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Getting the Facts Straight
After a meeting the public need to know that they have been 'listened to'. A good idea is to schedule enough meetings to a. Present the case you are making (such as Puget Sound is in dire trouble), b. Distribute this knowledge to the public, c. Ask for input from the public. It is important to have people whose sole job at the meeting is to jot down- capture -- the publics comments on data.
Give this captured knowledge to the 'experts'. Compile this knowledge into a series of easily understandable - logical - chunks. Plan a series of presentations back to the public after a short break - say three months to six months. Repeat as necessary. Members of the public may not attend all meetings.
Give a final meeting to the public that explains all the options. Note how the public reacts to each…
Environmental isk Analysis Process
Environmental isk Analysis (EA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). EA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions"…
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.
Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf
Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):
An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,
And given the highly loaded political implications of attempting to maneuver policy actions, it is unsurprising that these two camps had at one time become so aggressively aligned against one another. However, we are reaching a point of critical mass where the environmental movement is concerned, with the economic and environmental practicalities of sustainability inclining a more pragmatic understanding of the need to simultaneously find more effective ways limit commercial land use and to better manage those lands which are deemed acceptable for commercial use.
In this way, it becomes clear that the once divergent ideals of conservation and preservation are today more rightly understood as compatible out of necessity. The environmental movement has gained considerably in influence and importance, but it remains vulnerable to the slants and sabotage of short-sighted industry. Thus, it is a movement which can ill afford any ideological division, particularly where the ultimate goals remain…
Leopold, A. (1986). Sand County Almanac. Ballantine Books.
Nash, R. (2001). Wilderness and the American Mind. Yale University Press.
Rome, A. (2003). Conservation, Preservation, and Environmental Activism:
A Survey of the Historical Literature. National Park Service.
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
Citizen Groups Shaping Environmental Policy
The environmental issues have of late been a subject of concern to many people and many organizations. Governments all over the world have been under persistent pressure to implement policies and also enact laws that are friendly to the environment or are intentionally formulated to safeguard the environment. The Kyoto protocol was a pace setter in many aspects concerning the environmental care and conservation, hence many bodies borrow from it and help in the implantation of the guidelines that were outlined in that particular meeting of the global bodies and economic giants of the world. These groups that act as custodians of the environment include the citizen groups of diverse measures and backgrounds.
The citizen groups in this aspect include the industry groups, trade associations and the not-for-profit organizations. These are the renowned groups that use their influences to shape the perspectives that the government…
Desai Uday, (2002). Environmental Politics and Policy in Industrialized Countries. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false
Micehael E.K., (2002). Environmental Policy and Politics in the United States: Toward Environmental Sustainability? Retrieved April 26, 2015 from
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )
Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the…
Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.
Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.
Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf.
Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf .
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Secondly, there is the Unitary Model. This theory is most attributed to Martha E. Rogers, practicing in the South and around the East Coast. The Science of Unitary Human Beings Theory is heavily influenced as her time spent as a public nurse, with the theory stemming from her experiences in rural practices.
The two theories share an emphasis on the importance of the environment, where resources play a huge role in facilitating greater and more effective nursing strategies in contemporary care. From this theoretical perspective, the energy of the human patients is intertwined with the energy of the environment in which the care is taking place. Harmonizing the energy in the environment would mean a greater positive change for the human energy as well within the patient. As such, it is clear that both theories present a way of utilizing the environment as a resource for balancing health. In this…
The role of the current in trajectory movements is significant, particularly in species such as the leatherback turtle, as it provides at times unexpected information regarding the animal's sense of direction and purpose in terms of its environment. In the conservation effort, it is therefore very important to consider the influence of current upon animal movement.
