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A representative from each agency will also be requested to present a module as part of the educational program.
The programs will then be presented to the management bodies of the school and business chosen. With particularly large businesses and schools, it is advisable to implement the training separately for each department or grade; this is to be determined according to the given situation. With the appropriate permission from the authorities involved, a day will then be set aside during which the training can take place. All the necessary officials and speakers will be notified of the date and presentation requirements.
When the training has been completed, Stage 4 involves an evaluation by means of another survey. All training participants will receive a short questionnaire to determine their experience of the training. They will be asked a variety of questions relating to the training and presentation itself, as well as…
This aspect of an organization's efficiency involves suitable allocation of resources while providing an effective support system. For administrators to provide proper guidance, they require excellent interpersonal skills and the ability to motivate people. The fundamental issue in directing or commanding is to identify the accurate balance between stressing on staff needs and stressing on the organization's efficiency.
After ensuring that the personnel are equipped to counter the advancing requirements of emergency services, emergency service administrators have the responsibility of making sure that the knowledge acquired is rightly applied in order to deliver efficient services. Emergency service administrators achieve this through providing guidance and direction. For instance, a district emergency coordinator provides direction in the routing and handling of emergency communications by specifically emphasizing on welfare traffic (Tom n.d.).
This role evaluates quality in all areas and identifies the potential or actual digression from the organization's plan. Through this…
Asiko, S. (2009, June 19). Managing Your Subordinate Staff. Retrieved April 27, 2010,
from http://ezinearticles.com/?Managing - Your- Subordinate- Staff&id=2498418
Suhaimin, T. (n.d.). How to Lead, Manage, Motivate & Supervise Employees Effectively.
Retrieved April 27, 2010, from http://www.ugmc.bizland.com/tips-ls-msub.htm
Marketing Plan for Emergency Services
One of the major concerns across the country is the emergency medical services of the nation, and the impact of societal factors on these services, such as the increasing rate of crime, the lack of employment opportunities, and the level of poverty. The Chevra Hatzalah Emergency Medical escue Service in the city of New York offers well-organized and professional medical service. The main objective of this marketing plan is to assist Chevra Hatzalah Emergency Medical escue Service to become the best and most preferred source for pre- and post-hospital emergency medical necessities in the target markets. This marketing plan will facilitate the Chevra Hatzalah Emergency Medical escue Service to have a competitive edge/advantage in the market targeted; this will therefore increase its level of market share. The market plan also places emphasis on the current market situation, the objectives and the goals, the applied marketing…
Barley, K.W. (2003). The Development of a Marketing Plan for an Emergency Medical Service. Port Elizabeth Technikon.
Hiebing, R.G., & Cooper, S.W. (2000). The successful marketing plan. NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group.
Kotler & Lee, (2007). Marketing in the Public Sector. A Roadmap for Improved Performance - Pg.282.
Lopez, M. (2015). Making Public Safety a Priority. Alice Echo News Journal. Retrieved 19 June from: http://www.alicetx.com/news/making-public-safety-a-priority/article_8225645d-fcec-5977-8c7c-054eb6dce532.html
Emergency Services Management
The author of this report has been asked to complete a report about management challenges in emergency services. The report will have two major sections. The first section will be a review and summary of an interview that was completed between the author of this report and a person in the emergency services management sphere. The second and final part of the report will be a literature review that covers the topics and revelations revealed from that interview. While all realms of management have their challenges, there are some fields that have more challenges than others and emergency services certainly seems to be one of them.
As a condition of doing the interview for this report and in exchange for the person's candor, the person referenced in this section will not be identified in terms of who the person works for, what role they fill and…
Adriaenssens, J., de Gucht, V., & Maes, S. (2012). The impact of traumatic events on emergency room nurses: Findings from a questionnaire survey. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 49(11), 1411-1422.
Ayala, E., & Carnero, A.M. (2013). Determinants of Burnout in Acute and Critical Care
Military Nursing Personnel: A Cross-Sectional Study from Peru. Plos ONE, 8(1),
Emergency oom vs. Urgent Care Services
Emergency rooms are designed to focus on those medical emergencies and not on routine health care. These centers have a positive effect on cost, access, quality, care continuity, and patient navigation. The use of emergency room has managed to serve patients in critical conditions and ensuring that lives are saved and restored to normalcy. These emergency rooms have been able to serve a bigger population because they have no long queues and patients are given urgent medical care. By so doing, the facility promotes the health of patients and later looks at the monetary issues compared to other health facilities that treat patients upon full payment of service fee. An urgent care center encompasses a broad spectrum of consumer-oriented innovations that provide swift accessible and more affordable care. They are part of the rapidly growing "convenient care" industry. The emergency room centers are changing…
Chang, J., Brundage, S., Burke, G. & Chokshi, D. (2015). Convenient Care: Retail Clinics and Urgent Care Centers in New York. United Hospital Fund
Staff Care. (2015). Convenient Care: Growth and Staffing Trends in Urgent Care and Retail Medicine. Dallas, TX: NYSE
Law Enforcement Communications
Interoperability of Emergency Service Communications
The number and scope of each individual emergency and public safety agency has resulted in an ad hoc patchwork of communication equipment. Routine daily needs within one agency for clear and concise communication fall short of readiness for large-scale emergencies involving either multiple services or jurisdictions. The current budgeting autonomy of each public service department has resulted in a many agencies with antiquated equipment, while others posses more modern tools, that may sufficiently serve current needs, yet is clearly inadequate for more common emergencies like large fires or traffic pile ups. However, interoperability, the capability to communicate across different gear, radio frequencies, and standardization, both limits and delays the response time, as well as effectiveness, of each individual. hen emergencies entail injuries and danger, timely command and communication of resources may be the difference between life and death.
The video, "hy Can't…
U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (n.d.). Why Can't We Talk? When Lives Are At Stake. Retrieved 26 Oct., 2012, from Google Videos Web site: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6455322945171664950&hl=en
For communities and agencies alike, an emergency plan is the arrangement of dealing with a crisis that contains procedures on how to prevent injuries and fatalities, lessen damages and speed up the resumption of normal operations. It's important for these agencies and the community to have an emergency plan since it helps them to prevent multiple losses of resources and lives. Some of the major components to include in the emergency plan include possible emergencies, emergency preparedness procedures, lists of personnel and maps with evacuation routes ("Emergency Planning," 2005). This is because these elements provide the agency's staffs or the community with instructions of the possible emergencies and how to tackle them, their emergency duties and evacuation routes to enable them to handle the emergency effectively. To ensure that the agency or community is aware of the provisions in the emergency plan, community or agency awareness and education…
"Emergency Dispatch Service." (n.d.). Specialty Answering Service. Retrieved June 15, 2011,
"Emergency Planning." (2005, May 25). Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.
Retrieved June 15, 2011, from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/planning.html
In other words, the facilities that are available will be laid out in the best possible pattern and fashion so as to maximize efficiency and convenience for people who use the services (Handler & Mirchandani, 1979). There is obviously no way to put all of the facilities into the same space, and some of them take up more land than others, but there is no reason that urban planning officials, city leaders, and companies that want to build in a particular area cannot work together to meet everyone's needs. Often they want to accomplish this, but they simply are not sure what the best way to go about it would be.
