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Energy and Its Sources
Energy is an important element in daily life since it used for many activities like moving vehicles, promoting growth of the human body, and enabling humans to think. However, energy can be found in various forms like sound, heat, motion, and light though they are classified into kinetic and potential energy. While kinetic energy is the motion of substances, waves, objects, molecules, and atoms; potential energy is gravitational or stored energy. Some major examples of kinetic energy include thermal, radiant, electrical, motion, and sound while potential energy includes nuclear and chemical energy.
Converting Energy from One Form to Another:
Based on the Law of Conservation of Energy, no energy can be lost as energy is transformed or converted from one form to another ("Chapter 2 -- Forms of Energy," 2012). This is mainly because the total amount of energy used in the conversion process must be…
"Chapter 2 -- Forms of Energy." (2012, May 30). Department of Physics. Retrieved from The
Ohio State University website: https://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/103/textbook_pdf/per2.pdf
"Energy Conversions." (n.d.). School World An Edline Solution. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://teachersites.schoolworld.com/webpages/PCochran/files/WS%20Energy%20Conversions%20Hndt.pdf
"How is Energy Converted?" (n.d.). New Mexico Solar Energy Association. Retrieved July 9,
Energy is an essential force powering society, industry and in the end our everyday lives. Generally, energy sources can be classified as non-renewable and renewable sources. Non-renewable energy sources are those that can not be replenished or made again in a short period of time. enewable energy sources on the other hand can be replenished in a short period of time (Energy sources, 2011).
There are three main sources of energy -- Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy and Alternative Energy. Nuclear power is a form of energy which comes about from a reaction between atomic nuclei. The majority of this form of energy comes out of nuclear fission. This is the process by which atomic nuclei which are made up of neutrons and protons, collide with each other and fall apart. The energy which kept these parts together is no longer needed and comes free. This energy is then used to…
Alternative Energy Sources. (n.d.). Retreived from http://home.utah.edu/~ptt25660/tran.html
Energy sources. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/C0110881/energy_en.html
Energy sources. (2011). Retreived from http://www.neok12.com/Energy-Sources.htm
Global Energy Network Institute. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/faq/general/faq_I-am-concerned-about-global-energy-problems.shtml
It is clear that if we as a species are to survive the 21st century and beyond, we must concentrate on changing our approach to the environment by reducing our carbon "footprint" and exploring the idea of renewable energy sources that will be appropriate for a growing global population.
The Turning Point -- Transition to Renewable Energy -- the bleak reality is that the age of oil has dominated global energy needs for the past century. This has caused a number of social, cultural, and economic issues. While there may be enough oil to last fifty to one-hundred years, the ecological consequences of doing so would change the entire sphere of quality of life and health issues. It is thus necessary from an economic and ecological perspective to transition to renewable energy sources; after all, the same technological revolution and expertise that has so transformed the Internet and global communication…
Garages on the outskirts of the city will house cars and light rail transportation will ferry commuters to their jobs in Masdar. There will be solar thermal farms to supply about "a quarter" of the needed electricity, Loffe goes on. The city of Masdar is proposed to accommodate up to 50,000 permanent residents and jobs within the city will be provided for about 40,000 commuters. How hot will it be in the city? The energy planners assert it will be "20 degrees cooler than the surrounding desert" and moreover, the city will use 60% less water (the water will come from desalination plants that are solar powered), 75% les electricity, and 98% less landfill space (Loffe, 2009, p. 2).
How much does it cost for a person / family to go solar, and do their own personal energy planning on their rooftop? An article in Money magazine (Hely, 2011, p.…
Andrews, Clinton J. (2008). Energy Conversion Goes Local. Journal of the American Planning
Association, 74(2), 231-253.
Hely, Susan. (2011). Let the SUN Shine in! Money. Issue 132, 50-52.
Loffe, Julia. (2009). A Green City Blooms in the Desert. Fortune International. 159(7), 40-44.
Tidal energy could be another option, which has limited access. This means that energy plans should include a combination of all alternative types of energy that can be used in a certain region.
All things considered, energy conservation is an issue that raises many concerns on global level, institutional level, and individual level. At global level, it is the world's states' responsibility to agree upon general directions that need to be taken by every state in order to contribute to reducing global warming. At institutional level, official are responsible for planning environmental strategies, and for implementing plans in this field. At individual level, it is every individual responsibility to understand the gravity and the implications of the situation and to contribute with anything in one's power to reduce energy waste.
Mufson, Steven (2007). In Energy Conservation, California Sees Light. Progressive Policy Makes it a Model in Global Warming…
Mufson, Steven (2007). In Energy Conservation, California Sees Light. Progressive Policy Makes it a Model in Global Warming Fight. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/16/AR2007021602274.html .
Subsequent Events - California's Energy Crisis (2005). The U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/california/subsequentevents.html .
Weintraub, Daniel (2002). Out of the Frying Pan: The energy crisis that dominated the California Legislature's 2001 session subsided as the year came to a close, but it left behind a debilitating financial hangover that could hamper the state's economy for years to come. State Legislatures Magazine. Vol. 28, Issue 1.
Conservation and Preparedness Are Best Ways for Residents to Deal with an Electricity Shortage (2001). Public Management Magazine. Vol. 83, Issue 11.
Energy is a mysterious force that appears to propel everyone and everything within the known constructs of the universe. All things both require and expend energy in all types of forms and systems. The purpose of this paper is to examine my own personal energy use to determine the extent, sources and destinations of this practice. This essay will include the different forms of energy I consume and expend and how these requirements change over the course of a year. This examination is important because it demonstrates, through individual experimentation, the vast influence that energy has on our way of life in today's complicated and information-rich society.
The most obvious form of energy that I currently rely on is the energy that is provided by the sun. The sun as a source of energy is often overlooked and taken for granted. However, this free and ever-present source of…
Hertzog, C (2011). Should we Monetize Personal Energy Consumption Data? Smart Greid Library 4 July 2011. Retrieved from http://www.smartgridlibrary.com/2011/07/04/should-we-monetize-personal-energy-consumption-data/
Swanson, K. (2005). Taking Charge of Your Personal Energy Use. Alternative Energy Magazine, December 2005. Retrieved from http://www.altenergymag.com/emagazine.php?issue_number=05.12.01&article=monitor
3%, which is significantly less than what is being demanded.
Solar energy that causes less pollution than coal-based energy is not used as often as we should because it cannot be created with as much ease as the latter source. In order to translate solar power into electricity, greater power generation prowess is to be utilized. This is what has led to decreased use of renewable sources. Everywhere we see, the energy that we are consuming is coming from sources other than sun and wind. Interestingly while rapidly vanishing reservoirs of energy are easier to produce, they cannot be replenished with ease and the exact opposite is true for renewable sources.