Conservation can only be effectively applied when behavior and movement are interpreted to the highest degree of accuracy. The study reveals the importance of current influence on marine life movement. Although larger and faster marine animals will not be as influenced by the current as the leatherback turtle, there will certainly be an impact. While important to study the movements of marine life, the influence of currents on the study of foraging behavior is even more important. This will determine the focus of conservation on specific foraging areas in order to ensure sustainability…
On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…
Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
There are also a number of other environmental consequences to using these bags that should be considered. Plastic bags clog storm drains and they also block the natural flow of oxygen and water through the soil -- all of which contributes to placing increasing pressure on the sustainability of the environment and ecosystems. (Single-Use Plastic Shopping Bags. Presentation to the Transportation and Environment Committee, 2008)
2. The advantages of non-reusable bags
It therefore follows from the above discussion that fewer plastic bags in circulation means less toxic chemical and less pollution of the environment. As one commentator writes, "if people were to use reusable bags instead of plastic ones, dependence on these non-renewable resources would be significantly less" (Go green! Benefits of reusable bags). The increase in usage of reusable bags would also mean a significant reduction in the need for plastic -- and it must be remembered…
Benefits of Reusable. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.reusablebagsdepot.com/reusable-bag-benefits.html
Go green! Benefits of reusable bags. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.helium.com/items/976541-go-green-benefits-of-reusable-bags
Knight M. (2007) Plastic bags fly into environmental storm. Retrieved September 4,
2009, from http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/11/14/fsummit.climate.plasticbags/index.html
Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.
Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…
Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU
Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx
Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal
What is Environmental Stewardship?
What are the problems?
Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?
A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness
Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.
This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…
Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.
Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.
Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…
Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
Environmental Stewardship can be simply described as "the comprehensive understanding and effective management of critical environmental risks and opportunities related to climate change, emissions, waste management, resource consumption, water conservation, biodiversity protection and ecosystem services" ("Environmental Stewardship," 2010). Thus, environmental stewardship is actually the responsibility for environmental superiority shared by everyone by whose actions the environment is affected. This sense of responsibility is that rare value that is mirrored through the choices that individuals, businesses, societies, and government make to shape the environment, society, and economy (Johnson, 2005). Environmental stewardship can also be regarded as a behavior that is exhibited by means of incessant upgrading and enhancement of environmental performance along with a dedication to "efficient use of natural resources, protection of ecosystems, and, where applicable, ensuring a baseline of compliance with environmental requirements" (Johnson, 2005 ).
In the contemporary society, environmental stewardship is on the increase. Nowadays, a majority…
Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf
Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf
Manning, D.J. (2004). Benefits of Environmental Stewardship. Review of Business, 25 (2), Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-119108637/benefits-of-environmental-stewardship
The field of environmental psychology is a specialized discipline within psychology whose major developments have been totally adopted into mainstream psychology. In past few decades, the much of the positive and negative visibility of environmental psychology have been lost. One of the significant visibilities to be lost is the initial enthusiasm that came from the common desire by designers and social scientists in developing buildings that would work better for people. In addition to being incorporated into mainstream psychology, environmental psychology has also been adopted into other areas of psychology including social psychology and health psychology. Consequently, environmental education has now become a major area within education and various organizations are increasingly studying human behavior and the physical environment.
The Discipline of Environmental Psychology:
The discipline of environmental psychology can be defined as the study of the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment. Since this discipline…
Clayton, S. & Myers, G. (2009). Conversation Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell.
Evans, G.W. (n.d.). Current Trends in Environmental Psychology. Retrieved February 12, 2012,
Stewart, A.E. (2007, March1). Individual Psychology and Environmental Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 63(1), 67-85. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=683c2681-82da-4688-ab5c-e765114727dd%40sessionmgr111&vid=4&hid=115
These studies show development and growth is usually positive and normal in a home environment where there is sufficient care and/or love and in an environment that positively motivates learning and development. Conversely, the problems that can be experienced in a dysfunctional family can lead to problems even later in life. This is shown by the fact that juvenile criminals who become repeat offenders often come for broken or dysfunctional family environments.
The home and family are not the only environments that can have a profound influence on the individual. The school and educational environment is another environmental "space" that is important in normal human development. The school is an area that is particularly important in that it is an environment in which we first learn to interact and encounter the outside world. Therefore it is a crucial factor in social development. This can be seen in the fact that…
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
On the other hand, nature-as-machine proponents view nature holistically, and the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts," (Oelschlaeger 1991 p. 130). Water is a lake, an ocean, or a river. Oelschlaeger calls seeing the forest instead of the trees "synoptic holism." The synoptic holism integral to the nature-as-organism view opposes the reductionistic atomism common to the nature-as-machine stance. In other words, where the reductionist sees a bunch of quarks, the holist sees a bird.