Consider, as an example, a network model of an urbanized area, shown on the following pages and reproduced from Larson & Odoni, 1997-1999 http://web.mit.edu/urban_or_book/www/book/chapter6/6.5.2.html.
All of the nodes (a through H) indicate points at which service demands are being…
Beltrami, E., & Bodin, L., (1974). Networks and Vehicle Routing for Municipal Waste Collection, Networks, 4 (1), 65-94 (1974).
Chan, D.W.M. And Kumaraswamy, M.M. (1996). An Evaluation of Construction Time Performance in the Building Industry. Building and Environment, 31(6), 569-578.
Church, R.L., & Garpinkel, R.S., (1978). Locating an Obnoxious Facility on a Network. Transportation Science, 12, 107-118.
Frank, H. & Frishch, I.T., (1971). Communication, Transmission, and Transportation Networks, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.
Hazard Potential Grid
Fre- quen- cy
Speed of Onset
Scope and Inten- sity
Act of war
Lowest risk within ten years =1; highest risk = 5
Earthquake: St. Louis is about 200 miles from the New Madrid Fault, but because of the geology of the region, shock waves travel a very long distance with considerable force. A major New Madrid Fault earthquake could destroy many vulnerable buildings, do major damage to others, buckle highways and collapse overpasses and possibly bridges. Although the fault has not triggered a major earthquake in modern times, in 1809 and 1810 it triggered two earthquakes about six weeks apart that were both probably around 8.0 on the Richter scale. The region avoided major damage and loss of life only because…
Planning for a larger center in the future eliminates the need to build an entire new center if it is someday required. The director should also do a risk analysis of the type of threats that face the community, and the facility. Another writer notes, "The Federal Emergency Management Agency has developed guidelines to assist a community in a risk assessment process" (Vaughn, 2008, p. 26). While hurricanes are the main concern, there can also be other treats, such as safety, security, staff health, and the overall operation of the facility.
The easiest way to organize the center is to follow the National Incident Management System (NIMS). It contains an incident command structure that is a common method of organizing the center. Commanders within the structure all have different areas of responsibility, including communications, damage assessment, available resources, and other key responsibilities (Editors, 2010, p. 8). Overseeing the activity…
Editors. (2010). Emergency operations center planning and design. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the Department of Defense Web site: http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_4_141_04.pdf .
Vaughn, M.R. (2008). Evaluating the need for a local emergency operations center. Retrieved 12 Nov. 2010 from the U.S. Fire Administration Web site:
training in the field of emergency management is particularly complicated. The reason for the complication is the astonishingly broad latitude of situations for which emergency services and personnel might ultimately be required. Now obviously there are certain limitations that are based on simple geography: emergency management personnel in California may be called upon to deal with mudslides or earthquakes, and emergency management personnel in Kansas will be summoned for tornados. But a large-scale terrorist incident could conceivably occur anywhere that is populated. Meanwhile certain types of disaster almost perfectly defy any attempt at preparation altogether -- the example of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed over two hundred thousand people, is particularly pertinent, because there existed no detection system for such an event. Tsunamis are rare events, but common enough in the Pacific Ocean that a detection system existed there -- but they are so rare in the Indian…
Canton, L.G. (2006). Emergency management: Concepts and strategies for effective programs. New York: Wiley.
Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A., Coppola, C.P. (2013). Introduction to emergency management. Fifth edition. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Perry, RW, Lindell, MK. (2006) Emergency planning. New York: Wiley.
Quality Improvements in Emergency Services
Consumers in the form of patients and other stakeholders are increasingly demanding for proof that the care being delivered or rendered to them is of high quality. In general, the public is cognizant of, demand quality from the medical sector or industry, and anticipates action and improvements to be undertaken when quality is not existent. There are very clear expectations and anticipations for improved health, improved efficiency and in overall improved quality. It is important for an Emergency Medical Services agency or organization to have programs and agendas in place that not only analyze, evaluate and assess the manner in which the organization and its employees are operating. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the aspect of quality improvement in Emergency Medical Services. The paper will take a look into the background of quality improvement and advancement in the emergency medical services sector.…
Angelini, K., Klein, S. (1989). The QA guarantee. Emergency, 20-23.
Bingaman, D. (1994). Continuous quality improvement in emergency service: what and why. Dallas: American College of Emergency Physicians.
El Sayed, M. J. (2011). Measuring quality in emergency medical services: a review of clinical performance indicators. Emergency medicine international.
Estepp, M., Crabtree, S. (1988). Quality assurance in EMS. Fire Command, 20-23.
It is no secret that the emergency management response of the city needs to improve, especially when it comes to winter snowstorms and related issues. With that in mind, it becomes necessary to focus on how to help both businesses and residences who may have people trapped in them. Additionally, people can easily become trapped in their cars, and without food or water they can be at serious risk. With the freezing temperatures, the danger in which these people find themselves is extremely significant, and not something they can easily ignore or extricate themselves from. Of course, there is more than just people to consider. The safety of structures, the clearing of roadways, and the proper functioning of city services are all issues that can come about when snowstorms and other natural disasters hit a city (Howitt & Leonard, 2009). Individuals who work for city agencies need the…
Buchanan, . (2000). Emergency preparedness. In Banks, P. & Pilette, R. Preservation Issues and Planning. Chicago: American Library Association.
Drabek, T. (1991). Emergency management: Principles and practice for local government. Washington D.C.: International City Management Association.
Howitt, A.M. & Leonard, H.B. (2009). Managing crises: Responses to large-scale emergencies. NY: CQ Press.
Suttmeier, R.P. (2011).China's management of environmental crises: Risks, recreancy, and response. In Jae Ho Chung (ed.). China's Crisis Management. London: Routledge.
Emergency Planning and the LAUSD
Los Angeles, California is not a stranger to emergency situations. The city has faced major natural disasters, as well as intense social unrest, all of which have affected education. As one of the largest districts in the state of California, the Los Angeles Unified School District has some serious challenges related to effective emergency planning and execution of emergency strategies when they are needed. As budget issues continue to reduce resources required for effective emergency preparedness, the district has some serious issues to face before other major emergency surfaces in order to ensure that the students and staff within the education system remain safe and can continue their part in the education system after the emergency has subsided.
The district covers a huge portion of the city, with hundreds of thousands of children attending LAUSD schools. As a central headquarters for emergency operations, the district…
Sinclair, M. (2004). Planning Education in and after Emergency. Fundamentals of Education Planning. Institute for International Educational Planning, 2002. Retrieved April 21, 2010 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001293/129356e.pdf
Los Angeles Unified School District. (2010). Emergency Operations Plan. Retrieved October 18, 2015 from http://notebook.lausd.net/pls/ptl/docs/PAGE/CA_LAUSD/LAUSDNET/OFFICES/SCHOOL_OPS/SCHOOL_OPERATIONS_DIVISION/EMERGENCY_SERVICES/EMERGENCY_SERVICES_EMERGENCY_OPERATIONS_CENTER/LAUSD%20EOP%202010%20UPDATE.PDF
U.S. Office of Safe and Drug-free Schools, U.S. Department of Education (2007). Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A guidebook for schools and community. The Office of Safe and Drug-free Schools. Retrieved February 2008 from http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/emergencyplan/crisisplanning.pdf
Zach, L., & McKnight, M.. (2010). Innovative Services Improvised During Disasters: Evidence-Based Education Modules to Prepare Students and Practitioners for Shifts in Community Information Needs. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 51(2), 76-85. Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2012698591).
