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Law Enforcement Communications Interoperability of Emergency Service

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 3577156

Law Enforcement Communications

Interoperability of Emergency Service Communications

The number and scope of each individual emergency and public safety agency has resulted in an ad hoc patchwork of communication equipment. Routine daily needs within one agency for clear and concise communication fall short of readiness for large-scale emergencies involving either multiple services or jurisdictions. The current budgeting autonomy of each public service department has resulted in a many agencies with antiquated equipment, while others posses more modern tools, that may sufficiently serve current needs, yet is clearly inadequate for more common emergencies like large fires or traffic pile ups. However, interoperability, the capability to communicate across different gear, radio frequencies, and standardization, both limits and delays the response time, as well as effectiveness, of each individual. hen emergencies entail injuries and danger, timely command and communication of resources may be the difference between life and death.

The video, "hy Can't…… [Read More]

Works Cited

U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (n.d.). Why Can't We Talk? When Lives Are At Stake. Retrieved 26 Oct., 2012, from Google Videos Web site:
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Emergency Plan For Communities and Agencies Alike

Words: 777 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31715803

Emergency Plan:

For communities and agencies alike, an emergency plan is the arrangement of dealing with a crisis that contains procedures on how to prevent injuries and fatalities, lessen damages and speed up the resumption of normal operations. It's important for these agencies and the community to have an emergency plan since it helps them to prevent multiple losses of resources and lives. Some of the major components to include in the emergency plan include possible emergencies, emergency preparedness procedures, lists of personnel and maps with evacuation routes ("Emergency Planning," 2005). This is because these elements provide the agency's staffs or the community with instructions of the possible emergencies and how to tackle them, their emergency duties and evacuation routes to enable them to handle the emergency effectively. To ensure that the agency or community is aware of the provisions in the emergency plan, community or agency awareness and education…… [Read More]


"Emergency Dispatch Service." (n.d.). Specialty Answering Service. Retrieved June 15, 2011,


"Emergency Planning." (2005, May 25). Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.

Retrieved June 15, 2011, from
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Service Level Networks When it

Words: 2990 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 32191202

In other words, the facilities that are available will be laid out in the best possible pattern and fashion so as to maximize efficiency and convenience for people who use the services (Handler & Mirchandani, 1979). There is obviously no way to put all of the facilities into the same space, and some of them take up more land than others, but there is no reason that urban planning officials, city leaders, and companies that want to build in a particular area cannot work together to meet everyone's needs. Often they want to accomplish this, but they simply are not sure what the best way to go about it would be.

Consider, as an example, a network model of an urbanized area, shown on the following pages and reproduced from Larson & Odoni, 1997-1999

All of the nodes (a through H) indicate points at which service demands are being…… [Read More]


Beltrami, E., & Bodin, L., (1974). Networks and Vehicle Routing for Municipal Waste Collection, Networks, 4 (1), 65-94 (1974).

Chan, D.W.M. And Kumaraswamy, M.M. (1996). An Evaluation of Construction Time Performance in the Building Industry. Building and Environment, 31(6), 569-578.

Church, R.L., & Garpinkel, R.S., (1978). Locating an Obnoxious Facility on a Network. Transportation Science, 12, 107-118.

Frank, H. & Frishch, I.T., (1971). Communication, Transmission, and Transportation Networks, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.
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Emergency Communications

Words: 1008 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99685444

Emergency Planning

Hazard Potential Grid


Proba- bility

Predic- tability

Fre- quen- cy

Speed of Onset

Control- lability

Op- tions

Scope and Inten- sity

Assis- tance

Com- munity

Vulnera- bility





Terrorist attack

Act of war



Lowest risk within ten years =1; highest risk = 5

Earthquake: St. Louis is about 200 miles from the New Madrid Fault, but because of the geology of the region, shock waves travel a very long distance with considerable force. A major New Madrid Fault earthquake could destroy many vulnerable buildings, do major damage to others, buckle highways and collapse overpasses and possibly bridges. Although the fault has not triggered a major earthquake in modern times, in 1809 and 1810 it triggered two earthquakes about six weeks apart that were both probably around 8.0 on the Richter scale. The region avoided major damage and loss of life only because…… [Read More]

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Emergency Operation Center for a

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 14702432

Planning for a larger center in the future eliminates the need to build an entire new center if it is someday required. The director should also do a risk analysis of the type of threats that face the community, and the facility. Another writer notes, "The Federal Emergency Management Agency has developed guidelines to assist a community in a risk assessment process" (Vaughn, 2008, p. 26). While hurricanes are the main concern, there can also be other treats, such as safety, security, staff health, and the overall operation of the facility.


The easiest way to organize the center is to follow the National Incident Management System (NIMS). It contains an incident command structure that is a common method of organizing the center. Commanders within the structure all have different areas of responsibility, including communications, damage assessment, available resources, and other key responsibilities (Editors, 2010, p. 8). Overseeing the activity…… [Read More]


Editors. (2010). Emergency operations center planning and design. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the Department of Defense Web site: .

Vaughn, M.R. (2008). Evaluating the need for a local emergency operations center. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the U.S. Fire Administration Web site: .
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Emergency Preparedness and Management in Florida

Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83670200

Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida

Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…… [Read More]

References List:

Adamski, T., Kline, B. & Tyrell, T. (2006). FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief: FEMA Reorganization. Perspectives on Public Affairs, 3, 1-36.

Durmaz, H. (2007). Understanding and Responding to Terrorism. Washington, USA: IOS Press.

Edwards, F. L. & Steinhausler, F. (2007). NATO and Terrorism: On scene: New challenges for the first responders and civil protection. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Elders Affairs. (June 2013). Disaster Preparedness: Guide for Elders. Elder Update -- Special Edition, 24(3), 1-24.
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Emergency Managment Training Examination and Critique

Words: 1603 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65675009

training in the field of emergency management is particularly complicated. The reason for the complication is the astonishingly broad latitude of situations for which emergency services and personnel might ultimately be required. Now obviously there are certain limitations that are based on simple geography: emergency management personnel in California may be called upon to deal with mudslides or earthquakes, and emergency management personnel in Kansas will be summoned for tornados. But a large-scale terrorist incident could conceivably occur anywhere that is populated. Meanwhile certain types of disaster almost perfectly defy any attempt at preparation altogether -- the example of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed over two hundred thousand people, is particularly pertinent, because there existed no detection system for such an event. Tsunamis are rare events, but common enough in the Pacific Ocean that a detection system existed there -- but they are so rare in the Indian…… [Read More]


Canton, L.G. (2006). Emergency management: Concepts and strategies for effective programs. New York: Wiley.

Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A., Coppola, C.P. (2013). Introduction to emergency management. Fifth edition. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Perry, RW, Lindell, MK. (2006) Emergency planning. New York: Wiley.
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Emergency Medical Services and Quality Improvement

Words: 3727 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 89105814

Quality Improvements in Emergency Services

Consumers in the form of patients and other stakeholders are increasingly demanding for proof that the care being delivered or rendered to them is of high quality. In general, the public is cognizant of, demand quality from the medical sector or industry, and anticipates action and improvements to be undertaken when quality is not existent. There are very clear expectations and anticipations for improved health, improved efficiency and in overall improved quality. It is important for an Emergency Medical Services agency or organization to have programs and agendas in place that not only analyze, evaluate and assess the manner in which the organization and its employees are operating. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the aspect of quality improvement in Emergency Medical Services. The paper will take a look into the background of quality improvement and advancement in the emergency medical services sector.…… [Read More]


Angelini, K., Klein, S. (1989). The QA guarantee. Emergency, 20-23.

Bingaman, D. (1994). Continuous quality improvement in emergency service: what and why. Dallas: American College of Emergency Physicians.

El Sayed, M. J. (2011). Measuring quality in emergency medical services: a review of clinical performance indicators. Emergency medicine international.

Estepp, M., Crabtree, S. (1988). Quality assurance in EMS. Fire Command, 20-23.
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Management of Emergencies

Words: 1436 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71515256

Emergency Management

It is no secret that the emergency management response of the city needs to improve, especially when it comes to winter snowstorms and related issues. With that in mind, it becomes necessary to focus on how to help both businesses and residences who may have people trapped in them. Additionally, people can easily become trapped in their cars, and without food or water they can be at serious risk. With the freezing temperatures, the danger in which these people find themselves is extremely significant, and not something they can easily ignore or extricate themselves from. Of course, there is more than just people to consider. The safety of structures, the clearing of roadways, and the proper functioning of city services are all issues that can come about when snowstorms and other natural disasters hit a city (Howitt & Leonard, 2009). Individuals who work for city agencies need the…… [Read More]


Buchanan, . (2000). Emergency preparedness. In Banks, P. & Pilette, R. Preservation Issues and Planning. Chicago: American Library Association.

Drabek, T. (1991). Emergency management: Principles and practice for local government. Washington D.C.: International City Management Association.

Howitt, A.M. & Leonard, H.B. (2009). Managing crises: Responses to large-scale emergencies. NY: CQ Press.

Suttmeier, R.P. (2011).China's management of environmental crises: Risks, recreancy, and response. In Jae Ho Chung (ed.). China's Crisis Management. London: Routledge.
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Analyzing the Emergency Planning of Lausd

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Grant Writing Paper #: 83199479

Emergency Planning and the LAUSD

Los Angeles, California is not a stranger to emergency situations. The city has faced major natural disasters, as well as intense social unrest, all of which have affected education. As one of the largest districts in the state of California, the Los Angeles Unified School District has some serious challenges related to effective emergency planning and execution of emergency strategies when they are needed. As budget issues continue to reduce resources required for effective emergency preparedness, the district has some serious issues to face before other major emergency surfaces in order to ensure that the students and staff within the education system remain safe and can continue their part in the education system after the emergency has subsided.

The district covers a huge portion of the city, with hundreds of thousands of children attending LAUSD schools. As a central headquarters for emergency operations, the district…… [Read More]


Sinclair, M. (2004). Planning Education in and after Emergency. Fundamentals of Education Planning. Institute for International Educational Planning, 2002. Retrieved April 21, 2010 from 

Los Angeles Unified School District. (2010). Emergency Operations Plan. Retrieved October 18, 2015 from 

U.S. Office of Safe and Drug-free Schools, U.S. Department of Education (2007). Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A guidebook for schools and community. The Office of Safe and Drug-free Schools. Retrieved February 2008 from 

Zach, L., & McKnight, M.. (2010). Innovative Services Improvised During Disasters: Evidence-Based Education Modules to Prepare Students and Practitioners for Shifts in Community Information Needs. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 51(2), 76-85. Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2012698591).
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Emergency Plan

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46205375

Emergency Plan

Business Name: MWV located in Covington VA

Number of Employees 190

Emergency management plan entails a system of managing resources, information analysis and decision making in the event of a tornado hitting the facility (Hubbard, 2009). The emergency management plan acts a guide to the responsible personal, the staff and residents within the facility on the steps to take upon the occurrence of a tornado. The emergency plan gives a description of the role that the pre-appointed Emergency Management Group (EMG) is expected to carry out in the event of a tornado. The Emergency Management group will serve as the overall authority over the activities in the facility relating to the occurrence of a tornado.

The emergency management policy is to ensure the safety of every individual within the facility and bring the facility to normal operations after an accident.

The head of the Emergency Management group is…… [Read More]


Hubbard, C. o. (2009). Emergency Response, Windshield Survey; Hubbard, . City of Hubbard Oregon.

Safety, C. f C.P. (2002). American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies. . New York: CCPS-AICHE.
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Emergency Preparedness

Words: 2719 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57296873

Emergency Preparedness

The ole of Private Companies


Emergency Preparedness

Emergency preparedness refers to the process of preparing resources, both human, financial and equipments for action during times of emergency. It involves planning for disasters and equipping individuals with the capacity to use the available resources in reacting towards the occurrence of disasters. Nations need to put structures in place to prepare for disasters in the form of terrorist attacks and natural disasters among other dangers[footnoteef:2]. Entities prepare for such dangers institutions emergency structures for communication, implementing warning devices, establishment of potential shelter, rehearsing for evacuation, and establishing backup sustenance services among other things. Disaster preparedness, whether at the regional or local level, is the responsibility of a wide range of players and not just governments, as the society would ordinarily view it. All individual and parties, in whatever, society is vulnerable to potential disaster and so all entities are…… [Read More]


Alpert, Michael, E. Preparing for Catastrophic Events, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishers, 2009

Bascetta, Cynthia A. Emergency Preparedness: State Efforts to Plan for Medical Surge

Could Benefit from Shared Buidance for Allocating Scarce Medical Resources, Washington, D.C.: United States Government Accountability Office, 2010

Bradley, Arthur T. Disaster Preparedness Handbook: A Guide for Families. New York: Skyhorse Pub, 2011.
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Emergency Planning Washington DC Emergency Planning Entails

Words: 793 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32894601

Emergency Planning: Washington, DC

Emergency planning entails planning carefully for every type of hazard that may affect a particular area. It involves forecasting and developing a plan to deal with natural, manmade and technological disasters.

Washington, DC's emergency planning has of course changed entirely since September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks that left the entire country stunned and scarred had a particularly strong impact on Washington, DC. The center of America's political structure and a strong financial base, Washington continues to be a prime target for terrorists, one that will always be on a "short-list," so to speak, of cities that may yet again have to endure a terrorist attack of mammoth proportions.

One of the primary concerns for Washington, DC emergency planners is Reagan National Airport. The airport is so close to the most important landmarks and population centers in downtown Northwest Washington, DC, that it poses a continual…… [Read More]

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Emergency Planning Disasters That Can Critically Compromise

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28734243

Emergency Planning

Disasters that can critically compromise the accessibility of knowledge include floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, employee sabotage, computer viruses, and theft. The effects of disasters can lengthen even after the restructure of physical damage. Simply, the earlier a business recovers from a disaster; it will experience lesser wide-ranging continuing effects of the disaster. Not only the thrashing of sales during a disaster is destructive for the company, "the loss of customers, vendors, inventory and employee records extend recovery times from weeks and months to years" (Carlson & Parker, 1998). However, if a company has a premeditated disaster recovery plan (DP), it can reduce the nuisance of a disaster, whereas inappropriate preparations can result in a business experiencing liquidation of its bank accounts (Carlson & Parker, 1998).

