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Individual Automobile Safety Technology
The overarching contribution of the automobile industry to the United States economy is considerable. Approximately 1.067 million intermediate job are engaged in the direct support of the industry. The spin-off jobs that are associated with the industry -- those people who are employed in direct and intermediate positions -- adds an additional 1.765 million to the total job count associated with U.S. motor vehicle manufacturing activities. This brings the total number of jobs to nearly 3.145 million jobs. The ratio of direct employment to total jobs created has a multiplier of 10.0 (3,145,000 / 313,000) -- an excellent ratio in any investment. To put it in simpler, more comprehensible terms, for every single job in the automobile manufacturing industry, there are an additional nine jobs in the entire sector.
Private sector compensation that is associated with the total number of jobs is about $206…
Bazerman, M.H. And Tensbrunsel, A.E. (2011, April). Ethical Breakdown. Harvard Business Review (HBR). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review. Retrieved http://hbr.org/2011/04/ethical-breakdowns/ar/1
Cutler, D. And Massy-Beresford, H,(2012, October 10). Timeline: Major global recalls in the auto industry. Reuters. Retreived http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/10/us-toyota-recall-cars-timeline-idUSBRE8990RK20121010
Isidore, C. (2010, February 4). Toyota recall costs: $2 billion. New York, NY: CNN Money.com. Retrieved http://money.cnn.com/2010/02/04/news/companies/toyota_earnings.cnnw/
KPMG Global Automotive Executive Survey (2012). Retreived http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDsQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.kpmg.com%2FGE%2Fen%2FIssuesAndInsights%2FArticlesPublications%2FDocuments%2FGlobal-automotive-executive-survey-2012.pdf&ei=h36hUOOnA4ftrQHvsYHgCA&usg=AFQjCNHFFrlHnbbP8lH8KvHajjYCitUIhA&sig2=48RlntQ7K-3iW5M_Pe_0iw
engineering ethics websites were reviewed: the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Code of Ethics (IEEE), the American Council of Engineering Companies Ethical Guidelines, and the Institution of Engineers Australia Code of Ethics. All three websites cover a wide assortment of ethical issues including conflicts of interest, unfair and dishonest appraisal of projects, incompetent performance, and improper solicitation of work, among others. Of the three, the IEEE website contains very little information regarding its ethics code, while both the American Council and Australia websites go into specific details about their general ethical principles.
The IEEE, which approved its code in August 1990, lists ten general principles that comprise its overall ethics code; these principles are briefly stated and discuss about a variety of far-reaching matters, ranging from IEEE's commitment to the safety, health, and welfare of the public, to its providing support towards co-workers and colleagues in their professional development.…
"American council of engineering companies ethical guidelines." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. October 1980. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/acec1980.html
'IEEE (Institute of electrical and electronic engineers) code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. August 1990. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/IEEEcode.html
'The institution of engineers, Australia code of ethics." The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science. Case Western Reserve University. Oct. 22, 2005: http://www.onlineethics.com/codes/IEAcode.html
Space Shuttle Ethics
The Challenger Space Shuttle's final flight ended in disaster nearly 30 years ago in early 1986. This fateful journey ended the lives of 7 brave astronauts and provided the revelation of the vulnerability of NASA and the ability for humans to safely travel outside this planet's atmosphere. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the facts of this case as well as the engineering ethical issues that are related to this incident. Ultimately this essay will argue that this disaster while tragic, may be ultimately beneficial for future efforts if the lessons learned are taken seriously and applied in new developments
The purpose of NASA and the space program appears to have always been rooted in a political effort. The roots of the Cold War put America and the U.S.S.. In a competition for space dominance and large amounts of resources became allocated to NASA to…
Berkes, H. (2006). Challenger: Reporting a Disaster's Cold, Hard Facts. NPR,28 Jan 2006.
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.
Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.
Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
.....men and women behind everything from public infrastructure to consumer product design, engineers have a distinct ethical obligation to uphold standards of safety. However, there is more to engineering ethics than the assurance that safety standards are met or exceeded. Engineers also need to ascribe to a policy resonant with corporate social responsibility: working in accordance with global values like environmental conservation and sustainability. Another key component of engineering ethics is related to the globalized nature of the work that engineers do: engineers frequently find themselves working in countries and cultures that are different from their own. The occasional conflicts that arise between local and home values may present unique ethnical conundrums that engineers can overcome with critical thinking and cultural awareness.
Safety is the most apparent of all ethical obligations place upon engineers throughout their careers. The first provision of the American Society of Civil Engineers, as with…
Interstate -35 West Mississippi River Bridge
The collapse of the Interstate-35 West Mississippi River Bridge, which is also known as Bridge 9340, was one of the most dramatic cases of structural engineering failure in the history of the United States within the past five years. The abrupt collapse of the eight-lane structure in Minneapolis, Minnesota on August 1, 2007, which killed approximately 13 people and injured upwards of over 100 travelers, brought to mind several of the traditional ethical issues of engineering in the workplace as many of the deceased and their loved ones agonized over how such a structural failure could take place. Unfortunately, the bridge had a long history of safety issues dating back to 1990 in which it was determined to be deficient by the federal government. Subsequent reports as recent as 2006 found substantial amounts of cracking and weakening in the girders and approach spans,…
Imagine that it's your responsibility to select an ethics officer for your organization. What qualities, background, and experience would you look for? Why? Would you ever be interested in such a position? Why or why not?
An ethics officer plays a significant role for an organization. In the selection of the right ethics officer for my organization, I would have to consider several major factors such as the personal qualities, background and experience. First of all, the ethics officer should posses the following qualities: honesty, truthfulness, integrity, fairness, accuracy, and significance of moral values. These qualities are the basic ingredients that should be searched thoroughly in the ethics officer during the selection process.
The background of the ethics officer should be related to any field such as business, medicine, engineering, sociology, psychology or armed forces, but it should be kept in mind that the ethics officer belongs to a…
Luthans, F. (2003). Organizational Behavior."Ethics," 2nd Ed, .pp.441-494.
Trevino, L.K. & Nelson, K.A. (2007). Managing Business Ethics -- Straight talk about how to Do it Right -- Fourth Edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright 2007 ISBS 0-471-75525-7
The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).
Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in estern countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and…
Martin, M.W. And Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, 2d Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
Brantley, C.J. Survey of Ethics Code Provisions by Subject-Matter Area, American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C., 2009.
Doyle, Thomas E. The Moral Implications of the Subversion of the Nonproliferation Treaty Regime, Ethics and Global Politics 2, no. 2. 2009.
Ferguson, Charles D. The Long Road to Zero: Overcoming the Obstacles to a Nuclear-Free World, Foreign Affairs 89, no. 1. January/February 2010.
Ethics and Computing in Computer Science
EMPOWERMENT AND RESPONSIILITY
Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences
Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. lunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other…
Jacky, J. (1989). Safety-critical computing, hazards, practices, standards and regulation.
Vol. 29, # 5, "Programmed for Disaster: Software Errors that Imperil Lives."
Department of Radiation: University of Washington. Retrieved on March 22, 2014
In 2003, he resigned both posts as news of the twin scandals emerged. The Air Force froze the contract that Druyun had negotiated, precipitating Condit's resignation and retirement.
Condit had joined Boeing in 1965 as an engineer and moved into management in 1973, working on marketing the 727. He completed an MBA at Sloan in 1975 and returned to Boeing, progressing rapidly up the ranks. By 1983, he became VP and General Manager of the 757 division before moving on to other VP posts. In 1996, he moved from President to CEO and a year later was named Chairman.
There is little to indicate that Condit himself was a significant contributor to the governance problems at Boeing. Although he was an engineer by training, he spent much of his time at Boeing in marketing. The hiring manager, Bill Erskine, who had hired Ken Branch in the first place, had just…
MSN Moneycentral: Boeing. (2009). Retrieved April 6, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/companyreport?Symbol=BA
Boeing Form 10-K (December 2008).
Boeing 2002 Annual Report. Retrieved April 6, 2009 from http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/financial/finreports/annual/02annualreport/ci_cg.html
Boeing 2006 Annual Report. Retrieved April 6, 2009 from http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/financial/finreports/annual/06annualreport/assets/Boeing_06AR_00.pdf
The inclusion of deaf persons other than the parents may defuse some of the hostility that they have displayed towards Ms.W. During the meeting, the parents should be given the first opportunity to state their case, with all the reasons for wishing to have a deaf child. I would suggest that Ms.W. bring up the issue of the hearing child by means of questions beginning with phrases such as "Do you think..." Or "How would you feel if..." It is important to open the discussion in a way that will minimize hostility. When Ms.W. feels that the discussion is open and honest, the issue can be discussed at great length and from all angles.
Whatever the conclusion of the discussion, if one is indeed reached, the parents should be allowed time to make a final decision. Furthermore, they need to understand that the final choice is with them. They should…
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…
Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tsa.gov/approach/tech/ait/index.shtm
Brain, M. (2012). How Airport Full-Body Scanners Work -- and the huge national debate around the TSA right now. Retrieved from http://blogs.howstuffworks.com/2010/11/17/how-airport-full-body-scanners-work-
Eaton, K. (2009). Full-Body Scanners at Airports: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
Computer system engineers also have the role of identifying risks within the manufacturing industry in which case they serve as proactive troubleshooters, finding out possible problems and making plans on how to solve evade them. Problems are commonly experienced at interfaces, especially internal, thus to carry out this role the computer systems engineers need to closely scrutinize subsystem-to-subsystem interfaces. While these engineers are trying so hard to design subsystems that will work they also have to keep an eye on each subsystem so that it does not interfere with the others. In order to avoid such problems, computer systems engineers need to posses a wide experience, have relevant and useful knowledge of the domain, and have the interest of learning continuously (Sheared 1996).
Due to the broad viewpoint possessed by computer systems engineers there are is a tendency of companies asking them to coordinate groups and help in the resolution…
Alford, R.S. 1988. Computer systems engineering management, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
Harris, E.C. 2009. Engineering ethics: Concepts and cases (4th ed.), Cengage Learning, Canada.
Kossiakoff, A. & Sweet, W.N. 2003. Systems engineering principles and practice, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Sheared, S.A. 1996. Twelve systems engineering roles, accessed 18 July 2010
Computer and Web Ethics
The term "computer ethics," as coined by Walter Maner in the 1970s, refers to a field of study that examines "ethical problems aggravated, transformed, or created by computer technology" (Maner, 1980). Maner suggested that persons engaged in computer-related actions should apply traditional ethical frameworks, such as Kantianism and Utilitarianism, to govern their decision-making. While Immanuel Kant's virtue ethics are rooted in respect for all people and an inherent respect for virtuous character traits -- such as kindness, honesty, patience and humility -- Utilitarianism judges the morality of an action according to "the greatest good for the greatest number" rule (Stanford Encyclopedia, 2011).
Similar to Maner's definition, Deborah Johnson, author of Computer Ethics (1985), defined computer ethics as a study of how computers "pose new versions of standard moral problems and moral dilemmas, exacerbating the old problems, and forcing us to apply ordinary moral norms to uncharted…
Bynum, T. (2006). "Flourishing Ethics," Ethics and Information Technology, 8(4), 157-173.
Gotterbarn, D. (2001). "Informatics and Professional Responsibility," Science and Engineering Ethics, 7(2), 221-30.
Johnson, D. (1985). Computer Ethics, First Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; Second Edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994; Third Edition Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001.
Maner, W. (1980). Starter Kit in Computer Ethics, Hyde Park, NY: Helvetia Press and the National Information and Resource Center for Teaching Philosophy.
Kenneth K. Humphreys' book, hat Every Engineer should Know about Ethics, is a fairly useful and comprehensive guide to the ethics and ethical codes involved in modern engineering. He begins his book with a chapter entitled "Problem-Solving in Engineering Ethics," and he introduces the reader to the topic by first posing an imagined moral dilemma that could occur in engineering: "The dilemma for our engineer, then, is whether to serve his own and his employers' interests by doing what he is told and, thereby, keep his job or serve the public interest by refusing to participate in the development of a device that will help enable activities that are a threat to public safety." (Humphreys, 2). Obviously, the point of this opening chapter is to illustrate the fact that engineers sometimes need to make important ethical decisions and that if they are not equipped with the right tools to make…
1. Humphreys, Kenneth K. What Every Engineer should Know about Ethics. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1999.