Business Name: MWV located in Covington VA
Number of Employees 190
Emergency management plan entails a system of managing resources, information analysis and decision making in the event of a tornado hitting the facility (Hubbard, 2009). The emergency management plan acts a guide to the responsible personal, the staff and residents within the facility on the steps to take upon the occurrence of a tornado. The emergency plan gives a description of the role that the pre-appointed Emergency Management Group (EMG) is expected to carry out in the event of a tornado. The Emergency Management group will serve as the overall authority over the activities in the facility relating to the occurrence of a tornado.
The emergency management policy is to ensure the safety of every individual within the facility and bring the facility to normal operations after an accident.
The head of the Emergency Management group is…
Hubbard, C. o. (2009). Emergency Response, Windshield Survey; Hubbard, . City of Hubbard Oregon.
Safety, C. f C.P. (2002). American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies. . New York: CCPS-AICHE.
Emergency Planning: Washington, DC
Emergency planning entails planning carefully for every type of hazard that may affect a particular area. It involves forecasting and developing a plan to deal with natural, manmade and technological disasters.
Washington, DC's emergency planning has of course changed entirely since September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks that left the entire country stunned and scarred had a particularly strong impact on Washington, DC. The center of America's political structure and a strong financial base, Washington continues to be a prime target for terrorists, one that will always be on a "short-list," so to speak, of cities that may yet again have to endure a terrorist attack of mammoth proportions.
One of the primary concerns for Washington, DC emergency planners is Reagan National Airport. The airport is so close to the most important landmarks and population centers in downtown Northwest Washington, DC, that it poses a continual…
Disasters that can critically compromise the accessibility of knowledge include floods, fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, employee sabotage, computer viruses, and theft. The effects of disasters can lengthen even after the restructure of physical damage. Simply, the earlier a business recovers from a disaster; it will experience lesser wide-ranging continuing effects of the disaster. Not only the thrashing of sales during a disaster is destructive for the company, "the loss of customers, vendors, inventory and employee records extend recovery times from weeks and months to years" (Carlson & Parker, 1998). However, if a company has a premeditated disaster recovery plan (DP), it can reduce the nuisance of a disaster, whereas inappropriate preparations can result in a business experiencing liquidation of its bank accounts (Carlson & Parker, 1998).
In the Information Technology industry, Disaster ecovery (D) security issues occur repeatedly. The critical security measures in the environment are frequently covered by…
Carlson, S.J., & Parker, D. (1998). Disaster Recovery Planning and Accounting Information Systems. Review of Business, 19(2), 10+. Retrieved July 21, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001370062
Disaster Recovery Security: The Importance of Addressing Data Security Issues in DR Plans. (2011, January). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/feature/Disaster-recovery-security-The-importance-of-addressing-data-security-issues-in-DR-plans
O'Sullivan, K. (2010, September 23). Knowledge Continuity: Strategies, Approach & Tools. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://star-knowledge.com/websites/star-knowledge/skblog/?p=70
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
In your opinion what were the main issues expressed by the States
Concerning Homeland Security and states rights at the 2002 State Emergency esponse Commission Conference? Please justify your position.
Most of the states attending the 2002 State Emergency esponse Conference expressed an overall sentiment that in relation to security, things are going to vary from state to state based on the capabilities of the emergency response agencies in each state, as well as the types of hazards that states are likely to face in addition to WMD's i.e. For example, states have to take into consideration whether they have chemical facilities, nuclear facilities and similar hazardous materials to address. State also has to take into consideration whether or not they have highways that are used to transport hazardous or nuclear waste materials.
Colorado made the point that secrecy regarding Homeland Security measures will not…
Analysis for the Homeland Security Act." (2003). Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/analysis/index.html
Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma
Homeland Security Act" (2003). Retrieved November 21, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/bill/index.html
Homeland Security Act of 2003." Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.theorator.com/bills108/hr1389.html
F. The uninsured are increasingly using the ED for their non-emergency needs.
III. The effects of emergency room overcrowding can be deadly.
A. Boarding patients, or keeping already treated or stabilized patients in the ED, prevents patients from receiving the inpatient care they need.
B. Long wait times and inefficient service can mean loss of life
IV. Possible solutions demand health care system overhaul.
A. More efficient hospital registration would streamline emergency room procedures.
B. Standing orders would allow nurses and EMTs to proceed on critical care without doctors.
C. Special fast-track and sub-waiting areas would alleviate hallway overcrowding.
D. Re-budgeting will allocate more funds to emergency admissions.
E. Reducing non-urgent visits via universal healthcare initiative would reduce unnecessary use of the emergency room.
F. Increasing hospital capacity for acute inpatient needs would replace boarding.
G. Hospitals can add support staff during critical hours.
There are a number of conditions that typically need to be met in order to receive assistance. Your property must not be covered under insurance benefits, you must be a U.S. citizen, your home must be in an area that has been declared a disaster area, this must be your home for the majority of the year and you are currently unable to live in your home.
In addition to aid, your financial needs may be met under the terms of your household or other insurance. Each insurance company has its own policies and procedures, and each policy has its own terms. Please refer to your insurance company for further details. If you intend to apply to FEMA for funding, your claim must first be rejected by your insurance company. If you refuse assistance from your insurance provider, FEMA may reject your application under IHP.
The Internal Revenue Service also…
FEMA. (2008). Help after a disaster: Applicant's guide to the individuals and households program. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from http://www.fema.gov /pdf/assistance/process/help_after_disaster_english.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Moreover, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Through FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (http://www.fema.gov).Moreover, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).…
American Red Cross." http://www.redcross.org /services/disaster/0,1082,0_319_,00.html accessed 11-17-2003).
The Department of Homeland Security." http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html .
A accessed 11-17-2003).
Emergency Food and Shelter." Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.fema.gov .(accessed 11-17-2003).
It is the policy of the hotel that the guest, employees of the hotel and their families will be the first consideration in the event of an attack, threat of attack or disaster.
It is the policy of the hotel that this document does not imply a guarantee. The hotel can only endeavor to make every possible and reasonable attempt to provide response based on the specifics of the situation, available resources as well as information available at the time.
In the event of a bomb threat it will be imperative that the heating/cooling unit in the hotel be shut off as well as all kitchen appliances, laundry facilities, and all systems attached to the swimming complex. Evacuation of guests and employees is a foremost consideration as well as shutting down of the hotel computer system. A team should be trained and assigned to evacuation in the event…
Basics of Vulnerability Analysis (2004) Chapter 2 [Online] Highbeam Research
Emergency Planning H2
Second, Iowa City had quick connections with State level disaster response crews that allowed for quick clean-up and rebuilding. They also coordinated with outside communities to provide shelter and other basic needs through local Red Cross organizations.
On the other hand the small, rural community of Holy Cross, also hit by a severe storm, was not as well prepared to respond. The main reason for this lack of efficient response was because of a lack of a centralized network. Due to the small size of the city, there is no permanent emergency relief plan. The community's response was reactionary and thus took longer and was very unorganized. Much of the response came from the State.
