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For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a "triple" vulnerability of noxious facility siting." (ullard, 1998)
Finally, 'Social Equity' is that which "assesses the role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, life styles, political power, etc.) on environmental decision making. Poor people and people of color often work in the most dangerous jobs, live in the most polluted neighborhoods, and their children are exposed to all kinds of environmental toxins on the playgrounds and in their homes." (ullard, 1998)
V. EXAMINATION of CULTURAL RESOURCES
The National Preservation Institute states that the term 'cultural resource' is not defined in NEPA or even in any other Federal law and yet there are "several laws and executive orders that deal with particular kind of 'resources' that are 'cultural' in character." The following is…
Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm
O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives
• VOLUME 115 | NUMBER 7 | July 2007. Online available at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/9903/9903.pdf
Pellow, David Naguib (2004) Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. MIT Press 2004. Google Books Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=P_8g761DKFAC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=Environmental+Justice+Movement,+Chicago,+Executive+Order+12898&source=bl&ots=ZC3pkDW6PB&sig=lwIdweolIL9q613JulaJ1RKvrCs&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#PPA81,M1
Environmental Justice in the United States:
Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved
During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in…
Adams, John H. (1994, spring) Message From the Director: Environmentalism and Justice at NRDC, Amicus J. (statement of the Executive Director of the Natural Resources Defense Council).
Alternatives for Community and Environment (ACE) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.Ace-ej.org
Commununities of a Better Environment (CBE). Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.cbecal.org
Community coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.ccej.org , online.
Managing Environmental Justice Issues:
Environmental justice can be considered as the social justice outlook of environmental ethics that has contributed to the emergence of the environmental justice movement to tackle the unfair allocation of toxic, dangerous, and hazardous waste facilities. This term can also be described as the right to safe, productive, healthy, and sustainable environment for every individual. In this case, the environment incorporates the physical, social, ecological, political, economic, and aesthetic surroundings. The condition with which people's right to the described environment are freely exercised is described as environmental justice. The concept of environmental justice is largely based on ideas from civil rights, community organizing efforts, and public health (Warner & DeCosse, 2009).
The Environmental Problem:
As a leading pharmaceutical company in the United States, Colney & Pitts Company manufactures herbal remedies for various illnesses like prostate cancer. In order to develop medicines for prostate disorders, the company…
Smith, G. (2011, August 7). Environmental Justice Simulation. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.*****/essay-on/Enviornmental-Justice-Simulation/44717
Warner, K.D. & DeCosse, D. (2009, May). Lesson Five Environmental Justice. Retrieved from Santa Clara University website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/environmental_ethics/lesson5.html
In terms of Singer's work, although his solutions are not practical in the sense of Paehlke's work, his call for a change in the political system does make sense. Political leaders should be called away from their isolated mentality and use their power to effect the changes necessary for a better world.
oth authors recognize that globalization cannot be denied, and that some aspects related to the phenomenon are beneficial while others are not. Neither author uses either the benefits or costs as reasons to either diminish or elevate the status of globalization, and it appears that both have a realistic grasp of the concept. oth authors also call for equity and fairness, while they differ somewhat in how specifically to achieve this.
I agree with both authors that globalization is a force that cannot be wished away or denied. Furthermore it is undeniable that the phenomenon has some benefits,…
Paehlke, Robert C. Democracy's Dilemma: Environment, Social Equity, and the Global Economy. New York, 2003.
Singer, Peter. One World. London, 2002.
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212
Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).
The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…
Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp
Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
On pages 88-89, right in the middle of a 1972 national debate of this issued, Greenhouse reports that Justice Blackmun was given the job by his colleagues of writing a draft opinion on Roe v. ade. How was a doctor to know if "death was imminent" should a mother not have an abortion? There were so many conflicting questions to be asked about the laws that had brought Roe v. ade before the Court. It was a struggle for Blackmun, and he was under intense pressure. He was influenced by public opinion; on page 91, Greenhouse explains that Blackmun saw a ashington Post story that said "two out of three Americans think that abortion should be a matter for decision solely between a woman and her physician." Sixty-four percent said it was up to a woman, in a poll in the newspaper that Blackmun read. Slowly Blackmun re-wrote his opinion,…
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. Becoming Justice Blackmun: Harry Blackmun's Supreme Court
Journey. New York: Times Books / Henry Holt & Company
It would strive to minimize the pay and quality-of-life differential between the wealthiest individuals and the poorest, although it would permit whatever differential justified by the greater good served by certain professional commitments and responsibilities.
Rawls' ideas if incorporated into society would not compel any person to contribute to the greater good any more than he or she desired; they would simply impose mechanisms for distributing resources and potential rewards in the most socially beneficial and equitable manner. Industries that produce socially beneficial products and services that contribute to the greater good would be permitted to profit more from those endeavors than superfluous industries; physicians would be entitled to sufficient compensation and benefits to ensure against any shortage of physicians in society; and police officers and firefighters would earn more than professional athletes, although closer to several times the average wage in society instead of the equivalent of hundreds or…
"Many social decisions are, of course, of an administrative nature. Certainly this is so when it is a matter of social utility in what one may call its ordinary sense: that is, when it is a question of the efficient design of social institutions for the use of common means to achieve common ends" (Rawls, 1958 p187).
Rawls' ideas would seem to comport perfectly with the essential purpose of public administration services. In principle, the entire structure of modern administrative services in society is precisely to improve society and contribute to the public good much more efficiently and effectively than individual citizens could ever hope to, even in a collaborative effort. Granted, to a certain extent, Rawls' ideas could be seen as excessively constraining individual initiative and creativity; however, in the realm of public administration of social services and justice, they would greatly increase the quality of life and contribute to the greater good. Instead of the poorly motivated, apathetic attitudes frequently associated with civil service employment, Rawls' ideas would reward civil servants sufficiently to guarantee much greater commitment to their responsibilities.
Generally, modern public administration and civil service exemplify the very concepts emphasized by Rawls except that the pay differential between civil servants and employment in many areas of the private sector greatly detract from the communal spirit and cooperation that Rawls hoped to promote through his ideas. Ultimately, while some of the specific mechanisms suggested by Rawls' ideas may be impractical to impose on a free society, their general purpose is likely achievable to some degree simply by increasing awareness of some of the conceptual arguments.