Departmental managers should play a role in determining the specific areas of special competence required of engineers reporting to them and they should contribute to the in-house development of testing tools used to ensure competence in those areas.
Monitoring their professional status is also an ethical responsibility of every firm employing professional engineers (Harris, Pritchard, & abins, 2008). At a minimum, that means maintaining accurate records of certification status and dates; but it also means that the organization must apply the same level of concern to ensure that all in-house standards and testing requirements are met, beyond those formally required by law. In practice, every supervisor and department head must play an active role in that regard by singing off on individual employee compliance with periodic testing requirements.
More specifically, those elements of testing should be linked directly to performance by specifying different testing modules to correspond to every specialty…
Harris, C.E., Pritchard, M.S., and Rabins, M.J. (2008). Engineering Ethics: Concepts
and Cases. Cengage Publishing.
D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic,…
Avans, D.E. (2007). Youth and ethical dilemmas in sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
Retrieved June 04, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1160166064.html
Bach, G. (2006). The Parents association for youth sports: A proactive method of spectator behavior management. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(6), 16+. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017424445
marketing that was previously considered ethical but that is now considered unethical. What caused this change?
The marketing and selling of tobacco-related products has gone through one of the most fundamental shifts in marketing ethicacy ever seen in the United States in the last century. From being seen as a symbol of confidence and commonly prescribed by society as a means to reduce stress and enjoy life, today the impact of tobacco consumption has shown to cause a multitude of cancers (Fairchild, Colgrove, 2004). Tobacco companies often crossed the line and began to market many of their tobacco products to children as well, with the idea of getting 12 and 13-year-old addicted to cigarettes and chewing tobacco to make their lifetime customer value as customers even more lucrative for tobacco companies (Fairchild, Colgrove, 2004). Of the many approaches relied on to accomplish this goal the most insidious was the Joe…
Fairchild, A., & Colgrove, J. (2004). Out of the ashes: The life, death, and rebirth of the "safer" cigarette in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 94(2), 192-204.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Kenny, C., & Sandefur, J. (2013). Can Silicon Valley save the world? Foreign Policy, (201), 72-77.
Manzano, Porteros, C., 2013. Innovation and new trends in the field of philanthropy. Informacion Comercial Espanola, 872, 19-28.
The first image displayed on the website for the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, rather eccentrically for an engineering organization, is two hands holding a clump of soil. Yet despite this earthy image, the society also stresses its technical nature, as members in the biological, agricultural, and other food related sciences could engage in virtual web conferences with one another, through web space accorded to the organization. Thus, the technical as well as the agricultural aspects of the organization enable members to improve their professional credentials and connect with other engineering professional in the agricultural field. Members can also make use of the organization's technical library and database of technical experts.
The ASAE also offers such perks for members as a group insurance plan and an e-newsletter. The offer of a group insurance plan illustrates that many members may not be members of a large corporate entity, and…
ASAE -- American Society of Agricultural Engineers. (2004) Official website. Retrieved 29 November 2004 at www.asae.org
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, (2004) Official Website. Retrieved 29 November 2004 at http://www.ieee.org
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Ethical Issues in the Information Systems Within the Business Environment
In the contemporary business environment, information systems have revolutionized the strategy firms employ in doing businesses. Apart from increasing the customer market base, businesses have been able to carry out international businesses without leaving their physical locations. Moreover, advanced information systems have assisted increasing number of businesses to be more competitive both locally and internationally. Despite the benefits derived from the use of information systems, the firm still faces ethical issues in the businesses environment. A violation of privacy of customers, employee, and suppliers have been one of the ethical issues with the use of information systems. Fur example, an online business can assist firms to collect private information of their customers, which include the credit card information and other personal information. Many firms go to the extent of storing the credit card information of their customers thus violation privacy…
Harvard college's "oncomouse," which is a mouse that has been genetically engineered to make it more susceptible to cancer, and thus of more use in research, could be patented under Canadian patent law. The Patent Examiner refused to grant the patent, stating that higher life forms were not inventions under the applicable law because they were not compositions of matter. The majority opinion upheld the Patent Examiner's decision. Justice Binnie dissented to the majority's opinion. Justice Bastarache wrote the majority opinion.
The majority opinion, authored by Justice Bastarache represents the court's actual decision. Majority opinions represent the decision of the court. In some cases, there is no actual majority opinion because of partial dissents and concurrences, but that is not applicable in this case. The majority felt that Parliament did not intend for every conceivable subject matter to be patentable, and points to the fact that Parliament wrote an exhaustive…
This underlines the notion that engineering does not exist in a vacuum, but rather is only useful insofar as it is utilized. The importance of computers in aerospace has only grown as the decades have passed, so full technology literacy both in utilization and in describing needs are important skills for the aerospace engineer (Bishop 1994).
One of the most important ethical considerations for aerospace engineers set forth in the Engineers Australia Code of Ethics (2000) is the necessity for engineers to keep their clients and/or employers well aware of any discoveries or developments that will have a negative impact on the project. Given the costs of development and production that most aircraft and spacecraft entail, such news is likely to be most unwelcome, yet it is the ethical obligation of the engineer to put the safety and integrity of the craft above all other concerns, even if the issues…
Bishop, A. (1994). "The Role of Computer Networks in Aerospace Engineering." Library trends, Spring 1994. pp. 694-729.
Engineers Australia Code of Ethics. (2000). Accessed 13 November 2009. http://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/shadomx/apps/fms/fmsdownload.cfm?file_uuid=F0647595-C7FE-7720-EA17-70AC27062E0B&siteName=ieaust
Garner, G. (2002). Careers in engineering. New York: McGraw Hill.
Raymer, D. (2006). Aircraft engineering: A conceptual approach. Washington, D.C.: AIAA.
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…
references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).
Possible predictions about the future of British engineering
In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).
Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.
hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…
Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.
Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
Another concept that arises in the discourse on sustainability is what responsibility one generation has for the next in terms of caring for the environment and preventing problems like pollution or climate change. Thus, there are ecological, economic, and social issues as well as political problems at stake. The author also points out the legal and institutional issues involved in sustainability discourse as well as the technological implications.
Sustainability is at once a theoretical and practical concept. Both abstract and concrete, sustainability has different implications depending on the field of application. Therefore, an engineer will conceive of sustainability differently from an attorney or a consumer. The author outlines the various ideological underpinnings of sustainability discourse and presents a comprehensive model for a systems approach to sustainability science. Sustainability represents the intersection between science, philosophy, economics, ethics, and politics. Therefore, sustainability must be understood as a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary issue.
Hansa, a.M. (2010). Sustainability classifications in engineering: discipline and approach. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 3:4, 258-276, First published on: 14 September 2010.
Virtue Ethics and reasoning for the scenario
Virtue ethics is the ethical strategy preferred. Efficient leaders and true professionals strive at achieving moral excellence which encompasses integrity, justice, valor and good sense. In the present day, virtue ethics constitutes one among the three key normative ethics strategies. Primarily, it can be considered a strategy which stresses moral fiber or virtues, contrary to consequentialism (which focuses on the consequences one’s actions have) or deontology (which stresses rules or duties). The virtue ethics strategy is agent-based in nature, concentrating on a moral agent’s basic motivations and character. Moral conduct isn’t associated with or restricted to a specific set of guidelines or a particular rule; instead, it entails a person rationally practicing moral excellence and making it a personal goal. The Aristotelian approach to virtue ethics describes virtue as a positive trait (e.g., courage which exists between the two extremities of cowardice and…
hat would you do?
In the first place, lives are more valuable -- far more valuable -- than jobs. True, without a job many adult individuals would suffer, but given the possibility that the bug in the prototype that Occidental Engineering was producing could cause an accident in the skies and a resulting loss of many lives, the best course for the project manager is to listen to engineer ayne Jones and take the ethical course of action. This paper reviews three ethical theories, one of which will be determined to be the most appropriate for this dilemma: Virtue Ethics, Deontology, and Utilitarianism.
According to author Barbara MacKinnon, Virtue Ethics asks "How we ought to be" rather than "hat we ought to do" (MacKinnon, et al. 2015). Virtue Ethics deals with the traits of personal character (habits, tendencies, and disposition) that make a person "good"; in…
Kay, C.D. (2004). Ethical Theory / Ethical Updates. Wofford College Department of Philosophy. Retrieved January 31, 2015, from http://sites.wofford.edu .
MacKinnon, B., and Fiala, A. (2015). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues, Concise
Edition. Independence IN: Cengage Learning.
Tannsjo, T. (2008). Understanding Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Theory. Edinburgh,
What are the essential details of the event, and what do you see as the causes of the crisis and/or negative impact to society?
The scandal chosen is the Volkswagen emission scandal. The essential details of the scandal encompass the fact that Volkswagen ultimately admitted that roughly 11 million of its manufactured vehicles were fitted out with software that was employed to falsify emission tests. Specifically, the fitted out software detected when the car was being tested and then activated apparatus that decreased emissions. Another essential detail of the scandal is that during the course of regular driving, the software somewhat muted the device, which in sequence brought about an increase in emissions that were exceptionally past the legal confines. This was, it would seem, with the key purpose of attaining fuel savings or to supplement the rotating force and acceleration of the car (Gates et al., 2017).…
Stage 1 or Understanding the Problem
The UP recommends using business use cases for locating purposes which have two qualities:(1) easy to understand and (2) easy for the client to use. The UP does not clarify how these "use cases" should be analyzed to determine what is in the NIMSAD purview. To identify sections of the business that need to be examined, ETHICS uses a stakeholder method that demonstrates all parties interacting with the system. ETHICS harbors a more "macro-view" in comprehending project priorities.
Step 2: Diagnostic Evaluations
The UP does not attempt to challenge any requirements which devolve from the client. There is no way to accurately analyze whether total autonomy of the system would provide any productive cost-benefit analysis for the overall organization. ETHICS advises that analysis should be conducted on the current situation to prevent the analyst from developing "tunnel vision" and focusing on the first solution…
Avison, D. & Fitzgerald, G. (2006). Information Systems Development Methodologies, Techniques & Tools, 4th Edition,
Ahamd, SandJochen, K (2008). Welcome to the IBM Rational Unified Process and Certification.Available at http://www.ibmpressbooks.com/articles/article.asp?p=1155863&seqNum=2 [Accessed on 24/10/2010]
Boehm B, (1996). Anchoring the Software Process. IEEE Computer Society Press: USA. Vol 13 (4).
Raytheon Corporation: Code of conduct and ethics
Raytheon Company is a well reputed technology and innovation company which deals in security, defense and civil marketson a global scale. It has a rich and bright history of 92 years and continuing, Raytheon can provide top of the line electronics, integration of mission systems as well as other capabilities indicated below:
• Sensing capabilities
• Command and control
• Intelligence systems
• A diverse array of mission support services
Raytheon was one of the first startups, which were founded in Cambridge in Massachusetts Institute of Technology on July of 1922. It was started as an American appliance corporation (Raytheon Company, 2014).
The founder of the company was three associates namely:
• Vannevar ush (future dean of engineering department of MIT)
• Charles G. Smith (scientist notable for his work on electrical characteristics of gases)
• Laurence Marshall…
Akamai Technologies. (2014). Code of ethics. Retrieved from www.akamai.com/html/policies/code_ethics.html
Corrections Corporations of America. (2005). A guide to our code of ethics and business conduct. Retrived from https://www.cca.com/Media/Default/documents/Social-Responsibility/Fostering-Meaningful-Careers/Code_of_Ethics.pdf
Chunhua, C., & Yihan, N. (n.d.). How to Motivate Employees' Ethical Behavior-Based On Management Control Theory. Retrieved from http://www.seiofbluemountain.com/upload/product/201010/2010qychzh05a2.pdf
Department of Education, Training and the Arts. (2011). Code of conduct. Retrieved from http://deta.qld.gov.au/right-to-information/pdf/codecond.pdf
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.
Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).
From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…
Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group
Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.
Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association
Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
Ethics and Nursing
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. When there are issues surrounding unethical behavior, the standard view is that the issue is one of ignorance (unaware of the issue or policy), failure (sloppy medical work), or intent (purposeful negativity). Instead, Christopher Meyers (2004) believes that it is more the culture of the institution that frames ethical behavior than it is anything more purposeful.…
Gaudine, A., et.al. (2011). Ethical Conflicts With Hospitals: The Perspective of Nurses
And Physicians. Nursing Ethics. 18 (6): 756-66.
Meyers, C. (2004). Institutional Culture and Individual Behavior: Creating an Ethical
Environment. Science and Engineering Ethics, 10 (1): 269-76.
Designing Babies: Genetic Engineering
The rapid development of science and technology has led to an advanced knowledge in the human genome with an increasing ability to change and modify genes to assist people designing babies that suit their wishes in the future. The genetic screening techniques are already being used in some countries where embryos are selected by sex and genes resistance to diseases. The argument in support of genetic engineering is that in the future, scientists will have the ability to replace the faulty genes with healthy DNA genes thereby eradicating the genetic diseases. Through genetic engineering it will be possible to design babies who will be highly intelligent, becoming great leaders and scientists in the future. Additionally, it will be possible to correct genetic diseases passed from generation to generation assisting families to install genes that offer lifelong protection against diseases. Despite the aforementioned benefits suggested by the…
Mill J. S. On Liberty, In Utilitarianism, on liberty, considerations on representative government. London: Everyman.
Parker, M. "The best possible child." Journal of Medical Ethics 33.5 (2007): 279-83. Web.
Regalado, Antonio. "Engineering the Perfect Baby." MIT Technology Review (2015).
Lo, Bernard and Parham, Lindsay. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research. Endocr Rev 30.3 (2007): 204 -- 213.
United States Navy
1000 Navy Pentagon
With this letter, I would like to express my interest in serving in the United States Navy as an Engineering Duty Officer (EDO).
I have a Masters Degree in System Engineering and recently graduated with a Doctorate Degree in Management in Environment and Social Sustainability.
My motivation for applying for this opportunity is because I would like to give back to the United States for enabling me receive high-quality education. The opportunity to serve as an EDO in the United States Navy will help me to further develop my civilian education, experience and skills in a way that will contribute to the betterment of officer corps. Besides, I will develop my professional and leadership skills through engaging in individual projects assigned to me or when working in a team towards building esprit de corps.
In terms of interpersonal communication, I will support…
Realist Moral Theories Unit IV: Bioethics
The moral of the film "ottaca" is quite obvious and the development of events also quite predictable. The film starts from the idea that parents want their children to have the best start in life. The majority of parents would agree with it. This idea is put into the context of genetic engineering, a palpable reality today. The moral is that letting doctors apply genetics to do every magic possible in order to get the "best version of you" by eliminating all the "less perfect possibilities" is wrong.
Most religions teach one to mind the body as well as the soul in order to be in harmony with od and the rest of the universe. They also teach about free will. Causal determinism, on the other side, superposes the end over the beginning and leaves no chance for the "chance." According to this philosophical…
Gottaca's predictable end warns us of the danger of deifying science and placing all our hopes into it.
"Gottaca," 1997.Directed by Andrew Niccol, produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Jersey Films, United States
Shapshay, Sandra.2009. Bioethics and the Movies. JHU Press
Computer Technology, The Concorde Jet Liner, And Ethics
The issues of ethic in business practices in the age of increasing computer technology and the importance of managing information has come to the forefront of organizational management issues. In a society which now creates much of its wealth, not from hardwoods products, or services, but from the use of information, the integrity of that information is imperative to the ongoing well-being of the organization. In order for company A to continue to occupy the competitive position in the marketplace, the information and knowledge which company A possesses is considered as one of its proprietary assets. Stealing, 'borrowing' or otherwise duplication information in today's information business world is no different than breaking into a bank vault, and making off with the companies payroll money, or electronically hacking into the company bank records, and transferring moneys to a personal account.
In order to…
Association of Computer Machinery. "ACM Code of Ethics and Professional." ACM: Code of Ethics. 10 October 1992. www.acm.org/constitution/code.html.19 January 2001.
British Computer Society. "Codes of Ethics Online. Codes of Ethics Online. 6 March 1998. http://csep.iit.edu/codes/coe/bcs-b.htm.19 January 2001.
Computer Society of India. "Codes of Ethics Online." Codes of Ethics Online. 24 October 1997. http://csep.iit.edu/codes/coe/India_Code.htm.19 January 2001.
Langford, Duncan. "Essay: Computer Ethics and Clothing." Computer Ethics and Clothing. 1995. www.depaul.edu/ethics/computer.html.19 January 2001.
Privileging the rights and needs of people with financial stakes in the American auto industry runs counter to American ideals of equality and Rawlsian justice.
Should we try to restrain, in this and other product liability situations, the litigiousness that seems to characterize American life? How might we do this?
Litigation that is blatantly foolish against corporations, such as a recent lawsuit against Quaker Oats for false advertising because Crunchberry cereal did not contain real fruit, usually fails, or is reversed upon appeal (inter 2009). The appeals process is the constitutional 'check' to juror's tendency to award too much to aggrieved plaintiffs. ithout the ability to sue corporations, the corporate lack of concern at Ford for the safety of the Pinto can occur once again. Litigation can be a powerful tool of consumers against large corporations.
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, .H. &…
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
Winter, Michael. (2009, June 8). Judge kills suit claiming crunchberries aren't real fruit.
The Bank CEO's ole in Defining Ethical Integrity
Based on a thorough review of existing literature of the role of ethics in the banking industry, the role of the CEO as the ethical leader of their organization is next discussion. Based on the concepts presented in the paper to this point as the foundation, these key points provide insights into how CEOs and senior management actively shape the ethical standards of the organizations they manage on behalf of shareholders.
isk Management Is a CEOs' Ethical esponsibility combination of forces -- changing regulatory expectations that open companies up to intense levels of examination, heightened stakeholder sensitivity to and scrutiny of corporate behavior, and the severity of punishment by financial markets for corporate missteps -- push reputation and ethics management onto the CEOs' and senior managements' agenda. The paradox CEOs face is when to risk the reputation and brand of the company…
John Bond (2007). A safety culture with justice: A way to improve financial performance. Loss Prevention Bulletin,(196), 31-39. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1333256011).