Stehr, Steven D. (2002): "Community Recover and Reconstruction Following Disasters," Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Stehr, Steven D. (2002): "Community Recover and Reconstruction Following Disasters," Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Emergency response is critical component to a natural disaster. In some instances, natural disasters are unexpected in regards to both their duration and destructive capabilities. In other instances, natural disasters can be seen ahead of time, while the damage can still be unknown, as is the case for hurricanes. In either circumstance, a proper response can mitigate hardships within a particular community. The proper response is often a coordinated and integrated approach to remedying a situation. Florida is a state that is particularly prone to natural disasters and in particular hurricanes. In recent occurrences, it was not the actual hurricane that caused so much destruction, but instead the residual effects. For example, flooding, power outages, and debris often cause more damage than the actual hurricane did. It is for these reasons that a robust emergency support system is needed.
In regards to the emergency support system of Florida, it appears…
1) Doss, Daniel; Glover, William; Goza, Rebecca; Wigginton, Michael (2015). The Foundations of Communication in Criminal Justice Systems (1 ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 301.
2) McElreath, David; Doss, Daniel; Jensen, Carl; Wigginton, Michael; Nations, Robert; Van Slyke, Jeffrey; Nations, Julie (2014). Foundations of Emergency Management (1st ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt Publishing Company. p. 25.
Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned
In late August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed. Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Birkland, T.A. (2006). Lessons of disaster: Policy change after catastrophic events. Washington,
DC: Georgetown University Press.
Bitto, A. (2007, January-February). Say what? Who? Me? Right here in the trenches?
Collaborate on what? Seeking common ground in regional all-hazards preparedness training. Journal of Environmental Health, 69(6), 28-31.
(Shactman; Altman, 2002)
4. ecommendations for Overcoming these Barriers:
Some of the suggestions for overcoming these barriers are (i) appointment of a General Practitioner -- GP officers to work as a Liaison Officer between the ED and the community so that the communication is streamlined as well as processes of referral and feedback and development of clinical pathways. (ii) Expansion of community off-peak facilities, including the setting up of the capacity for community access to X-rays, Scanning, ultrasound, blood tests and observation beds. (iii) Initiation of a project to deal with frequent attenders to the ED through the development of management plans contributed to by the patient, their GP, the ED as also their specialist (iv) Education of the local community such that are aware as to when and under what situations to access ED care or alternative care in the community. (Ardagh; ichardson, 2004)
Ardagh, Michael; ichardson, Sandra.…
Ardagh, Michael; Richardson, Sandra. (2004) "Emergency department overcrowding- can be
fix it" Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, vol. 117, no. 1189, pp: 27-31.
Brewster, Linda R; Rudell, Liza; Lesser, Cara S. (2001) "Emergency Room Diversions: A
Symptom of Hospitals under Stress-Increased Demand for ER Services" Center for Studying Health System Change. Issue Brief No. 38. Retrieved May, 2009 from http://www.hschange.com/CONTENT/312/
An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.
Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:
Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…
Ball, J.L. (2001). Employee Fire and Life Safety: Developing a Preparedness Plan and Conducting Emergency Evacuation Drills. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/pdf/evacuation.pdf
"Fire Preparedness & Response: What the OHS Laws Require." (n.d.). Labor Tek Safety
Training Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.labortek.com/images/articles/24.pdf
"Fire Prevention Plan." (2009, April 21). JSRCC Fire Prevention Plan. Retrieved from J.
Demands That Emergency Workers Are Exposed To
In this day and age, where no one is safe and emergency situations arise all the time, the people behind keeping the peace intact play a very important role. In recent studies it has been observed that emergency workers go through immense pressure and stress, which if gone undiagnosed can lead to major psychological problems. In this paper we will discuss at length the trauma that emergency workers suffer form and how to cope with it.
In the present day, United States is no more considered a safe and peaceful place to feel free, but rather it is more like an everyday war zone. Places like schools, offices, homes and even churches are no longer a safe ground like they were once considered to be, violence and hostility somehow find their way into them as well. Things like homicide, sexual and child abuse…
Jensen, SB (1999) Taking care of the care takers under war conditions, who cares? European University Centre for Mental Health and Human Rights.
Kahill, S (1988) 'Interventions for burnout in the helping professions: a review of the empirical evidence' in Canadian Journal of Counseling Review 22 (3):310342. Journal of Counseling Review 22 (3):310342.
Markey, K (1998) 'Reports on risks to health and safety identified by Concern Worldwide's international personnel ', Concern.
McCall, M & Salama, P (1999) 'Selection, training and support of relief workers: an occupational health issue ' in British Medical Journal 318:1136.
Fire Service Technology:
The modern fire service is characterized by increased interactions between fire researchers and service in general. The interactions have mainly been geared towards producing research outcomes that can be utilized to enhance the effectiveness and safety of firefighters. As part of the development of suitable fire service technology, recent research results have shown that changes in construction methods and fuel loads have impacted the fire environment within residential structures ("Fire Fighting esearch Online," 2013). While the changes have transformed the conventional fire behavior, they have also contributed to significant changes in fire equipment. The research outcomes have not only brought changes to fire behavior and equipment but have also resulted in the development of fire service technologies that are currently used and continue to have tremendous impacts.
Examples of Technologies in Fire Service:
The first technology used in fire service is the World Wide Web that has…
"Advances Spark New Age of Fire Safety." (2012, March 14). Emergency Management.
Campus Safety Magazine. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from http://www.campussafetymagazine.com/article/Advances-Spark-New-Age-of-Fire-Safety
"Fire Fighting Research Online." (2013, September 30). Fire.Gov -- Better Fire Fighting
Through Research. Retrieved from The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) website: http://www.nist.gov/fire/
South Australia Ambulance Service
Organizational Behaviour Case Analysis
ay Main should develop a system which empowers the culture of organization along with the shift towards automation and excellent customer service.
Has to do what
The leadership of South Australia Ambulance Service is required to do the following:
To set a strategic direction for SAAS this would be compatible to the new strategic plan.
Meet the service expectations of the clients by focusing more on efficient customer services.
Empower the service delivery personnel fully and hold them accountable for every action.
The expectations of donators and community should be aligned.
Make SAAS compatible to respond to mass casualties.
Workforce retention should be increased.
Emergency sector and healthcare should be integrated to respond efficiently to any casualty.
Interventions should be prioritized.
The impact of any change should be evaluated on the patient as patients' life is more important. (Daniels 2009)
Steven McShane, Sandra Steen, (2008). Canadian Organizational Behaviour, Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Higher Education; Canadian edition
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). Designing and managing an organization-wide incentive pay system. Memphis, TN: Abernathy & Associates.
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). The sin of wages: Where the conventional pay system has led us and how to find a way out. Memphis, TN: PerfSys Press.
Alvero, A.M., Bucklin, B.R., and Austin, J. An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management vol. 21 (2001). pp. 3 -- 29
King County Emergency Management System: Ambulances
This paper reviews the relevant literature to determine how the seven unit hour production (UHP) processes work together to simultaneously achieve clinical excellence, response time reliability, economic efficiency, and customer satisfaction in the operation of King County Emergency Management System (EMS) with a specific focus on its ambulance services. An assessment concerning whether any of the processes have unintended consequences that negatively impact the system's performance is followed by a discussion concerning which of these processes work and do not work within the King County, Washington EMS. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the King County EMS are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Today, tertiary healthcare facilities in the United States are required by 42 CF 482.55 (the Conditions of Participation for Hospitals for Emergency Services) to ensure that they meet the emergency needs of patients in ways…
Davis, R. (2003, July 29). Six minutes to live or die. USA Today, 1-5.
