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Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
He did clean up the area around the store from garbage lying around but never did anything apart from that. He did express interest in being a part of any group working towards helping out with the environment. He denied that his Chinese background might have had any impact on his attitude.
The individual from the Hispanic background was deeply involved with activities to help out with environmental issues. He is a computer Science major and manages had two websites dealing with those issues. He also maintains a blog about environmental hazards that he encounters. He takes pictures of whatever he thinks might be important and uploads them to his blog. He mentioned how he wants to use his skills in web design to reach out to students and make them aware of such issues. He has listed a lot of ways to get involved on his websites and uses…
Port Everglades is a predominantly industrial area, with a container port and cruise ship port. Overall, however, noise levels at FLL for all airlines are below the federal standards.
The effort to manage noise pollution at FLL is ongoing. The airport authorities have submitted Noise Mitigation Principles to the FAA and are awaiting feedback on a preferred alternative for noise mitigation. The Broward County Board of County Commissioners also has a consultant to implement the noise mitigation program forthcoming.
The growth of FLL has mirrored growth in the region. The population of South Florida is expected to grow a further 25% by 2020. This will increase the strain on FLL. The lands adjacent to the airport are all developed, so there is little room for expansion. The 9R/27L runway, for example, cannot be expanded to accommodate jet traffic because of the course of I-95. Therefore, flights on the 9L/27R…
No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.cleanairports.com/reports/gai_fllforweb.pdf
No author. (2008). Noise Information. Broward County. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.broward.org/airport/community_noise.htm ; http://www.broward.org/airport/pdfs/fll_pqs_q22008.pdf
Andrus, Katherine (2006) ATA Comments on FAA Noise Analysis for Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport. Air Transportation Association. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.airlines.org/NR/exeres/2E3BE77B-86CF-41E2-BADD-1936AC6250FB.htm no author). (2000). Aviation and the environment: airport operations and future growth present environmental challenges United States General Accounting Office. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://books.google.com/books?id=1yTVCGk7DfMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=fll+environment+noise&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0
No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership.
Federal legislation has required stricter noise standards for aircraft manufacturers. Now mandatory requirements by the Federal government that are working to phase out noisier aircraft. These new requirements have led to technological developments in the aircraft industry, in regards to developing quieter aircraft. Aircraft that do not meet these mandated standards have to be replaced or retrofitted, before they can fly ("Noise abatement program," n.d.). Land use is the third prong of MCO's noise reduction plan.
Acquisition of land both north and south of the main terminals is a significant assistance in reducing noise, for the airport. This is especially true as landings and takeoffs are north-south. Lake Warren lies directly north of the two largest runways, and it is sparsely populated directly south of these two runways. However, land is developed directly to the west of the airport boundaries.
Conclusion: ecommendations for esolution of the Problem
Currently, MCO is…
Aircraft noise exposure. (No date). Retrieved October 23, 2009, from http://www.orlandoairports.net/noise/Overview.htm .
Monitoring system. (No date). Retrieved October 23, 2009, from http://www.orlandoairports.net/noise/Monitoring%20System.htm .
Noise abatement implementation responsibilities. (No date). Retrieved October 23, 2009, from http://www.orlandoairports.net/noise/Noise%20Abatement%20Implementation.htm .
Noise abatement program summary. (No date). Retrieved October 23, 2009, from http://www.orlandoairports.net/noise/Noise%20Abatement%20Program.htm .