Our government doesn't have a proper energy policy while it has many plans to conserve energy, which have been more or less ineffective. The failure is grounded in its cursory interest in the subject. The government needs to understand…
Energy Challenges facing the United States: http://www.whitehouse.gov/energy/Chapter1.pdf
Types of Energy/Fuel
Purpose of Use
Lighting, Computer Access, Charging Handheld Electronic Devices
Throughout my research I have learned a great deal about my personal energy consumption patterns as well as the tactics of some of my primary energy providers. Beginning with the latter area of energy education, I was somewhat surprised to learn of the way in which my electricity is actually generated. Upon conducting extensive industrial research and by examining the websites of several of the nation's top electricity suppliers, I have found that nuclear fission is a regular part of this process. Knowing the history of disasters like Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, I definitely did not expect nuclear production tactics to continue to occur on such a routine basis. Nevertheless, even with popularity of this kind of electricity production technique, my local provider actually uses…
Energy and orld Economy
Energy being a corner stone of the current industrial economy, it does offer an indispensable component for approximately the entire human activities. It offers services for food preparation as well as lighting, physical condition, storage, edification, granite mining, and industrial production in addition to transportation. Current energy services are with no doubt influential train of money-making as well as social growth, moreover no nation has contained the growth greatly further than a subsistence economy minus enhancing even the smallest amount of energy access services for an extensive segment of its people. All the way through the world, the energy capital obtainable to them as well as their capability to pay principally determines the people's way of life. On the other hand, it is significant to note that people only need energy services and not fuel or electricity.
In entire history, dissimilar sources of energy have in…
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Energy Policy and the Global Economy
ithout question, climate change is having a profound impact on the global economy. Evidence is mounting within increasing intensity to suggest that the patterns of climate and weather are shifting and that these shifts are likely the consequence of manmade hazards. In no small part, the negative impact of global industrialization is reaping considerable environmental consequences and, by no small irony, these same consequences will have a direct impact on global industries. Most specifically, the rate of human energy consumption -- with all its attendant financial costs -- has increased exponentially in recent years. And in light of the heating of our atmosphere, this consumption threatens only to increase with time. According to Chinn (2013), "occurrences of summer temperatures more than 3 standard deviations above the mean, which were extremely rare before 1980, occurred an order of magnitude more frequently in the 2000s and…
Chinn, M. (2013). Some Economic Implications of Global Climate Change. Econbrowser.
Hayward, S. (2013). U.S. Energy Security: Getting Better. Power Line.
Leahy, S. (2013). Developing Countries Lead Global Shift to Green Energy. Inter-Press Service News Agency.
Whipple, T. (2013). The Peak Oil Crisis: A Review of Richard Heinberg's 'Snake Oil.' Falls Church New Press.
Because every energy-producing source has some drawbacks and negative issues, it is important for society to choose wisely when it comes to developing electrical generating sources. This paper reviews those issues.
ind Energy: there are many advantages to wind energy, including: a) it is non-polluting (no fossil fuels are burned in the process); b) less space is used than by building a big power station (and windmills can be built in agriculture areas because crops can be grown around the base of a windmill); and c) wind energy can bring electrical power to remote areas (Clean Energy Ideas).
ind Energy: the downside of wind power: a) wind is not always reliable and consistent; b) birds and bats fly into the turbines and are killed; c) there is noise associated with the turbines; and d) rural residents don't like big wind turbines in their previously agrarian environment (Clean Energy…
. Clean Energy Ideas. (2009). Geothermal Power / Advantages & Disadvantages of Wind
Retrieved October 25, 2012, from http://www.clean-energy-ideas.com . .
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25, 2012, from http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/np-risk.htm .
It would be critical in the power dynamic of the global community to demonstrate that the U.S. would not panic in the face of bullying pressure by OPEC. A realist might also suggest further exploiting sources of oil within the United States' own borders, to make it less dependent upon the whims of other nations and more self-sufficient.
An idealist, however, would instead suggest that the U.S. had a moral obligation to help Israel, and to find other renewable sources of energy to reduce the power of these immoral, terrorist-supporting nations in the world community. To do so, an idealist would suggest the U.S. make investments in wind energy, solar power, and even nuclear power. An idealist would also encourage the average United States consumer to conserve energy through price controls, limits on car size, fuel efficiency requirements, and public relations efforts that stressed it was every American's patriotic duty…
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At the same time, economic growth and prosperity is definitely linked to energy consumption. Following the path of greatest energy efficiency would have us still living in the Middle Ages, and though certain nations might not be as exploited as they are today through our more efficient trade mechanisms (that burn less efficient fuels), many people in the developed world would be entirely unwilling to make this trade (Jones 1997).
The basic problem, of course, is that we can't see into the future and are often unwilling to honestly look at the present. Had mankind looked at the amount of smog produced by early factories -- which coated areas of major cities in soot -- and decided that a re-evaluation was in order, things like wind and solar power might have been developed sooner. But there will always be a need for more energy; whenever energy is available, someone will…
Jones, Walter. The Logic of International Relations. Longman: 1997.
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Cost and benefit analysis is an analytical process, which is used to measure that whether the benefits or advantages associated with an activity is greater than its costs or not. It is one of the commonly used and formal tools for the assessment of efficiency. Efficiency assessment can be defined as a process in which scarce resources are examined critically so that the ways in which they can be used most efficiently can be determined. Efficiency assessment basically provides us with ways through which maximum benefits can be acquired from scarce resources. The technique of cost and benefit analysis is based on welfare economics. ("Cost-benefit analysis" 2009)[footnoteRef:2] [2: Cost-benefit analysis, (russels: European Commission, 2009)http://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/specialist/knowledge/pdf/cost_benefit_analysis.pdf (accessed May 25, 2013), 4.]
Advantages of Cost and enefit Analysis
Cost and benefit analysis benefits an organization in many ways. It reduces the operating costs and enhances efficiency. The major benefits of cost…
Burkman, J. "Conceptual Foundations Of Cost-Benefit Analysis." lecture., Southern Methodist University, 2012. Southern Methodist University http://www.burkmaneconomics.com/pdf/notes2.pdf (accessed May 25, 2013).
Clinch, Peter. Cost-Benefit Analysis Applied To Energy. University College Dublin: Dublin, 2003. http://www.ucd.ie/gpep/publications/archivedworkingpapers/2003/03-04.pdf (accessed May 25, 2013).
Conceptual Foundations of Cost-Benefit. Bangkok: National Institute of Development Administration, 2007. http://gspa.grade.nida.ac.th/pdf/Dr_Nutta/PA.640nattha_MPA_3-49/2. Efficiency/2.2.2Boardman, A. Cost Benefit Analysis Concept and practice chapter2.pdf (accessed May 25, 2013).
