Environmental Pollution Essays (Examples)

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Environmental Policies Give an Example

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]

References

Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
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Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law

Words: 3051 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96085136

Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation

With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.

There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up

Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating

Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf.
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Environmental Industrial Management

Words: 2089 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99308057

Environmental Industrial Management

Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.

Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…… [Read More]

References

Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]

Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.

Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.

Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.
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Environmental Science Minamata Disease This

Words: 1572 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96513607

The Japanese government has taken measures to prevent this from happening again, settlements have been reached, and today the national government is the body that certifies a person as afflicted by the disorder.

orks Cited

Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html)."

Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).

Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).

Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).

The Chisso Minamata Disease Kansai Lawsuit. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www1.odn.ne.jp/~aah07310/english/index-e.html).

Unknown. "Supreme Court holds state responsible for Minamata Disease." Kyodo orld News Service. (2004): 15 October.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005).  http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html )."

Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).

Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).

Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
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Environmental Fraud

Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8839582

Enviromental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

ecently, issues related to global warming have been center-stage of various political debates. Debate has been centered to examine human influences to environment malfunctioning. Poorly treated environment poses a significant danger to the local community and the atmosphere. For this reason, the law has been configured to ensure that the environment is satisfactorily protected. Besides, states have been pursuing local policies, which are parallel to federal laws in relation to environmental protection. This report will assess the Virginia Beach city pollution. The report identifies Care A lot as a polluter and some of the EPA's regulations tackling the issue. The report will also identify two primary laws responding to Virginia Beach's environmental concerns.

Virginia Pollution

In Virginia Beach, there has been evidence on the presence of fecal contamination, which is realized in the city's brackish waters. This contamination is a…… [Read More]

References

Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association

Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press

Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications

U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009). Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 40, Issues 266-299. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office
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Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude

Words: 9344 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22808838

Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage

Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:

http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.

AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:

http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm. August 1, 2004.
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Environmental Economics

Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66900887

video Tapped. The video is a documentary detailing the situation in the bottled water industry in the United States of America. It highlights the economic issues raised throughout the video. The second part of the paper examines in detail these economic issues.

Video Summary

This video (Tapped), exposes the hard reality of the state of economic survival in the water industry. First, it portrays a scenario where great demand for bottled drinking water exists in the United States of America. The video suggests that bottled water companies make so much money every year. At one point, there is mention of Pepsi hauling over 400,000 gallons a day, an indication of the demand of this product in the U.S. market.

Secondly, the video highlights depletion of water as a resource. This is probably the main reason for the video. Fryebyrg, Maine, is shown one area enduring a water shortage because of…… [Read More]

Works cited

All About Water. "The Effects of Bottled Water on the Environment ." 2004.

www.allaboutwater.org. 22 March 2012 .

Snyder, Shannyn. "Resource Demands of Bottled Water." 2011. www.thewaterproject.org. 22

March 2012 .
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Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37679198

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical

The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.

Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf 

Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf

Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from  http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html 

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
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Environmental Crime the National Environmental

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431

..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.  http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund 

Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. (http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/)

Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
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Environmental Law the Norwegian Oil and Gas

Words: 815 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5769039

Environmental Law

The Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: elatively Successful

Norway became an oil producer when it drilled a hole into the continental shelf off its shores on June 15, 1971 (Law Library of Congress 2010, p. 1). Since then the Norwegian oil industry has become the country's largest sector, representing 26% of economic production in 2006. Norway was the ranked fifth in the world for oil exportation in 2009 and the largest in Europe. Although oil production has begun to decline in recent years, the reserves off its coast remain the largest in Europe (Business Monitor International 2013). Norway is the second leading gas exporter after ussia, primarily because domestic use is low given the heavy reliance on hydropower.

Concerns about a possible drilling disaster were voiced soon after the industry began developing the offshore oil fields. A 1976 report in The Guardian claimed that the oil industry would…… [Read More]

References

Business Monitor International 2013, Norway Oil & Gas Report Q1 2013, Includes 10-year Forecasts to 2021, digital image, viewed 26 November 2013, ProQuest Reports, document ID: 1282636555.