The nature-as-machine proponent also thinks in terms of external relations. Individual parts of the machine interact with other parts as independent entities; thus, they can be removed and replaced without upsetting the balance of nature. This stance supports the view of humanity as external to nature. On the other hand, the nature-as-organism proponent perceives nature in terms of internal relations, and human beings are part of nature's internal whole. Individual parts of nature…
Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). Wild nature. Chapter 4 in The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Deforestation can also lead to soil erosion, and more silt in rivers, streams, and behind dams throughout the deforested area. Biological diversity, including many unique species and ecosystems are lost, as well.
IN order to stop deforestation, people must be more aware of the problem and stop using products made from wood, such as paper, cardboard, and other products. We also need to find alternatives for wood products, such as the recycling of paper and wood products, and building materials such as steel, and products like Trex, which is a non-wooden material used for outdoor decks and such. To stop deforestation, we have to stop cutting down trees. eplanting deforested areas does not help, because it takes too long for the trees to grow, and the damage cannot quickly be repaired.
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy ochen.…
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy Rochen. "The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day." 2008. 26 May 2008. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm
Several important factors all contribute to better efficiency and cleaner water areas. For example, shallow grades in the buffer zones are ore effective than steeper grades of 5 degrees or more. Also, compacted soil proves to be less efficient than loose soil in the absorption of polluted storm and urban water runoff, (Stormwatercenter.net). Strategic placement of buffer zones is also a major factor in the effectiveness of the buffer areas. Mature forests and vegetated areas are ideal in choosing buffer zone sites. It has been shown through several studies that the more root systems in the ground of buffer zones, means the more pollutants absorbed from the ground water.
However, the three buffer zones working in harmony with environmental factors prove to be more efficient, and are a great asset in keeping local environments less polluted from residential and urban developments. Effective implementations of these strategic buffer zones can help…
Center of Watershed Protection. (). Article #41. Watershed Protection Techniques. http://www.cwp.org/Downloads/ELC_PWP41.pdf
Mulligan, Gerard E. (Feb 2007). "Aquatic Buffers." Westchester County Soil and Water Conservation District. http://www.westchestergov.com/planning/environmental/Reports/WaterResourceBufferBroch.pdf
Stormwatercenter.net. (2007) "Aquatic Buffers Fact Sheet." http://www.stormwatercenter.net/Assorted%20Fact%20Sheets/Tool3_Buffers/BufferZones.htm
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
" (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
The draft environmental impact statement elicited over 1.1 million responses which the Forest Service identified and summarized into six major issue categories including:
1) Public access;
2) Identification of other unroaded areas;
3) Exemptions and exceptions
4) Environmental effects;
5) Local involvement; and 6) the effect on communities with strong natural resource affiliations. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
These issues served to guide the process through:
1) Determining the scope of the proposal;
2) Development of a range of alternatives;
3) Direction of the analysis of potential environmental, social and economic effects;
3) Identification of possible mitigation and 4) Ensuring that the agency is operating within legal authorities. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
Two sets of alternatives were developed:
Four alternatives, including a No Action Alterative that cover the range of possible…
Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation (2000) United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Washington Office November 2000. Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary. Online available at http://roadless.fs.fed.us/documents/feis/documents/summarynb.pdf
NEPA Documentation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)(2000) Project Development. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Online available at http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).
The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…
Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp
Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html
Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).
A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the…
Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:
Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.
Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral
Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).
However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…
2. Project Preparation
3. Project Implementation'
4. Facility Operation
These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).
The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).
The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.
Strategic Assessments section
This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still…
Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.
Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ildlife which does not have natural predators in Florida was introduced by people who had bought those animals or reptiles and could not control them, or had to leave the state, and therefore abandoned them in the Everglades. The best example is the one of a Burmese python which was let go in the Everglades and had attached an alligator. Both animals did not survive the encounter, yet it shows that human are the main threat to the environment.
To summarize the environmental issues in Florida, we can say that the main issue is the development and encroachment into the Everglades. The lush mangrove and saw grass marshes of South Florida are the last of a great wilderness that, until the 20th century, stretched for hundreds of miles. Our Everglades refuge countless species, including endangered Florida panthers, Cape Sable seaside sparrows and American crocodiles. Many years of encroaching development have…
NAI. Everglades. NDI Wild Places . 26 April 2010 .