In the Information Technology industry, Disaster ecovery (D) security issues occur repeatedly. The critical security measures in the environment are frequently covered by…… [Read More]


Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from Questia database: 

Disaster Recovery Security: The Importance of Addressing Data Security Issues in DR Plans. (2011, January). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from 

O'Sullivan, K. (2010, September 23). Knowledge Continuity: Strategies, Approach & Tools. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from
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Emergency Planning and Operations Methodology

Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96961384

Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology

In your opinion what were the main issues expressed by the States

Concerning Homeland Security and states rights at the 2002 State Emergency esponse Commission Conference? Please justify your position.

Most of the states attending the 2002 State Emergency esponse Conference expressed an overall sentiment that in relation to security, things are going to vary from state to state based on the capabilities of the emergency response agencies in each state, as well as the types of hazards that states are likely to face in addition to WMD's i.e. For example, states have to take into consideration whether they have chemical facilities, nuclear facilities and similar hazardous materials to address. State also has to take into consideration whether or not they have highways that are used to transport hazardous or nuclear waste materials.

Colorado made the point that secrecy regarding Homeland Security measures will not…… [Read More]


Analysis for the Homeland Security Act." (2003). Retrieved November 22, 2003, 

Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma

Homeland Security Act" (2003). Retrieved November 21, 2003, 

Homeland Security Act of 2003." Retrieved November 22, 2003,
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Emergency Room Overcrowding Healthcare Reform

Words: 304 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22886313

F. The uninsured are increasingly using the ED for their non-emergency needs.

III. The effects of emergency room overcrowding can be deadly.

A. Boarding patients, or keeping already treated or stabilized patients in the ED, prevents patients from receiving the inpatient care they need.

B. Long wait times and inefficient service can mean loss of life

IV. Possible solutions demand health care system overhaul.

A. More efficient hospital registration would streamline emergency room procedures.

B. Standing orders would allow nurses and EMTs to proceed on critical care without doctors.

C. Special fast-track and sub-waiting areas would alleviate hallway overcrowding.

D. Re-budgeting will allocate more funds to emergency admissions.

E. Reducing non-urgent visits via universal healthcare initiative would reduce unnecessary use of the emergency room.

F. Increasing hospital capacity for acute inpatient needs would replace boarding.

G. Hospitals can add support staff during critical hours.… [Read More]

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Emergency Manager as an Emergency

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83486791

There are a number of conditions that typically need to be met in order to receive assistance. Your property must not be covered under insurance benefits, you must be a U.S. citizen, your home must be in an area that has been declared a disaster area, this must be your home for the majority of the year and you are currently unable to live in your home.

In addition to aid, your financial needs may be met under the terms of your household or other insurance. Each insurance company has its own policies and procedures, and each policy has its own terms. Please refer to your insurance company for further details. If you intend to apply to FEMA for funding, your claim must first be rejected by your insurance company. If you refuse assistance from your insurance provider, FEMA may reject your application under IHP.

The Internal Revenue Service also…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FEMA. (2008). Help after a disaster: Applicant's guide to the individuals and households program. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from /pdf/assistance/process/help_after_disaster_english.pdf" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Emergency Preparedness America Is Not

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78402383

epublicans are slightly more likely than Democrats to say the country's military is currently not strong enough; Democrats are much more inclined to feel the government spends too much on the military." (Carroll, 2007)

When young men and women died on Virginia Tech's campus in April this year, many people wondered where the government was and was it not federal responsibility to provided adequate security to vulnerable students. It is not an isolated incident. There has been a series of such attacks in recent times and each one was worse than the one preceding it. While the government may deny any responsibility in such matters, the fact remains that, if our administration would pay closer attention to important issues in the homeland, such ugly incidents can be averted to a large extent. For example, if we had taken this seriously when it happened the first time, we could have saved…… [Read More]


Joseph Carroll, "Perceptions of "Too Much" Military Spending at 15-Year High," Gallup News Service, 02 March 2007; .

Patrick S. Roberts (2005) "What Katrina Means for Emergency Management," the Forum: Vol. 3:Issue. 3, Article 2 Available at
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Emergency Planning for San Diego State University

Words: 1859 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1920199

Emergency Plan for San Diego State University

Evaluation of Emergency Plan of San Diego University

San Diego State University has set out "emergency preparedness, response, and recovery guidelines for students, faculty, staff and campus auxiliary organizations so that the effects of campus emergency situations can be minimized." (San Diego State University, Division of Business and Financial Affairs, 2014, p. 1) San Diego State University has placed emergency numbers across the campus and on its webpage and includes the following:

(1) SDSU Policy (police/medical/fire) 9-1-1

(2) Environmental Health and Safety (chemical spills/toxic fumes) 46778 or [HIDDEN]

Also placed for information is the Emergency Operations Information Line 1- [HIDDEN] .

San Diego State University's Home Page is located at and it is reported that in the event of an emergency on the campus that this webpage is updated. San Diego State University has developed a check list for what should be…… [Read More]


IS-100.SCA: Introduction to the Incident Command System for Schools (2013) FEMA. Retrieved from: 

IS-362.A: Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools (2013) FEMA. Retrieved from: 

National Infrastructure Protection Plan (2013) NIPP 2013 Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from:

National Threat Assessment Center Secret Service Safe School Initiative (2014) U.S. Secret Service. Retrieved from:
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Emergency Planning and Operations Methodology

Words: 1276 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12023788

Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology

The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" ( FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Red Cross." /services/disaster/0,1082,0_319_,00.html accessed 11-17-2003).

The Department of Homeland Security." .

A accessed 11-17-2003).

Emergency Food and Shelter." Federal Emergency Management Agency. .(accessed 11-17-2003).
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Emergency Planning H2 the Purpose

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53963342

It is the policy of the hotel that the guest, employees of the hotel and their families will be the first consideration in the event of an attack, threat of attack or disaster.


It is the policy of the hotel that this document does not imply a guarantee. The hotel can only endeavor to make every possible and reasonable attempt to provide response based on the specifics of the situation, available resources as well as information available at the time.


In the event of a bomb threat it will be imperative that the heating/cooling unit in the hotel be shut off as well as all kitchen appliances, laundry facilities, and all systems attached to the swimming complex. Evacuation of guests and employees is a foremost consideration as well as shutting down of the hotel computer system. A team should be trained and assigned to evacuation in the event…… [Read More]


Basics of Vulnerability Analysis (2004) Chapter 2 [Online] Highbeam Research

Emergency Planning H2
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Emergency Management According to Steven

Words: 312 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67184405

Second, Iowa City had quick connections with State level disaster response crews that allowed for quick clean-up and rebuilding. They also coordinated with outside communities to provide shelter and other basic needs through local Red Cross organizations.