Cost-benefit analysis. Brussels: European Commission, 2009. http://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/specialist/knowledge/pdf/cost_benefit_analysis.pdf (accessed May 25, 2013).s
Energy Economics and Negative Externality
Externalities having Negative Costs to Society
Externalities of Energy
Market-based Environmental Policy
Externalities are Market Failure or Failure of Markets
It can be considered that the economists believe markets are unambiguously resulting in efficient results. It is with the total surplus maximized when the markets operate without interference from the other institutions. If it were the case, then there would be no efficient role for the non-market institutions in society along with their justification having concerns about the distribution of surplus. It specifically concerns about the equity and fairness because these relate to the allocation of market of scarce resources (Menanteau, Finon and Lamy 2003, Sutherland 1991). However, such issues play specific role in the justification of non-market institutions that are being motivated by efficiency rather than equity concerns. These conditions are known as externalities and they emerge with the decisions…
Allcott, Hunt, and Michael Greenstone. "Is There an Energy Efficiency Gap?" Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, 2012: 3-28.
Brown, Marilyn A. "Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies." Energy Policy, 2001: 1197 -- 1207.
DeCanio, S.J., and W.E. Watkins. "Investment in energy ef-ciency: Do the characteristics of ?rms matter?" Rev. Econ. Statist, 1998: 95 -- 107.
Dincer, Ibrahim. "Renewable energy and sustainable development: a crucial review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2000: 157 -- 175.
They are usually inhaled, and sometimes heated up before inhalation. It is also not impossible for the nitric oxide to be injected, but this is less common. There are many symptoms of aerosol intoxication including disorientation, slurred speech, hallucinations, and movement disorders (Sharp & osenberg, 2005). People who misuse aerosols can become highly addicted to the practice and go through withdrawals when they stop. They can also have euphoria, depression, mood swings, and a high heart rate. Problems with cognitive abilities and memory are seen in users of aerosol, and brain damage can be permanent in some cases (Sharp & osenberg, 2005). Many patients who seek treatment for an addiction to aerosol do so to get counseling for behavioral changes (Sharp & osenberg, 2005).
The "cinnamon challenge" is becoming popular among young people based on a child who was dared to swallow a spoonful of cinnamon within one minute…
Levy, H., II, M.D. Schwarzkopf, L. Horowitz, V. Ramaswamy, and K.L. Findell (2008), "Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in short-lived air pollutants." Journal of Geophysical Research, 113.
Painter, Kim. (2012). "Cinnamon challenge:" Viral videos that can make kids sick. USA Today.
Sharp, Charles W; Rosenberg, Neil L (2005). "Inhalants." In Lowinson, Joyce H. Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Warburton, DM; Bersellini, E; Sweeney, E (2001). "An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence." Psychopharmacology, 158(3): 322 -- 8.
Any mitigation plan regarding energy conservation should refer to three parties that must take action: households, industrial consumers, and state, through the government. In the first place, this plan should address the environment. Some actions in this direction include: implementing a noise control ordnance in accordance with acoustical standards; preparing comprehensive watershed management plans; creating environmental advisory groups at local level; preparing inventories of environmental resources; providing protection of groundwater supplies; developing strategies that could preserve and manage forested lands; encouraging cluster provisions; encouraging the preservation and protection of natural areas; implementing farming conservation measures (USPA, 2006). These measures could be taken by individuals in a community. Other actions of a mitigation energy conservation plan should refer to alternative energy, hybrid vehicles, reduced consumption for both households and industrial consumers.
However, not everyone is in favor of certain energy plans. For example, the White House energy plan that was approved…
Environmental Stewardship Environmental Plan (2006). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Green Communities. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/greenkit/steward.htm .
Cassady, Alison (2001). Polluter Payday: How the House Energy Plan Benefits Big Oil and Other Polluters at Taxpayers' Expense. The U.S. Public Interest Research Group. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://newenergyfuture.com/newenergy.asp?id2=4134&id3=energy.
U.S. House of Representatives Report: White house Energy Plan Recommendations Benefit Campaign Contributors (2002). Prepared for Henry a. Waxman. Committee on Government Reform, Special Investigations Division. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://oversight.house.gov/story.asp?ID=649 .
Wal-Mart is the largest retailer within the United States and has also enhanced its position within the international market place through the opening and operation of stores across various countries, such as Canada, Brazil and Argentina (Corporate Website of the Wal-Mart Stores, 2012). The success of Wal-Mart is due to their development and implementation of a business model based on the creation of scale economies and the adherent advantages.
The retailer purchases bulk products and resells them. Its primary strategy is that of cutting costs to the minimum possible in order to provide customers with the lowest possible price. This strategy has paid off and has earned Wal-Mart billion dollar profits in a crushing economy.
Wal-Mart operates large size facilities which consume high levels of energy, and as the stores expand and come to serve more and more customer, the energy needs of the facilities increase. In such…
Anbari, F.T., 2005, Q and A for the PMBOK guide, 3rd edition, Project Management Institute
2001, Lightning retrofit woorbook, The United States Department of Energy, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/NPS_guidebook.pdf last accessed on September 14, 2012
Lighting guide: Lighting retrofit economics, Light Research, http://www.lightsearch.com/resources/lightguides/retrofitecon.html last accessed on September 14, 2012
Energy Retrofitters, http://www.energyretrofitters.com / last accessed on September 14, 2012
What patterns to you see in the distribution of earthquakes across the continental United States?
The distribution of earthquakes across the United States is focused on a number of different pockets. The most notable include: the entire Pacific coastline, the Midwest along the Mississippi River Valley (i.e. Missouri, Southern Illinois, West Tennessee as well as parts of Northeastern Arkansas) and the Southeastern United States. These different elements are important, because they are showing how the majority of quakes are occurring along major fault lines within these regions. ("U.S. Fault Line Graphics," 2010)
Locate your home on this map and make a note of the relative risk to you by indicating the color where you live.
On the map, the color of possible earthquake activity is blue. This is an indication that there was a minor tremor that was occurring in the last week. However, the effects were so small…
Earthquakes of 50 Thousand or More Deaths. (1994). USGS. Retrieved from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/most_destructive.php
Energy Story. (2011). Energy Quest. Retrieved from: http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/index.html
Latest Earthquakes in the Last Seven Days. (2011). USGS. Retrieved from: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/recenteqsus/
Map Centered. (2011). USGS. Retrieved from:
Instead of analyzing the innate meaning of these examples using a structured technique, Chomsky argues that it is only through subconscious knowledge of transformational grammar that one can truly understand the deeper meaning of language. Of course, this theory has been challenged by many with its emphasis on syntax and lack of focus on semantics, but as Chomsky himself said:
But the fundamental reason for [the] inadequacy of traditional grammars is a more technical one. Although it was well understood that linguistic processes are in some sense "creative," the technical devices for expressing a system of recursive processes were simply not available until much more recently. In fact, a real understanding of how a language can (in Humboldt's words) "make infinite use of finite means" has developed only within the last thirty years, in the course of studies in the foundations of mathematics (Chomsky, 1965, 8).