NAI2. Saving the Everglades. 2010. 26 April 2010 .
Natural Resources Defense Council. Florida Everglades. 20 September 2009. 26 April 2010 .
Parker, Karen. Wildlife 'rescues' can do more harm than good. 19 April 2010. 26 April 2010 .
EQI in Siwa
Environmental Quality International (EQI) in Siwa
Environmental Quality International in SIA
This essay examines project risk management challenges faced by Environmental Quality International (EQI) in furthering the Siwa Sustainable Development Initiative.
EQI, a private Egyptian development firm, was tasked with promoting sustainable development projects. The firm launched a project in SIA consisting of several commercial ventures intended to promote economic development, while at the same time meeting EQI's objectives of maintaining Siwa's environment and revitalizing its cultural heritage. EQI intended the project to keep Siwa's culture, traditions and heritage intact as much as possible. EQI planned to do this by combining the wisdom, skills, and creativity of Siwa's local community with modern expertise that would result in a model of sustainable development (Story, 2009).
The Siwa initiatives consisted of a series of projects that took advantage of the Andrere Amellal (hite Mountain in the native Siwa language)…
Ibrahim, S.O. (2001). Towards environmentally sustainable development of Siwa through NGO-Government partnership." Matrouh Governate. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/english/main/Env2003/Day1/PublicPrivate/said.scdec.pdf
Nakla, M. (2007). The role of the private sector in local development -- The Siwa experience. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from: http://www.euromedina.org/bibliotheque_fichiers/DeadSea_MounirNakhla2.pdf
Story, J. (2009 April). Environmental quality international in Siwa. INSEAD-Rensselaer.
Psychology and Environmental Preservation:
Environmental Psychology and Preservation:
Environmental psychology is a field in psychology that deals with the analysis of interactions and the relations between human populations and their environments. This field is sometimes referred to as ecological psychology, environmental sociology, social ecology, ecopsychology, and environmental social sciences. The conventional emphasis of the environmental psychology has been the emphasis on how the physical environmental influences the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals. On the other hand, recent studies in the field of environmental research have begun to focus on how various human actions impact the environment. This has contributed to the increased evaluation of the natural and man-made ecological issues of the relationship of people to their environment. The analyses have adopted a crucial significance to people's quality of life and the survival capacity of human beings. As the focus of recent researches in the field of environmental psychology…
Neil, D. (2010, September 25). National Public Lands Day: The Psychology of Preservation.
Retrieved March 10, 2012, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/deanna-neil/national-public-lands-day_b_739038.html
Saunders, C.D. (2003). The Emerging Field of Conservation Psychology. Human Ecology
Forum, 10(2), 137-149. Retrieved from http://www.ibcperu.org/doc/isis/5630.pdf
Corporations and Environmental Sustainability
Environmental conservation and sustainability has been viewed over the years as public relations activity and away of maintaining good relations with the community and other stakeholders like the government under c they operate. This has however significantly changed and the environmental conservation and sustainability is a social responsibility that any business or organization with a long-term vision has to take into account, plan for and effectively execute in order to not only earn acceptability by the government regulatory bodies, but also to contribute to their own future existence.
Proper and safe disposal of waste material and refuse is one of the major ways that corporations are gauged in their commitment to environmental protection and conservation. Corporations need to take deliberate steps to ensure their wastes area correctly categorized and disposed off in the recommended and approved manner. Toxic wastes must not find their way into the…
Armacell, (2015). Environmental Protection and Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved January 29, 2016 from http://corporate.armacell.com/en/about-armacell/sustainability/
Coca-Cola Company, (2012). Environmental Initiatives. Retrieved January 29, 2016 from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/environmental-initiatives/
South London Waste Partnership, (2016). Why it's Important to Recycle and Compost. Retrieved January 29, 2016 from http://www.slwp.org.uk/what-we-do/recycling-composting/why-it-is-important-to-recycle-and-compost/
Ginger - Smart Basics
The country's environmental factors
This study focuses on a PESTEL analysis touching on the tourism industry in India as encountered by Ginger - Smart Basics Company. PESTEL is a framework of employed in identifying key factors that drive organizational changes in the strategic environment. It entails environmental, legal, technological, social, economic and political factors.