Donald R. Cassling (2008). Poehl v. Countrywide Home Loans, Inc. The Banking Law Journal, 125(9), 865. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1571291211).
Chris Churchill (2007). State targets lender ethics: Mortgage brokers must get training, undergo criminal checks starting next year. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1335614991).
Greenberg, J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 561-569.
This social impetus is directly observable behind the Freedom of Information Act, and encouraging or validating the client company's desires by engaging in the purposeful degradation of an efficiently functioning information system would denigrate this social value, diminishing the quality and degree of trust that exists within society as a whole and denying the intellectual freedoms upon which our society is based.
In no way should the chief development officer of any other member of the design company assist in the destruction of their product. A contract is presumably in place, which the company can clearly demonstrate was fulfilled. If the client company does not wish to use the information system they purchased, that is their decision, but the startup design firm should not begin its business operations with a legally, ethically, and socially maladaptive project.
Arquilla, J. (2006). "Traces of ourselves: The ethics and politics of databases."…
Arquilla, J. (2006). "Traces of ourselves: The ethics and politics of databases." Markula center for applied ethics. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/technology/databases.html
Amoroso, D. (2003). "Social issues in information systems." American conference on information systems. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://galletta.business.pitt.edu/amcis2003/05ITMGT8_SocialIssues.htm
FOIA Update. (1996). Freedom of information act. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://www.justice.gov/oip/foia_updates/Vol_XVII_4/page2.htm
Garson, D. & Garson, G. (1995). Computer technology and social issues. Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing.
The human causes of global warming are less certain than the eventual depletion of fossil fuels, but the damages predicted to result from uncontrolled warming brought on by fossil fuels are so great that the gamble becomes too great. Only the same intentions as listed above would take this risk with future generations.
The Need for Action
The ethical and social issues at work in the use of fossil fuels and the global warming phenomenon create a clear need for effective action to be taken, and soon. Many scientists believe that it may already be too late to halt the warming trend, let alone reverse it -- the build up of greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has created a situation that is already self-perpetuating, meaning that the warmer temperatures observed over the past century will continue to rise even if all use of fossil fuels…
Graefe, L. (2009). "The peak oil debate." Economic review 94(2), pp. 1-14.
Howard, R. (2009). "Peak oil and strategic wars." Futurist 43(5), pp. 18-21.
Ralston, S. (2009). "Engineering an Artful and Ethical Solution to the Problem of Global Warming." Review of policy research 26(6), pp. 821-37.
Rathore, B.; Kulkarni, A. & Sherasia, N. (2009). "Understanding future changes in snow and glacier melt runoff due to global warming in Wangar Gad basin, India." Research communications 97(7), pp. 1077-81.
Leaders Can Manage Change
Transforming the Client Organization:
From Transactional Management to Transformational Leadership
Staying in step with customer and client needs is more than fulfilling their requests on a periodic basis and meeting their basic expectations, as any company that excels in client management understands. It is the ability to align every aspect of an enterprise to the needs and expectations, experiences and requirements of clients. Often internally-based organizations including those that are given the objective of being client-focused, end up paradoxically being the most myopic and inward-focused, resistant to change. Any organization that is experiencing this is in danger of losing the most valuable relationships and trust they have with customers. As leaders must continually push accountability, ownership and a clear sense of responsibility for results to the front lines of their enterprises, when traditional management and leadership strategies fail to deliver results, change is required. The intent…
Bibliography and References
Armenakis, A.A. & Harris, S.G. (2002) "Crafting a change message to create transformational readiness," Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 169-183.
Boga, I. & Ensari, N. (2009), "The Role of Transformational Leadership and Organizational Change on Perceived Organizational Success," The Psychologist Manager Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 235.
Bordum, A. (2010), "The strategic balance in a change management perspective," Society and Business Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 245-258.
Brown, A.D. (1994), "Transformational leadership in tackling change," Journal of General Management, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1-1.
The examples and the codes show that healthy competition is good, but must not lead to disrespectful cut-throat practices. Further, as these documents say, the engineer must resist the drive for individual gain if it puts the entire profession at stake. Everyone wants to profit, but the engineer in particular must be driven by a sense of duty and pride in solid work that goes beyond the individual to consider the needs and well-being of the public. Engineering ethics is profoundly social. The engineer must always remember that lives are in their hands when he or she is designing some product or working on a project. Nothing should stand in the way of performing this responsibility with absolute integrity, even if there are other forces pressuring the engineer to break down, whether in deception or inaccuracy or in any other way. At all times, safety should be the priority.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. AIChE Code of Ethics. March 20, 2010. < http://www.aiche.org/About/Code.aspx >. New York: Author, 2003.
Boisjoly, Roger M. "The Challenger Disaster: Moral Responsibility and the Working Engineer." Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, January 7, 1987.
National Society of Professional Engineers. NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. March 20, 2010. . Alexandria, VA: Author, 2007.
Slater, Lauren. "In the Event of a Water Landing: Darley and Latane's Training Manual -- a Five Step Approach." In Opening Skinner's Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century, 94-112. New York W.W. Norton, 2004.
( Manion, 2002). The ethics of sustainable development in the sciences also includes the "precautionary principle." This refers to the view that, "When an activity raises threats of harm to human health and the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically" (Manion, 2002).
In the light of the above brief overview of way that ethics and social responsibility have become part of the ethos of the contemporary scientific world, it becomes clear that a focus on technologies such as solar still production is one way in which engineers can enact their ethical and social responsibilities in this age. This project also takes into account the social and cultural needs and context of the people of the region, especially in areas where there is a lack of resources.
From an ethical perspective, professional engineering organizations have made an important contribution…
'AMREF Canada. Water and Sanitation Lesson Plan -- Science Experiment and Activity', viewed 9 September, 2010, http://canada.amref.org/silo/files/water-science-experiment-grade-11-12.doc.