This grammatical theory evolved…
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
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Energy Policy which reflects the urgency in order to utilize the renewable sources of energy which can provide an alternative for the non-renewable energy in United States of America.
Global Energy Crises
Worldwide energy consumption is at its highest peak and reports suggest that by the end of 2030 the world consumption will increase by 50%. To reduce their cost countries have now turn their attention from the expensive oil energy to cheapest form of energy water. Hydroelectric is one of the most famous forms of it. This increase attention towards water to create energy has resulted in scarcity of water and it is expected that by 2025 more than half the countries will face shortage of fresh water.
Worldwide energy consumption is expected to increase by 2-fold by the end of midcentury because of the population and economic growth. This high demand for energy could be met from fossil…
Teixeira, Ruy (2012). "Public Opinion Snapshot: Public Wants Action on Energy and the Environment." Center for American Progress.
Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2012, Department of Energy U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 2011.
What Role Does Renewable Energy Play in the United States? U.S. Energy Information Administration,
Daly, Herman E. (2009). "Sustainable Development - Definitions, Principles, Policies." The Future of Sustainability. Springer. p. 257
Climate change and extreme weather events pose certain risks to the energy industry and infrastructure (Maras, 2014). Vulnerabilities within the largely private energy industry pertain to regional issues: for example, in the Southeast, the energy industry sits mainly in low-lying areas where flooding can occur in the wake of hurricanes or storms. Flooding here can impair oil and gas production during certain parts of the year. In other parts of the year, heat waves there and in other regions of the U.S. can cause increased demand on the electric good and potentially lead to brownouts or blackouts. High winds in the California region have led to the electric companies implementing deliberate blackouts to reduce the risk of fires caused by damaged electric wires (Department of Energy, 2019). In other parts of the country, seasonal droughts and lack of snowfall can lead to declines in hydroelectric output which negatively impacts the…
Proposal for Program Change
Low income families face considerable challenges in paying for heating and cooling costs and other expenditures relating to household and healthcare. Given these challenges, low-income families and households have difficulties in meeting their basic and immediate home energy needs. While there are various programs that exist to provide funding assistance to these families and households, they do not completely address the issue since they only cover a limited number of these households. Therefore, providing funding assistance to such households is crucial towards enhancing their abilities to meet their basic home energy needs. Funding assistance programs for low income households to meet their home energy needs should be expanded to reach a wider target.
Statement of the Problem
Low income households experience tremendous challenges in meeting their expenses in various areas including energy. These difficulties are largely attributable to the socio-economic status of these families and the…
Cluett, R., Amann, J. & Ou, S. (2016, March). Building Better Energy Efficiency Programs for Low-Income Households. Retrieved December 15, 2017, from http://ilsagfiles.org/SAG_files/Meeting_Materials/2017/January_31_2017/Building_Better_EE_Low_Income_ACEEE_March_2016.pdf
National Council on Aging. (2015, April). Looking Beyond LIHEAP: Alternative Sources of Energy Assistance. Retrieved December 15, 2017, from https://www.ncoa.org/wp-content/uploads/Alternative-Sources-of-Energy-Assistance.pdf
The first law of thermodynamics is mainly concerned with energy conservation and it states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. However, energy can be converted from one form to another. The total amount of energy entering into a system must be equal to the equal to the total amount of energy that is leaving the system (Toja-Silva & Rovira, 2014). Energy can be transformed and transferred but it must always remain constant.
The second law of thermodynamics is entropy. Entropy is the measure of change from order to disorder. Matter will move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. The law states that entropy of an isolated system that is not in thermal equilibrium will increase to a point of equilibrium (Toja-Silva & Rovira, 2014). It is not possible for heat to emanate from a cold object to a warm object without work. In…
Ellabban, O., Abu-Rub, H., & Blaabjerg, F. (2014). Renewable energy resources: Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, 748-764.
Toja-Silva, F., & Rovira, A. (2014). A first and second thermodynamics law analysis of a hydrogen-fueled microgas turbine for combined heat and power generation. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 136(2), 021501.
Petroleum fuels supply and storage
Switching to more energy-efficient ambulatory vehicles, such as hybrids, might be a necessary consideration in the future, should long-term access to fuel during a disaster become a problem. This would lessen the need for refueling, as well as make emergency stores of gas (if there are any such stores) last longer.
Natural gas supply
Loss of access to gas can result in the loss of hot running water, and the ability to boil water for sanitary purposes. Before an emergency, bottled, fresh water should be kept on hand for drinking and other functions requiring bacteria-free water. Food that can be prepared without heating and boiling is required to be kept on hand. All efforts should be made to ensure conditions such as toilets remain sanitary and water remains running to maximize sanitation and minimize water usage and need for boiling.
Bovender, Jack O.…
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These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…
Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."
Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole
Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
energy and how it can be produced. Further it also delves on the various forms of energy and how energy can be conserved at home?
What is energy? Energy is the vital and life sustaining force that is the source of the power that is used in the manufacturing of goods, the transportation of these goods, and the business involved in these two activities that form the backbone of the economy of the entire world. The supply and the demand of energy play an extremely important role in the economic output of a nation, and also in the national security of the entire nation. The United States of America alone expends about $500 billion on energy each and every year. (Energy
Energy Savers: Introduction. Office of energy efficiency and renewable energy. Retrieved From http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/energy_savers/intro.html Accessed on 12 January, 2005
Energy Sources, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved From
http://www.energy.gov/engine/content.do-BT_CODE=ENERGYSOURCES Accessed on 12 January, 2005
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
Economics of Energy
There are different theories with respect to energy. Mearns argues that people should save energy, because there is a limit to how much proved reserves of hydrocarbons and there may even be limits to how much non-hydrocarbon energy available. It is necessary, therefore, to be highly efficient in our energy use (IanMearns.co.uk, 2014). His views contrast with those of someone like Christof uhl, who is the chief economist for BP. uhl argues that such efficiency is already occurring, that the West is experiencing lower levels of energy intensity and demand is primarily being driven by the developing world. Changes in the fuel mix are also a factor, he argues, and when developing nations follow the West in lowering their energy intensity, energy demand will start to stabilize (uhl, 2014).
The EIA release (2014) supports uhl's contention that energy use in the U.S. is starting to stabilize, and…
EIA. (2014). AEO 2014 early release overview. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/er/pdf/0383er%282014%29.pdf
Gilding, P. (no date). Carbon crash solar dawn. Paul Gilding. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://paulgilding.com/cockatoo-chronicles/carbon-crash-solar-dawn.html
IanMearns.co.uk. (2014). Entire website. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.ianmearns.org.uk/press.htmhttp://www.ianmearns.org.uk/press.htm
Ruhl, C. (2014). Over the hump for oil demand. BP. Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/energy-blog/over-the-hump-for-oil-demand.html
Fuel (Coal)/Uranium Needed (tons)
Sulfur Dioxide and Other Emissions (tons)
adioactivity mSv (millisievert)
Solid Waste (tons)
Increased global warming and health effects.