Political violence and the public have damaged the tourism industry significantly in the past few years. However, experts within the industry argue that the damage is not long-term. Industry leaders and the government say there is much to do in rebuilding the tattered reputation of tourism. In broad daylight, the world has witnessed scores of terrorist killing masses across the city of Mumbai. Although India has been notorious for orchestrating the political violence, this recent horrific attack was primarily targeting foreigners and travelers. This attack was televised across the globe…
Das, G.D. (2011). Tourism marketing. Delhi: Pearson.
Kamplikar, M. (2011). Ginger -- Smart Basics. Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited Vol. 1 No. 1 pp. 1-12,
Kumar, S. (2009). Marketing of Hospitality & Tourism Serv. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
Wirtz, J. (2012). Essentials of Services Marketing. California: FT Press.
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior and Implications for the Environment
Humans are responsive creatures, and a wide array of environmental cues serves to shape human behavior. In some cases, the responses to environmental cues are strictly in the self-interests of the consumer, but in other cases, these responses can be modified to promote improved outcomes. Because people may not be able to gauge the impact of their individual behaviors on the environment, it is important to identify those environmental cues that promote and sustain environmentally responsible behaviors. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning how environmental cues shape behavior and how behavior can be modified to support sustainability to limit the negative impact on the environment. Finally, the paper provides two possible solutions that could successfully change behavior and habits to lessen negative environmental impact followed by a summary of the research and…
Dane-Staples, E. (2012, September). Gendered choices: Mascot interactions in minor league baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(3), 286-291.
Fulton, R. (2012, December). Perceptions of reality: 'Poverty tourism' often sits uneasily in the range of sightseeing options open to travellers in underdeveloped countries.
Geographical, 84(12), 52-59.
Henson, H.K. (2006, Summer). Evolutionary psychology, memes and the origin of war.
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior
Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).
It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).
Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected to a…
Ahmad, P. & Prasad, M. (2012). Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. New York: Springer New York.
Cormier, L., Nurius, P., & Osborn, C.J. (2009). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Horowitz, F.D. (2007). Exploring developmental theories: Toward a structural/behavioral model of development. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Environmental Worldview: A Confessional of Contradictions
To assess my environmental worldview, perhaps the most effective method to deploy is to reflect on a typical day in my life, when I am living at home and when I am outside the university community -- on a typical garbage day. On that day, I put out half a week's refuse, in a plastic, non-biodegradable bag, on my curb. (The store brand of plastic bags was on sale this week at the local supermarket.) As I look down my street, I see others engaged in a similar process. One woman in a housedress drags a huge black amorphous bag of refuse, another neighbor, a tired businessman in a suit, wheels large plastic bins with lids expressly designed to keep away the teeth and claws of other species. Then, I remember it is recycling day, and I dash into the home to lug out…
Enviromental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation
Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation
ecently, issues related to global warming have been center-stage of various political debates. Debate has been centered to examine human influences to environment malfunctioning. Poorly treated environment poses a significant danger to the local community and the atmosphere. For this reason, the law has been configured to ensure that the environment is satisfactorily protected. Besides, states have been pursuing local policies, which are parallel to federal laws in relation to environmental protection. This report will assess the Virginia Beach city pollution. The report identifies Care A lot as a polluter and some of the EPA's regulations tackling the issue. The report will also identify two primary laws responding to Virginia Beach's environmental concerns.
