. Tsunamis are rare events, but common enough in the Pacific Ocean that a detection system existed there -- but they are so rare in the Indian…… [Read More]
Emergency Medical Services System Act of 1973 helped to establish national standards for emergency medical systems, with broad implications for education and public health. The Act follows a series of seminal events that drew attention to weaknesses in emergency response, including the lack of proper, regulated, or consistent training for personnel. Moreover, the Act helped to ensure that healthcare infrastructure would be modernized to minimize instances and costs related to accidental injury and death. The Act includes provisions for training in emergency medical services, offering funding and support for training programs that conform to a set of federal standards. Interestingly, Nixon had initially vetoed the Emergency Medical Services System Act, and it was subsequently reworded to omit mandate for a Public Health Service Hospital system -- something Nixon believed was "unnecessary," (Shah, 2006, p. 1). Passing the EMS Systems Act of 1973 meant that the Department of Health, Education, and…… [Read More]
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…… [Read More]
It is no secret that the emergency management response of the city needs to improve, especially when it comes to winter snowstorms and related issues. With that in mind, it becomes necessary to focus on how to help both businesses and residences who may have people trapped in them. Additionally, people can easily become trapped in their cars, and without food or water they can be at serious risk. With the freezing temperatures, the danger in which these people find themselves is extremely significant, and not something they can easily ignore or extricate themselves from. Of course, there is more than just people to consider. The safety of structures, the clearing of roadways, and the proper functioning of city services are all issues that can come about when snowstorms and other natural disasters hit a city (Howitt & Leonard, 2009). Individuals who work for city agencies need the…… [Read More]
The two most important operations that are executed during a successful response effort are evacuation and hazard or threat containment. Communication is essential to both responses and neither can be achieved without an effective communication effort; however, communication by itself is not a sufficient goal. In an emergency response situation, the two most critical steps are to safely evacuate anyone potentially still in danger and to then effectively contain the threat so that the danger does not spread to other places and risk the lives of others. Victim treatment and apprehension of the perpetrators are important—but in the first stages of response, they are secondary to the immediate goal of getting people to safety, which is always going to be the first and foremost initial concern in any emergency response approach (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2017).
As Ding, Tong, Zhang and Mao (2018) point out, evacuation is one…… [Read More]
The ole of Private Companies
Emergency preparedness refers to the process of preparing resources, both human, financial and equipments for action during times of emergency. It involves planning for disasters and equipping individuals with the capacity to use the available resources in reacting towards the occurrence of disasters. Nations need to put structures in place to prepare for disasters in the form of terrorist attacks and natural disasters among other dangers[footnoteef:2]. Entities prepare for such dangers institutions emergency structures for communication, implementing warning devices, establishment of potential shelter, rehearsing for evacuation, and establishing backup sustenance services among other things. Disaster preparedness, whether at the regional or local level, is the responsibility of a wide range of players and not just governments, as the society would ordinarily view it. All individual and parties, in whatever, society is vulnerable to potential disaster and so all entities are…… [Read More]
Disasters that can critically compromise the accessibility of knowledge include floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, employee sabotage, computer viruses, and theft. The effects of disasters can lengthen even after the restructure of physical damage. Simply, the earlier a business recovers from a disaster; it will experience lesser wide-ranging continuing effects of the disaster. Not only the thrashing of sales during a disaster is destructive for the company, "the loss of customers, vendors, inventory and employee records extend recovery times from weeks and months to years" (Carlson & Parker, 1998). However, if a company has a premeditated disaster recovery plan (DP), it can reduce the nuisance of a disaster, whereas inappropriate preparations can result in a business experiencing liquidation of its bank accounts (Carlson & Parker, 1998).