On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).
The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…
Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.
Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.
RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
Another area of change brought on by the assistance of the EDF is that which now more explicitly connects environmental degradation with certain social and demographic factors. The creation of its Scorecard ebsite in 2001 would bring a new dimension to the social discourse on environmental issues. According to Dooley (2001), with this new scorecard in place, "on the main Environmental Justice page, entering a ZIP code generates a report of the varying degrees of environmental burden within that area for different racial, ethnic, and income groups. The burdens include releases of toxic chemicals, cancer risk from hazardous air pollutants, and facilities emitting criteria air pollutants." (Dooley, p. 367)
Other recent decisions also reflect the degree of success that the EDF has had in moving governments forward on specific issues. So is this reflected in the text by Zimmerman (1995), which reports on a decision in the case of City…
Dooley, E.E. (2001). Environmental Defense Scorecard: Environmental Justice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(8).
Environmental Defense Fund. (2011). Our Mission and History. EDF.org.
F.B. (1979). Spectrum. Environment, 21(2).
Zimmerman, J.F. (1995). High Court Action To Elevate Costs Of Solid Waste Disposal. National Civic Review, 84(1).
Environmental Science class.. Title the Oil Industry Environment
APA Guidelines format 4-6 References I 4-6 Pages ritten text photos / data tables
The effects of the Oil Industry on the Environment
In spite of the fact that society has experienced significant moral progress in the recent decades, people continue to associate well-being with financial profits regardless of the effects that their actions have on society and this is reflected by the fact that the oil industry has inflicted great damage on the environment in the last few years. The fact that society has come to depend on oil makes it especially difficult for someone to experience positive results as a result of criticizing individuals involved in the oil business. Communities who have access to free oil wells are privileged and society has virtually learnt to exploit any oil source that it can possibly find. This has devastating consequences on the…
Ali-Akpajiak, Sofo, C.A. Pyke, Toni, "Measuring poverty in Nigeria," (Oxfam, 2003)
Struzik, Ed, "Killing Wolves: A Product ofAlberta's Big Oil and Gas Boom," retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/alberta_canada_energy_boom_places_wolves_in_the_crosshairs/2459/
Taylor, Dorcetta, E. "Environment and Social Justice: An International Perspective," (Emerald Group Publishing, 2010)
McQuaid, John, "The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill:An Accident Waiting to Happen" retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_gulf_of_mexico_oil_spill_an_accident_waiting_to_happen/2272/
Criminal justice organizations have "varied and complex environments," and are affected by those environments in ways that makes them "malleable" and prone to frequent change (Stojkovie, Kalinich & Klofas, 2015, p. 15-16). Because of this, criminal justice administration reflects the core principles of learning organizations. Criminal justice organizations must be flexible, responsive to changes in social norms and public policies, and willing to account for developments in empirical research that might alter practice. Leadership in criminal justice organizations must therefore be visionary and transformative, motivated by core goals. Because the core goals of criminal justice organizations are as complex as their organizational structures and functions, it is important to explicitly clarify the missions, values, and goals of each organization under the criminal justice umbrella. Likewise, it is important to understand the role of the criminal justice organization within the overarching government.
As governmental institutions, criminal justice organizations are bureaucratic in…
Stojkovie, Kalinich, & Klofas. (2015) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management - custom (6th ed.) Florence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing
Wiechmann, A.D. (2007). Public Administration in Criminal Justice Organizations. San Diego: University Readers.
Criminal Justice Program at the John Hay College of Criminal Justice. This is one of the most famous criminal justice programs in the nation and its home is one of the most diverse and challenging metropolis in the country: New York City. The criminal justice program here is different from others in a variety of ways, most notably in its origins.
Unlike other criminal justice programs, this one developed not out of student demand, but out of need. "In the mid 1950s, civic leaders and the New York City Police Department became increasingly aware of the growing complexity of police work, not only in the internal administration and operation of the department, but also in the ongoing relations between police and the community. In response to these concerns, a Police Science Program was established in 1954 at the then Baruch School of Business and Public Administration of City College" (jjay.cuny.edu).…
American.edu (2013). Drug Market Intervention Training. Retrieved from:
Gendall, J. (2013). John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved from Architectmagazine.com: http://www.architectmagazine.com/education-projects/john-jay-college-of.aspx
Jjay.cuny.edu. (2013). History of John Jay. Retrieved from Jjay.cuny.edu: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/835.php
For instance, in the eyes of the courts, an offense's level could be equated to the guideline for the seriousness of a crime. The next aspect of the scorecard was the offender's personal or associative criminal history. Prior offenses dictated a level of conviction frequencies and social offenses. Therefore the personal criminal history of an individual ends up playing a major role in the sentencing guidelines. A person's propensity to repeat offences entails longer sentences. The person that had a history of repeat offenses offered a greater threat and therefore was often thought to be more dangerous to society. but, how does the justice system maintain a culprit's history without an ability to utilize integrated processes?
This is a prime example of where justice information systems integration could have far reaching implications. In regard to sentencing, first time offenders in one community may not have been labeled as serial offenders…
Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices in Network Security -- as the Networking Landscape Changes, So Must the Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid of Imperfection When it Comes to Developing Those for Your Group. Network Computing.
Capital Punishment in U.S. Hit 30-Year Low in 2003. Ed. All American Patriots. (March 1, 2005). Retrieved on April 21, 2005, from All American Patriots at http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-6869-PHPSESSID-c7528df1df14be6397da4e89e25a7374.html.
Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview
Holmes, Amir., Webster, Lawrence P., & Sullivan, Teri (2004). JIEM Reference Model. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.search.org/integration/JRM1.0.1.pdf
Restorative Justice Approaches Reduce Youth Offending
Restorative justice is a new paradigm within the criminal justice, particularly in the context of youth offenders. The philosophy behind restorative justice is to consider the juvenile's interests to develop them into beneficial citizens, and it augments the principle behind juvenile justice and corrections. Restorative justice approaches provide the juvenile justice system with leniency when approaching youth offenders while at the same time holding the offenders accountable through rehabilitative approaches. The core elements of restorative justice include rehabilitating and restoring the youth offender, restoring and making restitution to the victim, and restoring the entire society. Programs employed in the restorative approaches can apply in both community correction centers and institutional treatment programs. Juvenile court and statutes aim to protect the child and not to punish them (Latimer, Dowden, & Muise, 2005).
However, juvenile justice has evolved over the centuries, and this has seen to…
Bell, J. (1993). Doing Your Research Project. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Bynum, J.E., & Thompson, W.E. (2005). Juvenile Delinquency: A Sociological Approach (6th
ed.). New York: Pearson.
Dawson, C. (2009). Introduction to research methods: A practical guide for anyone undertaking a research project. Oxford, UK: How to Books, Spring Hill
Latinos participations are low in CAPS, and most of their members are unaware of the strategies of CAPS. Their levels of awareness have been on a declining state since the year 1990. Their involvement in these meetings was driving by the levels of crime, moral decay on the community and at the level of social disorder. The problem with the Latino population is that they do not turn up in numbers to these meetings. The community's representation is low in these meetings.
However, research further shows that the community lacks representation in the district advisory committees that meet on a regular basis with the police department. Compared to the African-Americans and the Whites Latinos have young families are they are more likely to be working and having families at home. Their involvement with the police department is variedly mixed. There is evidence that their community avoids police contacts, including not…
Lyons, T., Lurigio, Rodriguez, P.L., & a.J., Roque, (2013). Racial disparity in the criminal justice system for drug offenses a state legislative response to the problem. Race and justice, 3(1), 83-101.
Lombardo, R.M. (2013). Fighting Organized Crime a History of Law Enforcement Efforts in Chicago. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 29(2), 296-316.
Portnoy, J., Chen, F.R., & Raine, a. (2013). Biological protective factors for antisocial and criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice.
Lee, M. (2013). Inventing Fear of Crime. Willan.
Australian Criminal Justice System
Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).
Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through
Legislation, legal action and negotiation…
Australian Government Department of Foreign Investment and Trade (2011). Legal System. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/legal_system.html
Indehmar, D and Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/D/6/8/%7BD68CD7EA-536A-4025-A8C0-A5BADF59A6AC%7Dtandi387.pdf
Lincoln, R. And Robinson, S. (2010). Crime over Time. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle Tyne.
Roach Anleu, S.L. (1998). The role of civil sanctions of in social control: a social legal examination December 15, 2011 from http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_09/Role_ofCivilSanctions.pdf
In that regard, sentences imposed for crack cocaine are so much harsher that approximately 100 times as much powdered cocaine is required to approach the sentences imposed in connection with crack cocaine offenses. This issue is particularly relevant to the disparity inherent in mandatory sentencing and arbitrariness in sentencing, especially since dealers in powdered cocaine are much more likely higher up on the supply chain than distributors of crack cocaine (USSC, 2007).
The issues concerning provisions of the U.S.A. PATIOT Act pertain to establishing sentences for crimes established and defined by the ACT, such as narco- terrorism, smuggling munitions or military equipment without a license for transport, mining U.S. waters, and interfering with maritime navigation equipment (USSC, 2007).
The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 requires sex offenders to register and imposes criminal penalties for failure to comply. The current federal sentencing issues authorize increasing sentences for…
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002) Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision.
Lynch, M.J. (1999) Beating a Dead Horse: Is Their Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment?
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Criminal Justice -- Sentencing and Analysis
Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez was indicted for kidnapping. Her case was handled in the Circuit Court for the Western District of Texas. Based on her attorney's advice, she accepted a plea bargain, pleading guilty to kidnapping. The normal sentence for kidnapping in Texas is 10 years in prison; however, Hernandez was sentenced to 15 years in prison, along with other punishments.
According to a plea bargain in which Defendant Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez pleaded guilty to kidnapping, she received a sentence of 15 years in Federal prison, and then three years of supervised release, plus she is order to pay $3,000 in restitution for the kidnapping of the 2-1/2-year-old girl (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010).
The Victim's Role in Sentencing
The 2-1/2-year-old girl is too young to participate in the sentencing process; however, her mother can participate. There is no indication that the mother…
Procedure after Sentencing and Possible Appeal
After sentencing, Hernandez would be taken into custody (if not already in custody) and handed over to the custody of the Federal Corrections Department to begin her sentence. Hernandez entered her plea in the Western District of Texas (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2010), so her appeal would go to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit, which is the appellate court with jurisdiction over the Western District of Texas (United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, 2012, p. 9).
In order for Hernandez's appeal to be granted, Hernandez would have to show that something was materially wrong procedurally or substantively in the lower court and that her plea, her sentence or something else about her case should be overturned or sent back to the lower court for further action. That covers a lot of ground and many different arguments might be successfully made to the appellate court. For two examples: Hernandez might argue that she had ineffective assistance of counsel because her attorney had her accept a plea with
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
The two should know better but their emotions got the best of them. In this case I would myself (or ask another person who knows the two) pull one of the two aside gently but firmly and ask that he take a deep breath and not cause commotion to the point where we all suffer. I would say, "Take a break guy, please cool your jets for a few moments because you are causing all of us to be distracted from what we are supposed to be doing here. You're forcing us to be involved and we aren't part of your problem, so please, quiet down…"
If that wouldn't work, the next step of course is to notify the supervisor or foreman that we need help -- or to follow company policy in whatever form is required in that situation.
Who are my heroes?