Environment.NO, 2012, 'Acute Pollution', webpage, viewed 26 November 2013, State of the Environment Norway, .

Goldsmith, M 1976, 'Norway worried by risks from oil pollution', The Guardian, 7 Apr. 1976, p. 4, digital image, viewed 26 November 2013, ProQuest Historical Newspapers, document ID: 185881493.

Law Library of Congress 2010, Norway oil spill liability and regulatory regime. Digital image, Law Library of Congress, viewed 26 November 2013, .
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Environmental Case Study Solving a Puzzle

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21639584

Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)

Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.

Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:

Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.

Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
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Environmental Ethical Issue Sociology Environmental

Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44102580



Current events of the environmental ethics

Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).

Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…… [Read More]

References

Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.

Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing

Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.

Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
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Environmental Degradation and Poverty There

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32311566

The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined that poor people suffer greater loss of life and health from pollution and other environment-related causes, with lack of safe water, sanitation, and poor air quality being the main factors in determining life expectancy. The statistic that 20% of the total loss of life expectancy in developing countries is attributable to environmental causes, versus only 4% in rich countries is also indicative of the fact that the poor are hit the hardest by environmental degradation. (Ibid. p. 6)

Despite such overwhelming evidence about environmental degradation as a major cause of poverty, there is a widespread perception in developing countries that maintaining the environmental quality was a luxury that the poor countries can ill-afford while allocating their scarce resources in supposedly more important areas such as education, health and infrastructure. This is an arguable point. According to the "Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty..."…… [Read More]

References

Assessing Environment's Contribution to Poverty Reduction" (2005). United Nations Development Program for Poverty-Environment Partnership. Retrieved on June 13, 2007 at http://www.undp.org/pei/pdfs/AssessingEnvironmentsRoleinPovertyReduction.pdf

Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty and Achieve the MDGs." (2005). United Nations Development Program for Poverty-Environment Partnership. Retrieved on June 13, 2007 at http://www.undp.org/pei/pdfs/SustainingEnvironmentFightPoverty.pdf

UNDP is United Nations Development Program; UNEP is United Nations Environment Program; IIED is International Institute for Environment and Development; IUCN is World Conservation Union; and WRI is World Resource Institute

The perception is based on the controversial 'environmental Kuznets curve' (EKC) hypothesis, which suggests that environmental assets are degraded in the early stages of economic development, but they improve after some income threshold has been passed
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Environmental Psychology as a Brief Introduction of

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45575986

Environmental Psychology

As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the…… [Read More]

Reference

Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.

Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.

Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed:  http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf .

Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from:  http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf .
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Environmental Law Swancc vs US Army Corps of Engineers

Words: 2968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 567474

Environmental Case Study

Case Title:

SWANCC v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Parties:

The Petitioner is the Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) and the respondent is the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

Facts:

The petitioner, SWANCC, is a consortium of 23 suburban Chicago cities and villages that united in an effort to locate and develop a disposal site for baled nonhazardous solid waste. SWANCC had purchased a 533-acre parcel, located in Northern Illinois that straddled the Cook County and Kane County line. The site had been abandoned by a sand and gravel mining operation in about 1960 and had given away to a successional stage forest with its remnant excavation trenches evolving into a scattering of permanent and seasonal ponds of various sizes and depths.

SWANCC was required by law to file for various permits from Cook County…… [Read More]

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Environmental Security the Environment and

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…… [Read More]

Sources

Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.

Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11

Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
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Environmental Engineering -- Contrails Are

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23080508

Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.

The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)

The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…… [Read More]

References

Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.

Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.

Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.

Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
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Environmental Concerns in 1900 the

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3445105

Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…… [Read More]

Europa (4 April 2007).

International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm

European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
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Environmental Benefits of Reusable Bags

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7648446

2007, para.7).