In the Information Technology industry, Disaster ecovery (D) security issues occur repeatedly. The critical security measures in the environment are frequently covered by…… [Read More]
For communities and agencies alike, an emergency plan is the arrangement of dealing with a crisis that contains procedures on how to prevent injuries and fatalities, lessen damages and speed up the resumption of normal operations. It's important for these agencies and the community to have an emergency plan since it helps them to prevent multiple losses of resources and lives. Some of the major components to include in the emergency plan include possible emergencies, emergency preparedness procedures, lists of personnel and maps with evacuation routes ("Emergency Planning," 2005). This is because these elements provide the agency's staffs or the community with instructions of the possible emergencies and how to tackle them, their emergency duties and evacuation routes to enable them to handle the emergency effectively. To ensure that the agency or community is aware of the provisions in the emergency plan, community or agency awareness and education…… [Read More]
Emergency Planning: Washington, DC
Emergency planning entails planning carefully for every type of hazard that may affect a particular area. It involves forecasting and developing a plan to deal with natural, manmade and technological disasters.
Washington, DC's emergency planning has of course changed entirely since September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks that left the entire country stunned and scarred had a particularly strong impact on Washington, DC. The center of America's political structure and a strong financial base, Washington continues to be a prime target for terrorists, one that will always be on a "short-list," so to speak, of cities that may yet again have to endure a terrorist attack of mammoth proportions.
One of the primary concerns for Washington, DC emergency planners is Reagan National Airport. The airport is so close to the most important landmarks and population centers in downtown Northwest Washington, DC, that it poses a continual…… [Read More]
F. The uninsured are increasingly using the ED for their non-emergency needs.
III. The effects of emergency room overcrowding can be deadly.
A. Boarding patients, or keeping already treated or stabilized patients in the ED, prevents patients from receiving the inpatient care they need.
B. Long wait times and inefficient service can mean loss of life
IV. Possible solutions demand health care system overhaul.
A. More efficient hospital registration would streamline emergency room procedures.
B. Standing orders would allow nurses and EMTs to proceed on critical care without doctors.
C. Special fast-track and sub-waiting areas would alleviate hallway overcrowding.
D. Re-budgeting will allocate more funds to emergency admissions.
E. Reducing non-urgent visits via universal healthcare initiative would reduce unnecessary use of the emergency room.
F. Increasing hospital capacity for acute inpatient needs would replace boarding.
G. Hospitals can add support staff during critical hours.… [Read More]
Considering Different Roles and Audiences
A situation such as the Chilean Mine Collapse presents significant challenges for communications professionals. Among the most important is the need to identify the various different audiences and their respective needs and circumstances. ome audiences have a high level of personal attachment and emotional connections to the individuals directly involved and a very limited technical background. Conversely, other audiences have much greater levels of technical knowledge. Providing excessive technical details to lay audiences, especially lay audiences with high degrees of attachment to the principals can undermine the effort to inform them while unnecessarily increasing their stress rather than providing assurance or allaying their fears and concerns. Meanwhile, providing insufficient technical specificity to expert or professional audiences can undermine the goal of establishing or maintaining trust and result in increasing the frustration level of the audience.
Moreover, in both situations, choosing the wrong communications…… [Read More]
Second, Iowa City had quick connections with State level disaster response crews that allowed for quick clean-up and rebuilding. They also coordinated with outside communities to provide shelter and other basic needs through local Red Cross organizations.
On the other hand the small, rural community of Holy Cross, also hit by a severe storm, was not as well prepared to respond. The main reason for this lack of efficient response was because of a lack of a centralized network. Due to the small size of the city, there is no permanent emergency relief plan. The community's response was reactionary and thus took longer and was very unorganized. Much of the response came from the State.
Stehr, Steven D. (2002): "Community Recover and Reconstruction Following Disasters," Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.… [Read More]
Internal and external consistency was tested. A pilot study showed that there was internal consistency. However, the results of the larger study indicate that more work on the KAESAD to improve the internal consistency of the scales used to measure the responses was needed. Data were statistically analyzed with an accepted value of statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Also, some data that was found to be statistically significant was determined by the authors to be clinically insignificant. How this was determined by the authors was not explained in the procedure.