I don't have any "heroes" in…
The killing of the two black American young men Amadou Diallo and Louima were separated by about two years but Amadou's killing happened just before the trial of Louima's case. Amadou's killing drew a lot of public interest that was focused on the conduct of the New York Police. It was the only such heated debate since the Knapp commission of the 70s which disclosed corruption in the police department. Amadou was from a middle class family that migrated from Guinea. They were engaged in simple trade activities including selling items on the streets. Amadou was shot 41 times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed…
To be honest I tend to think that crime has been trending in the late night news since the early 90s to an extent that it has become some sort of entertainment. It is mostly featured in the prime time news as a mass magnet for news corporations which are business entities and would therefore; capitalize on the expectant audience it has attracted. A large proportion of the crime reported is usually projected as individual subversions rather than socially motivated misdemeanors. It is from this perspective that criminals are feared beyond their capability without proper dissemination of the causes leaving an audience that is always pregnant with political, or sexual related crimes as a form of entertainment than a source of crime prevention issues that would go a long way in making their neighborhoods safer.
This paper will delve into the three main parts; the study…
Catalano, S.M. (2006). The Measurement of Crime: Victim Reporting and Police Recording.
New York: LFB Scholarly.
Conklin, J. (2010). Criminology. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social Causes of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chacago Press.
History has shown us that, time and again, more privileged offenders become excused of higher-level degrees of crime and are, instead, tagged with the lower-level descriptor of white-collar crime. The FBI's definition merges with this second definition in that the FBI agrees that most white-collar crimes are perpetrated by business and government professionals, and that these crimes can be severe in that they can devastate individuals, families, and organizations (Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [online]).
What is the National Insurance Crime Bureau, and what functions does it perform for law enforcement?
The National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB), supported by approximately 1,000 property/casualty insurance companies, is an American non-profit organization located in Illinois that deals with insurance-related crimes and works with law enforcement agencies to ensure control and vigilance. Much of its work is related to motor vehicle theft. In general, however, the NICB describes itself as "partnering with insurers and…
Both the Trail Smelter and the Chernobyl episodes greatly affected the evolution of international environmental law. The smelter operation at Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company at Trail, British Columbia, had caused damages across the border in Washington State. Arbitration settlement resulted in Canada agreeing to pay the US $350,000 for damages accrued by the fumes from the smelting operation prior to 1932.[footnoteRef:2] With Chernobyl a half century later, the nuclear reactor meltdown and fallout damaged the environment in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, along with several other European states. Three consequences from these two episodes in shaping the new regime of international law were that: 1) they established harm principles, which 2) shifted to regime responsibility by the end of the century, which resulted in 3) the establishment of climate justice at the Paris Agreement of 2015. Each of these consequences can be seen in concrete ways, particularly when…
Akehurst, Chapter 16: Environment.
Ewing-Chow, Michael and Darryl Soh , “Pain, Gain, or Shame: the Evolution of Environmental Law and the Role of Multinational Corporations.” Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, vol. 16, no. 1 (2009), 195-222.
Mueller, Benjamin and Mark Landler, “UK Court Blocks Heathrow Airport Expansion on Environmental Grounds,” New York Times, 27 Feb 2020.
REPORTS OF INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL AWARDS: Trail smelter case (United States, Canada). 16 April 1938 and 11 March 1941. VOLUME III. NATIONS UNIES - UNITED NATIONS (2006), pp. 1905-1982.
Schwartz, John. “In Strongest Climate Ruling Yet, Dutch Court Orders Leaders to Take Action,” New York Times, 20 Dec 2019.
Shaw, Malcolm. International Law. Cambridge University Press.
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…
Air Resources Board. 2007 Annual Enforcement Report. 2008.
Bellenger, Gail. What is the Clean Water Act? 2002.
In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Ross, W.D. Translator). Retrieved fromhttp://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/aristotle/Ethics.pdf September 30, 2010
Hartman Laura P. & Joe DesJardins. Business Ethics Decision Making for Personal integrity & Social Responsibility, Second Edition
The problem of determining the right approach is compounded by the effects of the culture of violence to which many young offenders are exposed. In some cases, it is possible to reform their behavior but in other cases, juvenile offenders already take on the hardened attitude normally associated with adult offenders. As a result, some juveniles are too far gone to reach through non-punitive methods by the time they reach high school age.
In terms of the protections afforded by American due process principles, those principles are essential to the fair administration of criminal justice and they provide a much more fair judicial system than those of most other countries (Dershowitz 2002).
However, in terms of the distinction between due process with respect to suspending concepts of guilt in crimes perpetrated by juveniles, the strict application of punitive sentences for criminal conduct may sometimes be more appropriate. Certainly, there are…
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Sep. 2007: 1-7.
Schmalleger, F. (2008) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Climate change is also described as global warming, the unnatural or manmade cause of the planet’s increase in temperature. Climate change is physically caused by the release of greenhouse gases which get trapped in the atmosphere, in turn trapping heat from the sun on the planet (Meyer & Roser, 2006). Other pollutants can cause problems for the environment as well, such as toxins released into the water from chemical plants, or nuclear meltdowns that result in oceans being poisoned. These are also lumped in with climate change, since they also alter the environment. One of the biggest producers This paper will describe how climate change is occurring, how corporations are involved, and what some companies are doing to address it.
A Poore, Williams and Tracey (2000) note, sea levels are rising as a result of climate change. This occurs because the heat trapped on the planet by greenhouse gases leads…
(Dunkelberger, 1) This is, of course, a statement of direct reflection on
the approach taken by lawmakers to building a lagging budget, which
determines to impose heavier fines and fees upon members of the public.
Rather than raising taxes, here the economic struggles are in a certain
matter only compounded amongst those who have in some manner run aground of
local or state law.
And as point of fact, the article points to another recommendation
which seems to reinforce this tack. As Dunkelberger tells, "one of the few
winners in the budget process was the Florida Highway Patrol, where
troopers will be in line for a 5 percent pay raise on Oct. 1. Lawmakers
approved the raise after hearing the agency was steadily losing personnel
to other law enforcement agencies that can pay higher salaries."
(Dunkelberger, 1) To say nothing of the fact that this pay raise was a…
Dunkelberger, L. (Apr. 28, 2008). Grim Budget Brings Deep Cuts.
