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Offshore oil and gas exploration is one of the most capital and human resource intensive industries. Significant health and safety (H&S) risks are associated with working in offshore oil and gas fields. Dermatitis, inhalation of hazardous substances, mental and physical health, isolation, injury, and loss of life and common H&S risks associated to offshore operations. Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) is the federal regulatory body that regulates offshore oil and gas operations for health, safety, and environmental protection. Safety and Environmental Management System (SEMS) program is the fundamental regulatory framework that is implemented by BSEE. The SEMS regulation has outlined many regulatory requirements related to H&S of employees and safe operations in offshore oil and gas industry. BSEE is also vested with enforcement authority within a broad framework that allows the regulator to issue non-compliance notices to operators, initiate probationary and disqualification procedures, and impose civil…
AcuTech. (2012). Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) Background Summary. AcuTech Consulting Group. Retrieved from: http://acutech-consulting.com/pdfs/AcuTech-White-Paper-SEMS%204-17-12.pdf
API. (2004). Safety and Environmental Management Program (SEMP) Promotes Safe and Environmentally Sound Operations Offshore. American Petroleum Association. Retrieved from: http://www.api.org/oil-and-natural-gas-overview/exploration-and-production/offshore/exploration-management.aspx
Atkinson, G., Fullick, S., Grindey, C., Maclaren, D., & Waterhouse, J. (2008). Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker. Sports medicine (Auckland, NZ), 38(8), 671. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784228/
"Code of Federal Regulations." (2012). Para 250 Oil, Gas, and Sulfur operations in the Outer Continental Shelf [30 CFR 250]. Retrieved from: http://cfr.regstoday.com/30cfr250.aspx#30_CFR_250p200
Enforcement of Power in Organizations
Managing Organisations - Critically analyse how the enforcement of power may or may not lead to organisational resistance, conflict and decline
Enforcement of power in organizations has led to conflicts in many organizations, due to employee resistance to power (Fiske and Depret, 1996). Managers in many organizations try to use coercion when ordering employees to perform their work (French Jr. et al., 1960). The different subunits within an organization need to work cohesively in order to achieve the organization's overall goal. Failure to do this result in organizational decline and conflicts arise between the different subunits. This paper will demonstrate that enforcement of power is a catalyst for organizational resistance and conflicts. The different elements that cause conflict in an organization have been analysed to demonstrate how they affect an organization. The arguments made in the paper will indicate that enforcement of power could lead…
DEPRET, E. & FISKE, S.T. 1999. Perceiving the powerful: Intriguing individuals vs. threatening groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 461-480.
ELLEMERS, N., VAN RIJSWIJK, W., BRUINS, J. & DE GILDER, D. 1998. Group commitment as a moderator of attributional and behavioural responses to power use. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 555-573.
FISKE, S.T. 1993. Controlling other people: The impact of power on stereotyping. American Psychologist, 48, 621.
FISKE, S.T. & DEPRET, E. 1996. Control, interdependence and power: Understanding social cognition in its social context. European review of social psychology, 7, 31-61.
Thus China must be held accountable by the international community and awareness brought to modern Chinese parents about the dangers of child labor. Consumerism is no excuse for allowing child labor in any context.
Embassy of India. "Child Labor in India." Indian Embassy. 1998. etrieved at http://www.indianembassy.org/policy/Child_Labor/childlabor.htm#national%20policy. 10 Nov 2009.
Goujan, Emmanuel. "Child Labor in Demand in wanda." Daily Main & Guardian. 2000. Hartford Web Publishing. etrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/36/461.html. 10 Nov 2009.
International Labour Office. Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable. 6th ed. International Labour Office. 1996.
Kagire, Edmund. "wanda to Benefit from U.S. Anti-Child Labour Fund." New Times. 2009. etrieved at http://www.newtimes.co.rw/index.php?issue=14035&article=20608. 11 Nov 2009.
Thapaliya, Bhuwan. "Child Labor Dilemma in Nepal." Global Politician. 12 Oct 2009. etrieved at http://www.globalpolitician.com/25958-nepal. 11 Nov 2009.
International Labour Office. Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable: Sixth Item on the Agenda. (International Labour Office 1996) 19.
International Labour Office. Child Labour: Targeting the…
Embassy of India. "Child Labor in India." Indian Embassy. 1998. Retrieved at http://www.indianembassy.org/policy/Child_Labor/childlabor.htm#national%20policy . 10 Nov 2009.
Goujan, Emmanuel. "Child Labor in Demand in Rwanda." Daily Main & Guardian. 2000. Hartford Web Publishing. Retrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/36/461.html . 10 Nov 2009.
International Labour Office. Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable. 6th ed. International Labour Office. 1996.
Kagire, Edmund. "Rwanda to Benefit from U.S. Anti-Child Labour Fund." New Times. 2009. Retrieved at http://www.newtimes.co.rw/index.php?issue=14035&article=20608 . 11 Nov 2009.
Cultural relativism contends that no one culture possesses a more correct value system than any other. "There is no one standard set of morals," Sullivan (2006) argues, which one can use as a base to: "objectively judge all cultures, so comparing morality between cultures -- which retain independent and distinct histories and influences -- is basically futile" (¶ 9).
As the movement is rooted in the world community's response to the excesses inflicted upon humanity by the Nazi and Fascist regimes during the Second orld ar, the founders of the United Nations ensured that the Charter would reflect the close relationship between international peace and security and international human rights. Thus, the first two goals embodied in the Preamble of the U.N. Charter are: "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war" and "to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, the dignity and worth of the human person, [and]…
About us [Human Rights Education Associates (HREA] 2008, Available at http://www.hrea.org/index.php?base_id=70 [27October 2008].
American Convention on Human Rights" 1969, OAS Treaty Series No. 36; 1144 UNTS 123; 9 ILM 99. Available from: http://www.eisil.org/index.php?t=link_details&id=446&cat=212 [27 October 2008].
The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man" 2008, American Convention on Human Rights, University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Available at http://www.cidh.oas.org/Basicos/English/Basic3.American%20Convention.htm [27 October 2008].
Bartlett, John, comp. 2000, Familiar Quotations, 10th ed, rev. And enl. By Nathan Haskell Dole. Boston: Little, Brown, 1919. Available from: Bartleby. [26 October 2008].
These statistics deny that a great number of older men are taking advantage of young girls and making them pregnant. Eight per cent is hardly an epidemic. If the problem is occurring only 8% of the time, then statutory rape laws should be enforced in about 8% of the cases.
The problem is how to sift through all the cases and find the right ones to prosecute, leaving the remaining 92% alone. It "...has proven far more difficult than the politicians ever imagined" (Elton, 1997, p. 13). To expect prosecutors to find the 8% in order to reduce the welfare rolls is impractical and unreasonable. Moreover, enforcement of these laws frequently has unexpected consequences. For example, 19-year-old Kevin Gillson was charged in Wisconsin with sexual assault for getting his 15-year-old girlfriend pregnant. His name was entered in a national registry of sex offenders even though he planned to marry the…
Elton, C. (1997). Jail baiting. The New Republic, 217, (20 October), 12-13.
Findholt, N. And Robrecht, L.C. (2002). Legal and ethical considerations in research with sexually active adolescents: The requirement to report statutory rape. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34 (5), 259-265.
Jepsen, C.A. And Jepsen, L.K. (2006). The effects of statutory rape laws on nonmarital teenage childbearing. Contemporary Economic Policy, 24 (1), 35-52.
Enforcement of European Community Law
Legal systems are basically just useless if they are not efficiently enforced. On that note, they have normally two principal devices through which to make sure that these norms are enforced. Firstly, they may make the choice to trust on community enforcement by the state or an organ (Craig, 1998). On the other hand, trusting purely on public enforcement can be incompetent. Even though the details for this may differ contingent on the exact legal area, which is in query, it is common for public implementation as such to produce difficulties, which cause a legal association to supplement it by private model of enforcement, which permits private activities which are transported by persons European Union law (factually called "European Community law") is a body of agreements and lawmaking, for instance Regulations and Directives, which have indirect effect or direct effect on the regulations of European…
Bridge, J., 2004. Procedural Aspects of the Enforcement of European Community Law. European Law Review, 24(9), p. 37.
Craig, P. A D.B.G., 1998. European Community Law. European Competition Law Review, 24(9), p. 56.
Ehlermann, C.D., 2006. Implementation of EC Competition Law by National Anti-Trust. European Competition Law Review, 80(6), p. 3.