Hamilton, T. E. (2006, July 13). EMTALA -- 'Parking' of emergency medical patients in hospitals. Baltimore, MD: Center for Medicaid and State Operations.
Hayes, P. & Fogarty, J. (2015, September). 2015 annual report to the King County Council. Seattle and King County: Public Health.
Unit hour production process. (n.d.). PowerPoint presentation.
orkplace Emergency Planning
hat preparations should be made by companies to be ready to respond when there is an emergency? hat kinds of emergencies should employees and management be prepared for? hat actions should be taken when an emergency occurs in the workplace? These issues will be discussed in this paper, with references from the American Red Cross and the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
Emergencies and Preparation - OSHA
The truth of the matter is that no one really expects an emergency or a disaster, but as OSHA points out on page 1, a disaster can happen almost anywhere. And even though a disaster cannot be predicted, because it threatens workers and the public and customers it is vitally important that companies be prepared.
hat are some of the emergencies that might occur in a workplace? Depending on the geographic location of the workplace,…
American Red Cross. (2008). Preparing Your Business for the Unthinkable. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.redcross.org .
OSHA (2001). How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and Evacuations. Retrieved July 9, 2015, from http://www.osha.gov .
Curfews, military incursions, targeted killing, movement restrictions, arrests, terror acts, humiliation, poverty, and economic condition have affected every single person, right from infants to aged people. Volatility on a daily basis aggravates anxiety and stress - these unfortunate people cease to have any control over their lives (SAC, 2015; PCS Mental Health Department, 2003; Irwin & Scali, 2010).
The present situation in Syria is devastating, aggravated by memories of past conflicts and the ultimate loss of identity and land. Coping methods attack religious beliefs, cultural traditions, and community lifestyle vigorously. The most prominent impacts of relentless conflict include hopelessness; such situations have a lasting effect on people, their family, and the overall community. Discovering methods for overcoming the ordeal they have experienced is the lone means to a better future, for these people (SAC, 2015; Zimiles, 2009).
Epidemiology of the health/mental health issue
The collective effect of conflict elements deeply…
Allotey, P., Verghis, S., Alvarez-Castillo, F., & Reidpath, D. D. (2012). Vulnerability, equity and universal coverage - a concept note. BMC Public Health, 12 (Suppl 1), 1-3. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-S1-S2
DeSavigny, D. and Adam, T. (2009). Systems thinking for health systems strengthening: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. World Health Organization.
Irwin A, & Scali E. (2010). A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Social determinants of health discussion paper 2: Debates, policy & practice, case studies Geneva: World Health Organization.
PRCS Mental Health Department (2003).Capacity Building for PRCS Psychosocial Services: Vision and Framework -- A Concept Paper. Palestine Red Crescent Society
Virginia Department of ocial ervice
This is a paper discussing policy in Virginia Department of ocial ervice, deals with diversity, ethics and privacy issues in the work place. It has 10 sources in Turabian style.
Creativity, diversity and innovation define the health and wealth of a nation, a nation is of course not a single unit. It comprises of people of different races, the ideologies, the industries, companies and organizations which are run by intelligent people. In today's globalized world, the word nation has been deconstructed and internationalism is now a new nationalism. The mixing of races, ethnic groups, and nationalities at home and abroad is at a record level. In a world where technology has brought the people of far cultures to a global village, where individuals, organizations and entire countries draw strength and personality from places as near as their local neighborhood and as far away as a…
VDSS "Virginia Department of Social Service" Official website, 2002 at http://www.dss.state.va.us/geninfo/privacy.html
Warner, Mark, 2002, Governor "Executive Order 2 COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR, Equal Opportunity" available at http://www.governor.state.va.us/Press_Policy/Executive_Orders/html/EO_01.html
Cherrington, David J.; Middleton, Laura Zaugg, 06-01-1995, An introduction to global business issues. . Vol. 40, HR Magazine.
Fox, Jon Michael and Fox, Ronni Lea., 2000. Exploring the Nature of Creativity Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. 192pp
The product is a service, the service of home repair. There are several elements to this service. These include consultation, repair and follow-up service. The service staff will be a team of professionals, working on contract to the company. They will all be experienced professionals in their fields (e.g. plumbers, electricians, handymen, etc.). The physical environment in which the service will be performed is at the customer site, as the repair work will be done to residential and commercial properties. The process is going to be different each time, but consists of the basic steps of consultation and estimate, work design, work, and post-work follow-up.
Distribution refers to how the service will be distributed. The function of a distribution channel is to provide a link between production and consumption (Tutor2U.net, 2011). In a service industry, the two are closely linked. The workers who will provide the repairs will do…
Scott, R. (2009). Free demographic profile primer. Suite 101. Retrieved September 21, 2011 from http://www.suite101.com/content/demographic-profile-primer-a90272
Tutor2U.net (2011). Marketing -- distribution. Tutor2U.net. Retrieved September 21, 2011 from http://tutor2u.net/business/marketing/distribution_introduction.asp
Management System: ole of EMS
EMS Duties during Emergency Operations
The Emergency Operations Plan for most municipalities in the United States defines how emergency services will respond to a disaster. A good example is the one outlined by the City of St. Pete Beach in Pinellas County, Florida (St. Pete Beach City Commission, 2011). Based on their analysis, the main hazards for their municipality are flooding due to heavy rainfall, hazardous materials storage and transportation, transportation accidents, tornados, hurricanes, and coastal erosion (p. 27). The frequency of these incidents range from dozens per year to a major hurricane once every 50 years. In St. Pete Beach, if an incident can be effectively handled by their own resources the response is organized using the National Incident Management System (NIMS) (p. 33). The incident commander will control the response, including first responders, even if more than one jurisdiction is involved. Support is…
St. Pete Beach City Commission. (2011). Special Commission Workshop Meeting. Retrieved from http://stpetebeach.granicus.com/DocumentViewer.php?file=stpetebeach_1b0ba9fdb12bd7e90fc339c9b7ef6e3d.pdf&view=1 .
Affordable Care Act and EMS
The affordable care act is a medical insurance program that came into existence during the Obama regime. This came as a subsequent addition to the Medicaid and Medicare programs as fronted in the year 1965. The motive behind the creation of this scheme was to improve the affordability and accessibility of medical care to all the American citizens. Just like America, every society around the globe is made up of the less privileged and the rich. Therefore, the country's leadership opted to have this kind of insurance scheme so that everyone, regardless of the economic status can access cheap medical attention and in a convenient way. This forms the basis of the Affordable care act. This program offers many opportunities in the future for the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organization. In this case, there are chances for the people to benefit from the same.
Catalano, J.T. (2015). Nursing Now! Today's Issues, Tomorrow's Trends. New York: F.A. Davis
Cone, D. et al., (2014). Emergency Medical Services: Clinical Practice and Systems Oversight, 2 Volume Set. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Copeland, C.W. & Carey (au), M.V. (2011). Upcoming Rules Pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). New York: DIANE Publishing
Faguet, G. (2012). The Affordable Care Act: A missed opportunity, a better way forward. New York: Paperbag.
governmental or non-governmental agency that focuses on disaster recovery. To that end, the author of this report has chosen the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA's mission as stated on their website is "to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from and mitigate all hazards" (FEMA, 2015). As already stated, the focus of this brief treatise will be on the recovery aspects of FEMA's job. While FEMA has often been derided and been made the butt of many jokes, they serve a vital and needed role when it comes to disaster recovery.