There were actually more cars stolen during the sting operation than in the same time frame the previous year. While much stolen property was discovered, the public's perception of the police department and their ethics may have been damaged by the sting operation, and as the study notes, it can also actually lead to more organized crime groups, retaliatory violence, and even overzealous policing (Langworthy, 1989, pg. 43). Thus, this may forward the organizational goals of the department to solve more crimes and recover more stolen cars, but in this case, the sting operation really backfired. It cost more to complete than in the vehicles recovered, and the police department got a bad public perception because of the sting. The organization did not weigh the disadvantages of the policy, and so, it was a bad policy decision that cost the organization in the end, in both perception and function.
Langworthy, R.H. (1989). Do stings control crime? An evaluation of a police fencing operation. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 6 No. 1, 27-45.
Pelican Bay State Prison: War Zone
How does the video you selected support a social structure theory?
One social structure theory relates and highlights all the happenings in this video. Social disorganization theory appears to dominate the entire movie. This concept represents social change, lack of social agreement, and social conflict as the main causes of criminal activity and deviance; it is carefully associated with the environmental theory of criminology. Poverty is regarded to be the minimum stage or point in our social society. On the poverty stage, there are high levels of lack of employment, drug use and addiction, criminal activity and people without abilities to discover efficient and permanent employment. It does not imply that this does not exist in the higher stages of our society: they exist although the magnitudes are significantly lower. Absence of education is attributed to learners who fail to be successful in the…
Decker, S.H., Alarid, L.F., & Katz, C.M. (2013). Controversies in criminal justice: Contemporary readings. Los Angeles: Roxbury Pub. Co.
Stanley, E.A., & Smith, N. (2011). Captive genders: Trans embodiment and the prison industrial complex. Oakland, CA: AK Press.
Walsh, A., & Hemmens, C. (2011). Introduction to criminology: A text/reader. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE
Domestic Homicide in South Carolina
The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread," wrote French intellectual and social critic Anatole France in The Red Lily in 1894 and in doing so he summarized the often great distance that exists between laws and people's concepts of justice and truth. Justice is a slippery concept and the truth even more so - and this is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the practices of the "truth commissions" established in a number of countries newly accustoming themselves to democracy. The Orwellian sound of "truth commission" is not inappropriate, for the connection between the actions of these commissions - in places like Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala and South Africa - and the truth of experience or any sense of absolute justice was both tenuous…
Organizational change in any sector implies moving away from the present state and "toward some desired future state" in order to increase the effectiveness of the organization (Lunenburg, 2010, p. 1). Change is typically driven by internal and/or external factors. The impetus for change could be a crisis or, in the case of criminal justice agencies, policy change. Changes to technology or financial resources are other examples of external forces of change that could impact a criminal justice agency. Criminal justice agencies also respond to internal forces of change, including demands to change organizational culture, policy, or procedure. The primary approaches to manage organizational change in criminal justice agencies include recognizing the need for change and the forces instigating it, planning effectively for change, and implementing change strategies that coincide with organizational goals and values.
When change has become inevitable in a criminal justice agency, it may also be helpful…
Bodor, T., Thompson, F. & DemirAivi, F. (2004). Criminal justice cultures in the United States. Retrieved online: https://www.ctg.albany.edu/publications/journals/hpa_2004_criminal/hpa_2004_criminal.pdf
Lunenburg, F.C. (2010). Forces for and resistance to organizational change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal 27(4).
Stojkovic, S., Kalinch, D. & Klofas, J. (n.d.). Criminal Justice Organizations. Fifth Edition.
Umbreit, M.S. (2007). Restorative justice: Implications for organizational change. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved online: http://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/organizational-change/pages/implications.aspx
Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice
One interesting theme which emerges in the book Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice: Integration, Theory, and Application is the idea that the multicultural and social justice perspectives counselors may adopt are not necessarily synonymous. Although multiculturalism may stress the need to take into consideration a counseling subject's unique needs, including the fact that the client comes from a more collectivist culture, the social justice perspective emphasizes the need for change and dynamism in society and ensuring fairness for the client in frequently unfair situations. The social justice may challenges some of the client's deeply-held social assumptions and force the client out of his or her comfort zone. The counselor must weigh the need to be sensitive and not impose a particular worldview on the client with an accurate view of the client's situation.
It is true that multiculturalism and the social justice perspective…
Ratts, M. & Pederson, P. (2014). Counseling for multiculturalism and social justice: Integration, theory, and application. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Domestic and Global Environments
Delta operates in the airline industry and competes with other leaders in the industry including brands such as Frontier Airlines, United Airlines, American Airlines and Southwest Airlines. These are the dominant firms in the industry and Delta rates second highest in terms of volume. Delta's overall performance has improved recently compared to previous performances. Yet, there is one customer service issue that has gained publicity which is their propensity to bump people off flights due to overbooking and this practice is fairly pronounced and thus drags them down rating-wise (NY Post, 2014). Customer service is especially relevant because the domestic industry in general is highly competitive and consumers have multiple options for flights. Airlines in the domestic environment typically try to offer differentiation in service to create consumer value and create brand loyalty.
The government tends to regulate the industry mostly in the form…
Carey, S. (2014). Delta Airlines to take control of its data systems. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 6, 2015 from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303480304579575891541812918
Hofstede, G. (2015). Japan. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved October 18, 2015 from http://geert-hofstede.com/japan.html
Hofstede, G. (2015). United States. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved October 18, 2015 from http://geert-hofstede.com/united-states.html
NY Post. (2014). The worst airlines in America. New York Post. Retrieved 20 September 2015,
Food Justice Movement and Its Themes
Intersectional Theory is the study of systems that intersect in terms of power structure dichotomies -- oppression vs. hegemony -- and approaches this intersection from the standpoint of focusing on how various variables (such as gender, age, class, etc.) interact with cultural, ecological, environmental, economical categories in different ways. In the food justice movement, "the social relations of food have been organized along lines of gender" with women predominantly in the role of food preparer, thus projecting woman's role in the world "in deep, complex, and often contradictory ways" (Allen, Sachs, 2007, p. 1). Yet, with the globalization of food through the rise of multinationals, the powerful role held by women in food preparation and production has been taken from them and placed in the hands of the corporations (Shiva, 2009, p. 17). Food simultaneously elevates and impoverishes women in terms of the social…
Allen, P. & Sachs, C. (2007). Women and Food Chains: The Gendered Politics of Food.