On the other hand the small, rural community of Holy Cross, also hit by a severe storm, was not as well prepared to respond. The main reason for this lack of efficient response was because of a lack of a centralized network. Due to the small size of the city, there is no permanent emergency relief plan. The community's response was reactionary and thus took longer and was very unorganized. Much of the response came from the State.


Stehr, Steven D. (2002): "Community Recover and Reconstruction Following Disasters," Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.… [Read More]


Stehr, Steven D. (2002): "Community Recover and Reconstruction Following Disasters," Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
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Emergency Reponse in Florida

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44406316

Emergency response is critical component to a natural disaster. In some instances, natural disasters are unexpected in regards to both their duration and destructive capabilities. In other instances, natural disasters can be seen ahead of time, while the damage can still be unknown, as is the case for hurricanes. In either circumstance, a proper response can mitigate hardships within a particular community. The proper response is often a coordinated and integrated approach to remedying a situation. Florida is a state that is particularly prone to natural disasters and in particular hurricanes. In recent occurrences, it was not the actual hurricane that caused so much destruction, but instead the residual effects. For example, flooding, power outages, and debris often cause more damage than the actual hurricane did. It is for these reasons that a robust emergency support system is needed.

In regards to the emergency support system of Florida, it appears…… [Read More]


1) Doss, Daniel; Glover, William; Goza, Rebecca; Wigginton, Michael (2015). The Foundations of Communication in Criminal Justice Systems (1 ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 301.

2) McElreath, David; Doss, Daniel; Jensen, Carl; Wigginton, Michael; Nations, Robert; Van Slyke, Jeffrey; Nations, Julie (2014). Foundations of Emergency Management (1st ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt Publishing Company. p. 25.
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Case Study Emergency Management

Words: 3299 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 83681739

Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned

In late August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed. Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Background…… [Read More]


Birkland, T.A. (2006). Lessons of disaster: Policy change after catastrophic events. Washington,

DC: Georgetown University Press.

Bitto, A. (2007, January-February). Say what? Who? Me? Right here in the trenches?

Collaborate on what? Seeking common ground in regional all-hazards preparedness training. Journal of Environmental Health, 69(6), 28-31.
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Crowding in Emergency Departments Over

Words: 1758 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 19768369

(Shactman; Altman, 2002)

4. ecommendations for Overcoming these Barriers:

Some of the suggestions for overcoming these barriers are (i) appointment of a General Practitioner -- GP officers to work as a Liaison Officer between the ED and the community so that the communication is streamlined as well as processes of referral and feedback and development of clinical pathways. (ii) Expansion of community off-peak facilities, including the setting up of the capacity for community access to X-rays, Scanning, ultrasound, blood tests and observation beds. (iii) Initiation of a project to deal with frequent attenders to the ED through the development of management plans contributed to by the patient, their GP, the ED as also their specialist (iv) Education of the local community such that are aware as to when and under what situations to access ED care or alternative care in the community. (Ardagh; ichardson, 2004)


Ardagh, Michael; ichardson, Sandra.…… [Read More]


Ardagh, Michael; Richardson, Sandra. (2004) "Emergency department overcrowding- can be

fix it" Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, vol. 117, no. 1189, pp: 27-31.

Brewster, Linda R; Rudell, Liza; Lesser, Cara S. (2001) "Emergency Room Diversions: A

Symptom of Hospitals under Stress-Increased Demand for ER Services" Center for Studying Health System Change. Issue Brief No. 38. Retrieved May, 2009 from
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Organization An Emergency and Disaster Preparedness Plan

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75166359


An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.

Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:

Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…… [Read More]


Ball, J.L. (2001). Employee Fire and Life Safety: Developing a Preparedness Plan and Conducting Emergency Evacuation Drills. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from 

"Fire Preparedness & Response: What the OHS Laws Require." (n.d.). Labor Tek Safety

Training Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from 

"Fire Prevention Plan." (2009, April 21). JSRCC Fire Prevention Plan. Retrieved from J.
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Demands That Emergency Workers Are Exposed to

Words: 2651 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64663515

Demands That Emergency Workers Are Exposed To

In this day and age, where no one is safe and emergency situations arise all the time, the people behind keeping the peace intact play a very important role. In recent studies it has been observed that emergency workers go through immense pressure and stress, which if gone undiagnosed can lead to major psychological problems. In this paper we will discuss at length the trauma that emergency workers suffer form and how to cope with it.

In the present day, United States is no more considered a safe and peaceful place to feel free, but rather it is more like an everyday war zone. Places like schools, offices, homes and even churches are no longer a safe ground like they were once considered to be, violence and hostility somehow find their way into them as well. Things like homicide, sexual and child abuse…… [Read More]


Jensen, SB (1999) Taking care of the care takers under war conditions, who cares? European University Centre for Mental Health and Human Rights.

Kahill, S (1988) 'Interventions for burnout in the helping professions: a review of the empirical evidence' in Canadian Journal of Counseling Review 22 (3):310342. Journal of Counseling Review 22 (3):310342.

Markey, K (1998) 'Reports on risks to health and safety identified by Concern Worldwide's international personnel ', Concern.

McCall, M & Salama, P (1999) 'Selection, training and support of relief workers: an occupational health issue ' in British Medical Journal 318:1136.
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GIS Technology in Fire Service

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83123338

Fire Service Technology:

The modern fire service is characterized by increased interactions between fire researchers and service in general. The interactions have mainly been geared towards producing research outcomes that can be utilized to enhance the effectiveness and safety of firefighters. As part of the development of suitable fire service technology, recent research results have shown that changes in construction methods and fuel loads have impacted the fire environment within residential structures ("Fire Fighting esearch Online," 2013). While the changes have transformed the conventional fire behavior, they have also contributed to significant changes in fire equipment. The research outcomes have not only brought changes to fire behavior and equipment but have also resulted in the development of fire service technologies that are currently used and continue to have tremendous impacts.

Examples of Technologies in Fire Service:

The first technology used in fire service is the World Wide Web that has…… [Read More]


"Advances Spark New Age of Fire Safety." (2012, March 14). Emergency Management.

Campus Safety Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from 

"Fire Fighting Research Online." (2013, September 30). Fire.Gov -- Better Fire Fighting

Through Research. Retrieved from The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) website:
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South Australia Ambulance Service Organizational Behaviour Case

Words: 5163 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58704794

South Australia Ambulance Service

Organizational Behaviour Case Analysis


ay Main should develop a system which empowers the culture of organization along with the shift towards automation and excellent customer service.

Has to do what

The leadership of South Australia Ambulance Service is required to do the following:

To set a strategic direction for SAAS this would be compatible to the new strategic plan.

Meet the service expectations of the clients by focusing more on efficient customer services.

Empower the service delivery personnel fully and hold them accountable for every action.

The expectations of donators and community should be aligned.

Make SAAS compatible to respond to mass casualties.

Workforce retention should be increased.

Emergency sector and healthcare should be integrated to respond efficiently to any casualty.