When speaking of recovery, this would reference what happens more than a month after a disaster occurs rather than the immediate response upon the event happening or even the immediate aftermath. As an example,…
Dekle, J. L. (2005). A Florida County Locates Disaster Recovery
Centers. Interfaces, 35(2), 133-139.
EMS Market Characteristics. (2015). EHS 640 - Intro to High Performance EMS.
FEMA. (2015). About the Agency -- FEMA.gov. fema.gov. Retrieved 8 September 2015,
Memo regarding building emergency sea gate with current funds
After studying the issue, and the costs thereof, we have come to the conclusion based on the following facts:
That building a Seagate may be feasible as per the advice of the engineers. However they also opinion that such a hurricane as sandy occurs once in 25 or so years. The cost of building such a barrier would be enormous. It would result in increased taxes and the efficiency of such a measure is not guaranteed.
The second alternate is to build smaller dykes that would keep off sea erosions but would do nothing against storms like sandy.
The third alternate is to increase the existing infrastructure in such a way that flooding can be avoided. And other programs are continued in a phased manner.
With consideration to all of the above, we believe that investing in a sea…
Earl, Michael J. (1988) "Information Management: The Organizational Dimension" Oxford
University Press: Oxford.
L.A. County Online. "Hazard Mitigation" Retrieved 26 April, 2013 from http://lacoa.org/hazmit.htm
Narasimhan, Ram; Kim, Soo Wook. (2001) "Information system utilization strategy for supply chain integration" Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp: 51 -- 75.
In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.
According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…
Brown, Sharon P., Sandra L. Mason, and Richard B. Tiller. "The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Employment and Unemployment: After BLS and Its State Partners Made Critical Modifications to Estimation Procedures, Local Area Data Show That Hurricane Katrina Depressed Employment Levels Sharply in Louisiana and Mississippi;" the Initial Effect on Unemployment, Though Also Strong, Was Temporary." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 52+.
Clayton, Richard L., and James R. Spletzer. "Worker Mobility before and after Hurricane Katrina: A Substantial Number of Workers Were Displaced from the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area after Hurricane Katrina; Those Who Quickly Found Jobs in Texas Experienced a Substantial Decline in Their Short-Term Earnings." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 11+.
Hsu Spencer S. Experts Question Proposed FEMA Changes
Washington Post. Wednesday, February 15, 2006; Page A04
("Lessons from New Orleans," 2005, pg. 58)
The idea behind relying on ones self to provide a backup plan for communication is only truly realized when mitigation occurs. The infrastructure of the local, state and federal governments may seem strong, but the idea that individuals and individual organizations will have less to deal with in quantity, when it comes to meeting people's immediate needs in a disaster, and can therefore ensure a better quality of response is one that all emergency managers should learn from this particular mitigation situation. Communication is key to ensuring a reduced loss of life as well as resources. One lesson learned was that the most successful of organizations in the process of communication, in the Katrina disaster were those that recognized that people came first and property second, as the largest asset of any business or region is the people who are employed by it…
Baum, K. (2003, September). Austin's Integrated Homeland Security Approach. Public Management, 85, 28-37.
Lessons from New Orleans. (2005, November). Security Management, 49, 58-62.
Mileti, D.S. (2004) Disaster By Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. Washington DC: Joseph Henry Press.
Storm Forces Officials to Rethink Plans for Elderly. (2005, September 12). Sarasota Herald Tribune, p. A1.
emergency centers, I expect to find the response performance of trauma centers in Connecticut to be well intentioned in their endeavor to rapidly and effectually reach out to survivors, but to be incapacitated by a host of hindrances. I, further, expect these hindrances to consist of inappropriate and delayed response to emergency situations I also expect to witness the inability to effectively manage, control, and supervise multiple processes. Most significantly, it is quite likely that delivery service will be distracted from focusing on patient and be diverted by the enormous complexity of tasks and responsibilities that are involved in their service.
Superb emergency preparedness necessitates an interdisciplinary approach to knowledge so that all parts of the service can be effectively accomplished: not only duties that focus on prevention but also decision-making, and a commitment to improving the life of the survivors. It is more than likely, given my research and…
Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.
Brewer, M.B., Brown, R..J., Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (2003). The handbook of social psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
GIS: Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
Based on the oskin article how does decision-making affect span of control during a disaster or emergency?
Decision making affects span of control directly during a disaster or emergency. How effective decision making is depends on the ability of the decision maker to adequately assess a threat and determine what forces or equipment must be utilized to moderate or defeat the threat before explosive damage can occur (Smith, 1997). A decision maker is more likely to maintain control during a disaster or emergency if his team of subordinates is well trained and well motivated. Such a team is more likely to respond in a positive and efficient manner when under the direction of a commander.
The decision-maker must adjust the level of control necessary during a disaster or emergency based on the severity of the emergency and the likelihood that widespread disaster will result.…
European Commission. (2003). "Guidelines for Best Practice User Interface GIS." ESPRIT/ESSI, European Commission. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.gisig.it/best-gis/Guides/chapter1/chi1.pdf
Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma
Harrington, Andrew. "Field Experiences Highlight Mobile GIS Benefits." GeoPlace. Retrieved November 23, 2003, http://www.geoplace.com/gw/2003/0306/0306mgis.asp
Smith, Dan. August 1997. "CDI and QDR." The Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information. Volume XXVI, No. 5 Washington, DC. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.cdi.org/dm/1997/issue5/
Memoir of a Public Information Officer: When an Earthquakes Strikes: The First Five Days
On Thursday the 15th of last month, at 7:31 A.M., an earthquake of 5.9 Moment Magnitude struck Southern California. The epicenter was near Santa Clarita, a small suburban community about twenty miles north of Los Angeles along the I-5 freeway. I am the Public Information Officer for the Emergency esponse Office for the City of Santa Clarita. The following is an account of the five days following that earthquake.
I was attending a breakfast meeting with City and County officials discussing items in the proposed budget for our Emergency esponse Office. Over danishes, bagels, coffee, and juice, we were itemized the needs required by my office. The main sticking point was the cost to training more CET (Community Emergency esponse Team) graduates. It is an 18-hour course taught by U.S. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Our…
Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.
Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L. Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd. 1996.
Every individual in this community will face an emergency or disaster that may result in the loss of life, property, or business. Being prepared to react and respond to a natural disaster or emergency is in everyone's interest and that of their community. Emergency management distinguishes the two. Emergencies are " 'routine' adverse events that do not have communitywide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources…to bring conditions back to normal….what constitutes a disaster depends on…the jurisdiction's size, its resource base, and its experience with a particular hazard….a precept of emergency management that each community establish distinct levels…that define the progression from an emergency to a disaster" (Drabek, xviii). Different disasters have different impacts upon people's responses to them. The "death and devastation of disaster represent the worst of human fears….many costs involved in the various stages of disaster response: the preparatory and preventative, counterdisaster, rescue…
Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.
Raphael, Beverly. When Disaster Strikes: How Individuals and Communities Cope with Catastrophe. New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1986.
Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L., Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd. 1990.
"Community Emergency Response Team." Online Posting. 25 January 2002. http://www.fema.gov .