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…
Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
Disposing of Waste Properly
The superfund site that is the subject of this assignment is Chemsol, Incorporated. This site is located in the town of Piscataway, New Jersey. It is on a "40-acre tract of land" (EPA, 2015). Moreover, it is in the midst of an inhabited, residential region. This region includes both single family homes and apartments. The site was active throughout the 1950's until approximately the midway point of the 1960s. Other significant points of interest about the site itself are its proximity to large numbers of people. The site is near one of New Jersey's Interstate highways, which is traversed by myriad people all times of day and night. Additionally, there is a railroad that borders the site, which has also accommodated copious amounts of traffic both during the time the site was operable and in the many decades since it became inoperable. It is also worth…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2015). EPA Superfund Program: Chemsol, Inc., Piscataway, NJ. http://cumulis.epa.gov / Retrieved from
Enviromental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation
Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation
ecently, issues related to global warming have been center-stage of various political debates. Debate has been centered to examine human influences to environment malfunctioning. Poorly treated environment poses a significant danger to the local community and the atmosphere. For this reason, the law has been configured to ensure that the environment is satisfactorily protected. Besides, states have been pursuing local policies, which are parallel to federal laws in relation to environmental protection. This report will assess the Virginia Beach city pollution. The report identifies Care A lot as a polluter and some of the EPA's regulations tackling the issue. The report will also identify two primary laws responding to Virginia Beach's environmental concerns.
In Virginia Beach, there has been evidence on the presence of fecal contamination, which is realized in the city's brackish waters. This contamination is a…
Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association
Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press
Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications
U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009). Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 40, Issues 266-299. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
Environmental Concern on Green Products Purchase: Empirical Study of German etailers
Evaluation of results
The analysis exhibits various results about the perceptions of German consumers with reference to green products. The findings have been able to achieve the research objectives and test the hypothesis based on the demographic characteristics of the sample population. The results reveal that all the sample population is well educated with 84% of participants have completed the graduate programs. Thus, the participant has advanced knowledge of health benefits of green products. They also have knowledge about the impact of conventional products on the environment, which influences consumer buying decisions of sustainable products. Larsson, & Arif Khan (2011) argue that green awareness motivates consumer's choice of pursuing the green criteria, and consumer's choice of product is also influenced by earlier purchases experience. When informed consumers decide to purchase sustainable products, they search for both primary and secondary…
Andrea K. M. (2016). Buying organic -- decision-making heuristics and empirical evidence from Germany, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(7): 552 -- 561.
Delafrooz, N. Taleghani, M. & Nouri, B. (2013). Effect of green marketing on consumer purchase behaviour. QScience Connect:5.
Larsson, S. & Arif Khan, M. (2011). A Study of Factors That Influence Green Purchase. Umea School of Business and Economics.
Moser, A.K. (2016). Consumers' purchasing decisions regarding environmentally friendly products: An empirical analysis of German consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 31: 389 -- 397.
Chain of Events
Improper storage of hazardous chemicals can cause possible fire and explosion through lightning, accidents, injuries produced by inhalation and ingestion, among other fatalities. The implementation of control measures during the early design stage and operation facilitates the elimination of the undesirable occurrences (Tompkins, White, Bozer, & Tanchoco, 2010). The continual human intervention comes in handy in promoting built-in protection within the storage mechanisms. The choice of chemical storage methods depends on a comprehensive comprehension of the risks and hazards engulfed within the procedures of storing chemicals. A risk management system plays a crucial role in facilitating the assessment of all factors that include hazard-related activities that involve chemicals. As a result, considerable judgment comes about after making considerations in associated risks. Consequently, the factors facilitate the choice in implementing the appropriate controls. Development of an Environmental Management System (EMS) encompasses efficient utilization of time and resources. As…
CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety) .Guidelines for the Management of Change for Process Safety. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Tinsley, S. & Pillai, I. (2012).Environmental Management Systems: Understanding Organizational Drivers and Barriers. New York: Taylor & Francis
Tompkins, J., White, J., Bozer, Y., & Tanchoco, J. (2010). Facilities Planning. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the…
Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.
Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.
Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf.
Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf .
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )
Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
Environmental isk Analysis Process
Environmental isk Analysis (EA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). EA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions"…
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.
Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf
Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):
An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,
In basic terms, environmental psychology is taken to be an interdisciplinary subject mainly concerned with the interplay between individuals and that which surrounds them. In this text, I come up with a concise and clear definition of environmental psychology as a discipline. In so doing, I will also identify the main differences and similarities between two environmental psychology theoretical approaches. Further, I will highlight the relevance of research in the environmental psychology field.
Environmental Psychology: A Concise Definition
According to Nagar (2006), the environmental psychology field was initially known as "architectural psychology." This according to the author was based on the field's roots where the focus was chiefly on features (physical) of building design and how it impacted on the behavior of humans. According to Cassidy (1997), various definitions of environmental psychology have been formulated over time by a number of authors. One of the definitions floated according…
Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fisher, J. & Baum A. (2005). Environmental Psychology. Routledge.
Cassidy, T. (1997). Environmental Psychology. Behavior and Experiences in Context. Psychology Press.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2006). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning.
Nagar, D. (2006). Environmental Psychology. Concept Publishing Company.
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
Environmental Industrial Management
Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.
Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…
Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]
Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.
Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.
Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Clean Air Act. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act Accessed on 28 May 2005
Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).
A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the…
Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:
Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.
Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral
Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal
What is Environmental Stewardship?
What are the problems?
Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?
A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness
Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.
This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…
Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.
Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.
Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…
Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2
Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html
Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)
Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
These studies show development and growth is usually positive and normal in a home environment where there is sufficient care and/or love and in an environment that positively motivates learning and development. Conversely, the problems that can be experienced in a dysfunctional family can lead to problems even later in life. This is shown by the fact that juvenile criminals who become repeat offenders often come for broken or dysfunctional family environments.
The home and family are not the only environments that can have a profound influence on the individual. The school and educational environment is another environmental "space" that is important in normal human development. The school is an area that is particularly important in that it is an environment in which we first learn to interact and encounter the outside world. Therefore it is a crucial factor in social development. This can be seen in the fact that…
Environmental Stewardship can be simply described as "the comprehensive understanding and effective management of critical environmental risks and opportunities related to climate change, emissions, waste management, resource consumption, water conservation, biodiversity protection and ecosystem services" ("Environmental Stewardship," 2010). Thus, environmental stewardship is actually the responsibility for environmental superiority shared by everyone by whose actions the environment is affected. This sense of responsibility is that rare value that is mirrored through the choices that individuals, businesses, societies, and government make to shape the environment, society, and economy (Johnson, 2005). Environmental stewardship can also be regarded as a behavior that is exhibited by means of incessant upgrading and enhancement of environmental performance along with a dedication to "efficient use of natural resources, protection of ecosystems, and, where applicable, ensuring a baseline of compliance with environmental requirements" (Johnson, 2005 ).
In the contemporary society, environmental stewardship is on the increase. Nowadays, a majority…
Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf
Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf
Manning, D.J. (2004). Benefits of Environmental Stewardship. Review of Business, 25 (2), Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-119108637/benefits-of-environmental-stewardship
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
Obama Turns to Web to Illustrate the Effects of a Changing Climate
This article discusses how the use of technology and the internet can aid in the overall global warming education process. The article explains how President Obama is using a mobile app to depict the effects of global warming in local communities. Through technology, Obama hopes to create awareness of the overall global warming issue, and its impact on communities. The article states that out that individuals given a list of 20 issues, rank global warming as 19th. Through the use of the app, the Obama administration hopes to create an overall sense of urgency within the general public.
A particularly interesting aspect of the article was the amount of detailed coordination needed to produce the app. The mobile app is unique in that it attempts to depict the impact global warming has on communities' overtime. As…
Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean ater Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical…
Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at
Reuters. (2008). States sue EPA over ozone pollution standards. Thomson
Reuters. Online at
Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation
hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.
The Main Environmental Challenges
hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…
Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.
Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu .
General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).
The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…
Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.
Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.
RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
As Andresen points out, their quasi-legal or soft status renders intergovernmental groups legally powerless in general. Thus, intergovernmental groups need to bolster their efficacy by linking more strongly with local and state law enforcement organizations.