Interventions should be prioritized.

The impact of any change should be evaluated on the patient as patients' life is more important. (Daniels 2009)

The…… [Read More]


Steven McShane, Sandra Steen, (2008). Canadian Organizational Behaviour, Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Higher Education; Canadian edition

Abernathy, W.B. (2006). Designing and managing an organization-wide incentive pay system. Memphis, TN: Abernathy & Associates.

Abernathy, W.B. (2006). The sin of wages: Where the conventional pay system has led us and how to find a way out. Memphis, TN: PerfSys Press.

Alvero, A.M., Bucklin, B.R., and Austin, J. An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management vol. 21 (2001). pp. 3 -- 29
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Developing Optimal Ambulance Services

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95073211

King County Emergency Management System: Ambulances

This paper reviews the relevant literature to determine how the seven unit hour production (UHP) processes work together to simultaneously achieve clinical excellence, response time reliability, economic efficiency, and customer satisfaction in the operation of King County Emergency Management System (EMS) with a specific focus on its ambulance services. An assessment concerning whether any of the processes have unintended consequences that negatively impact the system's performance is followed by a discussion concerning which of these processes work and do not work within the King County, Washington EMS. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the King County EMS are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Today, tertiary healthcare facilities in the United States are required by 42 CF 482.55 (the Conditions of Participation for Hospitals for Emergency Services) to ensure that they meet the emergency needs of patients in ways…… [Read More]


Davis, R. (2003, July 29). Six minutes to live or die. USA Today, 1-5.

Hamilton, T. E. (2006, July 13). EMTALA -- 'Parking' of emergency medical patients in hospitals. Baltimore, MD: Center for Medicaid and State Operations.

Hayes, P. & Fogarty, J. (2015, September). 2015 annual report to the King County Council. Seattle and King County: Public Health.

Unit hour production process. (n.d.). PowerPoint presentation.
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How Companies Can Prepare for Emergencies and Disasters

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53254251

orkplace Emergency Planning

hat preparations should be made by companies to be ready to respond when there is an emergency? hat kinds of emergencies should employees and management be prepared for? hat actions should be taken when an emergency occurs in the workplace? These issues will be discussed in this paper, with references from the American Red Cross and the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

Emergencies and Preparation - OSHA

The truth of the matter is that no one really expects an emergency or a disaster, but as OSHA points out on page 1, a disaster can happen almost anywhere. And even though a disaster cannot be predicted, because it threatens workers and the public and customers it is vitally important that companies be prepared.

hat are some of the emergencies that might occur in a workplace? Depending on the geographic location of the workplace,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Red Cross. (2008). Preparing Your Business for the Unthinkable. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from .

OSHA (2001). How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from .
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Sarc Psychological Services Concept Note

Words: 1485 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77412225

Curfews, military incursions, targeted killing, movement restrictions, arrests, terror acts, humiliation, poverty, and economic condition have affected every single person, right from infants to aged people. Volatility on a daily basis aggravates anxiety and stress - these unfortunate people cease to have any control over their lives (SAC, 2015; PCS Mental Health Department, 2003; Irwin & Scali, 2010).

The present situation in Syria is devastating, aggravated by memories of past conflicts and the ultimate loss of identity and land. Coping methods attack religious beliefs, cultural traditions, and community lifestyle vigorously. The most prominent impacts of relentless conflict include hopelessness; such situations have a lasting effect on people, their family, and the overall community. Discovering methods for overcoming the ordeal they have experienced is the lone means to a better future, for these people (SAC, 2015; Zimiles, 2009).

Epidemiology of the health/mental health issue

The collective effect of conflict elements deeply…… [Read More]


Allotey, P., Verghis, S., Alvarez-Castillo, F., & Reidpath, D. D. (2012). Vulnerability, equity and universal coverage - a concept note. BMC Public Health, 12 (Suppl 1), 1-3. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-S1-S2

DeSavigny, D. and Adam, T. (2009). Systems thinking for health systems strengthening: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. World Health Organization.

Irwin A, & Scali E. (2010). A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Social determinants of health discussion paper 2: Debates, policy & practice, case studies Geneva: World Health Organization.

PRCS Mental Health Department (2003).Capacity Building for PRCS Psychosocial Services: Vision and Framework -- A Concept Paper. Palestine Red Crescent Society
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Virginia Department of Social Service This Is

Words: 2940 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72736584

Virginia Department of ocial ervice

This is a paper discussing policy in Virginia Department of ocial ervice, deals with diversity, ethics and privacy issues in the work place. It has 10 sources in Turabian style.

Creativity, diversity and innovation define the health and wealth of a nation, a nation is of course not a single unit. It comprises of people of different races, the ideologies, the industries, companies and organizations which are run by intelligent people. In today's globalized world, the word nation has been deconstructed and internationalism is now a new nationalism. The mixing of races, ethnic groups, and nationalities at home and abroad is at a record level. In a world where technology has brought the people of far cultures to a global village, where individuals, organizations and entire countries draw strength and personality from places as near as their local neighborhood and as far away as a…… [Read More]


VDSS "Virginia Department of Social Service" Official website, 2002 at 

Warner, Mark, 2002, Governor "Executive Order 2 COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR, Equal Opportunity" available at

Cherrington, David J.; Middleton, Laura Zaugg, 06-01-1995, An introduction to global business issues. . Vol. 40, HR Magazine.

Fox, Jon Michael and Fox, Ronni Lea., 2000. Exploring the Nature of Creativity Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. 192pp
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Marketing the Product Is a Service the

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91578804


The product is a service, the service of home repair. There are several elements to this service. These include consultation, repair and follow-up service. The service staff will be a team of professionals, working on contract to the company. They will all be experienced professionals in their fields (e.g. plumbers, electricians, handymen, etc.). The physical environment in which the service will be performed is at the customer site, as the repair work will be done to residential and commercial properties. The process is going to be different each time, but consists of the basic steps of consultation and estimate, work design, work, and post-work follow-up.

Distribution refers to how the service will be distributed. The function of a distribution channel is to provide a link between production and consumption (, 2011). In a service industry, the two are closely linked. The workers who will provide the repairs will do…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Scott, R. (2009). Free demographic profile primer. Suite 101. Retrieved September 21, 2011 from (2011). Marketing -- distribution. Retrieved September 21, 2011 from
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EMS Response and Management During Multi-Jurisdiction Emergencies

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97746606

Management System: ole of EMS

EMS Duties during Emergency Operations

The Emergency Operations Plan for most municipalities in the United States defines how emergency services will respond to a disaster. A good example is the one outlined by the City of St. Pete Beach in Pinellas County, Florida (St. Pete Beach City Commission, 2011). Based on their analysis, the main hazards for their municipality are flooding due to heavy rainfall, hazardous materials storage and transportation, transportation accidents, tornados, hurricanes, and coastal erosion (p. 27). The frequency of these incidents range from dozens per year to a major hurricane once every 50 years. In St. Pete Beach, if an incident can be effectively handled by their own resources the response is organized using the National Incident Management System (NIMS) (p. 33). The incident commander will control the response, including first responders, even if more than one jurisdiction is involved. Support is…… [Read More]


St. Pete Beach City Commission. (2011). Special Commission Workshop Meeting. Retrieved from .
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Strategies to Promote Emergency Care Using the ACA

Words: 3074 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40393165

Affordable Care Act and EMS

The affordable care act is a medical insurance program that came into existence during the Obama regime. This came as a subsequent addition to the Medicaid and Medicare programs as fronted in the year 1965. The motive behind the creation of this scheme was to improve the affordability and accessibility of medical care to all the American citizens. Just like America, every society around the globe is made up of the less privileged and the rich. Therefore, the country's leadership opted to have this kind of insurance scheme so that everyone, regardless of the economic status can access cheap medical attention and in a convenient way. This forms the basis of the Affordable care act. This program offers many opportunities in the future for the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organization. In this case, there are chances for the people to benefit from the same.