Emergency Medical Services System Act of 1973 helped to establish national standards for emergency medical systems, with broad implications for education and public health. The Act follows a series of seminal events that drew attention to weaknesses in emergency response, including the lack of proper, regulated, or consistent training for personnel. Moreover, the Act helped to ensure that healthcare infrastructure would be modernized to minimize instances and costs related to accidental injury and death. The Act includes provisions for training in emergency medical services, offering funding and support for training programs that conform to a set of federal standards. Interestingly, Nixon had initially vetoed the Emergency Medical Services System Act, and it was subsequently reworded to omit mandate for a Public Health Service Hospital system -- something Nixon believed was "unnecessary," (Shah, 2006, p. 1). Passing the EMS Systems Act of 1973 meant that the Department of Health, Education, and…
EMS Systems Act of 1973. Public Law 93-154
Shah, M.N. (2006). The formation of the Emergency Medical Services System. American Journal of Public Health 96(3): 414-423.
Crisis management refers to the process of comprehensive risk assessment and strategic planning. A Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) provides proactive strategies for mitigating risk and managing crises through effective mobilization of human, financial, and technological resources, coordination of different support agencies and allies, and the implementation of recovery and response missions. There is no one central crisis management protocol, for each organization or community will have its own specific risks and resources (“Crisis Management and Emergency Response Plans,” n.d.). The CERT team works within the parameters of its community contingencies.
Emergency management refers to specific plans for responding to specific emergencies. While not all emergencies can be fully planned for, and unexpected situations will arise, CERT teams are trained and equipped to provide emergency management services for preventing fatalities, minimizing injuries, reducing loss and damage to property, reducing the environmental hazards resulting from an emergency, and…
Business Continuity and Service estoration
The business continuity planning is the identification of potential external and internal threats that can lead to the disruption of the business process, which can lead to a loss of business infrastructures. In other words, the business continuity plan is the response of hazard that threats an organizational business process. The disruption of business operations can be predictable or unpredictable. However, the power outage and the minor network failures are minor problems that can disrupt business operations. However, a real disaster that can disrupt business activities is cyber attacks, flood, and theft of sensitive data. Business organizations can suffer unanticipated losses because of natural disasters, however, the goal of business continuity plan is to assist in recovery in the critical business process.
In the contemporary business environment, disasters are inevitable, and vary in magnitude and types. Disasters are defined as the abrupt destruction of business…
Pinta, J.(2012). Disaster Recovery Planning as part of Business Continuity Management Pinta, J. AGRIS On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics. 3.4: 55-61.
Federal disaster recovery assistance has long been taken for granted in the United States, embedded in federal laws such as the Stafford Act and the Flood Insurance Act. Federal disaster recovery efforts have been further supported by key organizations including those directly involved in crisis scenarios, such as FEMA. Moreover, a number of ancillary national organizations directly or indirectly provide disaster relief assistance, including the United States Department of Transportation, and most notably the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, which offers Community Development Block Grants for Disaster ecovery (Schwab, 2014). If the federal government should one day determine that its role no longer supported disaster relief services, then a number of regional, state, and local organizations would step up to fill the void in resources and management. Some of those organizations would be from the private sector and others from the public sector. In fact, a situation in…
Anderson, M.B. & Woodrow, P.J. (1998). Rising from the Ashes. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.
Partnership for Disaster Resilience (2007). Post-Disaster recovery planning forum: How-to guide. Retrieved online: http://www.crew.org/sites/default/files/Post-Disaster-Recovery-Planning-Forum_UO-CSC.pdf
Rodriguez, H., Quarantelli, E.L., et al. (2007). Handbook of Disaster Research. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. New York: Springer Science
Schwab, J.C. (2014). Planning for post-disaster recovery: Next generation. American Planning Association.
ECS can be set-up as an early warning and emergency communications system in areas usually affected by natural disasters or conflicts and with high volume of mobile phone users and text message/SMS users. In case of an impending political conflict or natural disaster, UniComm's ECS will be part of an area's communication plan as people take action in response to the information/message they received through the ECS.
UniComm, as part of its preparations for the international launch, will set-up special launchings in one country in Asia (Philippines) and Africa (Kenya) where the ECS can be tested in terms of its overall packaging. As the nature of the ECS service is more on the side of public service, UniComm will seek partners from the private sector with strong relationships with the government and non-government units operating within the chosen sites in each country. ECS will be tested in the…
Coyle, D. And M. Childs. (2005). "The role of mobiles in disasters and emergencies."Enlightenment Economics. Accessed on April 24, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.enlightenmenteconomics.com/about-diane/assets/disasterreport.pdf
Habschle, A. (2011). "Novel uses of mobile phones, the Internet and Social Media." Institute for Security Studies. Accessed on April 24, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/novel-uses-of-mobile-phones-the-internet-and-social-media
Robnagel, H. And O. Junker. (2010). "Evaluation of a mobile emergency management system -- a simulation approach." 7TH International ISCRAM Conference, Seattle, USA.
Another collaborator with SFPC is the Switchboard of Miami Mission. Switchboard helps connect families and people in need with existing community resources; Switchboard also offers services where there were none in existence. For example during the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew -- a category 5 hurricane that took the lives of 65 people -- Switchboard received more than 1,500 calls per day. People wanted to know where they could get help, water, medical aid and more. Post-disaster systems of communication were set up by Switchboard that linked with over 40 other local nonprofits and with the Miami-Dade County Office of Emergency Management (www.switchboardmiami.org).
Also in collaboration with SFPC is the Alcoholics Anonymous organization, the Narcotics Anonymous organization, and About Sober, which specialized in drug rehabilitation programs. All the drug rehab programs and alcohol treatment centers in South Florida are linked in collaboration with www.sober.com. The About Sober group provides a…
About Sober. (2010). Get Connected. Stay Connected. Retrieved February 9, 2010, from http://www.sober.com .
Dow, John W. (2010). From the Desk of the Executive Director. Retrieved February 8,
2010, from http://www.srpc.us/index.htm.
Florida Alcohol & Drug Abuse Association. (2010). About Us -- Mission Statement.
Emergency Readiness Annotated Bibliography
Biochemical terrorism, nuclear or other terrorism is everyone's nightmare since the anthrax scares in Washington D.C. In September of 2001 and the Al-Qaeda attacks on September 11, 2001. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to document the effectiveness of emergency management and readiness in Connecticut. It has been more than 5 years since the TOPOFF 3 emergency exercises in 2006 and literature published since then needs to be annotated and review for homeland security studies.
Petersen, R.E., Lindsay, B.R., Kapp, L., Liu, E.C., & Peterman, D.R. Congressional Reporting
Service, United States Congress. (2008). Homeland emergency preparedness and the national exercise program: Background, policy implications, and issues for congress. Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office.
In the CRS report, the series of ongoing TOPOFF exercises is documented in detail, including the 2006 exercise in Connecticut as well as other exercises are documented in detail. The…
Improving Customer Service on a Medical Surgical Nursing Unit
Quality Improvment Project-Customer service on the nursing unit
The hospital medical-surgical nursing unit is usually referred to as the "catch-all" department for different types of patients. This is because it includes renal patients, cancer patients, cardiac and surgical patient. It also includes other patients who do not particularly fall into any of these specialized units. The medical-surgical nursing unit is a conglomeration of all kinds of adults with all sorts of health problems and thus the nurses in this unit need to be dynamic, quick to respond and are almost on their toes at all times. Patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit are likely to develop changes in their condition quite rapidly and therefore they become more unstable even though they may have been admitted in a stable condition. This is because most patients in the medical-surgical nursing unit have unpredictable…
Amba-Rao, S.C. (1994). Human Resource Management Practices in India: An Exploratory Study. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 30(2), 190-202.