Maselis, I. A G.H.M., 1997. "Rights of Complainants in Community Law",. European Law Review,, 45(9), pp. 45-67.
Because there are costs of transaction during the negation process, the international laws will influence the bargain.
In changing the agenda and focus of nations and also other actors in handling conflicts and the transitions that results from the conflicts, international law might have lifted expectations to be so high that. The law has succeeded in situations where moral idealism, economics and politics have failed to provide solutions to the lasting human problems (Kelly and Karmel 900).
International law might generate standards for a number of personal decision making. This can apply when the laws that are involved are not openly addressed. Such standards might influence the institutions and the individuals to whom organizations lend, the institutions that they are dealing with as their subcontractors or suppliers, specifications for the design of products like aircraft and ships, the terms for children adoption, the shipment of dangerous goods and the transportation…
Beckman, Robert and Butte, Dagmar "Introduction to International Law" 2009
D'Anieri, Paul "Power and Purpose in Global Affairs" Cengage Learning. 2009
D'Amato, Anthony "Is International Law Really "Law"? 79 Northwestern Law Review 1293. 1985
Kelly, Claire. And Karmel, Roberta. 'The Hardening of Soft Law in Securities Regulation', Brooklyn .Journal of International Law, 34 (3), pp. 883 -- 951. 2007.
Social Media and Law Enforcement
Social Media Issues in law Enforcement
Social media and law enforcement: Boon or bane?
Social media is a fact of everyday modern life. For law enforcement personnel, it has created new opportunities to share resources with the public, including as 'tweeting' information about a possible suspect or releasing safety information to the public about terrorist incidents or natural disasters. At first, in the Internet age, police departments were reluctant to change. "Especially when it comes to computers and technology, because most officers want to be out chasing the bad guys and don't want to be behind the computer looking at things," but now most law enforcement agencies have come to embrace the new technology and learned to use it to their advantage (Conan 2013). On the other hand, the explosion of unregulated social media has also created the opportunity for new crimes, including bullying and…
Bar-Tur, Yael. (2013). Boston Police schooled us all on social media law enforcement.
This article chronicles the response of the Boston police to the recent bombings at the Boston Marathon, praising them for their effective use of social media and examining how this was the result of a long-standing effort by the department to use social media effectively in terms of how it relates to the public.
International Law Enforcement Academies
The 1990's saw a tremendous change in the nature of international relations and international threats and crime in particular. The end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union opened a large portion of Central and Eastern Europe, formerly under the control of the U.S.S.., to cooperation with nations of the West. This included the United States, which sought to improve international relations with these former Soviet Bloc nations. In mid-1994, the FBI director and a number of top law enforcement officials traveled to Central and Eastern Europe to "meet law enforcement colleagues in the region and discuss methods to attack transnational criminal activity." (Kaciban, 2001) The following year then President Bill Clinton, while addressing the United Nations on its fiftieth anniversary proposed a number of new international initiatives; including the establishment of an international law enforcement academy in the former Soviet…
"Bureau of Diplomatic Security." U.S. Department of State Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/m/ds/index.htm
"Remarks by the President to the U.N. General Assembly" (22 October, 1995).
Welcome to the White House. Retrieved from http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/New/other/unspeech.html
"ILEA-Budapest" International Law Enforcement Academy- Budapest. Retrieved from http://www.ilea.hu/en/index.php
Khalid (2012) describes one incident in the ongoing conflict between American law enforcement and minority communities. ecently, the FBI hired an informant to pose as a Muslim in order to spy on the Iowan Muslim community in search of terrorist ties. The imposter went to mosque and forged ties with local Muslims. When the espionage was exposed, the Muslim community public expressed utter betrayal, according to Khalid (2012). In a diverse society, minority and immigrant communities must be especially trusting of law enforcement. When trust is eroded, as with the case in Iowa, public safety may suffer. However, the situation also reveals the delicate balance that law enforcement must play when it comes to preventing acts of violence, terrorism, or any crime. Law enforcement treads a razor's edge between infringing on the rights of individuals while attempting to protect those very rights.
Another incident involving law enforcement highlights…
Baker, A. & Stelloh, T. (2012). Focus on police treatment of witness after shooting. The New York Times. Feb 4, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/05/nyregion/treatment-of-grandmother-after-fatal-police-shooting-is-criticized.html
Khalid, K. (2012). Iowa Muslim leader: Law enforcement betrayed us. CNN. Retrieved online: http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/03/iowa-muslim-leader-law-enforcement-betrayed-us/
Simon, R. & Meeks, D. (2012). Occupy D.C.: Police cut size of camp, stop short of clearing it. Los Angeles Times. Feb 4, 2012. Retrieved online: http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/nationnow/2012/02/occupy-dc-police-move-in-but-stop-short-of-clearing-encampment.html
Taubman, B. (1987). Lady Cop: True Stories of Policewomen in America's Toughest City. St. Cloud: Warner.
Organized Crime / Counterterrorism
AL CAPONE O AL QAEDA?:
OGANIZED CIME AND COUNTETEOISM
AS LAW ENFOCEMENT PIOITIES IN 2014
Should law enforcement in America prioritize fighting counter-terrorism or fighting organized crime? A full examination of the history and issues involved with both will, I would argue, make the answer clear: with the proper definitions involved of both terror and organized crime, it is the latter which genuinely deserves the attention of law enforcement, and the former which has become the stuff of paranoid post-9/11 fantasy. However, to a certain extent, we will understand the way in which definitional creep can effect both subjects: what is the difference between a terrorist organization and a transnational organized crime enterprise? Why do we not consider a Mexican drug cartel so powerful that it routinely executes scores of people to intimidate local populations not considered a terrorist organization? I would like in this paper…
Aaronson, T. (Sept.-Oct. 2011). The informants. Mother Jones,
Arthur, C. (November 2, 2011). Anonymous retreats from Mexico drug cartel confrontation. The Guardian.
Asbury, H. (2008). The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld. New York: Vintage.
Bell, D. (1953). Crime as an American way of life. Antioch Review 13(2), 131-154.
Differences Between Various Levels Of Law Enforcement
Federal prisons are for conviction under Federal laws. State prisons are similar in all concepts and applications but are for convictions under state statutes (Albanese, 2002). Privatized prisons are owned by the state in which they are in and have been tried (or are being used) by several states on the assumption that a privately operated prison will cost less money over a state run entity (aine, 1994). If you look historically at the privately run prisons, you will find that they have lost millions due to law suits lost in medical claims filed by inmates who were incarcerated there (Albanese, 2002).
Fully third of the budget of a state run prison is for medical care. When an inmate has a medical condition that demands operations, MI's, CAT scans and the like, they are taken to local hospitals and treated there…
Albanese, J.S. (2002). The Prediction and Control of Organized Crime: A Risk Assessment Instrument for Targeting Law Enforcement Efforts.
Evans, J.L. (1997). Investigating and Prosecuting the Proceeds of Crime: A Common Law
Experience. In Ernesto U. Savona, Ed, Responding to Money Laundering: International
Perspectives. Harwood Academic Publishers: Amsterdam: The Netherlands.
Ethics in Law Enforcement
Every individual dreams of living an ideal life filled with peace, prosperity, love and comforts. Many a time's people get money but no peace of mind and often they have incomparable mental solace without the wealth. Scholars like Aristotle, Plato and Socrates believed that an ideal life did not exist but a successful; peace filled life was only possible with adherence to ethics or moral principles of conduct.
In today's world, the public's peace of mind is largely dependent on their safety and the realization of their rights. Nations give their residents freedom of speech, belief and thoughts. They have the right to express their thoughts and practice their religion. However, the modern world is overflowing with incidents of violation of these rights, or terrorism, murder, deceit, rape etc. It is the moral obligation of law enforcement agencies to ensure the safety of the residents.
Banks, C. (2004). The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justice. Retrieved 25 June, 2012, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4031_Banks_Chapter_1_Proof.pdf
Ethics (n.d) Dictionary.reference.com: Ethics. Retrieved 25 June, 2012, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ethics
Fitch, B.D. (2011) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin: Focus on Ethics. Retrieved 25 June, 2012, from http://www.fbi.gov /stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/october-2011/focus-on-ethics
Kardasz, F. (2008). Ethics Training For Law Enforcement: Law Enforcement Codes of Ethics as Training Tools. Retrieved 25 June, 2012, from http://kardasz.org/Codes_of_Ethics.html
Technology and Law Enforcement
The field of law enforcement has been one of the most challenging fields from the historical time yet it is a department that cannot be wished away as long as the society has to remain sane and civilised. The only option is to persistently and consistently update law enforcement and equip it in order to cary out the respective duties and responsibilities that it should in order to help te citizens to live in peace and abide by the law and have no fear of possible infrigment of their rights and protection by the lawless criminals. The improvements also assure the innocent law abiding citizens that in any case their rights have ben infringed upon, then the propagators of these crimes will be traced and charged and justice be done.