'ASCE Code of Ethics', viewed 7 September, 2010,
'DEFINING SUSTAINABILITY', viewed 6 September, 2010,
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Ellacott, Michael V; Reed, Sue. Review: Development of Robust Indoor Air Quality Models for the Estimation of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 8, no. 6, 1999. pp: 345-360.
Falzon, Pierre. Enabling safety: issues in design and continuous design. Cognition, Technology & Work, vol.10, no. 1, Jan 2008, pp: 7-14.
Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.
International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/sectors/mee/safety.htm
In terms of their personal attributes, engineers should be natural problem solvers (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).
ecause modern engineering involves such powerful and dangerous forces, professional engineers have a profound ethical responsibility to establish appropriate principles to ensure safety. The consequences of failure in engineering can result in injury or death to human beings, or even to entire human communities (Vee & Skitmore, 2003). For example, bad engineering decisions in bridge, highway, and building design and construction can threaten the lives of thousands of human beings every day. To protect society from poor engineering, the field has established formal educational requirements and a test of professional competence. Professional engineering licenses require satisfaction of qualifying educational programs and a minimum score on an objective licensing exam (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).
Once in professional practice, engineers must also adhere to the code of ethics used to establish important standards and…
Harris, CE., Pritchard, MS., and Rabins, MJ. Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases.
(2008). Cengage Publishing.
Institution of Engineers Australia (2000). Engineers Australia Code of Ethics. Accessed 1 Sept 2010, from:
Policy and Science
Fiddler on the oof
Science has traditionally been presented as the a priori fact-finding, theory-establishing stage one of policy making. Stage two of this conventional approach has policy makers utilizing the "empirical truths" that science offers in support of policies to be enacted to solve a policy problem. Yet both policymaking and empirical research are -- by their very nature -- ongoing human endeavors. Policymakers want the best that science has to offer -- when they need it -- for decision-making, policymaking, and policy implementation. Science marches to its own tune, with agendas set by dynamics such as funding for research or public and private priorities and pressures (Kingdon, 1984). And, increasingly, in a funding environment that is cooling off, the ability to do research is often determined by its application -- public service adding a positive valence -- and the ability to enact policy is dependent…
Haller, S.F. And Gerrie, J. (2007). The role of science in pubic policy: Higher reason, or reason for hire. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 20,(2).
Kingdon, J.W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.
Pressman, J.L. And Wildavsky, A. (1984). Implementation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Wildavsky, A. (1979). Speaking truth to power: The art and craft of policy analysis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown Publishers.
Challenger Launch Decision
JOE KILMINSTE'S ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CHALLENGE DISASTE
On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, was launched off at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida but exploded 72 seconds after liftoff. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc., an aerospace company, that manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for big clients, including the NASA, and per NASA's urging despite the objection of Morton Thiokol's engineers that the 30-degree F. temperature was inclement to the shuttle's boosters. The launch was a publicized event as NASA's 25th mission and had a selected teacher, Christa McAulifee and six astronauts on board. All these passengers perished (Jennings 1996).
The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. ring assembly in the…
Benner, L. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision by Diane Vaughan. Book Review, International Society of Air Safety Investigators: ISASI Forum. http://www.ipri.org/Reviews/Vaughan.html
Jennings, MM. (1996). Summary of the "Challenger" Episode. Case Studies in Business Ethics, second edition. West Publishing. http://www.calbaptist.edu/dskubik/nasa.htm
Stubley, G. (1998). Engineers and Integrity. The Objectivist Center. http://www.ios.org/tex/gstubley_engineers-integrity.asp
Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA.. Paperback. University of Chicago Press.
However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.
A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.
20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/
This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.
The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx
This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.
20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/
The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx
What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna
Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html
Corporate Social Responsibility
Companies use Corporate Social Responsibility to assess their effect on the social and environmental wellbeing and take responsibility. CSR is primarily a mechanism for self-regulation. Firms track and make sure that they comply with the law, actively, including standards of ethics, international and national norms. Occasionally, the efforts by such companies may go beyond the regulatory requirements or the groups for the protection of the environment (Belfiore, 2016).
Apple Inc. has emerged as a leading global manufacturer, marketer and designer of media accessories, communications devices, portable audio players and computers. It was established in 1977 in the state of California. It is now ranked as the largest company dealing with IT; based on revenue and the total number of assets under its ownership and control. It is also ranked second in the mobile manufacturing niche. The CSR activities at Apple are spearheaded by its Vice President in…
There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)
onald eagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is…
Administrator Goldin issues statement on Tenth Anniversary of Challenger Observance.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 16, 1996. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/administrator.html
Baura, Gail D. Engineering ethics, an industrial perspective.
Academic Press. 2006.
John Muir, Gifford Pinchot, and Aldo Leopold, three premier American environmentalists. It will also evaluate and explain my opinions regarding each individual. The wilderness is more than a concept; it is an enduring part of the American landscape that many environmentalists continue to try to protect. Three early proponents of the wilderness in America were Muir, Leopold, and Pinchot, but they had far different ideas about how and why to protect it. This film, The Wilderness Idea, looks at the men, their ideals, and the American wilderness, and how they all fought, in their own unique way, to keep some of America's most beautiful lands as an enduring symbol for her people to use and enjoy.
Many people may think that the idea of wilderness preservation is a relatively new idea, but it really began at the mid to late 19th century as cities and towns in America first began…
The Wilderness Idea. Hott Productions, 1989.
Gilbane Gold. National Institute for Engineering Ethics (NIEE) and Great Projects Film Company, 1989.
Too often, important issues are overlooked because people fail to realize that there are deeper concerns that are not being considered. When managers address problems, they have to frame them the right way, so anyone they communicate with sees the value of what they are trying to say and the goals they are attempting to reach (Bazerman & Moore, 2008). This was something that can and should have been done with the Challenger disaster, but that was not done. A significant number of lives were lost because of that, and that could have really been avoided with proper communication and framing techniques on the part of both NASA and the engineers at Morton-Thiokol. What happened with the shuttle that day was tragic, and many argued that it was unavoidable.