The…… [Read More]


Catalano, J.T. (2015). Nursing Now! Today's Issues, Tomorrow's Trends. New York: F.A. Davis

Cone, D. et al., (2014). Emergency Medical Services: Clinical Practice and Systems Oversight, 2 Volume Set. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Copeland, C.W. & Carey (au), M.V. (2011). Upcoming Rules Pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). New York: DIANE Publishing

Faguet, G. (2012). The Affordable Care Act: A missed opportunity, a better way forward. New York: Paperbag.
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Progress of EMS Services

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62424250

governmental or non-governmental agency that focuses on disaster recovery. To that end, the author of this report has chosen the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA's mission as stated on their website is "to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from and mitigate all hazards" (FEMA, 2015). As already stated, the focus of this brief treatise will be on the recovery aspects of FEMA's job. While FEMA has often been derided and been made the butt of many jokes, they serve a vital and needed role when it comes to disaster recovery.

When speaking of recovery, this would reference what happens more than a month after a disaster occurs rather than the immediate response upon the event happening or even the immediate aftermath. As an example,…… [Read More]


Dekle, J. L. (2005). A Florida County Locates Disaster Recovery

Centers. Interfaces, 35(2), 133-139.

EMS Market Characteristics. (2015). EHS 640 - Intro to High Performance EMS.

FEMA. (2015). About the Agency -- Retrieved 8 September 2015,
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Worshipful Mayor Memo Regarding Building Emergency Sea

Words: 1429 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34388876

Worshipful Mayor

Memo regarding building emergency sea gate with current funds

After studying the issue, and the costs thereof, we have come to the conclusion based on the following facts:

That building a Seagate may be feasible as per the advice of the engineers. However they also opinion that such a hurricane as sandy occurs once in 25 or so years. The cost of building such a barrier would be enormous. It would result in increased taxes and the efficiency of such a measure is not guaranteed.

The second alternate is to build smaller dykes that would keep off sea erosions but would do nothing against storms like sandy.

The third alternate is to increase the existing infrastructure in such a way that flooding can be avoided. And other programs are continued in a phased manner.

With consideration to all of the above, we believe that investing in a sea…… [Read More]


Earl, Michael J. (1988) "Information Management: The Organizational Dimension" Oxford

University Press: Oxford.

L.A. County Online. "Hazard Mitigation" Retrieved 26 April, 2013 from

Narasimhan, Ram; Kim, Soo Wook. (2001) "Information system utilization strategy for supply chain integration" Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp: 51 -- 75.
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Emergency Occurring Is Inevitable Although

Words: 2130 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43545839

In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.

According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…… [Read More]


Brown, Sharon P., Sandra L. Mason, and Richard B. Tiller. "The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Employment and Unemployment: After BLS and Its State Partners Made Critical Modifications to Estimation Procedures, Local Area Data Show That Hurricane Katrina Depressed Employment Levels Sharply in Louisiana and Mississippi;" the Initial Effect on Unemployment, Though Also Strong, Was Temporary." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 52+.

Clayton, Richard L., and James R. Spletzer. "Worker Mobility before and after Hurricane Katrina: A Substantial Number of Workers Were Displaced from the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area after Hurricane Katrina; Those Who Quickly Found Jobs in Texas Experienced a Substantial Decline in Their Short-Term Earnings." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 11+.

Hsu Spencer S. Experts Question Proposed FEMA Changes

Washington Post. Wednesday, February 15, 2006; Page A04
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Emergency Manager How Does Mitigation

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53100335

("Lessons from New Orleans," 2005, pg. 58)

The idea behind relying on ones self to provide a backup plan for communication is only truly realized when mitigation occurs. The infrastructure of the local, state and federal governments may seem strong, but the idea that individuals and individual organizations will have less to deal with in quantity, when it comes to meeting people's immediate needs in a disaster, and can therefore ensure a better quality of response is one that all emergency managers should learn from this particular mitigation situation. Communication is key to ensuring a reduced loss of life as well as resources. One lesson learned was that the most successful of organizations in the process of communication, in the Katrina disaster were those that recognized that people came first and property second, as the largest asset of any business or region is the people who are employed by it…… [Read More]


Baum, K. (2003, September). Austin's Integrated Homeland Security Approach. Public Management, 85, 28-37.

Lessons from New Orleans. (2005, November). Security Management, 49, 58-62.

Mileti, D.S. (2004) Disaster By Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. Washington DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Storm Forces Officials to Rethink Plans for Elderly. (2005, September 12). Sarasota Herald Tribune, p. A1.
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Emergency Centers I Expect to Find the

Words: 1002 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 67883635

emergency centers, I expect to find the response performance of trauma centers in Connecticut to be well intentioned in their endeavor to rapidly and effectually reach out to survivors, but to be incapacitated by a host of hindrances. I, further, expect these hindrances to consist of inappropriate and delayed response to emergency situations I also expect to witness the inability to effectively manage, control, and supervise multiple processes. Most significantly, it is quite likely that delivery service will be distracted from focusing on patient and be diverted by the enormous complexity of tasks and responsibilities that are involved in their service.

Superb emergency preparedness necessitates an interdisciplinary approach to knowledge so that all parts of the service can be effectively accomplished: not only duties that focus on prevention but also decision-making, and a commitment to improving the life of the survivors. It is more than likely, given my research and…… [Read More]


Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.

Brewer, M.B., Brown, R..J., Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (2003). The handbook of social psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
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Emergency Planning and Operations Methodology

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93863036

GIS: Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology

Based on the oskin article how does decision-making affect span of control during a disaster or emergency?

Decision making affects span of control directly during a disaster or emergency. How effective decision making is depends on the ability of the decision maker to adequately assess a threat and determine what forces or equipment must be utilized to moderate or defeat the threat before explosive damage can occur (Smith, 1997). A decision maker is more likely to maintain control during a disaster or emergency if his team of subordinates is well trained and well motivated. Such a team is more likely to respond in a positive and efficient manner when under the direction of a commander.