However, the constant improvement that is expecetd to give sense of security to the citizens can…
Homeland Security News Wire, (2014). National Guard units help states ward off cyberattacks. Retrieved January 5, 2014 from http://www.homelandsecuritynewswire.com/dr20140203-national-guard-units-help-states-ward-off-cyberattacks
Paul D.S., (2004). The Future Is Here: Technology in Police Departments. Retrieved January 5, 2014 from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?article_id=1527&fuseaction=display&issue_id=62008
Discrimination in Law Enforcement: Lethal Consequences
The constitution guarantees life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness to all Americans, yet there is a group who endures a life without total liberty, restrictions on their choice of lifestyle and happiness, and unfair treatment which may even result in the untimely loss of their lives. This group of people currently facing discrimination and mistreatment is the gay and lesbian community of ashington D.C., and the perpetrators are the very people whose jobs are to ensure their safety. The law enforcement is not entirely protecting gays and lesbians in D.C., nor are they ensuring that they have basic human rights. The effects of discrimination or even just insensitivity in the police department can have catastrophic negative effects on the victims, the gay and lesbian community, and the city of D.C. As a whole. hen people of certain minorities are not treated equally by…
Berrill, Kevin T., and Gregory M. Herek. Hate Crimes. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1992. 208-212.
Fahrenthold, David A. "Gay Activists Question D.C. Police Shooting; Groups Join Family
Seeking Answers In Man's Death." The Washington Post 24 July 2001: B02. Lexis-Nexis.Gelman Library, Washington, D.C., 21 Mar. 2002 .
Fahrenthold, David A. "The Blue and the Gay." The Washington Post 22 Oct. 2001: B01.
Social Media in Law Enforcement
As with anything that involves privacy and the supposed or alleged invasion thereof, the use of social media as a means to enforce laws and/or capture suspects often incurs the same wrath and scrutiny as any other supposed encroachment on privacy. Much the same thing is said of surveillance cameras in public or widely traversed private areas or personal property (Nichols, 2013). While use of social media as a means to monitor and track people's statements and actions can go too far, the capture and use of social media data that is readily and legally available is not unethical or improper to use and harness when speaking of viable and legitimate police actions.
Pros & Cons
The cons to using social media as a means to enforce laws and capture suspects are few but they are definitely present. As intimated in the subject, the use…
NYCLU. (2013, November 21). Stop & Frisk Practices. New York Civil Liberties Union.
Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http://www.nyclu.org/stopandfrisk
Nichols, S. (2013, October 29). Controversy over neighborhood's surveillance cameras -- FOX 13 News. Controversy over neighborhood's surveillance cameras - FOX
13 News. Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http://www.myfoxtampabay.com/story/23330717/2013/09/03/controversy-over-surveillance-cameras
In this regard, Lott points out, "Between 70% and 80% of police departments explicitly use norming of physical standards in their hiring practices. However, most of the departments that use objective standards do not enforce these rules. Women who fail to meet the absolute standards during academy training are unlikely to be failed out of the program" (p. 276). This lack of consistency in how these standards are applied across the country has caused many observers to lose confidence in their predictive ability. Moreover, in some cases, courts have even disallowed tests that result in differential pass rates between men and women candidates. Citing a 1980 case involving the Philadelphia Police Department, Lott reports that, "The district court ruled that it was unlawful to discharge women who 'failed to achieve a passing score on the firearms qualifying test'" (quoted in Lott at p. 276). As a result, the New York…
Boles, J.S., Howard, W.G. & Donofrio, H.H. (2001). An investigation into the inter- relationships of work-family conflict, family-work conflict and work satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(3), 376.
Burke, R.J. (1989). Some antecedents of work-family conflict. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 287-302.
1993). Toward an understanding of psychological burnout among police officers. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8(3), 425-438.
1994). Stressful events, work-family conflict, coping, psychological burnout, and well- being among police officers. Psychological Reports, 75, 787-800.
During the 1960's and 1970's, violent contact with the police, resulting in force occurred during anti-war, labor and civil rights demonstrations, during a politically tumultuous time. It is safe to conclude that excessive force was used during these clashes. Deaths and injuries were the results of political clashes at the epublican Convention in Chicago, during campus riots held at several universities, during political demonstrations held in public places and in cities where racial animosities were stirred up. At that time, it was sometimes felt that the political movement or threat to the community could be quelled by violently quashing the people with police power. Because of the lack of national statistics and the reluctance of police to reveal data concerning these events, it is hard to tell exactly how much force was used and how many people were killed or injured.
A1994 study by Anthony Pate and Lorie Fridell attempted…
Reference: Social Trends in America, Vol. 4. Reviewed July 24, 2009 at http://social.jrank.org/pages/1332/Law-Enforcement-Use-Force.html
Limitations on Use of Force in Law Enforcement. (N.J.S.A. 2C:3-7b) (1983). Reviewed July 24, 2009 at http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/charges/jury/justif008.htm .
McElvain, J.P. And Kposowa, A.J., )2003-08) "Police brutality and internal affairs investigations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA Reviewed online July 23, 2009 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106568_index.html
Olson, Robert K., (2004), News Release. Police Executive Research Forum. Washington, D.C.
Oregonian, The, (2009). Report: fewer complaints of police officers' use of force. The Oregonian, 14 Jul, 2009. Reviewed July 23, 2009 at http://www.oregonlive.com/news/index.ssf/2009/07/report_fewer_complaints_of_pol.html
Therefore, one must be both committed to the law, as well as to individual freedom, and this would be in keeping with the trends as dictated by a democratic country such as the United States of America.
It must be stated that in the Post Cold War world, crimes such as terrorism, narcotics drugs trafficking, money laundering, and so on, are all considered to be serious threats to the very security of the entire nation. These threats are in fact termed as 'transnational threats', and they are today, in the face of the changing nature of crime and related security, the primary concerns of law enforcement agencies as well as that of the U.S. Intelligence Community. For example, two serious foreign banking scandals that occurred during the late years of the 1980's, made sure of the fact that any information that would be in the hands of Intelligence Agencies in…
Best, Richard. A. Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Countering Transnational Threats to the U.S. CRS Report for Congress, received through the CRS Web. 3 December, 2001. Accessed 24 August, 2005; Available from http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL30252.pdf
Brown, Ken Spencer. Advanced Forensics coming to the aid of Forensics Investigators. Silicon Valley/San Jose Business Journal. November 2001. Accessed 25 August, 2005; Available from http://www.breathmeter.com/pages/news_silicon-valley_san-jose/index.xml
Crime requires Global Law Enforcement Cooperation, says Mueller. Accessed 25 August, 2005; Available from http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive/2004/Jun/30-605420.html
Criminal Justice Technology. Accessed 24 August, 2005; Available from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/111/111lect17.htm
Terrorist Knows About Law Enforcement
When it comes to the knowledge terrorists have, one of the areas that has to be carefully considered is law enforcement. The more they are aware of the tactics that are used and the way people who work in that field look at the world and handle issues, they more they can find ways to get around what law enforcement can provide in how they protect the public from attacks. Having knowledge of the people who, essentially, work security for an intended target is among the best ways for terrorists to formulate and execute their plans.