The results were presented in several helpful tables and also interpreted by the authors. The authors discussed the results of each aspect of their research questions. None of the research questions were left out. The tables that were used were helpful, easy to read and agreed with the interpretations that the authors made about their results. The discussion…… [Read More]
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…… [Read More]
Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned
In late August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed. Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Background…… [Read More]
A lack of local understanding by FEMA and & #8230;. Caused a clear inability for these agencies to exercise their logistics plan during such a catastrophic event.
The first clear weakness was experienced by FEMA, the national organization appointed to deal with supplementing local relief efforts and providing extended services to those in need in an event of a natural disaster or terrorist attack. FEMA is supposed to work as a supplement to local emergency service efforts, and as such it is supposed to be in tune with the capabilities and procedures of the local agencies that were on the front line of Katrina disaster relief. However, the research shows that "there was nobody that even knew FEMA's history, much less understood the profession and the dynamics and the roles and responsibilities of that states and local governments" (University Transportation Centers Program, 2007, p 22). Essentially, FEMA operatives were not…… [Read More]
When an emergency situation arises, quick action is imperative in order to protect assets and minimize losses. A security supervisor bears the burden of ensuring that a disaster management plan is effectively carried out, but he or she cannot act alone. The supervisor must coordinate with state and federal agencies that become involved in larger disasters. Special events may also necessitate coordination and collaboration with other groups that are involved in the organization and administration of the event (Innace, 2008). Security directors can effectively manage emergencies by developing a plan ahead of time in conjunction with others that may be involved in the case of such an emergency. They should also implement the incident command system and media relations.
In preparation for an emergency, the security supervisor should identify priorities including minimizing the number of victims and extent of harm that comes to them and protection of the…… [Read More]
An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.
Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:
Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…… [Read More]
Department of Homeland Security Grants
The HSGP (Homeland Security Grant Program) for the fiscal year 2017 contributes significantly to NPS (National Preparedness System) implementation through promoting the creation, delivery and sustenance of key capabilities vital to the achievement of America’s NPG (National Preparedness Goal) geared at improving its security and resilience. The provision of key capabilities necessitates integrated community-wide efforts and not the sole, independent endeavors of a particular governmental level or agency. HSGP’s allowable expenses foster attempts at developing and sustaining key capabilities over the Protection, Prevention, Mitigation, Recovery and Response mission domains, with the following prioritized:
· Development and Maintenance of Terrorism Prevention Competences by Law Enforcers
· Development and Upgradation of Key Urban Area and State Fusion Centers
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)
This Homeland Security agency was first established under the 1978 Presidential Reorganization Plan III, and put into service under a couple of Executive Orders…… [Read More]
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…… [Read More]
Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA is primarily charged with ensuring that the Americans are all safe in case of any emergency. This is the basis of all their engagements and departments that exist therein. The range of emergencies that are included in the FEMA field of operation are natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, wild fires, earthquakes and man made (both internal and external aggression) disasters that can adversely affect the lives of the Americans.
The roles of FEMA in a situation of emergency are conventionally grouped into the following categories as indicated by FEMA (2010a);
Life safety: this is usually the first and most important priority of FEMA since it is the sole reason for the existence of the agency and the agenda for their response to any emergency situation.