Another weakness of intergovernmental environmental organizations that Biermann points out in "The Case for a orld Environment Organization" is the poor communication and coordination between existing organizations. A plethora of related institutions may be working on the same environmental issue without pooling resources, when it would be far more efficient and effective to tackle global environmental threats in a cooperative manner. Likewise, Biermann cites capacity building as a key aspect of institutional coordination and cooperation.
Perceived legitimacy of intergovernmental environmental organizations is also a major concern, as many developing nations may be viewing the UNEP and other groups as being representative of estern (U.S./European) hegemony (Biermann). How to allocate funding is another critical concern, reflecting…
Andresen, Steinar. The effectiveness of UN environmental institutions. Int Environ Agreements (2007) 7:317 -- 336.
Bauer, Steffen and Biermann, Frank. Does Effective International Environmental Governance Require a World Environment Organization? The State of the Debate Prior to the Report of the High-Level Panel on Reforming the United Nations. Global Governance Working Paper No 13. Amsterdam, Berlin, Oldenburg, Potsdam: The Global Governance Project. 2004. Available at www.- glogov.org
Biermann, Frank. The Case for a World Environment Organization. Environment, Nov2000, Vol. 42 Issue 9, p22, 10p
Najam, Adil. "The Case Against a New International Environmental Organization." Global Governance 9(2003): 367-384.
The first Grays arrived in 2010, but they did not come en masse until a century later. The initial group of twenty brought with them a plethora of testing equipment from their home planet and took with them a total of two thousand samples from our environment. With the cooperation of the United Nations Council on Extraterrestrial Life (UNCEL), the Grays were permitted to take with them soil samples from hundreds of Earth locations and hundreds of botanical samples, many of which were of plants edible to humans but many of which were deemed palatable by the Grays. The Grays also took atmospheric air samples and water samples, both saline and non-saline, with them. Once the extensive surveys determined that their species could and would live on Earth comfortably, and once UNCEL approved it, about ten thousand of the Grays were permitted to come to the planet. The…
Environmental Material Accounting
Phosphorus (P) for sustainable use within the framework of an infrastructural system at the national level is subsequent to a filtration-based system. The topography of Australia is flat throughout south central coast and the middle south interior of the country. The coast bordering Sydney is mountainous whilst Western Australia is hilly terrain. The filtration system from a top-down perspective will flow from the mountain and hill peaks down through a filtration system that eventually bottlenecks at the coast where P. can be collected. Below is a topographical map of Australia that depicts the mountainous area near Sydney in White, the lowest lying region in darkest green, and the higher regions in lighter green to brown/yellow to tan.
Source: Macey (2005) http://www.smh.com.au/news/National/Map-from-above-shows-Australia-is-a-very-flat-place/2005/01/21/1106110947946.html
"We need to be concerned about the emerging threat of phosphorus scarcity, as well as the impacts of too much phosphorus through run-off into lakes and…
Hammond, J. & White, P. 2008, "Sustainable future for fertilisers," Horticulture Week,, pp. 33-34.
Phosphorus: Too Much or Too Little? 2011,, SPRINGFIELD, VA, United States.
Sharpley, A., Foy, B. & Withers, P. 2000, "Practical and innovative measures for the control of agricultural phosphorus losses to water: An overview," Journal of environmental quality, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1-1.
Very often workers must choose jobs based upon benefits, not where they wish to work. orkers may decide not to open up small businesses or work for smaller businesses who cannot offer them comprehensive care. and, of course the children of uninsured workers suffer, innocent victims of the system.
Even companies like Safeway that have made heroic efforts to foster healthy living and disease prevention initiatives to cut costs have stated that universal health care is necessary to contain costs and keep their workers healthy enough to work, with as few sick days as possible. (Cohen 2007:4). Unions, companies, and the government must work together to create a healthy, safer and more affordable medical tomorrow.