Terrorists often know a great deal about law enforcement, even though they have little to no regard for the laws themselves. They have to collect and retain this knowledge, though, or they will not be able to get past the people who are sworn to serve and protect the…
Dyson, W.E. (2012). Terrorism, an investigator's handbook (4th ed.). NY: Anderson Publishing
Law and Policy of World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) has a system to settle disputes between member countries regarding their rights and obligations under the WTO agreements. The purpose of the WTO dispute settlement system is the prompt settlement of disputes between WTO Members concerning their respective rights and obligations under WTO law. WTO believes the dispute settlement is one of the core pillars of the multidimensional trading system and plays a critical role in promoting the stability of the global economy.[footnoteRef:1] As part of the dispute settlement process, WTO has established panels and Appellate Body, which make judgments and decisions that are enforced by the organization. [1: World Trade Organization, ‘A Unique Contribution’ (2018) accessed 22 Jan 2019] Based on the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), disputes are to be determined before impartial panels of experts, which makes enforceable decisions.[footnoteRef:2] One of the way decisions by…
Mark L. Movsesian, ‘Enforcement of WTO Rulings: An Interest Group Analysis’ (2003) 32 (1) Hofstra Law Review 1-22
Steve Charnovitz, ‘The Enforcement of WTO Judgments’ (2009) 34 (2) Yale Journal of International Law 558-566
Steve Charnovitz, ‘The WTO’s Problematic “Last Resort” Against Noncompliance’ (Peace Palance Library, August 14 2003) accessed 22 Jan 2019
World Trade Organization, ‘A Unique Contribution’ (World Trade Organization, 2018) accessed 22 Jan 2019
The law enforcement in the U.S.A. today is better equipped to handle the terrorism attacks and any terrorism threats than it was before the 9/11 incidence in America. This is evident in the general ways through which the security measures are implemented in the country and the intricate manner of investigations that take place to counter terrorism.
Due to the nature of the data and information that is needed here, the scientific method employed was statistical data collection. This was due to the fact that there is need to have objective information on the facts surrounding the various arms of law enforcement. The best way to have facts behind the changes that took place after the 9/11 in terms of the quality of training and the number of law enforcement agencies, it was not feasible to conduct interviews among the Americans as they would only give a general…
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved January 29, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html
National commission on Terrorist Attack Upon United States, (2004). Counter Terrorism evolves. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report_Ch3.htm
US Department of Justice, (2006). Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National SECURITY Agency Described by the President. Retrieved January 28, 2011 from http://www.justice.gov/opa/whitepaperonnsalegalauthorities.pdf
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…
Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.
Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police
Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm
Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006 http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content
National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.
McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
technology has developed at an extraordinary rate. Computers, NA research, and information technology have enabled the law enforcement industry to greatly expand its ability to use intelligence methods in its effort to combat crime. In this paper an effort will be made to examine how these factors have impacted on law enforcement.
Intelligence and its corollary process, analysis, is a relatively new concept in the law enforcement industry. When originally introduced to law enforcement officials there was a general discomfort with the concept and the operation of intelligence but, over time, as officials began to realize the benefits of intelligence they became much more comfortable with its use.
Intelligence analysis has been instrumental in providing reliable and accurate information in the effort to battle criminal activity. Intelligence has armed law enforcement officials with the necessary evidence and other information that allows them to better understand the capabilities, intentions, operations and…
Daniel E. Marks and IvanY. Sun, "The Impact of 9/11 on Organizational Development Among State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies," Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice (May 2007): 159-173.
The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, official government edition (Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 2004.
Jerry H. Ratcliffe, Intelligence-led Policing (New York: Willan Publishing, 2008)
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml
DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.
Benefits of GIS Applications for Law Enforcement
Police methods have changed dramatically around the world in recent years due to the advent of geo-positioning and improved computer-aided mapping techniques. As has happened throughout the history of policing, law enforcement officials have always tried to use new scientific research to their benefit. Since the object is the safety and comfort of local citizens, a major aspect of the mission for police departments is to always use the most up-to-date methods for the detection and apprehension of criminals. With the advent of computer-aided geographic information systems (GIS), police now have the ability to approach crime in an entirely new way.
According to ich and Shively (2004) "geographical profiling was "born" in 1980 when a UK police investigator analyzed the locations of crime scenes of the Yorkshire ipper and computed the "center of gravity" of the crime scenes…." This beginning…
Alexander, M., Groff, E., & Hibdon, L. (1997). An Automated System for the Identification and Prioritization of Rape Suspects Proceedings of the Environmental Systems Research Institute International User Conference. Retrieved from http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/proc97/to350/pap333/p333.htm
Canter, P. (1990). Using a Geographic Information System for Tactical Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://faculty.uml.edu/apattavina/44.594/Tactical%20Crime%20Analysis.pdf
Craglia, M., Haining, R., & Wiles, P. (2000). A comparative evaluation of approaches to urban crime pattern analysis. Urban Studies, 37(4), 711-729.
ESRI. (2008). GIS Solutions for Intelligence-Led Policing. Crime Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/crime-analysis.pdf
Law enforcement and corrections can be influenced by several external threats. These consist of external communication gaps and many environmental influences. One of the key external threats that impacts both corrections and law enforcement is politics. In delineation, politics is the art of wielding one's authority and power over the government or public affairs. In particular, political action can give rise to the imposition of one's interests within the government, in positions of leadership within the government, with regard to the control over resources, as well as in terms of holding government office. Politics influence law enforcement and corrections by impacting the individuals that will hold different positions in criminal justice, for instance the police, judges, prosecutors as well as correctional executives. Law enforcement, administration, and corrections are linked with politics on various extents and levels. Prevailing political philosophy and ideology influence the structure, organization, as well as anticipation of…
A comparison of Law Enforcement with Other Professions
Who first comes to mind when you think of a 'Leader'? Is it Alexander the Great? Napoleon? Winston Churchill? Gandhi? Leadership is an interesting phenomenon to consider, from the perspective of civilization, of nations, of political change, and of history. What makes one person a leader while another tries and fails? What is a good leader and how is that different from a 'great' leader? The definition of leadership also varies with the context and with the individual who is defining leadership. The nature of leaders has changed as civilization has evolved, and the leaders we as a society need today may be different from those of a century ago. A national leader is distinct from a local leader, a oy Scout leader, or a team leader in a sport.
Thus, definitions of leadership vary with the situation. However, they include…
Avery, G.C. (2004) Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Avolio, B.J. (1999) Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bittner, Egon (1970). The functions of the police in modern society: a review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Boedker, C., Vidgen, R., Meagher, K., Cogin, J., Mouritsen, J. And Runnalls, M. (2011). Leadership, culture and management practices of high performing workplaces in Australia: The High Performing Workplaces Index. Society for Knowledge Economics: Sydney.
Technological Challenges of Today
The objective of this study is to answer as to what challenges law enforcement officials have faced in the light of technological advances throughout the global environment and to discuss a minimum of three problems that such changes have created. This study will answer as to what the recommendations are for future action that could assist law enforcement officials in becoming more effective in the investigation and prevention of such challenges.
Organized Crime and Technology
The work of Bjelopera and Finklea (2012) reports that technological advances have created new challenges for law enforcement particularly in the area or organized crime. This is because "modern organized criminals often prefer cellular or networked structural models for their flexibility and avoid the hierarchies that previously governed more traditional organized crime groups." (p.1) These type of "fluid network structures" make it more difficult for law enforcement to "infiltrate, disrupt, and…
Bjelopera, JP and Finklea, KM (2012) Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement. 6 Jan 2012. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf
Globalization and new technologies: challenges to drug law enforcement in the twenty-first century. (nd) INCB.org. Retrieved from: http://www.incb.org/documents/Publications/AnnualReports/AR2001/AR_01_Chapter_I.pdf
How the Web Presents New Challenges for Law Enforcement Agencies (2014) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 7, Issue 1. Retrieved from: http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/01-2014/how_the_web_presents_new_challenges_for_law_enforcement_agencies.asp
The Bureau appears to have backed down under public pressure, adverse criticism compelling the Bureau to realize that its stance was indefensible. Clearly, the Orlando Code Enforcement Bureau could not justify the use of a public safety ordinance to force a local businessperson to remove the American flags displayed in her windows.
Thus, code enforcement in Florida, as in many other locations across the United States, is shaped by a variety of practical and theoretical considerations. Zoning laws are generally intended to maintain community uniformity. Community uniformity, especially where such homogeneity produces an image of wholesomeness, cleanliness, security, trendiness, etc. is usually considered an aid to increasing property values. If standards are maintained, property values will be maintained or even increased. Local communities commonly enact local controls that either reflect specific local conditions or augment state standards. The Orlando Code Enforcement Board attempted to enforce a hurricane safety ordinance against…
Arbuckle, Mark R. "Vanishing First Amendment Protection for Symbolic Expression 35 Years after United States V. O'Brien." Communications and the Law 25.2 (2003): 1+.
Korn, Donald Jay. "Choosing a Home That Has Value: How to Make Sure You Profit from Life's Biggest Investment." Black Enterprise Aug. 2003: 65+.