Coal power plants and nuclear power plants are currently the two basic sources of electricity generation across the globe. The purpose of this lab animation and report is to evaluate which of these sources of energy is better for human sustainability. The determination of the more efficient of these two energy sources is based on the data provided above and further research.
The generation of electricity is the leading industrial activity that produces air and gases emissions across the globe. This process is usually carried in several power plants that use different sources of energy. Generally, a huge percentage of the world's electrical power is produced through the use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and uranium (Matthews,…
Kyler, D. (2013, February 4). An Honest Look at Sustainability. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www.sustainablecoast.org/site/honestlook.html
Matthews, M. (n.d.). Which One is Better for the Environment: Coal or Nuclear? Retrieved
April 28, 2013, from http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/one-better-environment-coal-nuclear-20469.html
The Living Essentials company claims it markets its high-powered beverage (which is sold in a 2-oz bottle as a "shot") to "…hardworking adults who need an extra boost of energy" (Meier, p. 2).
Another article in the respected New York Times reports that in addition to the 13 fatalities linked to 5-Hour Energy, another 5 deaths have been linked to "Monster Energy" (Meier, 2012). These data were released by the FDA in November, 2012, because, according to spokeswoman Shelly Burgess, the FDA is making "…an effort to be transparent" (Meier, p. 1). hile the FDA did not officially find the product at fault -- at this point there are linkages but no empirical proof that the deaths were a direct result of consuming the energy drinks -- Burgess added that if a "relationship between the consumption of the product and harm" can be proved, the FDA will take "appropriate action…
Huffpost. "Energy Drinks Hire Lobbyists to Fend Off Regulation." Retrieved March 6, 2013,
from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Meier, Barry. "Caffeinated Drink Cited in Reports of 13 Deaths." The New York Times.
Retrieved March 6, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2012.
Eilperin, J. & Dennis, B. (2017). rump administration to approve final permit for Dakota Access pipeline. Washington Post. Feb 7, 2017. Retrieved online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/02/07/trump-administration-to-approve-final-permit-for-dakota-access-pipeline/
Although not a scholarly source or a primary source, this article in the Washington Post directly addresses the core political concerns related to the proposed Dakota Access pipeline. he article includes a map showing what lands the pipeline would traverse, and the author addresses the land use and land access concerns by Native American stakeholders. Because it talks about the core political, social, and economic issues, this article will be used as a current events resource when developing my argument related to energy pipelines and globalization.
Ericson, R.E. (2013). Eurasian Natural Gas Pipelines: he Political Economy of Network Interdependence. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50:1, 28-57
his is a scholarly article that places energy pipelines into a global economic context. My research will show how energy pipelines…
This is a primary source publication, a joint effort by the United States Department of Transportation and the Steering Committee on Energy Pipelines and Research. In the 70-page document, the authors provide readers with important background information on energy pipelines, showing how about two-thirds of American energy needs come from oil and gas that relies on pipelines for transportation. This is because crude oil is rarely refined and sold where it is produced. With every American as a stakeholder in energy pipeline issues, it is critical that information related to pipeline safety and security be made completely transparent. As a primary source, this publication will become instrumental in my research.
Ziegler, C.E. (2006). The energy factor in China's foreign policy. Journal of Chinese Political Science 11(1): 1-23.
This scholarly article is unique because it examines the politics of energy pipelines from a Chinese perspective. China is an energy importer, almost totally dependent on other countries for receiving oil and natural gas. This means that energy pipelines play a key strategic role in China's foreign policy. This article examines China's energy-related foreign policy from multiple angles and points of view. The author addresses various international relations between China and its energy producer partners around the world. As I want to show the interface between globalization, politics, and energy, this article helps to showcase how energy pipelines symbolize interdependence.
The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).
Planned Outputs of the Urban Village
According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…
"Brownfield renewal in the South West and Wales region" (2008). Investor Site Visit - 1st October 2007. St. Modwen Properties PLC.
"Coed Darcy gets outline planning permission" (2007). WalesOnline.
"Coed Darcy Name Revealed at Llandarcy Development Exhibition" (2008). Neath Port Talbot County Borough Council.
"Coed Darcy Urban Village" (2008). The Prince's Foundation.
Strip Mining Project
Strip mining has long attracted the attention that "fracking" is now due to the proven or at least theoretical environmental impacts and issues that can or definitely arise when the practice is engaged in. Not unlike similar industries like timber, anything that destroys or alters wetlands/marshes, anything that leads to increase erosion and so forth is hotly contested and debated. Even basic things like irrigation of crops can raise a proverbial stink if the water is denied to people or states that happen to be downstream and they feel they need/deserve it so as to provide drinking water, their own crop irrigation or other environmental concerns. While strip mining, especially that which relates to energy like lignite and lithium, is here to stay and largely cannot be stopped, the real and tangible impacts it can and does have need to be taken seriously before the lignite-harvesting project…
EIA. (2014, June 23). Coal. EIA Energy Kids. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.eia.gov/KIDS/ENERGY.CFM?PAGE=COAL_HOME-BASICS
WSGS. (2014, June 23). Wyoming State Geological Survey. Wyoming State Geological
Survey. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/Research/Energy/Coal/Diagrams.aspx
WVC. (2014, June 23). 2013. Coal Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.wvcoal.com/coal-facts-2013.html
Energy in Bloomington Indiana 11/16/2010 Mary Sullivan
The objective is to reduce city energy consumption in Bloomington Indiana by 6% by November 15, 2015 through installation/retrofitting of high-efficiency direct and indirect lighting systems in city-owned property. This objective is important because energy reduction is a vital component of both fiscal and environmental responsibility and vitalization. In the 2010 State of the City address, the Mayor of Bloomington stressed two intended approaches to economic vitalization. The first was to strengthen what they already have, and second to pursue what they still need to "achieve a strong, diversified, local economy." Since lighting is one of the most basic, important, and visible uses of energy it is a prime candidate to be strengthen and improved via an energy reduction initiative. Nationally, the cost of lighting presents approximately 20% of the overall energy consumed. Indiana statistics are consistent with this figure. Commercial and public…
The strategic group map for the energy/sports drink category should focus along the axes of energy and sport. An energy drink is basically a caffeine/sugar bomb, intended to provide a burst of energy and alertness. A sports drink tends to also have a lot of sugar, but not necessarily caffeine, and instead will have salt as a means of boosting electrolytes. Thus, the two categories can be quite a bit different from one another, but can also have some overlap. My strategic group map looks at how the industry is structured along these two axes (Ketchen & Short, 2014).