Dirks, K.T., & Ferrin, D.L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 611-628.
Glickman, S.W., Baggett, K.A., Krubert, C.G., Peterson, E.D., & Schulman, K.A. (2007). Promoting quality: the health-care organization from a management perspective. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 341-348. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzm047
Judge, T.A., & Piccolo, R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 755-768.
School Nurse Conflict Mission
Mary Jackson did exactly what a professional RN should do -- she tended to the injured children that were her responsibility. It happened that her efforts spilled over into a hospital emergency room, which technically she did not have the legal right to practice in. But still, she acted according to the values that she was trained in and moreover, as a professional healthcare employee of a school, she knew these children and her instincts were to boldly provide triage and other emergency procedures to help the children. In addition, Mary is not just an RN, she is a Nurse Practitioner specializing in pediatrics, and her skills and training are well beyond those of an RN. Hence, she deserves respect and she deserves the benefit of the doubt when she acts in behalf of the children she is contractually and morally obliged to protect and care…
Klein, C.A. (2006). Nursing Responsibilities in a Disaster. The Nurse Practitioner, 31(11), 56.
Northrop, C.E. (1990). How Good Samaritan Laws Do Protect You. Nursing90, 20(2), 50-51.
Riverbend City: School Nurse Conflict Mission. Washington Allston Elementary School.
It comes with a built-in tripod, so heavy recovery workers needing an auxiliary source of light can adjust its stream of light exactly where it is needed, and keep it there. The flashlight is 2.5 kg, 340 mm long and 160 mm in diameter.
Wearable Lights: The Pelican manufacturer offers a hands-free light (#2680 "Headsup Lite") that is ideal for recovery professions who have their hands full dealing with emergencies and other demanding, and the last thing they need is to have to fiddle with off-and-on switches, and worry about battery staying power.
The light is an LED flashlight that puts out the illumination of a high performance incandescent -- and yet the manufacturer claims the Headsup doesn't project those "dark spots and irregular beam pattern" which are part and parcel of most standard filament lamps. How are they able to produce a clear, clean flood of light with no…
Babin, Bob. "Harness the power: trolley beam style systems vs. safety cables: which is
Better for fall protection?" Pit & Quarry 97.5 (2004): 28.
Big Rig Products. "Stand-Alone Truck Mounted Generator Sets: Rigmaster Power."
5 March 2005 http://www.bigrigproducts.com/generator.htm .
Nurses during Emergency
During the tackling of disasters, teams from varied fields, experiences expertise and education come together; these group present broad spectrums of capabilities and qualification; essential for assistance in situations of public health emergency. This article looks at the regulations, ethical practice, limitations and guidelines for regulating of nursing practices in cases of public health emergencies (Couig, Johnson & ick, 2011). The regulations in the legal authority of action by nurses are done through education, licensure, and discipline which define the scope of practice for nurses practicing during health emergencies. Limitations to preparedness in the nursing practice brought about by burnout, depression, self-esteem, personal accomplishment, and emotional exhaustion and depersonalization problems. The environment in, which nurses practice, determines their preparedness in tackling of emergencies. Promoting the emotional well-being of nurses then becomes a beneficial aspect for the carrying out of nursing practice. It is important to provide nurses…
Couig, M., Johnson, K.A., & Rick, S. (2011). Nursing Scope of Practice Issues in Public Health
Emergencies. Journal Of Nursing Regulation, 2(3), 13.
EDDINS, E.E., JIE, H., & HUAPING, L. (2011). Baccalaureate Nursing Education in CHINA:
Issues and Challenges. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(1), 30-33.
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
Slide 9: Technological innovations in emergency management
The starting point in the creation of a plan on how to improve our program from a technological standpoint has been constituted by the review of the it industry. The scope of this research has been that of identifying the innovations in the field and their relevance for our agency and its mission. The results of the research endeavor are briefly presented below:
GIS is an important tool to use in the collection of data necessary and its usage is credited with overall successful emergency operations as it allows the intervention teams to gather data pivotal at all stages of the emergency management process.
emote sensing technology is enhancing the quality of the emergency management act at the stages of mitigation and preparedness and it has proven efficient in the management of both natural hazards as well as man made disasters.
Bea, K., 2006, Federal emergency management policy changes after Hurricane Katrina: a summary of statutory provisions, Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33729.pdf last accessed on December 7, 2010
Durmaz, H., 2007, Understanding and responding to terrorism, IOS Press
Freitag, B., How can emergency managers address our warming climate? University of Washington, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=8&sqi=2&ved=0CE8QFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftraining.fema.gov%2FEMIWeb%2Fedu%2Fdocs%2FFreitag%2520-%2520How%2520can%2520emergency%2520managers%2520address%2520our%2520warming%2520cli.doc&rct=j&q=global%20warming%20and%20emergency%20management&ei=iK0ATY7aIc7xsgaxxKDzDg&usg=AFQjCNEz6tI4T6-ThuYIsw1_oXTxhx2SoQ&cad=rja last accessed on December 9, 2010
Goodman, a., 2007, Global warming link to natural disasters, Seattle PI, http://www.seattlepi.com/opinion/336682_amy25.html last accessed on December 9, 2010
Department of Homeland Security Grants
The HSGP (Homeland Security Grant Program) for the fiscal year 2017 contributes significantly to NPS (National Preparedness System) implementation through promoting the creation, delivery and sustenance of key capabilities vital to the achievement of America’s NPG (National Preparedness Goal) geared at improving its security and resilience. The provision of key capabilities necessitates integrated community-wide efforts and not the sole, independent endeavors of a particular governmental level or agency. HSGP’s allowable expenses foster attempts at developing and sustaining key capabilities over the Protection, Prevention, Mitigation, Recovery and Response mission domains, with the following prioritized:
· Development and Maintenance of Terrorism Prevention Competences by Law Enforcers
· Development and Upgradation of Key Urban Area and State Fusion Centers
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)
This Homeland Security agency was first established under the 1978 Presidential Reorganization Plan III, and put into service under a couple of Executive Orders…
Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA is primarily charged with ensuring that the Americans are all safe in case of any emergency. This is the basis of all their engagements and departments that exist therein. The range of emergencies that are included in the FEMA field of operation are natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, wild fires, earthquakes and man made (both internal and external aggression) disasters that can adversely affect the lives of the Americans.
The roles of FEMA in a situation of emergency are conventionally grouped into the following categories as indicated by FEMA (2010a);
Life safety: this is usually the first and most important priority of FEMA since it is the sole reason for the existence of the agency and the agenda for their response to any emergency situation.
ecovery and restoration; this involves ensuring that the businesses run normally and that the population is employed once again after…
Church World Service, (2011). Responding to Emergencies-Our Approach. Retrieved August 1,
2011 from http://www.churchworldservice.org/site/PageServer?pagename=action_what_emerg_approach
FEMA (2010a). Emergency Management Guide. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://www.fema.gov /business/guide/section2g.shtm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>