ecovery and restoration; this involves ensuring that the businesses run normally and that the population is employed once again after…… [Read More]
Teaching Disaster and Emergency Management
The whole world has turned into a place where people encounter experiences with diverse forms of disaster. Most of the disasters are usually extremely complicated and strike unexpectedly in any region causing massive damages and loss of lives. The complexities accompanying the catastrophes require the existence of well-trained personnel oftentimes ready to deal with disasters as they occur before causing irreparable harm to people and property. In some regions, many people have lost lives and properties destroyed because of the slow response by the people dependable for handling the emergencies. This calls for the training of new and many people who provide quick and efficient response to the disasters whilst saving lives. Various regions and countries have taken up the initiative of training people expected to play a critical role in the management of disasters. There has been an argument whether teachers handling disaster management…… [Read More]
Military Emergency Management/Terrorism Preparedness
It is reported in the work of Prelas, et al. (2009) entitled "Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism" that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) became part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security on March 1, 2003, and is charged with the reduction of the "loss of life and property and protect the national from all hazards" including acts of terrorism. FEMA is to accomplish this through providing leadership and support to the national in a "risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation." (Prelas, et al., 2009, p.539) DHA/FEMA is reported to be under the leadership of the secretary and to coordinate "with the Commandment of the Coast Guard, the Commissioner of Customs, and Border Protection, the Assistant Secretary of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the NOC and other agencies and offices in the department to take full advantage of…… [Read More]
FEMA operates urban search and rescue that typically are engaged after large-scale natural disasters but that can be effective in searching for survivors and preventing further risk from structural damage and degradation (DHS 2010). The Department of Homeland Security has also helped to prepare guidelines for local emergency response units, which should have plans ready for securing the university area, ensuring that no other explosive devices are present, and maintaining general security during a time of what will almost certainly be mass panic (DHS 2010). Depending on the placement and extent of the damage to the university, temporary shelters, food, and water may need to be made available for students and potentially others that find themselves stranded and without shelter as a result of the bombing; local business such as supermarkets that have quick command of large amounts of product can be very useful in providing these services in the…… [Read More]
Perhaps this will always be an issue for the U.S. federal government because under the existing political system there are few substantial options for making policy decisions that can extend across political elections. Situations that represent a problem for one politician or political party will be ignored by the next, making consistent, proactive responses difficult if not outright impossible. From an emergency management position, this means that agencies will always have to be designed to react to the worst-case scenarios, instead of more reasonable, proactive affects that could control potential problems before they escalate out of control.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Crisis in the U.S. administrative state. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Nice, D.C. And Grosse, a. (2001). Crisis policy making: some implications for program management. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida…… [Read More]
Political, management plans are important for several reasons, firstly, the residents in any given county or state, want legislation in place in case of an emergency, they will vote in or keep current political figures that make sure these needs are being met. Therefore, as long as plans like the Florida Emergency plan exist, there is a certain amount of job security for local political figures. On the other hand, it affects public policy directly, by giving rules and regulations in times of emergency, a guide to determine when, what, how and where. This allows the affected individual to be handled appropriately, and the official aiding them the proper guidelines to follow in the given situation, so no one gets lost in protocol or paper work, everyone knows their job and what is expected of them at all times.
Florida Division of Emergency Management (2004, February). The State of…… [Read More]
Loss of local control in emergency management is a legitimate concern. Yet access to state and federal resources is critical for effective emergency response. The most effective emergency response involves carefully coordinated roles between local, state, and federal agencies. Local agencies are always first responders, and therefore have a great deal of authority and responsibility in emergency management. States may have significant resources and distinct responsibilities to work with local officials. Yet the primary role of state agencies is “to supplement local efforts before, during, and after incidents,” (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2008, p. 6). States in many ways play the least visible role in emergency management, often working as liaisons between local governments requesting additional support and the federal government needing more information about the situation. Not all incidents require state or federal intervention and assistance, and city councils should not be concerned about losing control. Compliance…… [Read More]
FEMA & obert T. Stafford Act of 1988
Disaster relief has been an issue of significant focus for the federal government through the Federal Emergency Management Agency was not created until 1978. The significance of disaster relief for the federal government is evident in the creation of the earliest piece of federal legislation in 1803. The federal government created the Congressional Act of 1803 as its earliest legislative attempt to address disaster relief. Since the enactment of this first piece of legislation, the federal government has prioritized disaster relief and management since the country has been characterized by increased incidents of natural and man-made disasters. Some of these efforts undertaken by the federal government include the enactment of obert T. Stafford Act of 1988 and the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
easons and Events that Lead to Creation of FEMA
The Federal Emergency Management Act was established in…… [Read More]
Coordinating community-wide efforts with representatives and respected leaders from each of the constituent sub-communities and populations will ensure the development of effective strategies.