The decision-maker must adjust the level of control necessary during a disaster or emergency based on the severity of the emergency and the likelihood that widespread disaster will result.…… [Read More]


European Commission. (2003). "Guidelines for Best Practice User Interface GIS." ESPRIT/ESSI, European Commission. Retrieved November 22, 2003,

Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma

Harrington, Andrew. "Field Experiences Highlight Mobile GIS Benefits." GeoPlace. Retrieved November 23, 2003,

Smith, Dan. August 1997. "CDI and QDR." The Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information. Volume XXVI, No. 5 Washington, DC. Retrieved November 22, 2003,
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Emergency Communications

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10039455

Memoir of a Public Information Officer: When an Earthquakes Strikes: The First Five Days

On Thursday the 15th of last month, at 7:31 A.M., an earthquake of 5.9 Moment Magnitude struck Southern California. The epicenter was near Santa Clarita, a small suburban community about twenty miles north of Los Angeles along the I-5 freeway. I am the Public Information Officer for the Emergency esponse Office for the City of Santa Clarita. The following is an account of the five days following that earthquake.

I was attending a breakfast meeting with City and County officials discussing items in the proposed budget for our Emergency esponse Office. Over danishes, bagels, coffee, and juice, we were itemized the needs required by my office. The main sticking point was the cost to training more CET (Community Emergency esponse Team) graduates. It is an 18-hour course taught by U.S. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Our…… [Read More]


Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.

Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L. Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd. 1996.
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Emergency Communications

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62946650

Awareness Campaign

Every individual in this community will face an emergency or disaster that may result in the loss of life, property, or business. Being prepared to react and respond to a natural disaster or emergency is in everyone's interest and that of their community. Emergency management distinguishes the two. Emergencies are " 'routine' adverse events that do not have communitywide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources…to bring conditions back to normal….what constitutes a disaster depends on…the jurisdiction's size, its resource base, and its experience with a particular hazard….a precept of emergency management that each community establish distinct levels…that define the progression from an emergency to a disaster" (Drabek, xviii). Different disasters have different impacts upon people's responses to them. The "death and devastation of disaster represent the worst of human fears….many costs involved in the various stages of disaster response: the preparatory and preventative, counterdisaster, rescue…… [Read More]


Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.

Raphael, Beverly. When Disaster Strikes: How Individuals and Communities Cope with Catastrophe. New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1986.

Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L., Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd. 1990.

"Community Emergency Response Team." Online Posting. 25 January 2002. .
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Emergency Medical Services Act

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 94660591

Emergency Medical Services System Act of 1973 helped to establish national standards for emergency medical systems, with broad implications for education and public health. The Act follows a series of seminal events that drew attention to weaknesses in emergency response, including the lack of proper, regulated, or consistent training for personnel. Moreover, the Act helped to ensure that healthcare infrastructure would be modernized to minimize instances and costs related to accidental injury and death. The Act includes provisions for training in emergency medical services, offering funding and support for training programs that conform to a set of federal standards. Interestingly, Nixon had initially vetoed the Emergency Medical Services System Act, and it was subsequently reworded to omit mandate for a Public Health Service Hospital system -- something Nixon believed was "unnecessary," (Shah, 2006, p. 1). Passing the EMS Systems Act of 1973 meant that the Department of Health, Education, and…… [Read More]


EMS Systems Act of 1973. Public Law 93-154

Shah, M.N. (2006). The formation of the Emergency Medical Services System. American Journal of Public Health 96(3): 414-423.
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emergency response crisis management and CERT

Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51501832

Crisis Management
Crisis management refers to the process of comprehensive risk assessment and strategic planning. A Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) provides proactive strategies for mitigating risk and managing crises through effective mobilization of human, financial, and technological resources, coordination of different support agencies and allies, and the implementation of recovery and response missions. There is no one central crisis management protocol, for each organization or community will have its own specific risks and resources (“Crisis Management and Emergency Response Plans,” n.d.). The CERT team works within the parameters of its community contingencies.
Emergency Management
Emergency management refers to specific plans for responding to specific emergencies. While not all emergencies can be fully planned for, and unexpected situations will arise, CERT teams are trained and equipped to provide emergency management services for preventing fatalities, minimizing injuries, reducing loss and damage to property, reducing the environmental hazards resulting from an emergency, and…… [Read More]

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Service Restoration and Business Continuity

Words: 932 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61761470

Business Continuity and Service estoration

The business continuity planning is the identification of potential external and internal threats that can lead to the disruption of the business process, which can lead to a loss of business infrastructures. In other words, the business continuity plan is the response of hazard that threats an organizational business process. The disruption of business operations can be predictable or unpredictable. However, the power outage and the minor network failures are minor problems that can disrupt business operations. However, a real disaster that can disrupt business activities is cyber attacks, flood, and theft of sensitive data. Business organizations can suffer unanticipated losses because of natural disasters, however, the goal of business continuity plan is to assist in recovery in the critical business process.

In the contemporary business environment, disasters are inevitable, and vary in magnitude and types. Disasters are defined as the abrupt destruction of business…… [Read More]


Pinta, J.(2012). Disaster Recovery Planning as part of Business Continuity Management Pinta, J. AGRIS On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics. 3.4: 55-61.
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Emergency Disaster Crisis Relief Rescue

Words: 2716 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 13594077

Federal disaster recovery assistance has long been taken for granted in the United States, embedded in federal laws such as the Stafford Act and the Flood Insurance Act. Federal disaster recovery efforts have been further supported by key organizations including those directly involved in crisis scenarios, such as FEMA. Moreover, a number of ancillary national organizations directly or indirectly provide disaster relief assistance, including the United States Department of Transportation, and most notably the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, which offers Community Development Block Grants for Disaster ecovery (Schwab, 2014). If the federal government should one day determine that its role no longer supported disaster relief services, then a number of regional, state, and local organizations would step up to fill the void in resources and management. Some of those organizations would be from the private sector and others from the public sector. In fact, a situation in…… [Read More]


Anderson, M.B. & Woodrow, P.J. (1998). Rising from the Ashes. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.

Partnership for Disaster Resilience (2007). Post-Disaster recovery planning forum: How-to guide. Retrieved online: 

Rodriguez, H., Quarantelli, E.L., et al. (2007). Handbook of Disaster Research. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. New York: Springer Science

Schwab, J.C. (2014). Planning for post-disaster recovery: Next generation. American Planning Association.
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Emergency Communications System

Words: 776 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 63682913

ECS can be set-up as an early warning and emergency communications system in areas usually affected by natural disasters or conflicts and with high volume of mobile phone users and text message/SMS users. In case of an impending political conflict or natural disaster, UniComm's ECS will be part of an area's communication plan as people take action in response to the information/message they received through the ECS.