There are also a number of other environmental consequences to using these bags that should be considered. Plastic bags clog storm drains and they also block the natural flow of oxygen and water through the soil -- all of which contributes to placing increasing pressure on the sustainability of the environment and ecosystems. (Single-Use Plastic Shopping Bags. Presentation to the Transportation and Environment Committee, 2008)

2. The advantages of non-reusable bags

It therefore follows from the above discussion that fewer plastic bags in circulation means less toxic chemical and less pollution of the environment. As one commentator writes, "if people were to use reusable bags instead of plastic ones, dependence on these non-renewable resources would be significantly less" (Go green! Benefits of reusable bags). The increase in usage of reusable bags would also mean a significant reduction in the need for plastic -- and it must be remembered…… [Read More]

References

Benefits of Reusable. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.reusablebagsdepot.com/reusable-bag-benefits.html

Go green! Benefits of reusable bags. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.helium.com/items/976541-go-green-benefits-of-reusable-bags

Knight M. (2007) Plastic bags fly into environmental storm. Retrieved September 4,

2009, from  http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/11/14/fsummit.climate.plasticbags/index.html
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Environmental Hazards Open Dumps an

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77953367

Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.

Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…… [Read More]

References

Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU

Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx

Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from  http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills
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Environmental Law the Offshore Oil and Gas

Words: 3773 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54004240

Environmental Law

The offshore oil and gas industry is complex in its rules and regulations

There are many different regulatory bodies that have some control over the industry, and they do not always work together as well as they should. This can become a serious issue for companies that are interested in oil and gas production, because they can have trouble keeping all the regulations straight. With UNCLOS, MAPOL, OSPA, and the EU all offering regulations and requirements, it becomes very difficult for companies who work with oil and gas to be clear on the requirements

Unfortunately, that can lead them to make mistakes, to misunderstand rules, and to ignore or avoid other regulations because they seem too complicated or they are not sure if they are even applicable. That can get a company into serious trouble, so it is very important that these companies focus in on how to…… [Read More]

References

Books

Barnard, Catherine (2007). The Substantive Law of the EU: The four freedoms (2 ed.). Oxford University Press.

Benson, D. And Adelle, C. (2012) European Union environmental policy after the Lisbon Treaty, In: Jordan, A.J. And Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.

Bindi, Federiga, ed. The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe's Role in the World (Brookings Institution Press; 2010). The E.U.'s foreign-policy mechanisms and foreign relations, including with its neighbours.
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Environmental Policies and Problems in

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html 

Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)

Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
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Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal What Is Environmental

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51447096

Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal

What is Environmental Stewardship?

What are the problems?

Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?

A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness

Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.

This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…… [Read More]

References

Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.

Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
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Environmental Regulations in Public Transit

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60710599

Environmental egulations in Public Transit

The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…… [Read More]

References

Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005

Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005

Clean Air Act. Retrieved from  http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act  Accessed on 28 May 2005

Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from  http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm  Accessed on 28 May 2005
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Environmental Biology

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88934326

Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean

The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.

Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.

Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from:  http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .

Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
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Environmental Crime Economic Globalization and

Words: 2261 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2165518

A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.

Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.

"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
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Environmental Economics

Words: 2913 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16139129

Environmental Economics

Economics and Nature Conservation

From early childhood, one is taught of the importance of the surrounding environment in all human activities. Forests for instance are crucial sources of fresh air and clean water, as well as raw commodities that support life. Nevertheless, mankind continues to trash the woodlands, and as such jeopardize the future of the next generations. In a context in which next to 5 million hectares of forests are lost on annual basis due to deforestations and fires, causing a multitude of environmental, economic and social effects, the global authorities must intervene to better regulate the sector.

The modern day individual is characterized by a myriad of features, such as the reduced time to cook and the obvious tendency to either eat out, either grab some fast food. Other elements refer to the increased pace of technological development, with which he has to keep up; the…… [Read More]

References:

Bratkovich, S., Gallion, J., Leatherberry, E., Hoover, W., Reading, W., Durham, G., Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/forestprod/indiana_forest04/forests_of_IN04.htm  last accessed on November 24, 2009

Burgees, P., Cheek, K.A., Policy Review

Johnson, K.N., Holthausen, R., Shannon, M.A., Sedel, J., Case Study

Nelson, J.E., Management Review
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Environmental Crime Throughout the Twentieth

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9737426

Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).

The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp

Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html
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Environmental Review the Carbon in

Words: 734 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59271345



10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.