A drink that has no caffeine but focused on electrolytes and sugar would be viewed as a sport drink, in the upper right quadrant. Examples would be Gatorade, Powerade, and numerous other knockoffs thereof. In the lower left quadrant are the energy drinks that include the likes of Monster…
Ketchen, D. & Short, J. (2014). Mastering strategic management 2.0. Flat World Knowledge. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/3085?e=ketchen_1.0-ch03_s04
Caffeine Informer. (2014). Top selling energy drinks. Caffeine Informer. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://www.caffeineinformer.com/the-15-top-energy-drink-brands
Euromonitor (2014). Sports and energy drinks in the U.S. Euromonitor. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://www.euromonitor.com/sports-and-energy-drinks-in-the-us/report
Energy and Water Needs for Lactating Women
Breastfeeding is one of the most important times in a young child's life. It establishes the immune system and ensures proper nutrition and growth. For this reason, it is also vital for women who lactate to understand their energy and water needs. It may be assumed that these will increase during lactation, since the body is using both energy and water to produce lactation.
Butte, Wong, and Hopkinson use measures of total energy expenditure (TEE), the output of milk energy and the mobilization of energy from tissue stores to determine the needs of women who lactate. To determine this, the researchers included 24 participants who were well-nourished and exclusively breastfeeding at three months after birth. Specific components that were measured included TEE, BM, and physical activity levels. These levels were the same for both lactating and non-lactating women. For the lactating women, the…
Butte, N.F., Wong, W.W., and Hopkinson, J.M. (2001, Jan 1). Eenergy Requirements of Lactating Women Derived from doubly Labeled Water and Milk Energy Output. The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 1. Retrieved from: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/131/1/53.full
Martinez, H. (2014). Fluid Consumption by Mexican Women during Pregnancy and First Semester of Lactation. BioMed Research International. Retrieved from: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/603282/
Establishment Energy Cooperation
Establishment of Energy Cooperation System East Asia
The economic growth and its sustainability of any developing and developed country are dependent on the basis of its energy requirements (Lincoln, 2004). The countries in East Asian region are also no exception. The energy requirements of the region are swelling with the increased focus on its development. The regional focus has also established grounds for the political and industry leaders to focus on the requirements and prepare their countries for future energy needs. The region is also dependent on the energy imports especially the fuel for energy including oil and gas. The increasing energy production requirements are also creating an issue for the local governments to manage the energy prices within the affordable range of its consumers.
The local cooperation among various countries in the region is affected by the political and territorial issues. However the regional cooperation organizations…
Dent, C.M. (2008). East Asian Regionalism. USA: Routledge.
Dincer, I., & Rosen, M.A. (2012). Exergy: energy, environment and sustainable development. USA: Elsevier.
Economides, M.J., & Wood, D.A. (2009). The state of natural gas. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 1(1), 1-13.
Fujita, M., Kuroiwa, I., & Kumagai, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Economics of East Asian Integration: A Comprehensive Introduction to Regional Issues. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Ultra Long-Term Perspectives World Energy
Energy is a very important part of our lives and the world that we live in today. It has always been important since the time that the humans used to do all their work by themselves to the times when they started using animals and even today when we make use of the energy sources around us to produce energy such as electricity.
Today our main source of energy are the fossils fuels that won't last forever as, they take millions of years to form and very little time to get used as a source of energy. One of the very important concerns of today's time is the speed with which we are consuming these fossil fuels and how it will be very difficult for us to keep up with the increased demand which is expected to double by 2050 as the population is expected…
European Renewable Energy Council EREC. (2010). Re-thinking 2050 - A 100% renewable energy vision of EU. Retrieved from http://www.erec.org/media/publications/re-thinking-2050.html
Jess, A. (2010). What might be the energy demand and energy mix to reconcile the world's pursuit of welfare and happiness with the necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere? Energy Policy, 38(8), 4663 -- 4678. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510003009
Khatib, H. (2011). IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2507 -- 2511. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511000930
Khatib, H. (2012). IEA World Energy Outlook 2011 -- A comment. Energy Policy, 48, 737 -- 743. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421512005149
Future Energy: Guiding Decisions Evidence in order reduce negative environmental impacts growing human population increasing demands energy technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities households opportunity shift energy sources renewable
Most consumers are unaware of the extreme negativeness surrounding their consumption of goods and that it inevitably leads to environmental degradation. However, there seems to be a more conscious effort to go around the negative impact of consumption of energy by choosing renewable sources. In this essay, we will assess a particular region in America and that is the state of Florida with specific references to certain areas in order to observe what sources of energy are currently used and what renewable sources may be best suitable and least suitable in the area, considering climate and the environment.
With climate changes accelerating at a fast pace, Miami, which is already subject of the increase of Earth's temperatures and rise of…
Miami -- Dade County. N. y. Energy -- Electricity and Fuel [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.miamidade.gov/greenprint/planning/library/milestone_one/energy.pdf
Natural Resources Defense Council. N. y. State Profiles -- Florida [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/florida.asp
Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward
Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.
As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…
Eccleston, C.H., March, F. & Cohen, T. (2011). Inside Energy: Developing and Managing an ISO 50001 Energy Management System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Ginley, D.S. & Cahen, D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2012). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2007). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…
"Globalization and Energy Supply: Strategic Risk in the 21st Century."
A Deloitte Research Viewpoint. May 2004.
Harris, Martha Caldwell. "The Globalization of Energy Markets."
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
The strategy is to partition the network and distribute the routing of the entire group of node instead of only one node having full energy burden task.
Similar to the previous paper reviewed, Xu et al. (2000) in their paper titled "Adaptive Energy-Conserving Routing for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks" also develop two algorithms for routing energy saving devices. hile other papers develop energy saving devices such as GAF and Span, Xu et al. (2000) develop AODV and DSR, which are the algorithms to reduce energy consumption in the application- level development. Similar to GAF that consume between 40% and 60% of less energy consumption, and Span, AODV and DSR have ability to consume as little as 50% of the energy in the ad-hoc routing protocol, which assist in increasing the network lifetime four-fold.
Geographical adaptive fidelity: The energy saving algorithms developed by Xu et al. (2001)
Adaptive Energy Conserving…
Chen, B. Jamieson, K. Balakrishnan, H. "Span: An energy-efficient saving coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless networks" ACM Wireless Networks Journal. (2001).
Xu, Y. Heidemann, J. & Estrin, D. Geography-informed Energy Conservation for Ad Hoc Routing. . ACM Wireless Networks Journal. .2001
Xu, Y. Heidemann, J. & Estrin, D. "Adaptive Energy for Routing Conserving for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks." USC/ISI Research Report 527. .2000.