International Journal of Sociology of Food and Agriculture, 15(1), 1-23.
Patel, R. C. (2012). Food Sovereignty: Power, Gender, and the Right to Food. PLoS
To that end, proof is sufficient evidence or argument for the truth of a proposition. This might include evidence from witnesses, forensic investigation and so on to prove the underlying conclusion. Testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of the matter. Testimony would most likely be used in court in the form of witness recollection in order to further the proof and evidence in a case. Admissibility is any testimonial, documentary, or tangible evidence that may be introduced to the jury or the judge in order to establish or to further a point that has been made in a court case. With admissibility, comes relevance which describes how pertinent, connected or applicable something is to a given matter. A thing is relevant if it serves as a means to a given purpose- relevant evidence, proof or testimony helps the admissibility of the justice process. Also, materiality is "significant…
At a minimum, the emergency plan should outline the respective risks capable of being anticipated along with appropriate procedures for implementing necessary response procedures and resource allocation. The emergency plan must include procedures for ensuring continual communication among responders as well as alternate means of communication; procedures for contacting entities outside the immediate area affected by the emergency; and multiple means of providing essential response to every foreseeable type of emergency and every foreseeable type of malfunction or breakdown of primary processes along with secondary plans for each.
Effective emergency response requires training and practice implementing procedures and resources and that practice is also essential for communicating awareness of the plan among first responders. Non-first responders should also be informed of all elements of the plan that pertain to them specifically.
4. What role, if any, should emergency managers play in ensuring emergency medical care for a mass-casualty incident? In…
On the other hand, many sources of environmental threats are somewhat predictable, especially through modern meteorological techniques.
As demonstrated by the tremendous differences between specific localities similarly impacted by Hurricane Katrina in terms of their comparative responses, preparation and advanced planning for the dissemination of essential emergency resources is essential to minimize the effect of environmental disasters (Larson 2007).
Even in the most severe environmental disasters, the degree of impact is largely a function of logistical planning and the prearranged availability of resources whose need is capable of predicting. The extent of damage resulting from Katrina that was attributable specifically to logistical unpreparedness for distributing resources that were actually available illustrates the importance of preparation that far exceeds mere procurement (Larson 2007).
Civil unrest can present direct security threats, (such as where the source of the unrest relates specifically to the protected entities), or indirect security threats, (such…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt
Hoffman, B. (2003) the Logic of Suicide Terrorism: Lessons from Israel that America Must Learn. The Atlantic Monthly; Vol. 291 No. 5.
Larsen, R. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
The waste group contains 3 items:
AS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household aste and Non-recyclable aste
AS2 -- Building Location aste Management
AS3 -- Composting
Household Recycling facilities
here the following recycling
services are given:
• 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr
-- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people
here full recycling facilities
• 3 internal storage bins with -- min total capacity of 30 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller
than 7 ltr
-- all bins in a dedicated position that is accessible to disabled people
• a Local Authority collection scheme for recyclable materials covering at least three streams of waste with sufficient space for…
Agyeman, J., & Evans, B. (2004). 'Just sustainability': The emerging discourse of environmental justice in Britain? The Geographical Journal, 170, 155-164.
Apitz, S.E. (2010). Waste or resource? classifying and scoring dredged material management strategies in terms of the waste hierarchy. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10(8), 1657-1668.
Babin, R., & Nicholson, B. (2011). How green is my outsourcer? Measuring sustainability in global it outsourcing. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 4(1), 47-66.
Ball, S., & Abou Taleb, M. (2011). Benchmarking waste disposal in the Egyptian hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(1), 1-18.
Waste Crisis in Campania, Italy
Since early 1990s to late 2000s, the Italian government issued a formal State of Emergency in the region of Campania, south-west Italy because of the saturation of regional waste treatment facilities. During this period, there was huge evidence including a study by World Health Organization that showed increased accumulation of legal, illegal, urban and industrial waste, which in turn contaminated water, air, and soil. The contamination was brought by a series of toxic pollutants from the waste including dioxins. This case provides significant insights regarding sustainability and demonstrates various ecological economics sustainability concepts. Moreover, this case study raises some sustainability challenges or questions that are helpful when considering environmental sustainability.
Synopsis of the Case
Campania region in south-west Italy was under a formal State of Emergency for nearly 14 years i.e. between 1994 and 2008 (Civil Society Engagement with Ecological Economics, 2010). This emergency was…
Barker, T. (2013, March 6). What is Ecological Economics, as Distinct from the Neoclassical Environmental Economics? Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.camecon.com/Libraries/Downloadable_Files/Ecological_Economics-Barker2013.sflb.ashx
Civil Society Engagement with Ecological Economics. (2010). The CEECEC handbook: ecological economics from the bottom-up. CEECEC, Belgium.
.....men and women behind everything from public infrastructure to consumer product design, engineers have a distinct ethical obligation to uphold standards of safety. However, there is more to engineering ethics than the assurance that safety standards are met or exceeded. Engineers also need to ascribe to a policy resonant with corporate social responsibility: working in accordance with global values like environmental conservation and sustainability. Another key component of engineering ethics is related to the globalized nature of the work that engineers do: engineers frequently find themselves working in countries and cultures that are different from their own. The occasional conflicts that arise between local and home values may present unique ethnical conundrums that engineers can overcome with critical thinking and cultural awareness.
Safety is the most apparent of all ethical obligations place upon engineers throughout their careers. The first provision of the American Society of Civil Engineers, as with…
Corporate Social esponsibility
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility in the Workplace and the World
Key stakeholders within the PharmaCare scenario
Stakeholders play a significant role in influencing the performance and the realization of goals and objectives of the organization. They make corporate decisions about the ways in which the organization should carry out its operations meeting the demands of the customers and the legal requirements. The stakeholders of the PharmaCare Company are varied and have varying characteristics. Among the stakeholders, include the employees, customers, investors, and the creditors of the company. The performance of the PharmaCare Company relies largely on the hard work of the employees, the managers, and the members of its board. As such, it implies that the company should provide a variety of services to its employees such as compensation packages to retain and ensure their satisfaction with their job. In addition, the company provides regular training opportunities…
Cragg, W. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Hunnicutt, S. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Kao, R.W. (2010). Sustainable economy corporate, social, and environmental responsibility. Singapore: World Scientific.
McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. (n.d.). McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://www.mcspotlight.org/beyond/drugs.html
It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.
Rethinking the Concept
Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.
General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…
Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:
Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009
Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,
Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Various questions relating to Automotives, Safety and Environmental Concerns
Discuss the apparent reluctance of auto manufacturers to put consumer safety ahead of profits.
Money is, of course vitally important, especially in America. However, just recently we have heard news on how a Toyota killed a family, who was not able to use the breaks on the highway. Auto accidents are climbing rapidly, and often traffic on the highway is due to such accidents, which is a sad fact.[footnoteRef:1] Of course, auto manufacturers are not necessarily at the base of these statistics, and human error undoubtedly plays a role; yet many studies do conclude that the emphasis is often on profit instead of customer safety, which is worrying indeed. [1: U.S. Census Bureau-Accidents and Fatalities (011). Retrieved September , from . ]
One study, for example, is concerned that the U.S. is much too complacent with the incidence of accidents…
2. What is "environmental racism"? What about minority/economically disadvantaged populations encourages or allows this situation? How is environmental racism relevant to white-collar crime?
Environmental racism is yet another problem that faces our country. This means that certain races are more affected by environmental crises as others.[footnoteRef:3] For example, the disadvantaged in the Katrina hurricane were more affected than the affluent, and many more of the latter perished, sadly. This situation is encouraged by the poor standards that are enforced with it comes to minority populations. It is not unusual that they live in worse areas, under worse conditions (i.e. dilapidated houses, worse terrain, etc.) The fact that most of these populations are not helped and that the government does relatively little to remedy such situations does not help either. This concept is related to white collar crime due to the fact that companies, and the executives of these companies in specific, often go around safety measures for housing, for example, built for minority populations, which in turn affects the latter, as mentioned above.[footnoteRef:4]
[3: Environmental Justice/Environmental Racism. (2011). Retrieved September 22, from .] [4: While Collar Crime (2011). FBI. Retrieved September 22, 2011, from . ]
The Flint, Michigan water crisis has become a poster child for environmental injustice, environmental racism, and inequitable resource distribution in the United States. It has also represented a case of bleak mismanagement of precious natural resources and the inability of the United States to adequately respond to the most basic human needs. The water crisis was but a grim manifestation of decades of racist land use policies and political realities, which can be traced back to periods of segregation and the white flight to the suburban sprawl. Moreover, the Flint water crisis showcases the role government plays in colluding with polluters, with issues related to the not in my back yard (NIMBY) phenomenon also relevant in this case. As Bell (2012:28) points out, “environmental justice...concerns patterns of inequality in the distribution of environmental goods.” Flint residents lacked access to environmental “goods,” such as clean drinking water given the long-term contamination…
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…
Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.
To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…
Alldred, Pam, and Dennison, Sarah, 2000, 'Eco-Activism and Feminism: Do Eco-Warriors and Goddesses Need it?', Feminist Review, No. 63, 124-127.
Biehl, Janet, 1991, Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics, South End Press, Cambridge MA.
Eaton, Heather, 2005, Introducing Ecofeminist Theologies, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.
Kheel, Marti, 1993, 'From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge', in Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature, G. Gaard Ed., Temple University Press: New York.
Schaltegger, S. & Wagner, M. (2010). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment 20: 222-237.
Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) create a usable framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, sustainable innovation, and sustainable business development in "Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions." he article first addresses the purpose for the research. Companies have been traditionally culprits in creating both environmental and social justice problems, necessitating regulations imposed externally. Driven solely by profit, a company will not be likely to pursue innovation or sustainability entrepreneurship unless it was profitable to do so. he authors point out that while this may be true with some organizations in some sectors, that otherwise the business environment is changing. A new framework based on current business trends is proposed by Schaltegger & Wagner (2010). his new framework is based on the fact that many companies -- and their managers --…
The Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research is helpful in providing the promised framework for relating sustainable entrepreneurship with sustainability innovation. However, the strength of the research is in the matrix revealing the different types of sustainable entrepreneurship models. Start-ups and veteran enterprises alike can study such a matrix for cues and clues as to how to effectively launch a sustainability enterprise based on innovation. The research can be applied to progressive regulatory environments, seeking to balance the needs for greater corporate accountability with the need for economic progress. Although the Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research seems convoluted and overly complicated at times, it does have some practical value in highlighting the points of convergence between business, social justice, and ecological ethics
It is possible that sustainable innovation refers more to the method by which stalwart companies like Deutsche Bahn embark on sustainable entrepreneurship: applying traditional business models to meeting new goals. The Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research also shows that fresh entrepreneurs may not contend with as many obstacles as was once believed. The seemingly mutually exclusive goals of profitability and sustainability can go hand in hand. Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) might be better off injecting more than cold fact into their research, which seems oddly devoid of any ethical framework. The authors treat issues like social benefit as if it were as quantifiable as sales figures. Moreover, the current research is exploratory and theoretical in nature. An experimental research design might be helpful in future research in this specific area if it is to be of any use to policy makers.
Ultimately, the goals of the research were fulfilled and the authors make a good point about the changing marketplace. The authors present a helpful framework outlining the types of sustainable entrepreneurship. Businesses can draw from this research a mission statement for a proposed sustainability innovation program. Entrepreneurs can use this research to present business models that are grounded in both fiscal and environmental responsibility. Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) also show which conditions tend to give rise to sustainable entrepreneurship, and posit relationships with measurable market impacts. It helps to know that innovation can be presented as a definite solution to environmental and social problems. Finally, there is no one model for sustainable entrepreneurship; the diversity of the economy and of the environment requires a multifaceted and heterogeneous business enterprise.