Cohen, Jonathan. "hat's the One Thing Big Business and the Left Have in Common?" The New York Times Magazine. 1 Apr 2007. [10 Apr 2007]. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01Healthcare.t.html?pagewanted=6&ei=5070&en=6ff729a7fa6330ac&ex=1176350400
Cohen, Jonathan. "What's the One Thing Big Business and the Left Have in Common?" The New York Times Magazine. 1 Apr 2007. [10 Apr 2007]. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01Healthcare.t.html?pagewanted=6&ei=5070&en=6ff729a7fa6330ac&ex=1176350400
hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…
Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.
Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
The Japanese government has taken measures to prevent this from happening again, settlements have been reached, and today the national government is the body that certifies a person as afflicted by the disorder.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html)."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
The Chisso Minamata Disease Kansai Lawsuit. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www1.odn.ne.jp/~aah07310/english/index-e.html).
Unknown. "Supreme Court holds state responsible for Minamata Disease." Kyodo orld News Service. (2004): 15 October.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html )."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Aldo Leopold and Environmental History
In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with…
Some trades are much more environmentally difficult than others, and the WTO should consider upholding sanctions that are justified by the MEAs that have already been put into place (Singh, 2009).
If the WTO refuses to work with governments to ensure that MEAs are also taken seriously, it would be difficult to determine whether the MEAs have any place or any relevance at all. If there is no strength behind them and they are not taken seriously, what value do they have? What purpose do they serve? Originally, they were designed to protect the environment. However, if they are being overruled by the WTO at nearly every turn, they are no longer able to do what they were designed to do when it comes to making sure the environment is not sustaining lasting damage because of the way goods are being produced or the ways in which they are being…
Eckersley, R. (2004). The big chill: The WTO and multilateral environmental agreements. Global Environmental Politics, 4: 2
Krist, W. (2002). The WTO and MEAs -- Time for a good neighbor policy. A Policy Brief from the Trade and Environment Forum. Woodrow Wilson International for Scholars
Mushkat, R. (2003). Potential impacts of China's WTO accession on its approach to the trade-environment balancing act. Chinese JIL
O'Neill, M. (2002). Agriculture, the EC and the TWO: A legal critical analysis of the concepts of sustainability and multifunctionality. Environmental Law Review, 4: 144-155.
4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)
III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)
McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:
Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm .
Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm .
Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.
CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm .
The environment that I have selected to analyze for this particular assignment through some of the pivotal tenets of Michael Porter is that which constitutes the corporate world. Specifically, the environment pertains to information technology -- which has been called various names throughout its past and present existence -- and its propagation through what is largely a corporate environment . In fact, when one chooses to examine the past of the corporate environment of information technology, it becomes apparent that there are certain similarities and certain differences found within this environment as it relates to its present and future. More than 20 years ago the IT environment was not as greatly impacted by globalization as it is today. Although globalization arguably began in earnest during the late 1960's and became a reality in the 1970's, in the early part of the 1990's its ramifications on the corporate IT…
BusinessBalls. (2015). Porter's five forces model. www.businessballs.com Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/portersfiveforcesofcompetition.htm
Thielman, S. (2015). Microsoft case: DoJ says it can demand every email from any U.S.-based provider. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com /technology/2015/sep/09/microsoft-court-case-hotmail-ireland-search-warrant
Global Environmental Issues
Organisms have to deal with both abiotic and biotic factors to succeed living in a given environment. Such physical and chemical environmental conditions as salinity, light, wind, pressure and heat, constitute abiotic factors. Biotic factors include the whole set of biological conditions that a species faces including the abundance of both predator and prey, space available, food availability, inter and intra species competition (Sherbinin, Alex de et al. 1). The relationships of interdependent nature among and between the living organisms; also referred to as the biotic aspects of an ecosystem can be classed in terms of whether they are harmful or beneficial to a given species. They may also have no effect on a given organism in focus. Human-environment interaction leads to changes and shifts in the global environment via a series of associated causes. These causes change the environments in certain ways to the extent of…
In a report on recent research in this area, Hickman (2008) states that, "Although the public recycle newspapers and bottles, only one eighth of clothes are recycled through charity shops
About 70 per cent goes straight to landfill or incineration" (Hickman). This is telling example, of the way that Fast Fashion can affect the environment.