Liberty Counsel. "Displaying the American Flag Comes Under Fire." Life, Liberty and Family. 8 Sept. 2005. URL: http://libertyblogs.blogspot.com/2005/09/displaying-american-flag-comes-under.html .
Posner, Richard A. "Pragmatism vs. Purposivism in First Amendment Analysis." Stanford Law Review 54.4 (2002): 737+.
Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.
Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…
The Difference Between Federal and State Law. (2010). Retrieved from The Leadership Conference - Civilrights.org: http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/courts/difference-federal-local-courts.html
Cole, G. a. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Wadsworth.
Dempsey and Forst. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Florence, KY: Delmar Cenage Learning.
Hedgpeth, D. (2008, September 17). Congress Says DHX Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts. Retrieved from The Washington Post.com: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091603200.html
7. A search function that allows the use of key words to search the foundation Web site.
8. A contact link to the foundation as well as links to other law enforcement resources.
1. The search function was not available and no explanation was given nor an estimated date when it would be available.
2. Additional plug-ins were required in order to view all of the Web site's contents.
3. The site map was not prominently displayed.
Recommendations for Improvement.
1. Eliminate the need for additional plug-ins to make the Web site more accessible.
2. Indicate when the search function will be available (or better yet, fix it).
3. Place the site map prominently on the Web site's main page.
Web Site No. 2: U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj. gov/.
Positive Components. Established in 1979 pursuant to the Justice Systems Improvement Act…
The way that this will impact an agency's effectiveness is to influence individual views about the department, command structures and policies / procedures. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
Group Dynamics: Group dynamics is focusing on how well various individuals and teams are interacting with each other. This will have an impact on the behavior of police officers by affecting communication. As a result, the ability to work together will modify an agency's capabilities in investigating criminal activity and prosecuting those who are responsible. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
Quality of Work Life: The quality of work life will affect the levels of job satisfaction inside a law enforcement agency. This will influence everyone's behavior by impacting their ability to perform various tasks. The way that this will control a department's effectiveness is to manipulate opinions and the levels of motivation for addressing different problems. (Crotty, 2004) (Wilson, 1979)
These elements can challenge…
Crotty, S. (2004). Public Management and Organizational Performance. Journal of Public Administration Management Theory, 14 (1), 1 -- 18.
Herbert, S. (1998). Police Subculture. Criminology, 36 (2), 343 -- 370.
Wilson, J. (1979). Varieties of Police Behavior. New York, NY: Antheum.
History Policing, the Law Enforcement Industry America, Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America; a critical analysis
A critical analysis: History Policing; the Law Enforcement Industry America; Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America
History of Policing
Formalized local government-based policing in America began in the late 1820s in the largest American cities. Early police officers were not considered to be professional with respect to social status. In fact, the terms professional and police were not likely to appear together. Policemen in this historical period were typically not much more than watchmen. It wasn't until the turn of the 20th century that professionalism began to characterize American police. It is mostly agreed that the professionalization of the police in the United States began with the efforts of August Vollmer. (Douthit, 1975).
Vollmer was the first Chief of Police of Berkeley, California, elected as the town Marshall in 1905.…
911 Commission Report (2004), Washington, D.C.: GAO.
Crank, John P. (2003), "Institutional Theory of Police: A Review of the State of the Art," Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 26 (2): 186- 207.
Douthit, Nathan (1975), "August Vollmer, Berkeley's First Chief of Police, and the Emergence of Police Professionalism," California Historical Quarterly, 54), spring: 101-124.
Goldstein, Herman (1979), "Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach," Crime and Delinquency, 25: 236-58.
How can police and law enforcement agencies best utilize resources to confront this new threat?
Briefly describe the important features of "new terrorism" as discussed in the readings. What is "new" about contemporary, international terrorism?
Identify the police and law enforcement resources most relevant or essential to the threat of terrorist attacks. Also identify any important gaps between resources and needs.
In contrast to the terrorists of the past, the most aggressive forms of modern terrorism have been religious, rather than political in nature (Morgan 2007: 32). Historically, as horrific as the actions may have been, earlier types of terrorists at least had a defined political objective which they wished to attain through the use of violence and drawing attention to their cause. Modern terrorists, however, tend to view themselves in an unending and relatively vague 'war with the West' and Western values. hey draw no line in…
The failure of the intelligence community to predict 9/11 has often been called a 'failure of imagination,' not simply a failure to respond adequately with military force. "Neither Bush nor his predecessor Bill Clinton understood the gravity of the threats posed by terrorists because the leaders could not imagine such attacks" (King & Quijano 2004). A common complaint is that today's leaders are always fighting the last war, and until 9/11 the 'war mentality' was a Cold War mentality which presumed state actors were the dominant threat with a relatively realistic, coherent agendas. To fight terrorism today requires leaders to get into the minds of terrorists and to understand their psychological and cultural motivations, which are not always rational.
The lack of information-sharing between police and law enforcement agencies was also a major contributor to the 'failure of imagination' to predict the events. Without an interconnected effort between the FBI, CIA, and local law enforcement agencies, it is literally impossible to 'connect the dots' of actions which broach domestic and international concerns. "The failure of the CIA and FBI to communicate with each other -- sometimes because of 'legal misunderstandings' -- led to missed 'operational opportunities' to hinder or break the terror plot" (King & Quijano 2004). For example, "The CIA did not put 9/11 hijacker Khalid Almihdhar on a 'watch list' or notify the FBI when he had a U.S. visa in January 2000 or when he met with a key figure in the U.S.S. Cole bombing" (King & Quijano 2004).
One critical component of engendering greater understanding of the population it is seeking to monitor is fostering greater cultural understanding of the nature of terrorist groups and the cultures that produces terrorism. With this in mind, hiring law enforcement officers who speak the native language of the group the agency is investigating and who can engage
Imposing liability on others despite their lack of culpability is sometimes used as common law and courts have evolved the principle that an employer can put responsibility for some acts onto employees when an act is committed during the course of employment. The distribution of costs of accidents and other injuries and losses has been passed along by employers through insurance and higher costs by employers to employees, customers and clients.
In criminal cases, there is no vicarious liability. The principle this relies upon is that a crime is composed of both an "actus reus" (guilty act) and a "mens rea" (guilty mind), and that a person with these two should be convicted if both are present at the same time. Therefore, it is very difficult to prove that another party is responsible for a criminal act, as the culprit has to have both a guilty act and a guilty…
Vicarious Liability," (2006) Online Lawyer Source. Retrieved November 25, 2006 at http://www.onlinelawyersource.com/personal_injury/vicarious_liability/index.html
Enforcement Guidance: Vicarious Employer Liability for Unlawful Harassment." (1999), The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Tribal Law Enforcement
The legal responsibilities of the federal government has been on the increase with each passing year though the basic responsibility of preventing and controlling crime rests with the state, local and the tribal governments for it to be effective. There are several tribal police units that are entrusted with the control of crime and prevention of the same assisted by the tribal judicial systems that have the duty of applying the law. These two bodies, the tribal police and judiciary system are the ultimate expression of tribal sovereignty. These two systems help the nation express it sovereignty since they assist in enacting, enforcing as well as interpreting the national laws at the grassroots level (National Congress of American Indians, 2010).
Nature of Indian law enforcement system
Most of the public safety and criminal justice systems that are in the Indian legal system and Indian Country are funded…
Ada Pecos Melto Stephen Wall, & Hayes Lewis, (2004). Integrated Justice Systems in American
Indian Communities Planning Series: Understanding the Tribal Justice and Law Enforcement Environment. Retrieved December 4, 2011 from http://aidainc.net/CRD%20Envir.pdf
Fairbanks, C.D. (1991), Mediation in the Tribal Courts: Revitalizing Traditional Concepts of Justice, paper presented at the Native American Rights Fund National Conference, Dispute Resolution: A Reaffirmation of Indian Concepts of Justice, sponsored by the Indian Law Support Center.
National Congress of American Indians, (2010). Law Enforcement and Tribal Courts. Retrieved December 4, 2011 from http://www.ncai.org/Law-Enforcement-and-Tribal-Cou.34.0.html
Women Law Enforcement
There has been a continued effort by the police department to hire Americans into the police force without special regard to race, color or gender. This effort has had a milestone achievement throughout history and has helped gap the difference in race and gender that existed in the police force in the 70s and 80s. The affirmative action has been one of the top agendas for all the government departments and branches. The police included. However, there are some contemporary challenges that the force as a whole faces when it comes to recruitment of female law enforces and even challenges that the recruited law enforcers face. These factors will be discussed below together with the causes and possible panacea to them, in an effort to attain the ultimate balanced society.