In Virginia Beach, there has been evidence on the presence of fecal contamination, which is realized in the city's brackish waters. This contamination is a…
Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association
Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press
Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications
U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009). Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 40, Issues 266-299. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office
Environmental Science class.. Title the Oil Industry Environment
APA Guidelines format 4-6 References I 4-6 Pages ritten text photos / data tables
The effects of the Oil Industry on the Environment
In spite of the fact that society has experienced significant moral progress in the recent decades, people continue to associate well-being with financial profits regardless of the effects that their actions have on society and this is reflected by the fact that the oil industry has inflicted great damage on the environment in the last few years. The fact that society has come to depend on oil makes it especially difficult for someone to experience positive results as a result of criticizing individuals involved in the oil business. Communities who have access to free oil wells are privileged and society has virtually learnt to exploit any oil source that it can possibly find. This has devastating consequences on the…
Ali-Akpajiak, Sofo, C.A. Pyke, Toni, "Measuring poverty in Nigeria," (Oxfam, 2003)
Struzik, Ed, "Killing Wolves: A Product ofAlberta's Big Oil and Gas Boom," retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/alberta_canada_energy_boom_places_wolves_in_the_crosshairs/2459/
Taylor, Dorcetta, E. "Environment and Social Justice: An International Perspective," (Emerald Group Publishing, 2010)
McQuaid, John, "The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill:An Accident Waiting to Happen" retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_gulf_of_mexico_oil_spill_an_accident_waiting_to_happen/2272/
In fact, the changes in technology and complexities of modern life enhance this idea. This is nowhere as apparent as it is in the idea of environmental safety and health, for actions taken in one part of the world do have a profound effect on other parts of the world. Even in modern, developed nations like the United States, we find mercury from Chinese factories, dust from Saharan Africa and smog from Mexico -- accounting for about 30% of the nation's ozone problems (Watson, 2005).
The Gaia Hypothesis, in fact, is a theory that the entire planet is large and complex living organism. This proposes that everything on earth, organic and inorganic, are completely integrated into a single and self-regulating complex system that maintains the conditions for life on earth (Gribbin, 2009). The complexity is so vast that we may not be able to completely understand it at present. For…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Our Nation's Air: Status and Trends Through 2010. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011 / report/fullreport.pdf
Gribbin, J. (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Watson, T. (March 14, 2005). Air Pollution from Other Countries Drifts into USA. USA Today -- the Nation. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-03-13-pollution-_x.htm
World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/
It not only recycles, but unlike Universal Studios it donates electronics, furniture, and office supplies to community organizations, so that the products will be put to good use. Like Universal Studios, the alt Disney Company is committed to purchasing recycled-content products, and uses packaging materials that can be reused or recycled. It tries to buy in bulk to minimize packaging waste ("aste Minimization: The alt Disney Company," 2007, the alt Disney Company ebsite). In a unique program that is not present at Universal Studios, the company educates Disney employees both in company policies regarding environmentally sound living and encourages and instructs employees to engage in such practices in their own homes.
Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day
Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf
Go Metro Specials."…
Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day
Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf
Go Metro Specials." (2007). MTA. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mta.net/riding_metro/special_offer/monthly_specials.htm#P8_776
Waste Minimization: The Walt Disney Company" (2007). The Walt Disney Company
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
Exxon and Environmental Policy
Despite its assurance of the complete safety of its operations, the Exxon Valdez tanker hit a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound at midnight of March 24, 1989 and poured 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil from a ruptured hull of the ship (Explore North 1999). Within the next two months following the wreck, oil had spread to 470 miles to the southwest. The initial cleanup in the succeeding three years cost more than $2 billion, although no lives were lost. Wildlife destruction was staggering and the full impact of the disaster may never be known. The State of Alaska and the federal government filed both criminal and civil suits against Exxon in October 1991
In settling the civil charges, Exxon agreed to pay the State of Alaska and the United States $900 million within a 10-year period and the money would be…
1. Alaska Oil Spill Commission. SPILL: the Wreck of the Exxon Valdez. Final report, State of Alaska, 1995. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html
2. Earle, Sylvia. Sea Change: a Message of the Ocean. Perspectives on Marine Environment Quality Today. 1998-Year of the Ocean. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, 1995. http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/yoto/meeting/mar_env_316.html
3. Explore North. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Disaster, 1998. http://www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa032499.htm
4. Lefevre, Greg. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Cable News Network, Inc., 1998. http://www.cnnsf.com.newsvault/output/bigspill.html
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
Life Span of io Grande Cutthroat Trout
Mature io Grande Cutthroat Trout live between six and eight years, about average for their species (Spaete, 2006). They are stream spawners, and their average age of sexual maturity is between five and seven years of age, with breeding occurring only once or twice during the lifespan (Spaete, 2006). In general, breeding season is between spring and early summer, with offspring in the 1000 to 2000 range (Spaete, 2006). Environmental factors including temperature and food availability will impact the breeding cycle as well as overall size of the individuals.