The fact that these fashions are relatively cheap means that they are more easily discarded that would be the case with more expensive garments. Furthermore, the finding that almost all discarded Fast Fashion is not ecologically processed in an environmentally friendly way is a central factor that will be explored in detail.
The same study by Hickman referred to above contributes to the overall picture of the potentially negative outcomes of Fast Fashion in countries like the United Kingdom. " aste volumes from the sector are high and growing in the UK with the advent…
ANALYSIS: Do consumer concerns threaten fast fashion? 2007. 9 Feb. 2008 http://www.just-style.com/article.aspx?ID=98337
Antonides, G. & van Raaij, W.F. Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 1998
Betts K. Margareta van den Bosch. Style & Design, Vol. 170, 2007.
Cheap Fashion, Fast Fashion. 9 Feb. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blast/art/articles/cheap_fashion_fast_fashion.shtml
Geen" Human Resouce Pactices And Envionmental Pefomance
A numbe of entepises have histoically adopted the appoach of compliance within thei envionmental initiatives, and by consequence, ules and legislations guiding thei envionmental appoaches. Howeve, ove the last many yeas, new consume needs, consume boycotts, global envionmental standads, dynamic pefeences, and othe envionmental factos have influenced coe values and the fundamental business stategies of copoations (Daily, Bishop and Steine, 2007). Oganizations ae pat of society, and it is impeative that they function like team playes; this is whee the concept of "geen" management becomes elevant. A key schema now is that a company's outcome is stongly impacted by envionmental concens (Taiq, Jan & Ahmad, 2016).
Envionmental and human esouce (HR) management's effect in the business context elates powefully to a moe compehensive association between oganizations' economic and envionmental pefomance. In this context, it is fequently agued that impoved envionmental pefomance esults in…
references for sustainability and their impact on supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43, 380 -- 406.
Benn, S., Teo, S. T., & Martin, A. (2015). Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment. Personnel Review, 44(4), 492-510.
Boxall, P., Purcell, J., & Wright, P. (2009). Human resource management: Scope, analysis, and significance. In J. Storey, P. Wright, & D. Ulrich (Eds.), The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (pp. 1 -- 17). New York: Routledge.
Crotty, J., & Rodgers, P. (2012). Sustainable development in the Russia Federation: the limits of greening within industrial firms. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(3), 178-190.
Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Steiner, R. (2007). The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95.
Motorcycle Industry Environmental Analysis
One of the primary determinants of success or failure in most industries is the level of competition and response to that competition by individual firms. In many industries this is entirely straightforward, as competition is direct in terms of product offering and pricing scale: McDonald's and Burger King are clearly in direct competition with each other, for example. Things are not quite so clear-cut in the motorcycle industry, as the product lines of many of the key players in this industry differ dramatically and cannot all be said to be in direct competition with each other, the competitive forces and macroenvironmental influences that exist in the industry can affect different companies in very different ways.
Numerous Competitors: In some regards, the motorcycle industry is very well populated and well balanced, and there is not a clear industry leader. While Harley Davidson has the largest…
http://knol.google.com/k/the-u-s-motorcycle-market# http://www.mic.org / http://www.webbikeworld.com/motorcycle-news/statistics/motorcycle-sales-statistics.htm
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior and Implications for the Environment
Humans are responsive creatures, and a wide array of environmental cues serves to shape human behavior. In some cases, the responses to environmental cues are strictly in the self-interests of the consumer, but in other cases, these responses can be modified to promote improved outcomes. Because people may not be able to gauge the impact of their individual behaviors on the environment, it is important to identify those environmental cues that promote and sustain environmentally responsible behaviors. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning how environmental cues shape behavior and how behavior can be modified to support sustainability to limit the negative impact on the environment. Finally, the paper provides two possible solutions that could successfully change behavior and habits to lessen negative environmental impact followed by a summary of the research and…
Dane-Staples, E. (2012, September). Gendered choices: Mascot interactions in minor league baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(3), 286-291.