Sports Apparel's Organizational Branding
Sports Apparel's Organizational Branding
The Sports Apparel Company is an upcoming company that will specialize in the provision of different sports equipment and clothing to its consumers within County X. The company will target customers from all the market niches irrespective of their financial ability to purchase the products it provides. However, market analysis shows that the companies that provide similar products as the Sports Apparel Company does focus on specific market niches (the high earning consumers). Their specifity translates to the need for an organization that provides sports equipment and goods to consumers from all the social classes in the marketplace (Klimchuk & Krasovec, 2006). Similarly, significant analysis of the market shows that the companies involved in the provision of sports equipment as the Sports Apparel Company do not involve themselves in activities that contribute to social sustainability and environmental justice.
Klimchuk, M.R., & Krasovec, S.A. (2006). Packaging design: successful product branding from concept to shelf. Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley & Sons
Mitrega, M. (2006). Market analysis. Katowice: Publisher of the Karol Adamiecki University of Economics
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…
Aston, R. (1999). The Legal, Engineering, Environmental and Social Perspectives of Surface Mining Law and Reclamation by Landfilling: Getting Maximum Yield from Surface Mines (p. 120). World Scientific.
Brownell, P. & Kelly, J. (2013). Ageism and mistreatment of older workers. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frederickson, G. (1994). Ethics and Public Administration. Routledge.
Hill, B. (2014). Environmental Justice (p. 103). Environmental Law Institute.
Wicked Problem: oyal Dutch Shell and Its esponse to the Nigerian Oil Spill
Major oil companies such as oyal Dutch Shell are responsible for hundreds of oil spills every year that cumulatively involve millions of barrels of oil. The harmful effects of such oil spills on the environment is well documented of course, but less well documented are the different types and levels of responses that are used in response to oil spills in developing nations and those used in affluent nations. While oil spills such as British Petroleum's recent rupture of its Macondo well offshore United States are the focus of a massive and expensive coordinated response, far less attention is paid to oil spills that affect emerging nations such as Nigeria. This is not to say, of course, that all major oil companies -- including oyal Dutch Shell -- are completely abrogating their corporate responsibilities for oil spill…
Cocks, T. (2011, December 27). 'Shell says Nigeria oil spill contained.' Thomson Reuters.
[online] available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/27/us-shell-nigeria-spill -
Duncan, H. & Duke, S. (2010, October 13). 'Royal Dutch Shell Wades in with Attack on BP
Made famous by her eponymous movie, Erin Brockovich is a consumer rights advocate whose work has exposed the weaknesses inherent in organizational behavior. The 2000 film was about Brockovich's fight for social and environmental justice. Pacific Gas & Electric had been blatantly poisoning groundwater with Chromium 6, a toxic agent related to a host of health issues. Brockovich's determination to expose the injustice led to a successful litigation against Pacific Gas & Electric. Her work did not stop there; Brockovich became passionate about a range of consumer rights and social justice issues related to the ways corporations can too easily hide behind legal loopholes and overtly unethical legislation. Brockovich exemplifies core principles related to leadership and organizational behavior.
Erin Brockovich's personality traits likely make her well suited to become active in her social justice campaigns, like the one depicted in the movie. Brockovich exhibits, for example, the Big…
"Erin Brockovich Biography." Retrieved online: http://www.brockovich.com/mystory.html
Clark, D. (2011). Leadership and organizational behavior. Retrieved online: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Forbes, J.B. & Smith, J.E. (2007). The potential of Erin Brockovich to introduce organizational behavior topics. Organization Management Journal (2007) 4, 207 -- 218. doi:10.1057/omj.2007.23
Srivastava, S. (2012). Measuring the Big Five Personality Factors. Retrieved [today's date] from http://psdlab.uoregon.edu/bigfive.html.
Health disparities refer to a certain kind of health-related difference closely tied to economic or social disadvantage. They negatively impact groups of individuals systematically subject to greater economic and social barriers to a hygienic environment and health, on the basis of their ethnic or racial group, age, gender, religion, mental health, socioeconomic standing, geographic location, gender identity or sexual orientation, physical, cognitive, or sensory disability, or any other characteristics that are associated historically with marginalization or discrimination (Department of Health & Human Services, 2011b).
Of all industrialized countries, the U.S. expends maximum resources on the area of healthcare; despite this, millions of U.S. citizens do not enjoy a chance to live a healthful life. Overall population health in the U.S. has witnessed improvements over time, but health disparities for underserved, racial minority and ethnic minority communities continue. Vulnerable population clusters such as ethnic and racial minorities, disabled individuals,…
Center for Disease and Control. (2013). Conclusion and future directions: CDC health disparities and inequalities report -- United States, 2013. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report -- United States, 2013, 62(3), 184.
Cooper, M. (2016). Clark County fighting minority health disparities. Retrieved from http://www.springfieldnewssun.com/news/news/local/clark-county-fighting-minority-health-disparities/nq5wj/
Department of Health & Human Services. (2011a). HHS action plan to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities: A nation free of disparities in health and health care.
Health, U. D. o., & Services, H. (2011b). National partnership for action to end health disparities. Health Equality & Disparities.
1. Executive summary
While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.
Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…
action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
There is presently much controversy regarding environmentalism and religion is particularly important when considering people's involvement in preserving the environment, with Christian groups from around the world being actively engaged in preserving and restoring it. Although there are a series of techniques that people can use in trying to save the environment, some methods are actually ineffective. The environment is rapidly deteriorating and urgent action needs to be taken in order for the process to be slowed down and eventually even stopped. Christian values influence people in protecting the environment, as it is essential for humans to benefit as a result of having access to the resources offered by a healthy planet. Christians should take advantage of the fact that their religious preferences bring them together and attempt to fight against environmental deterioration on several fronts.…
Jenkins, Willis "Missiology in Environmental Context: Tasks for an Ecology of Mission," International Bulletin of Missionary Research Oct. 2008
Novotny, Patrick Where We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New Environmentalism (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000)
Reilly, Patrick "Leftists Pushing Radical 'christian' Environmentalism," Human Events 22 June 2009
Sideris, Lisa H. Environmental Ethics, Ecological Theology, and Natural Selection (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003)