Habitat Management for io Grande Cutthroat Trout
The io Grande Cutthroat Trout is a subspecies of the cutthroat living primarily in the rivers of Colorado and New Mexico. In addition to the io Grande itself, the Pecos iver and the Canadian iver are its native habitats. The io Grande Cutthroat Trout thrives when it…
Pritchard, V.L. & Cowley, D.E. (2006). Rio Grande Cuthroat Trout. USDA Forest Service. 28 July, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5206803.pdf
Rinne, J.N. (n.d.). Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout." Chapter 3. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved online: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr256/rm_gtr256_024_027.pdf
"Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout Conservation Strategy," (2013). Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved online: https://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/NewMexico/documents/RGCT_conservation_strategy_final_12-10-13.pdf
Spaete, L. (2006). Oncorhynchus clarkia. Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved online: http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Oncorhynchus_clarkii/
" At the same time, it may be a lesson in perspective given that pigs are smarter than dogs and no less appreciative of human companionship than dogs when befriended instead of raised somewhat inhumanely and slaughtered for food.
The Plight of the Polar Bear
According to environmental experts like Kassie Siegel of the Centre for Biological Diversity, based in California, the natural habitat of the Polar Bear is disappearing too fast to sustain the species in the wild for much longer. Global climate change has caused so much of the Arctic ice to melt that Polar bears are unable to pursue enough food to maintain a healthy body weight, reproduce, or nourish their cubs to adulthood.
Unfortunately, there may be little that can be done for the Polar Bear beyond preserving the species in captivity unless there is a dramatic increase in technology capable of reversing climate change. Andrew…
return of the Gray Wolf. The writer details the history of the species including their near extinction. The writer then discusses the comeback efforts that have been employed and their success levels. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Earth Watch, The eturn of the Gray Wolf
For many decades the plight of the Gray Wolf was underplayed through the public's misunderstanding. The Gray Wolf brought to mind flickering movie screens in which gray wolves would howl at the moon and attack prey after dark. The image conjured up a strong and virile species that was destined to live forever in the wild for the public to fear and admire at the same time. The truth is the Gray Wolf was slowly dying off and was eventually threatened with extinction. The Gray Wolf was not a species that elicited warm fuzzy feelings nor did people think they should…
Author not available (1999). DEFENDERS OF WILDLIFE RELEASES FIRST COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL WOLF STRATEGY. U.S. Newswire, 12-17-1999.
Hebert, Josef. H.(2000). Gray Wolf Makes Remarkable Recovery. AP Online, 07-11-2000.
Uhlenbrock; Tom (1998).Of The Post-Dispatch, GRAY WOLF SHOT BY CAMPER IN ARIZONA IS SETBACK FOR A ST. LOUIS WILDLIFE GROUP MALE WAS REINTRODUCED INTO WILD., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 05-01-1998, pp B4.
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
Test Results: "Total Cost Accounting course and Test" located at http://teexcit.tamu.edu/tca / (Total Cost Accounting online course and test).
Bakshi, B.R., Landers, .F., Singh, S., Merugula, L.A., Mishchenko, O., and Fiskel, J. (2012, November 2). Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment by co-LCA: Advances in methodology and software. Paper to be presented at the Annual Conference of the 11th Global Congress of Process Safety on April 2015 in Austin, Texas.
The authors explain the role of ecosystem goods and services in the support of economic activities, and the relation of the use of ecosystem goods and services to sustainability. The variety of ecosystem goods and services is broad, however, most sustainability methods have not considered their contribution well. Consider that these are all ecosystem goods or services that play a role in sustainability: 1) The provisioning of water, food, and biomass; 2) the regulation of pests…
Ecological accounting is a particular version of external reporting that focuses on the conversion of monetary environmental costs to physical flows. The practicality of this approach to accounting is that environmental impacts are expressed in terms of measures of emissions and discharges. The value-add of products and services is countered by using ecological accounting, which attempts to measure the ways in which products or processes generate pollution.