Fulton, R. (2012, December). Perceptions of reality: 'Poverty tourism' often sits uneasily in the range of sightseeing options open to travellers in underdeveloped countries.
Geographical, 84(12), 52-59.
Henson, H.K. (2006, Summer). Evolutionary psychology, memes and the origin of war.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Environmental Science class.. Title the Oil Industry Environment
APA Guidelines format 4-6 References I 4-6 Pages ritten text photos / data tables
The effects of the Oil Industry on the Environment
In spite of the fact that society has experienced significant moral progress in the recent decades, people continue to associate well-being with financial profits regardless of the effects that their actions have on society and this is reflected by the fact that the oil industry has inflicted great damage on the environment in the last few years. The fact that society has come to depend on oil makes it especially difficult for someone to experience positive results as a result of criticizing individuals involved in the oil business. Communities who have access to free oil wells are privileged and society has virtually learnt to exploit any oil source that it can possibly find. This has devastating consequences on the…
Ali-Akpajiak, Sofo, C.A. Pyke, Toni, "Measuring poverty in Nigeria," (Oxfam, 2003)
Struzik, Ed, "Killing Wolves: A Product ofAlberta's Big Oil and Gas Boom," retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/alberta_canada_energy_boom_places_wolves_in_the_crosshairs/2459/
Taylor, Dorcetta, E. "Environment and Social Justice: An International Perspective," (Emerald Group Publishing, 2010)
McQuaid, John, "The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill:An Accident Waiting to Happen" retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_gulf_of_mexico_oil_spill_an_accident_waiting_to_happen/2272/
Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).
None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they…
Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm
Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.
Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.
Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
Environmental Psychology: Securing its Future" by Harold M. Proshansky
Relatively young field, is it secure?
Epistemology: study or theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge
How did field begin, where is it going?
Environmental Psychology: Yesterday and Today
Empiricism -- theory of relying on observation, experiment, experience
Positivism -- theory that considers religion, metaphysics imperfect means, and relies on natural phenomenon and empirical sciences
Field developed in 1960s during social and political upheavals
But even before, after WWII -- new structures built, rapid growth -- increased research in social psychology, emphasis on attitude change, group processes, intergroup conflicts
Lewin (1948), Festinger, Schacter, and Back (1950) and Deutch (1949) students of Lewin (1948) -- began applying field theory conceptions to various social problems
Confluence of Forces
laboratory-experimental model but failure to apply to real world -- leads to loss of credibility and "malaise" in the social sciences in 1960s…
When a company such as Wal-Mart goes green, it is because they see a profit in it, and customers are demanding it, and that is the case with the fashion industry, as well.
In conclusion, the fashion industry is becoming much more eco-friendly largely because of consumer demand. People are becoming increasingly aware of just what goes into the products they consume, and they are demanding new products that use less energy to produce and use eco-friendly fibers and fabrics, as well. The public is becoming much more aware of environmental issues such as global warming and climate change, and it seems that the demand for eco-friendly products, including fashions will continue to rise. Smart fashion designers and companies will jump on this growing trend. They need to take the earth and its survival into consideration, but even more than that, they need to continue to fill consumer's shelves to…
Belli, Brita. "The Eco Fashion Revolution: Getting Consumers to Care about What They Wear." E. Sept.-Oct. 2007: 26+.
Claudio, Luz. "Environmental Impact of the Clothing Industry." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.9 (2007): 448+.
Editors. Sustainable Innovation: Cultivating Growth and Prosperity through Collaboration. Organic Exchange, Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2008. 1-8.