Pilot Plan

UniComm, as part of its preparations for the international launch, will set-up special launchings in one country in Asia (Philippines) and Africa (Kenya) where the ECS can be tested in terms of its overall packaging. As the nature of the ECS service is more on the side of public service, UniComm will seek partners from the private sector with strong relationships with the government and non-government units operating within the chosen sites in each country. ECS will be tested in the…… [Read More]


Coyle, D. And M. Childs. (2005). "The role of mobiles in disasters and emergencies."Enlightenment Economics. Accessed on April 24, 2014. Accessed at: 

Habschle, A. (2011). "Novel uses of mobile phones, the Internet and Social Media." Institute for Security Studies. Accessed on April 24, 2014. Accessed at: 

Robnagel, H. And O. Junker. (2010). "Evaluation of a mobile emergency management system -- a simulation approach." 7TH International ISCRAM Conference, Seattle, USA.
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Services and Programs That Are

Words: 1694 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86120596

Another collaborator with SFPC is the Switchboard of Miami Mission. Switchboard helps connect families and people in need with existing community resources; Switchboard also offers services where there were none in existence. For example during the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew -- a category 5 hurricane that took the lives of 65 people -- Switchboard received more than 1,500 calls per day. People wanted to know where they could get help, water, medical aid and more. Post-disaster systems of communication were set up by Switchboard that linked with over 40 other local nonprofits and with the Miami-Dade County Office of Emergency Management (

Also in collaboration with SFPC is the Alcoholics Anonymous organization, the Narcotics Anonymous organization, and About Sober, which specialized in drug rehabilitation programs. All the drug rehab programs and alcohol treatment centers in South Florida are linked in collaboration with The About Sober group provides a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Sober. (2010). Get Connected. Stay Connected. Retrieved February 9, 2010, from .

Dow, John W. (2010). From the Desk of the Executive Director. Retrieved February 8,

2010, from

Florida Alcohol & Drug Abuse Association. (2010). About Us -- Mission Statement.
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Effectiveness of Emergency Management and Readiness in Connecticut

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 30023404

Emergency Readiness Annotated Bibliography

Biochemical terrorism, nuclear or other terrorism is everyone's nightmare since the anthrax scares in Washington D.C. In September of 2001 and the Al-Qaeda attacks on September 11, 2001. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to document the effectiveness of emergency management and readiness in Connecticut. It has been more than 5 years since the TOPOFF 3 emergency exercises in 2006 and literature published since then needs to be annotated and review for homeland security studies.

Annotated Bibliography

Petersen, R.E., Lindsay, B.R., Kapp, L., Liu, E.C., & Peterman, D.R. Congressional Reporting

Service, United States Congress. (2008). Homeland emergency preparedness and the national exercise program: Background, policy implications, and issues for congress. Washington, D.C.:

Government Printing Office.

In the CRS report, the series of ongoing TOPOFF exercises is documented in detail, including the 2006 exercise in Connecticut as well as other exercises are documented in detail. The…… [Read More]

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Organizational Performance Management Emergency Medical Services &

Words: 2154 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13153026

Organizational Performance Management

Emergency Medical Services & Pharmacies Long-Term Health Care Physicians' Offices Hospitals This paper written organizations. • Discuss influence regulatory accreditation standards performance-management systems.

Organizational performance management

The main purpose for the health care industry is to serve patients in the most effective, safe, and efficient manner. Each organization in this industry functions differently. However, there are some functions and regulations that the organizations will share. These regulations provide the organizations with a path that they are supposed to follow. egulatory requirements mandate the organization to compliance, and provide a standard performance level that creates the need for the organization to have specialized accreditation and monitoring in order to have quality improvements at various levels Sciences, 2006.

The key component for ensuring that an organization maintains its course in meeting the standards, compliance, maintaining the organization's mission and vision, and meeting regulatory requirements is communication. isk management will…… [Read More]


Briner, M., Kessler, O., Pfeiffer, Y., Wehner, T., & Manser, T. (2010). Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument. [Article]. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 337-347. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-337

Bryan, K. (2009). Communication in Healthcare. New York, NY 10006: Peter Lang.

Carroll, R., & Management, A.S.H.R. (2010). Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations: Student Edition. Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774: Wiley.

Coleman, L.A., Kottke, T.E., Rank, B., Reding, D.J., Selna, M., Isham, G.J., . . . Greenlee, R.T. (2008/12//). Partnering Care Delivery and Research to Optimize Health.
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Community Emergency Preparedness and Response it Is

Words: 2129 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79006002

Community Emergency Preparedness and esponse

It is not only exams that require preparedness. More than a planned activity, preparedness is required for unplanned activities. In health care, emergencies may mean danger to life of self or the loved ones. The medical emergencies are often stressful even for the doctors not only the victims. Hence the more a society is prepared for an emergency, the less will be side effects and in the same way if a society is caught by an emergency unprepared, the loss will can be potentially much higher than otherwise. Therefore, as they say prevention is better than cure, a society should be always prepared for emergencies.

Events in Neighborhood

Like bad time never comes with an alarm, a fire incident took place in forest and spread to the neighborhood nearby. The fire could not be overcome due to the windy season and it brought irrevocable damage…… [Read More]


Looking for a Career in Public Health Program Management? (2013), Retrieved from: 

Pfau, S., (2013), "Ten Essential Public Health Services," Retrieved from:
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Improving Customer Service on a Medical Surgical

Words: 4407 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84030109

Improving Customer Service on a Medical Surgical Nursing Unit

Quality Improvment Project-Customer service on the nursing unit

The hospital medical-surgical nursing unit is usually referred to as the "catch-all" department for different types of patients. This is because it includes renal patients, cancer patients, cardiac and surgical patient. It also includes other patients who do not particularly fall into any of these specialized units. The medical-surgical nursing unit is a conglomeration of all kinds of adults with all sorts of health problems and thus the nurses in this unit need to be dynamic, quick to respond and are almost on their toes at all times. Patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit are likely to develop changes in their condition quite rapidly and therefore they become more unstable even though they may have been admitted in a stable condition. This is because most patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit have unpredictable…… [Read More]


Amba-Rao, S.C. (1994). Human Resource Management Practices in India: An Exploratory Study. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 30(2), 190-202.

Dirks, K.T., & Ferrin, D.L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 611-628.

Glickman, S.W., Baggett, K.A., Krubert, C.G., Peterson, E.D., & Schulman, K.A. (2007). Promoting quality: the health-care organization from a management perspective. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 341-348. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm047

Judge, T.A., & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 755-768.
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Hospital Policies Do They Always Apply in Emergency Situations

Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72713379

School Nurse Conflict Mission

Mary Jackson did exactly what a professional RN should do -- she tended to the injured children that were her responsibility. It happened that her efforts spilled over into a hospital emergency room, which technically she did not have the legal right to practice in. But still, she acted according to the values that she was trained in and moreover, as a professional healthcare employee of a school, she knew these children and her instincts were to boldly provide triage and other emergency procedures to help the children. In addition, Mary is not just an RN, she is a Nurse Practitioner specializing in pediatrics, and her skills and training are well beyond those of an RN. Hence, she deserves respect and she deserves the benefit of the doubt when she acts in behalf of the children she is contractually and morally obliged to protect and care…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Klein, C.A. (2006). Nursing Responsibilities in a Disaster. The Nurse Practitioner, 31(11), 56.

Northrop, C.E. (1990). How Good Samaritan Laws Do Protect You. Nursing90, 20(2), 50-51.

Riverbend City: School Nurse Conflict Mission. Washington Allston Elementary School.