One of the challenges as outlined by Price, B.., (1996) is the reception by their male counterparts.…
Parker, (2010). The Challenges and Benefits of Female Officers in Law Enforcement. Criminal Justice School Guide. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from http://www.criminaljusticeschoolguide.com/articles/the-challenges-and-benefits-of-female-officers-in-law-enforcement/
Police Employment, (2011). Women in Law Enforcement. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from http://www.policeemployment.com/resources/articles/women-law-enforcement
Price, B.R., (1996). Female Police Officers in the United States. Retrieved March 30, 2011 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/policing/fem635.htm
Susan A.K., (2003). In the Face of Challenges, Women in Federal Law Enforcement Persists
While some improvements in those strategies have occurred, further improvements are needed. To achieve this ends communities must begin to insist that their police department's leadership seriously seek to discover and eliminate cultural biases, prejudices, and other barriers that impede the ability of the police to effectively deal with cultural differences in the community. As America becomes more culturally diverse and citizens' skin colors begin to meld, the importance of recognizing sameness, rather than difference, becomes imperative.
Alexa Kasdan (2006) believes community groups need to work with police departments to analyze gaps in current recruitment efforts in order to develop new approaches to increase race and gender diversity among law enforcement personnel in their jurisdictions. The focus of recruitment efforts should aim toward building police forces whose members reflect the diversity of the wider society, even in overwhelmingly homogenous communities. Kasdan recommends beginning the process by gathering data to find…
Coderoni, G., R. (2002, November) The realtionship between mulitcultural training for police and effective law enforcement -- Perspective. The FBI law enforcement bulletin. In BNET, The CBS Interactive Business Network. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_11_71/ai_94873352/?tag=content;col1
Jan, T. (2009, July 20). Harvard professor Gates arrested at Cambride home. Metrodesk. Boston.com. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from http://www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2009/07/harvard.html
Kasdan, A. (2006, October) Increasing diversity in police departments: Stratigies and tools for human rights commisions and others. Program in Criminal Justice and Management, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.hrccj.org/pdfs/increasing_police_diversity.pdf
Saulny, S., & Brown, R. (2009, July 24) Professor's arrest tests beliefs on racial progress. The NewYork times. New York Times Company. Retrieved October 9, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/24/us/24blacks.html
Interview with a Law Enforcement Specialist
This interview took place on October 10 with a retired police officer. He spent 32 years with the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) and had some very interesting things to say about the changes he has witnessed over the years.
hat were some of the typical law enforcement issues when you first worked for LAPD?
e were responding to murders, arson, street crime and domestic disturbances though not as often nor as dangerously like we are today. e also had a lot of stolen cars and we had auto accidents with injuries to attend to.
ere you a beat cop?
Almost every cop starts out that way. Yes I worked the streets in what is now known as Korea Town. I also worked the streets in downtown Los Angeles, in Carson, and even in atts. By my fifth year on the force I was…
Keen, Judy. (2012). Murders in Chicago: What can stop the bloodbath? USA Today. Retrieved October 11, 2012, from http://www.usatoday.com .
Stress Factors in Law Enforcement
his brief paper will look at some of the issues and circumstances that create stress in the lives of law enforcement officers. In particular some chronic stressors will be examined that contribute to higher than normal rates of suicide, divorce and alcoholism in the profession.
here is little debate over the contention that law enforcement officers face inordinate amounts of stress during the course of their duties. For instance, police officers have one of the highest rates of suicide in the nation. While the national rate of divorce is approximately fifty percent, the divorce rate for police officers is between sixty and seventy percent and evidence indicates that alcohol abuse is about twice the rate of the general population (Haines, 2003).
here are many programs available to deal with situations that produce acute stress, such as post shooting trauma. What is not as obvious…
The daily grind of police work exposes officers to constant stressors that slowly accumulate making them more vulnerable to traumatic incidents and normal pressures of life. Often this process is too slow to see and neither the individual nor his or her constituents are aware of the damage being done.
While programs for acute stressors are important, few officers are involved in traumatic incidents in a year as compared to the whole department, which meets stress in call after call. One of these routine stressor are traffic stops. A police officer may pull over many cars during the course of a week for a variety of reasons. The officer is apt to hear excuses to gain sympathy or indignities to demean them, and there is always the risk that the individual or individuals in the vehicle will try to kill or injure the officer. However, officers are expected to be friendly at best or neutral at worst. If an officer approaches a car with a friendly attitude, his guard is down, on the other hand if an officer approaches a driver thinking this might be the one who attacks him, he will come across as rude, gruff and uncaring. This dilemma creates opposite mental states; a person can't hold both attitudes at the same time. This produces chronic stress with the cumulative effect of breaking down defenses, exacerbating other pressures, and weakening the immune system leaving the individual vulnerable to diseases and such conditions as ulcers ("Common Stress," 2011).
Another common source of stress for a police officer is the fact that a police department is both a professional and a military organization. It is a professional organization in the
Law Enforcement Agencies
I agree with the para-military style of organization of most law enforcement agencies. There are a number of facets of this type of organization that makes it beneficial to a governmental agency such as the police. The military has clear lines of designation between its various employees, with a chain of command that denotes authority and respect. As such, there is no ambiguity in the type of orders that must be followed -- the very structure of the organization supports ranking officers and those below them, who are compelled to adhere to the commands of the former. The type of danger that is paramount to situations that involve the military necessitate this type of unequivocal chain of command, which enables seamless action in times of danger. The types of dangers faced by the police department are no less hazardous, and therefore benefit from a similar chain of…
1 Times and Trayvon
The police unit that responded to the Trayvon Martin killing did not do a thorough inspection. They did not even know that Zimmerman’s car was there until his wife attempted to move it. They did not thoroughly canvas the neighborhood and knock and doors—otherwise they would have probably learned that Trayvon was a guest there at his father’s girlfriend’s place. The unit did not even have a homicide division because there were so few murders in the region. For that reason, it may be understood that there were gaps in the procedural work: they were simply inexperienced and not staffed for such an investigation. Would the case have ended up differently had the police been more thorough in their investigation? It is difficult to say: the trial quickly became politicized, which means a lot of talking heads were less interested in facts than in race war.…
In order to fully safeguard the country's borders, it is necessary to take into account that criminals tend to develop as fast as new technology can be implemented. Hence it is important to improve methods for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, analysis and training, and support efforts to deter not only illegal aliens, but also the substances some of them bring into the country. On the other hand, it is also important to recognize the human element inherent in the immigration problem. Some believe they have no choice but to risk their lives in order to have any quality of life at all.
Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. etrieved from http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf
Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. etrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747
The White House (2010). emarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration eform. American…
Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved from http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf
Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747
The White House (2010). Remarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration Reform. American University School of International Services, Washington, D.C
U.S. Immigration Support. (2010). Illegal Immigration from Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/illegal-immigration-from-mexico.html
Florida Law Enforcement
Sen. Jeff osky and ep. Julie Krupa
Director, Florida Criminal Statistics
Analysis of Florida crime and arrest data: 2001 to 2011
Per your request, the following breakdown of murders by male Floridians during the period 2001 through 2011 is provided in Table 1 and depicted graphically in Figure 1 below.
ecapitulation of Murder Statistics for the State of Florida: Male -- 2001 through 2011
ecapitulation of Murder Statistics for the State of Florida: Male -- 2001 through 2011
Crime in Florida: Uniform Crime eports (2013)
The murder rate in the State of Florida for the period 2001 through 2011 equals 626 murders per year. As can be seen from the statistics in Table 1 and depicted graphically in Figure 2 above, there was a spike in the murder rate beginning in 2005 that peaked in 2008 which has since declined to lower than…
Crime in Florida. (2013). CBS Miami. Retrieved from http://miami.cbslocal.com/2013/05/
Crime in Florida: Uniform crime reports. (2013). Florida Department of Law Enforcement.
Retrieved from http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/FSAC/Menu/UCR-Home.aspx.
"ccording to a 2001 Department of Justice survey, 20% of students aged 12 through 18 reported that street gangs had been present at their school during the previous 6 months. More than a quarter (28%) of students in urban schools reported a street gang presence, and 18% of students in suburban schools and 13% in rural schools reported the presence of street gangs. Public schools reported a much higher percentage of gang presence than private schools." These gangs were often responsible for selling drugs in schools, and used the profits gained from the trafficking of drugs to garner new recruits, soliciting dealers from the student population with the promise of profits. The gangs thus begat violence, just as the users whom they sell their drugs to also begat violence in their attempts to get enough money to buy more drugs.