Specifically, each sub-community needs to be apprised of the likelihood and risks of various types of events, including natural disasters and different terrorist attacks. Care must be taken not to cause undue alarm, but also to provide realistic and relevant information that objectively and directly assesses the situation. Providing such information without causing unnecessary fear is a delicate process even when one is familiar with the culture one is dealing with, and it is near impossible if the culture is foreign to the preparer. This is why coordination with community leaders is essential in the planning and education phases of emergency and disaster preparedness; no emergency management team could hope to develop the proper materials and information without consultation.
Coming to an understanding of the cultural and…… [Read More]
As Nielsen and Lidstone (1998) note,
It is ironic that the public demands safety yet a number of cost-effective and feasible measures to mitigate disasters are not adopted by many... Such a failure of the public to adopt disaster mitigation measures has a long record in Australia
(Nielsen and Lidstone 1998)
This attitude is one of the reasons given for the greater emphasis on public education. In theoretical terms, the view is put forward that an educated public will be able to deal with emergencies and disasters more effectively and that this should form an integral part of emergency and disaster management and planning. This in turn has resulted in a "...renewal of focus, at both a national and global level, upon public education as a means to disaster mitigation" (Nielsen and Lidstone 1998). To this end the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States (FEMA) has collected data…… [Read More]
apid esponse Team Protocol be Developed in the Outpatient Setting?
Today, there are approximately 7,100 outpatient centers which are also known as urgent care centers, immediate care centers, walk-in care centers as well as others (Size of industry, 2015) that compete for patients in need of medical care. Outpatient care has assumed a new level of importance in the American healthcare infrastructure following the passage of the Affordable Care Act as well as the changing needs of the American population for health care services that demand more efficient community-based health care resources (Ferenc, 2013). For instance, Brandenburg and Gabow (2015) emphasize that, "While excellent clinical care remains the expectation, health care consumers are now seeking health care and supporting systems that are respectful of individuals" (p. 3). especting individuals, of course, also means also respecting their time, but anecdotal accounts and the studies to date confirm that patients are kept…… [Read More]
Role of Specific Air Monitoring and Detection Devices in Terrorist Related Hazardous Materials Incidents.
The term HAZMAT refers to the team that works with hazardous material. Hazardous material and terrorism are closely intertwined since most terrorist attacks obviously involve some form of hazardous material and therefore the HAZMAT team is inextricably involved in investigating, identifying, and dissembling this hazardous material. Their work, in fact, makes the HAZMAT member a crucial and invaluable part of our modern day lives. The following essay is a collection of sources that elaborates on the interconnections between HAZMAT and terrorism and the way that HAZMAT prepares and responds to terrorist incidents.
HAZMAT is an inextricable part of terrorism preparedness and response since terrorism inevitably deals with weapons of destruction that almost always constitute hazardous material. Examples of the hazardous material implicit in terrorist attacks are:
Radiological and nuclear materials
Explosives (Community…… [Read More]
Hurricane esponse Issues
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and describe the various details that are inherent within a disaster. This essay will focus on a recent hurricane event that demands the attention of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and includes the necessary actions by the Incident Commander (IC). The current status of the problem is post hurricane and extra medical supplies are needed. Along with this problem lies the issue of drinking water, food and temporary shelter. There is also continuous rain falling as floods are threatening the well being of both the residents of this area and the rescue effort itself.
Prioritizing during emergency responses is a very necessary thing to do in order to survive these troubling situations. Leadership is necessary in these cases to provide guidance and a sense of faith and hope in times of peril and danger. In hurricane response situations,…… [Read More]
New Continuity Manager
hat do you think is going on here?
Business continuity planning and disaster recovery capability has become mandatory for all healthcare organizations in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), passed by the U.S. Congress in 1996, has as part of its phased implementation "Security Guidelines" (Coleman, 2016). The BHS campus undoubtedly has some form of this emergency plan. However, given the reaction by the administrator, to a recent risk that was identified, the current plan is most likely not comprehensive or possibly out-of-date.
hat would be the best way to approach situation and risk assessment?
The best way to approach a risk assessment is to focus on the scope and ask the right questions about what should be included. The DHHS, FDA, and ASHRM recommend that managers should conduct organization-specific risk analyses to determine potential risks. The analysis should identify these key areas (The University…… [Read More]