The author discusses three areas related to internal reporting: 1) Pollution prevention and product costing; 2) pollution prevention and planning; and, 3) pollution prevention and performance assessment. A substantive issue for an increasing number of industries -- particularly in the European Union where environmental regulations are stricter than they are in the United States -- is the life cycle recycling requirements in which manufacturers are responsible for the end product when the useful -- original intended -- life ends. Many companies now must attend to the life cycle costing and life cycle analysis for products they have produced. Life cycle costing incorporates measures of product costs for research and development, acquisition of raw materials, actual manufacturing, transportation of finished goods, usage by consumers or supply chain, and, ultimately, disposal.
As the author clearly states: "The major point of life-cycle costing is that there are many costs incurred before and after manufacturing that do not get charged to the product using conventional costing systems" (Lanen, 1994, p. 4). Life-cycle analysis enables the inclusion of costs associated with liabilities in phases far from the actual period of manufacturing. Future issues include consideration of the relation between market valuation and liabilities, and the effect of disclosure policies on costs.
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…
Another area of change brought on by the assistance of the EDF is that which now more explicitly connects environmental degradation with certain social and demographic factors. The creation of its Scorecard ebsite in 2001 would bring a new dimension to the social discourse on environmental issues. According to Dooley (2001), with this new scorecard in place, "on the main Environmental Justice page, entering a ZIP code generates a report of the varying degrees of environmental burden within that area for different racial, ethnic, and income groups. The burdens include releases of toxic chemicals, cancer risk from hazardous air pollutants, and facilities emitting criteria air pollutants." (Dooley, p. 367)
Other recent decisions also reflect the degree of success that the EDF has had in moving governments forward on specific issues. So is this reflected in the text by Zimmerman (1995), which reports on a decision in the case of City…
Dooley, E.E. (2001). Environmental Defense Scorecard: Environmental Justice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(8).
Environmental Defense Fund. (2011). Our Mission and History. EDF.org.
F.B. (1979). Spectrum. Environment, 21(2).
Zimmerman, J.F. (1995). High Court Action To Elevate Costs Of Solid Waste Disposal. National Civic Review, 84(1).
Therefore, probabilism is more about making an informed and educated choice based on the realm of probabilities available. Probabilism brings with it the theory of prediction, and also positivism, with which it is closely associated. However, probabilism is always referred to as being the half way point between determinism and possibilism. ("Infrastructure Possibilism and Probabilism," 2006)
To conclude, it must be said that while environmental probabilism states that almost all or any behaviors may be probable within one or in any environment, while determinism states that it is the physical environment, and not social conditions, that would shape a person's character and behaviors. Herein lies the basic difference between the two theories. There can be no doubt that several more theories related to these theories will emerge soon, and perhaps these would explain human behavior in a more succinct and terse manner.
Banning, Carolyn S; Banning, James H. (1994)…
Banning, Carolyn S; Banning, James H. (1994) "Use of Nonverbal Cues of the Physical
Environment in Campus Consultation" Campus Ecologist, vol. 12, no. 4, pp: 36-38.
Blair, Alasdair; Hitchcock, David. (2001) "Environment and business"
Environmental Governance: A eview of elevant Literature
The field of environmental governance has grown unprecedentedly as a result of the increasing concern and occurrences of climate change-related events all over the world. Where social, political, and cultural movements and shifts have influenced human history over the years, the environment is taking the forefront as humanity -- societies and nations -- are threatened by one common force no amount of socio-political or cultural power could control or undermine: climate change. Indeed, events relating to climate change are more pervasive than ever, affecting not just specific groups of people or nations, but all of humanity. This is why literature on climate change and environmental sustainability, both popular and academic, have increased over the years, triggering a global debate about the future of the planet and the "plight" of the human race in the decades or centuries to come.
Beyond the issue of…
Clapp and Dauvergne. (2011). "Paths to a green world? Four visions of a healthy global environment." (faxed material).
Evans, J.P. (2011). Environmental governance. London: Routledge.
Levine, K., B. Cashore, and S. Bernstein. (2010). "Playing it forward: Path dependency, progressive incrementalism, and the "super wicked" problem of global climate change." Paper presented in Climate change: Global risks, challenges and decisions congress, March 2009.
Voss, J. And R. Kemp. (2006). "Sustainability and reflexive governance: introduction." (faxed material)