International Energy Law
International Energy Arbitration
This paper will examine the role of arbitration in the international energy sector over the past 50 years. Discussion is organized around the five decades leading up to the current state of affairs in the international energy sector. In each section, major arbitrations are identified and tied to the categorical intention of arbitrations of that period. For instance, arbitration awards that occurred during a period of substantive concession agreements -- termed the first generation of concession agreements by Kosheri (n.d.) -- include the Abu Dhabi award of 1951, the Qatar award of 1953, and the Aramco award of 1958.
The next period, which occurred roughly in the 1960s and 1970s, was characterized by arbitration awards that evidenced a climate of confrontation, during which host nations took the position of abstaining from participation in arbitration proceedings. These nations were unilaterally interested in bringing the earlier…
Bishop, R.D. (2000). International arbitration of petroleum disputes: The development of a "Lex Petrolea. The Journal, [Website] The Centre for Energy, Petroleum, and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP).
Brower, C.N. And Sharpe, J.K. (2003, July). International arbitration and the Islamic World: The third phase. The American Journal of International Law, 97 (3).
Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, New York, (1958, 10 June). 330 United Nations Treaty Series (U.N.T.S.), 38.
Dundas, H. (2004, July). Dispute resolution in the oil and gas industry: An oilman's perspective. Oil, Gas, & Energy Law Intelligence, 2 (3).
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo
Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/
Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf
Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
Community's Source of Energy
An Examination of Energy Sources in the Willows Community of Gilbert, Arizona
The community of Willows is located in the city of Gilbert, Arizona. It is an HOA community of single family homes, with a number of amenities included. As with any community, it has power usage needs that have to be considered. Before the community was built, the issue of how to get power to the area and how much power might be used by the residents there was considered. Then, the community was built and the houses were sold. That raised the amount of power that was needed in Gilbert, which is a growing city with a strong population base and many things for residents to enjoy. The power needs of any community are important, because residents want to be assured that they have enough of what they need to power their homes (Aitken,…
Aitken, D.W. (2010). Transitioning to a renewable energy future. NY: International Solar Energy Society.
Lovins, A. (2011). Reinventing fire: Bold business solutions for the new energy era. NY: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Makower, J, Pernick, R., & Wilder, C. (2009). Clean Energy Trends. NY: Clean Edge.
Renewable energy. (2014). SRP. Retrieved from http://www.srpnet.com/environment/renewable.aspx
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
The primary sources of energy in the UK comes in the form of oil and gas reserves from the North Sea and coal. These sources are expected to continue to be dominant until at least 2020, although it should be noted that the annual output from the North Sea is now on the decline (UK Parliament, 2010). As a result, the government has embarked on a strategy to reshape the energy dynamic of the nation. The objective of the program is to establish renewables as the largest source of energy in the UK by 2020.
Nuclear power has been downplayed in the UK energy landscape. A lull in new capacity existed until 2007, so no new capacity is expected to replace decommissioned nuclear power plants until at least 2017, meaning that renewables development is critical to reshaping the UK energy landscape (Ibid). Wind is the crucial form of…
Appleyard, D. (2013). UK confirms plans for 39gw of offshore wind by 2030. Renewable Energy World. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2013/11/uk-confirms-plans-for-39-gw-of-offshore-wind-by-2030
Department of Energy and Climate Change (2013). UK renewable energy roadmap update 2013. Department of Energy and Climate Change. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/255182/UK_Renewable_Energy_Roadmap_-_5_November_-_FINAL_DOCUMENT_FOR_PUBLICATIO____.pdf
Czyzewski, A. (2011). Government reveals plans to reform UK's energy landscape. The Engineer. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.theengineer.co.uk/news/news-analysis/government-reveals-plans-to-reform-uks-energy-landscape/1009385.article
Buchan, D. (2013). Can shale gas transform Europe's energy landscape? Centre for European Reform. Retrieved November 11, 2013 from http://www.cer.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/pdf/2013/pbrief_buchan_shale_10july13-7645.pdf
My energy use varied depending on the day. In general, heating oil is used, so this will increase on days that are cooler or wetter. Electrical reflects appliance usage for the most part. There is a baseline of electrical usage for things like lights, coffee maker and other daily essentials. Electricity usage spikes on laundry day in particular. There is a small solar component to the heating, providing heat for a couple of rooms. Auto gas reflects car usage, which fluctuates. There is a commuting baseline for five out of seven days, and so non-commuting days can see lower gasoline usage.
The local energy company uses primarily coal as its power source, but also makes use of a small percentage of nuclear power as well. The utility posts this information on its website. The different power sources are all outlined, so consumers can effectively understand the source of the…
EDF (2011). California's global warming solutions act. Environmental Defense Fund. Retrieved October 31, 2011 from http://www.edf.org/climate/AB32
The earth formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago. Our planet's geothermal heat originates from the energetic remnants of that coalescence. Over time, the interior of the earth "became differentiated into several distinct compositional zones: a large, iron rich core; a thick surrounding mantle; and at the surface, a thin, low density crust." (Montgomery 10). This fact contributed to a number of important attributes of the earth, including the formation of the atmosphere -- which came into existence thanks to gases escaping from the hot interior.
Despite the fact that the earth has been gradually cooling for the past 4 billion years, "The earth still retains enough internal heat to drive large-scale mountain-building processes, to produce volcanic eruptions, to make continents mobile, and indirectly to trigger earthquakes." (Montgomery 10).
A cross-section of the earth would reveal that it is surrounded by a thin outer crust that is about 10…
Gallant, Roy A. Geysers: When Earth Roars. New York: Franklin Watts, 1997.
Geothermal Energy Facts." Geothermal Education Office. December 23, 2000. Retrieved October 9, 2004 from geothermal.marin.org.
Montgomery, Carla W. Physical Geology: Third Edition. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1987.
("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
The impact of wind farms on the natural landscape is troubling. This is because some communities think that the sight of large fields is destroying the scenery. Evidence of this can be seen in Martha's Vineyard. What happened is many residents began to oppose these kinds of projects out of concerns about how this will impact their views. This led to animosity about where to place wind farms. As a result, proponents argue that establishing these fields in different locations will be challenging. This is when the project will face increased delays and higher costs. ("Fossil Fuels and Minerals," n.d., 173 -- 215)
Advantages of Wind Power
Despite the claims of opponents, the reality is that the use of wind power is a viable resource. A good example of this can be seen with Denmark (who produces 20% of their total energy…
Fossil Fuels and Minnerals. (n.d.).
Renewable and Nuclear Energy. (n.d.).
Deal, W. (2010). Wind power: An emerging energy source. Technology & Engineering Teacher, 70 (1), 9-15.
However, they are worth considering on the long haul. Since the oil and gas reserves are suffering from a chronic shortage, a major company such as Exxon should think strategically and expand into this area. The discussion is more complex, in the sense that intensive research and development efforts are needed to both improve the above mentioned alternatives and to discover new sources of energy.