According to the annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) cited by the Justice Information Center, there is a strong correlation between drug and alcohol abuse and violent crime. Data collected from male arrestees in 1998 in 35 cities showed that the percentage testing positive for any drug ranged from 42.5% in Anchorage, Alaska, (the lowest percentage) to 78.7% in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (a rather staggeringly high percentage). ( http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html ) Additionally, 27% of Federal prisoners admitted committing their offense to get money to buy drugs.
Gangs and drugs
Drug-related crimes are not merely the result of desperate actions of individuals in thrall to their addiction. Drug-related crimes also often have an organized source, and organized sources of drugs also are a source of violent crime. According to the FBI ( http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs11/13157/index.htm#relation ) one must look at the organized face of drug-related crime to gain a full picture of the negative impact drugs have on society. "According to a 2001 Department of Justice survey, 20% of students aged 12 through 18 reported that street gangs had been present at their school during the previous 6 months. More than a quarter (28%) of students in urban schools reported a street gang presence, and 18% of students in suburban schools and 13% in rural schools reported the presence of street gangs. Public schools reported a much higher percentage of gang presence than private schools." These gangs were often responsible for selling drugs in schools, and used the profits gained from the trafficking of drugs to garner new recruits, soliciting dealers from the student population with the promise of profits. The gangs thus begat violence, just as the users whom they sell their drugs to also begat violence in their attempts to get enough money to buy more drugs.
Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)
How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?
The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…
McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).
Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.
Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.
Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.
Law Enforcement Funding
Police departments, along with other urgent and vital agencies like fire departments and other public safety divsions, enjoy the luxury of being among the last departments to be cut when funding is tight due to the necessity of keeping fire and crime prevention agencies in full effect. That being said, police departments can absolutely use other means other than tax dollars to fund their efforts, and often at the expense of criminals. While there can be limits, it is entirely possible and practical to fund police activities and duties without using public dollars and many are already in full effect in many departments.
One quick and easy to fund police activities is to seize assets used in the commission of felonious behavior and auction it off to the highest bidder. The proceeds can then be used to fund police activities. Examples of items that can be seized…
O'Brien, Tim. "Speeding ticket plea plan on fast track." Times Union. N.p., 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. .
O'Matz, Meagan. "Cops. Cash. Cocaine. How Sunrise police make millions selling drugs. - Sun Sentinel." Sun Sentinel. N.p., 29 Nov. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. .
Petke, Craig. "Fleets of sleek new police cruisers roll in to replace Crown Vic." Central Kentucky News. N.p., 28 June 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. .
data collection includes survey form, structured interviews using closed ended questions, and gathering information regarding a sample size appropriate to analyze and draw conclusion on the basis of the research results. The statistical techniques are used for data analysis to analyze collected data in quantitative research methods. The qualitative data is gathered through case study method and open ended question of an unstructured interview from notable sample. The qualitative methods of research are also equally popular in understating the ignored aspects of a topic. The research question discussed below is addressed on the basis of qualitative and quantitates research methodology.
What is the role of social media in affecting law enforcement?
The usage of internet has increased over the past years. Internet technology has encouraged a revolutionary change. Starting form the desktop computers, laptops, handheld computers, to a variety of internet enabled cell phones has created a huge…
Clarke, B. (2012). Deconstructing the rioters: a case study of individuals convicted and sentenced in Greater Manchester. Safer communities, 11(1), 33-39.
Denef, S., Bayerl, P.S., & Kaptein, N. (2013). Social Media and the Police -- Tweeting Practices of British Police Forces during the August 2011 Riots.
Frank, R., Cheng, C., & Pun, V. (2011). Social Media Sites-New Fora for Criminal, Communication, and Investigation Opportunities. Public Safety Canada.
Fresenko, V.L. (2010). Social media integration into state-operated fusion centers and local law enforcement potential uses and challenges (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California Naval Postgraduate School).
Women have not played a significant role in law enforcement until recently, and especially since the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission legislation. Law enforcement continues to be a male-dominated profession, although women are becoming increasingly visible at multiple levels of the profession. Estimated representation of women in law enforcement ranges from 2 to 15%, depending on the jurisdiction/department, the rank/role, and the year of the survey (Blackstock, 2015, Horne, 2006; Price, 1996). Although women remain underrepresented in law enforcement, attitudes and norms may be changing significantly to encourage more women to achieve positions of power. Interestingly, African-American women comprise thirty percent of all female-held law enforcement positions; in contrast, African-American men comprise fifteen percent of all male-held law enforcement positions.
A review of literature shows what barriers women have encountered in law enforcement, from the time of job consideration and recruitment, through job satisfaction and role fulfillment, to…
Blackstock, H. (2015). Interview.
Flanagan, D. (n.d.). Women in policing. PB&J 1(1). Retrieved online: http://www.wtamu.edu/webres/File/Academics/College%20of%20Education%20and%20Social%20Sciences/Department%20of%20Political%20Science%20and%20Criminal%20Justice/PBJ/2009/1n1/1n1_02Flanagan.pdf
Harrington, P.E. (2002). Advice to Women Beginning a Career in Policing. Women & Criminal Justice, 14(1), 1-13.
Harrison, J. (2012). Women in law enforcement. Women and Criminal Justice 22(3): 226-238.
"After September 2001 law enforcement agencies realized the potential devastation and chaos an act of terrorism can cause. The Council was created to improve the ability of the Police Department to respond to a situation and educate the Department and the community." (ichmond Police Department, 2004)
Police departments have had to become terrorist experts. The Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council for example is a collaboration of sworn officers and civilian employees with diverse backgrounds. Many of these members are or were leading members of specially trained units or have extensive training in SWAT, bomb technology, military assault, hazmat crime analysis, international terrorism intelligence, strategic planning and many other legal units such as basic attorneys. Through technology and experience, the Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council should be able to identify, acquire, plan, and advise on terroristic crisis. With this knowledge base the unit should be able to therefore anticipate, prevent, and…
Boyd, David G. (1995). On the cutting edge: law enforcement technology. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 7/1/1995.
Dempsey, Tom, Department of Government and Public Affairs, & Newport News. (1997, November 1). Computer Communications Technology Facilitates Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.iacptechnology.org/Library/ComputerTraining.htm
Division of Emergency Communications. (n.d.). Captain Linda Samuel. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.ci.richmond.va.us/department/police/Chief/pdxxs_DEC.asp
Richmond Police Department. (n.d.). Richmond Police Department. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.richmondgov.com/department/police/pdxxi_index.asp
Militarization of Police
The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.
The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…
Baker, A. (2011). When the Police Go Military. The New York Times, 3 Dec 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/04/sunday-review/have-american-police-become-militarized.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Balko, R. (2013). Too Many Cops Are Told They're Soldiers Fighting a War. How Did We Get Here? ACLU, 9 July 2013. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform-free-speech-technology-and-liberty/too-many-cops-are-told-theyre-soldiers
Bernick, E. (2013). It's Past Time to Scaled Back Police Militarization. The Washington Times, 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/sep/18/bernick-its-past-time-to-scale-back-police-militar/
Clark, J.P. (1972). The functions of the police in modern society. Contemporary Sociology, 1(3), 243 -- 244.
branches within the law enforcement field. All these branches have a range of jurisdictions but have a common purpose of enforcing laws that have been passed by legislatures and the protection of the American citizens and those who live within the American borders. There are different law enforcement agents everywhere and they are interested in what one does, the particular agents present depend on ones location and what they are doing. This paper will look at three law enforcement branches; local, state and federal law enforcement. It will look at what thee three entail and how they differ in terms of jurisdiction and authority.
At the local enforcement agencies, the commonplace and frequently experienced law enforcement agency are municipal police officers. These police officers represent villages, towns and cities. A striking difference between these local officers and those found within state and federal level is that they offer the first…
Law Teacher. (2014). Local, State and Federal Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from http://www.lawteacher.net/criminology/essays/local-state-and-federal-law-enforcement.php
Harkins, D. (2009). What are the Differences Between Federal, State and Local Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8251672_differences-state-local-law-enforcement.html
Ethics in Law Enforcement
Ethics are what almost anyone would define as a person's determination between what is good or bad, or more accurately what is right or wrong. Although many of these attitudes can be a product of parenting or other factors in one's maturing environment, ethical decisions could also be a product of environmental factors that are outside of the control of individuals. It is difficult to determine where a person's ethical code, but some professions demand an ethic that is not needed elsewhere.