However, it was actually an avoidable issue that appeared to be brought on simply by improperly framed communication. Framing has to…
Bazerman, M.H. & Moore, D.A. (2008). Judgment in managerial decision making. NY: Wiley.
Pinkus, R.L. (1997). Engineering ethics: Balancing cost, schedule, and risk. NY: Cambridge University Press.
1. When you hear the word “scientist” what do you envision?
When I hear the word “scientist”, what I picture is an individual conducting practical experiments and also proving theories with the endeavor of advancing the field of science and the world at large. However, I also picture both aspects of science encompassing the scientists that wish to make the world a better place, for instance, preserving the earth and also advancing scientific theories as well as the scientists that use knowledge for negative purposes such as creating bombs and viruses.
2. Discuss at least three characteristics of your vision of a scientist
One of the characteristics of my vision of a scientist is having had formulated and developed a scientific theory that had massive impact. A second characteristic of a scientist is someone who is extremely smart and intellectual and lastly I consider scientists to be revolutionary.
Ethics: The TERA model
Ethics is a process which allows us to analyze the principles that underlie a decision and it culminates into a specific action. Ethical analysis involves norms such as possibilities and interdictions which act as a guide to human behavior as well as the practical rules and values that lead us to choose one way over another as well as the moral principles which we strive to respect when it comes to the relationships we have with ourselves and towards others. The TERA model is part of the existing ethical vision that aims at discovering and highlighting elements which will allow a moral reflection. This model was inspired by the theoretical construction and its utility has been confirmed by several researches as well as training sessions which involved several different organizations and different employee categories. The TERA model is based on three fundamental ethics; Critique, Justice and…
The Handbook also emphasizes that, "Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detail oriented. They should be able to work as part of a team and to communicate well, both orally and in writing" (Engineers 2010:4). In addition, good communication skills are regarded as important key attributes for engineers who frequently work with professionals from other disciplines (Engineers 2010).
Although every employment situation for defense industry engineers will be unique in some way, some common key attributes and skills required by Engineers Australia (2010) for professional engineers include the following:
1. Knowledge of science and engineering fundamentals;
2. in-depth technical competence in at least one engineering discipline;
3. Ability to undertake problem identification, formulation, and solution;
4. Understanding of social, cultural, global, and environmental responsibilities and the need to employ principles of sustainable development;
5. Ability to utilise a systems approach to complex problems and to design and operational performance;…
"Engineers." 2010 Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition. [online] available:
Hetrick, R. 1996 "Employment in high-tech defense industries in a post Cold War era." Monthly
Labor Review, 119(8): 57-59.
Hyatt Walkway Collapse
The Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkways collapse resulted in a toll of 114 dead and an additional 200 injured, not to mention the million of dollars lost. The accident was caused by the failure of connections between the second and fourth walkways across the atrium, which resulted in these collapsing onto the crowd in the first-floor atrium below. Of course, someone had to be responsible for the death toll and the accident caused and I will be listing the characters involved and their part of guilt in the accident.
Responsible character number 1: the owner (the future beneficiary). As it has been mentioned, in October 1979, when the hotel was still under construction, a collapse had already occurred as over 2700 feet of atrium roof fell due to a "a roof connection failure." As a direct consequence of this collapse, the engineering firm that was handling the…
Healthcare -- Administration and Legal
Many vectors -- science, research funding, social acceptance or rejection -- influence how and whether medical technology is eventually adopted into medical praxis (Hogle, et al., 2012). Undergirding the choices and changes is a shared body of ethical standards and law, the establishment of which is often not consensual or efficacious. Any emerging technology can encounter unanticipated social resistance and ethical concerns that can change the course of how medical science research progresses (Hogle, et al., 2012). Medical technology often poses questions about access to expensive innovations and considerations about race, gender, and social justice that are inseparable from the socio-economic levels of patients (Hogle, et al., 2012). In contemporary society, there are the inevitable considerations about patent issues, clinical practice, and the commercialization of medical innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). The recent court decision finding in favor of Myriad Genetics, Inc. provides a good…
Cho, M. (2010, November 1). Patently unpatentable: implications of the Myriad court decision on genetic diagnostics. Trends in Biotechnology, 28(11), 548-551. Retrieved http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology//retrieve / pii/S0167779910001411?_returnURL= http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167779910001411?showall=true
Hogle, L., Tobin, S., Gaba, D. And Yock, P. (2012). Web-Based Research Integrity Training for Biomedical Engineers and Medical Device Researchers (Public Health Service). Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford School of Medicine. Retreived http://bioethics.stanford.edu/research / programs/science_and_society.html
Morrison, E. (2011). Ethics in health administration: A practical approach for decision makers. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Stempel, J., Steenhuysen, J., Wallace, J., Grebler, D. And Orr, B. (2012, August 16). Myriad wins gene patent ruling from U.S. appeals court. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/assets/
In the discussion of cultural forces, we identified 10 fundamental person values that are often listed by individuals as central to them and the American culture. How would you rank these values in terms of their relative importance to you? What was the basis for your selection of the top three ranked values?
Ethics help in defining proper and improper behavior and these set of standards show what comportment is tolerable and intolerable. A few characterizations of proper and improper may be contingent on the viewpoint deliberating matters of principle. 4 essential forces affect ethical conduct of persons and administrations: culture, lawful and supervisory, structural and singular. To begin with, cultural values tend to become the mainstay of ethical decision-making and comportment.
Normally, persons change their beliefs to their life conditions. They promote the significance they attribute to beliefs they can freely achieve and relegate the significance of…
(2009). Retrieved from mathermerketing.com: http://www.mathermarketing.co.uk/how-not-to-go-it-alone/some-examples-of-joint-ventures.php
Adeel, A. (2012). Ethical Communication in an Organization. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Amadeo, K. (2011). Trade Policy. Retrieved from USeconomy.com: http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradeterms/g/Foreign-Direct-Investment-FDI-Definition.htm
Blagdon, J. (2013, March 06). Retrieved from The Verge: http://www.theverge.com/2013/3/6/4073354/samsung-boosts-lobbying-spend-by-500-percent-in-2012