Exxon Financial esults
Due to the high crude-oil and natural gas prices, in the context of a busy hurricane seasons in the Gulf of Mexico, Exxon has reported record figures for 2005, mounting up to $36 billion in net income and 31% return on average capital.
Source: Exxon Mobil 2005 Company eport
The results Exxon reported for the 2005 fiscal year are impressive:
record earnings of $36 billion, up 46%;
net income per common share of $5.76;
net income to average shareholder's equity of 339%…
Armstrong, M. 2003, Human resource management practice, (9th ed.), Kogan Page Limited, London
Litle, J. 2005, Get Rich - While Exxon Goes Broke, Retrieved Online from URL: http://news.goldseek.com/DailyReckoning/1162413657.php
Logan, A. And Grossman D. 2006, ExxonMobil's Corporate Governance on Climate Change, Ceres & the Investor Network on Climate Risk
Maxwell C. And Feshbach B., Energetic Discussion, Retrieved Online from URL: http://www.weedenco.com/welling/archive/li/v06i04lilogo.asp
Geopolitical Energy Competition
One hundred years ago, oil supplies were a non-issue. There was limited demand for oil, and hence limited supply. Today, oil is the most important factor shaping the geopolitical landscape. Global demand for oil is estimated to be 84.6 million barrels per day (OPEC, 2009). OPEC produces 24.845 million barrels per day, and non-OPEC nations produce a further 50.7 million barrels per day for a total production of 75.545 bpd (OPEC, 2008). Many observers believe that the world has already passed "peak oil," that is to say the point at which the majority of the world's oil reserves have been discovered and production maximized (Deffeyes, 2003). Demand in the United States is presently estimated to be 20.7 million barrels per day, some 68% of that going to meet transportation needs (Energy Information Administration, 2007). However, demand from emerging economies such as those in India and China are…
No author. (2009). 152nd Meeting of the OPEC Conference. OPEC. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.opec.org/opecna/Press%20Releases/2009/pr042009.htm
No author. (2008). 151st Meeting of the OPEC Conference. OPEC. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.opec.org/opecna/Press%20Releases/2008/pr172008.htm
Deffeyes, Kenneth S. (2003). Hubbert's Peak. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=fgDBgqhR_lsC&dq=peak+oil&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=Xp3iQQ8M6m&sig=BuO97Gq_zTX4h4gxnz8pqxOwPeo&hl=en&ei=kHvmSb_8Bc_gtgf7rYieBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#PPA1,M1
No author. (2007). Energy Information Administration: 2007 Annual Review. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec5_3.pdf
Energy is the basis of industrial civilization and modern society. There is little doubt that without energy, modern life would cease to exist. Over the last two hundred years, human beings have relied heavily on fossil fuels for their energy needs. Fossil fuels, however, are non-renewable and in limited supply and if we continue to use the earth's fossil fuel resources at the present rate, we would soon run out of the earth's fuel reserves. Moreover, burning of fossil fuels contributes to air pollution, acid rain, and global warming that could ultimately make life unsustainable on our planet. ith several promising alternate energy sources such as 'geothermal,' 'nuclear,' 'wind' and 'solar' power having proved either too expensive, too dangerous or impractical, the need for a new invention that provides an alternate fuel was never more urgent as it is today. The invention that I have in mind is the…
Lindemann, Peter DSc. "Where in the World is all the Free Energy?" Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 8, Number 4. (2001) September 23, 2003 http://www.nexusmagazine.com/freeenergy.html
Patch, Kimberly. "Sunlight turns Water to Fuel." Technology Research News. January 9, 2002 September 23, 2003 http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/2002/010902/Sunlight_turns_water_to_fuel_010902.html
Since nuclear energy is derived from uranium -- a finite resource -- it is a non-renewable resource
Kimberly Patch (2002). "Sunlight turns water to fuel" Technology Research News
The United States currently garners about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power plants ("Nuclear Power Now" nd). Moreover, nuclear power poses fewer direct dangers than coal-produced electricity ("Nuclear Power Now" nd).
Furthermore, nuclear physicists are working towards solutions to the problem of radioactive waste disposal. Scientists hope also to devise new ways of improving nuclear power production processes, and most importantly, to minimize the creation of radioactive waste. As waste creation is minimized and waste storage is made safer, nuclear power will become a more sensible option. Until then, it should remain a small but significant percentage of all electricity generation worldwide because nuclear power does not exacerbate the immediate problem of greenhouse gas emissions.
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. etrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/30/particlephysics.energy1
Till, C. (nd). Interview…
"Nuclear Power Now." (nd). Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from http://www.nuclearnow.org/
Sample, I. (2008). Beginner's guide: how nuclear power works. Guardian. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 10 Nov 2009 from
Energy: A Bright Future Through Diversification
The energy industry has been a lucrative and growing one for generations, and will continue to be so in the future. Multiple sectors depend on the robustness of the energy industry for their long-term success, ensuring the relevance of and reliance on the energy business for the foreseeable future. From space exploration and military technology to utilities and essential services, quality energy sourcing, processing, generation, and distribution are all crucial to life on earth. Furthermore, the world's population is growing at an alarming rate, necessitating new products, services, and innovations to fit growing energy needs. The industry's ability to adapt to change, mitigate risks, and manage market forces makes it certain that my future in the energy field is a bright one.
Granted, a "massive transformation" is predicted for the future of the energy industry due to the boom in solar projects around the…
My future in the energy industry is bright because I believe I have the academic requirement, skills, and competencies to succeed. My main long-term goal is to become a recognized leader in the energy industry. I believe that if the energy industry is to earn due respect from the general public, then it requires the work and effort of honest, dedicated leaders who are ready to transform it for the better. For starters, I am about to complete my degree, which is the basic requirement for entry into any industry. My main objective is to attain a higher level of education within the next four years and earn my Master's degree. What is more, aside from the education, I endeavor to rack up training courses and apprenticeships along the way as these play a great part in meeting the skills necessitated in the industry. In addition, my purpose is to…
Geological vs. Biological Energy
Geological Energy vs. Biological Energy
There are various differences as well as possible similarities between the geological and the biological energy. It is worth noting that energy is the ability to do work, and in many aspects causes movement.
The differences in the two types of energy have to do with the sources. The geological energy is noted to be predominantly from surface process like weather patterns, Hydrologic cycle, erosion and even the sun. The other significant process is the tectonic process that produces geological energy like earthquake and volcanoes that originate from the interior of the earth. The geological surface process that produces the geological energy is gravitational causing acts like evaporation and erosion. The interior process also has tectonic stress or pressure. The surface process is characterized by motion for instance the flowing of water, chipping of rocks and movement of air. The interior…
Ostatic, (2011). Seismic Tool-Kit Helps Scientists Research Earthquakes. Retrieved January 29,
USGA, (2012). Latest Earthquakes in the World - Past 7 days. Retrieved January 29,