One such profession is law enforcement. Officers of the law are called upon to "stand in "harm's way" not so much against enemies with bullets, but against enemies skilled in every form of trickery, deceit, feigned ignorance, and deception" (Stevens, 2005). Because of the environment that they must exist in, police officers are constantly deciding whether to make the right decision or take the…
Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law enforcement ethics: The continuum of compromise. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://emotionalsurvival.com/law_enforcement_ethics.htm
Russell, B. (1910). Determinism and morals. From The Elements of Ethics. Retrieved November 26, 2010 from http://fair-use.org/bertrand-russell/the-elements-of- ethics/section-iv
Sanford, DH (2010). Indeterminism: Causation and conditionals, ethics and history of philosophy, primer on determinism. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://science.jrank.org/pages/22033/indeterminism.html#ixzz16cFBtAvu
Stevens, M. (2005). Police deviance and ethics. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/205/205lect11.htm
Second, I would look at whether I had provided my subordinates with a common purpose, and whether I had taken the time to explain that purpose to my subordinates. Third, I would determine whether I had ensured that my subordinates understood priorities, both my priorities and the priorities of my superiors. Fourth, I would examine my methods of confliction resolution to determine whether I had been using a win-win method of conflict resolution or if I had been adhering to older, punitive means of conflict resolution. Fifth, I would examine my policy towards my subordinates; did I listen to them when they came to me with problems, or did I try to offer solutions without really hearing what they had to say. Sixth, I would look at what I had done to promote synergy; whether I had done anything to actively encourage community cooperation with my organization. Finally, I would…
Franklin Covey. "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People for Law Enforcement." Franklin
Covey.com. 2007. Franklin Covey. 3 Aug. 2008 http://www.franklincovey.com/lawenforcement/7H%20FOR%20LAW%20ENFORCEMENT%20FLYER.PDF .
Harris, John. "Picking and Keeping Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers in Florida."
Florida Department of Law Enforcement. 2008. Florida Department of Law Enforcement. 3 Aug. 2008 http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/FCJEI/SLP%20papers/Harris,%20J.pdf.
Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement
The American system of local governance for the purpose of maintaining parks and other recreational areas is political as well as democratic, and is based on certain citizens' awareness and desire to create better living conditions as far as environment is concerned, for the benefit of future generations. This entails preservation and conservation of natural parks and wildlife to a large extent. This is especially true in the case of the citizens of Illinois, who are always on the campaign for more open spaces, more parks, and more as well as better recreational facilities for its citizens. Officials are elected for the purpose of looking after and governing the problems that arise from these forests and natural forest preserves, and these officials do believe and also demonstrate the same determination and strongly idealistic beliefs of their predecessors, of the days gone by. The…
Blagojevich, Rod. (April 2004) "Illinois's Multi-Year strategy to Control Drug and Violent Crime FFY2004" Retrieved at http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/word/Byrne/ByrneStrategy.doc . Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Carlile, Harry E. "Keeping our parks a safe place to play" Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ip960919.html . Accessed on 27 October, 2004
DUI, International Referral Database of DUI, DWI, Impaired and Drunk Driving, Drinking and Driving, Lawyers & Attorneys" Retrieved at http://www.lawyers.ca/international/summaryoflaw.asp. Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Educational information: Illinois Department of Natural Resources" (2003) Retrieved at http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/index.htm. Accessed on 27 October, 2004
These measures included laws, which denied services to undocumented residents, alerted police to assume ICE functions, penalized for employers who hired the aliens, and made English the official language. In Arizona, ordinary citizens were encouraged to report businesses, which hired suspicious foreign-looking persons. Hispanics were the major targets of this xenophobia because they were believed to be the major law violators. Statistics showed that there were approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants, most of them Latinos or Hispanics, in the U.S. The national bias against them showed up in studies, which considered only them in determining how much they were costing the country in services. ut did they really drain the economy? A spokesman for the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission did not think so. A 2004 study on "foreign-born" citizens of Virginia alone concluded that Asians outnumbered Hispanics. The Commission found that these "foreign-born" citizens were not a huge…
Galuszka, P. (2008). Hispanics bearing the brunt of xenophobia. Diverse Issues in Higher
Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mWMX/is_1_25/ai_n2491956?tag=content;col1
ICE (2008). About ICE. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://www.ice.gov/about/index.htm
Marcucci, M.R. (2007). Marchers call for immigration reform. Oakland Tribune: ANG
M8D1: Global Crime and Regional Police
How can the police and law enforcement address transnational and globalization of crime given the current organizational mission and mandates of the police and law enforcement?
Include a discussion of the potential of "regionalizing" small police and law enforcement agencies.
It has been said that "transnational criminals have been one of the biggest beneficiaries of globalization…Globalization facilitates international trade but also increases the difficulty of regulating global trade…traffickers and smugglers have exploited this" as well as terrorists (Patrick 2012). Globalization has also facilitated the creation of terrorist networks connected by ideology rather than nationality. "Illicit networks are challenging to states because states are militarily and diplomatically organized to deal with other states. Governments around the world "have found it very hard to adapt to non-state or sovereignty-free actors" and perceive them s threats (Patrick 2012).
he problem with dealing with global, transnational threats it…
The phenomenon of 'citizen journalism' is a new one, spawned of new technology. Many people are keeping 'watch' on the police via photographs and videos that they take themselves. Others are even more radical and may try to engage in their own 'set ups,' such as proving how easy it is to breach security. "For individuals and groups who believe that mainstream news outlets do not accurately or fairly report the news, citizen journalism offers opportunities to present stories unmediated by professional journalists. However, citizen journalism presents real dangers both to individual organizations and people and perhaps to democracy itself. Among the skills that traditional journalistic practices require are unbiased news gathering, a separation of fact and opinion, and research skills" (Braunstein 2007). The proliferation of media channels in general makes it more difficult for law enforcement agencies to convey a coherent message to the public. Officers must maintain public trust through communicating directly with the public in an effective manner, given that trust is a cornerstone of policing.
Other, new methods of ensuring police accountability may be more crudely technical in nature. "In the past few years, more state legislatures and state supreme courts have created statutes and evidentiary rules that either mandate or strongly encourage audio or video recording of interrogations. More than half the states now have some rule on this topic. In 2010, that number is expected to grow" as will the use of in-car video systems "capable of recording an officer's activity for an entire ten-hour shift. Constant electronic recording of police activity may become the new core of police accountability" (Wallentine 2009). On one hand, many officers will find this frustrating; on the other hand it can be a way for officers to protect themselves against baseless charges of harassment. It may make evidence-gathering more difficult but also will reduce the chances of officers crossing the line and potentially getting evidence thrown out of court.
Technology has thus changed law enforcement and the perceptions of law enforcement. A final technology-related concern pertains not to perceptions of officers and the threats they pose but the threat of new types of crimes, specifically cyber-related crimes. Technology not only gives criminals enhanced ways to communicate: it also creates new forms of crime that solely take place online such as identity theft. Moreover, given that credit-reporting agencies require victims to issue an 'identity theft affidavit' and report the crime to the police to obtain restitution, the police are more involved than ever before in fighting 'virtual' threats to public safety (Newman 2004). Cyber harassment, using online venues to sell illegal goods,
During the first era of American policing, constitutional standards of criminal procedure including formal policies of arrest, interrogation, evidence procurement, and the treatment of prisoners was substantially subject to local authorities and varied tremendously from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (Conlon, 2004; Scmalleger, 2008). So-called "street justice" was routinely administered by police officers either in conjunction with arrest or (more commonly) in lieu of formal arrest, mainly because it was more convenient for officers and considered more effective at motivating lawful compliance among career criminals (Conlon, 2004).
Contemporary American Policing
In terms of organizational structure, the modern era of American policing had already evolved by the early 20th century, but the industry would still have to endure the limitations of widespread political corruption and cronyism left over from the scandals such as the infamous Tammany Hall dynamics in 19th century New York City politics. Subsequently, the consequences of the Prohibition era would…
Conlon, E. (2004). Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead.
Johnson, B. "A Look at Fusion Centers: Working Together to Protect America." FBI
Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 76, No.12 (2007).
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st