11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed

12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.

Chapter 13

5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…… [Read More]

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Environmental Case Study Ten Years Ago the

Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64953055

Environmental Case Study

Ten years ago, the United States Environmental Protection Agency established the Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control equirements. The rule accomplished a comprehensive single national program to control emissions of heavy-duty vehicles by regulating the both the vehicles and the diesel fuel used in the engines. The aim was to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX ) by 2.6 million, non-methane hydrocarbons by 115,000 tons, and particulate matter by 109,000 tons by 2030. By 2006, most areas of the country sold only ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. By 2007, the only new diesel engines sold required ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. One looming problem was that diesel engines are durable and have a long product life -- the change to cleaner engines would take until about 2020.

Problem Statement

Diesel fuel is the cause of one-third of the nitrogen oxide (NOX) and one-fourth of the particulate matter…… [Read More]

References

Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control Requirements, EPA420-F-00-057. (2000, December). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation Office of Transportation and Air Quality Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/otaq/highway-diesel/regs/f00057.pdf

Puget Sound Clean Air Agency Diesel Solutions Case Study, Pollution Prevention (P2). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/p2/

pubs/casestudies/pugetsound.htm
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Environmental Policy Specifically Eis Statement

Words: 4542 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 458151

" (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

The draft environmental impact statement elicited over 1.1 million responses which the Forest Service identified and summarized into six major issue categories including:

1) Public access;

2) Identification of other unroaded areas;

3) Exemptions and exceptions

4) Environmental effects;

5) Local involvement; and 6) the effect on communities with strong natural resource affiliations. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

These issues served to guide the process through:

1) Determining the scope of the proposal;

2) Development of a range of alternatives;

3) Direction of the analysis of potential environmental, social and economic effects;

3) Identification of possible mitigation and 4) Ensuring that the agency is operating within legal authorities. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

Two sets of alternatives were developed:

Four alternatives, including a No Action Alterative that cover the range of possible…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation (2000) United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Washington Office November 2000. Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary. Online available at http://roadless.fs.fed.us/documents/feis/documents/summarynb.pdf

NEPA Documentation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)(2000) Project Development. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Online available at http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29994840

Environmental Psychology

This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.

Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future

Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
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Environmental Conditions Impacting Organizational Forecasting

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71529883

Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean ater Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at
http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/lessons-from-biofuels-10-768.html

Reuters. (2008). States sue EPA over ozone pollution standards. Thomson
Reuters. Online at
http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSN2843108220080528
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Environmental Challenges Global Warming -

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99253343

U. (Website of the European Commission, 2007).

Educational institutions have also taken an interest in the matter. Stanford University for instance has been engaged in promoting responsible behavior of the consumers. They have also conducted studies to reveal the impact of global warming and the performances achieved in reducing its negative effects. They have also promoted the sources of alternative energy (Stanford University, 1995).

The governments in several American states have also formed alliances to fight off the malign effects of global warming. "As more and more states band together to fight global warming, their efforts are moving beyond mere symbolism and becoming big enough to make a real dent in the problem [...] More than half of the nation's 50 states -- including populous California, Texas and New York -- have joined together in regional coalitions aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, boosting the use of…… [Read More]

References

Kelly, E., March 25, 2007, States Work to Reduce Global Warming, Gannett News

1995, Avoiding Global Warming, Stanford University, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/avoid.htmllast accessed on October 31, 2008

2008, Ambitious Targets Agreed to Reduce Global Warming, Website of the European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/070309_1_en.html. Ast accessed on October 31, 2008

Threat of Climate Change, EcoBridge, http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_tht.html. Ast accessed on October 31, 2008
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Environmental Themes

Words: 5447 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33113853

Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath

This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.

Environmental Themes

Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia

Press. 2001.

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.

Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
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Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation What

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87383522

Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation

hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.

The Main Environmental Challenges

hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.

Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com.

Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu.

General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
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Environmental Aquatic Buffers Maintaining Environmental

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62161185

Several important factors all contribute to better efficiency and cleaner water areas. For example, shallow grades in the buffer zones are ore effective than steeper grades of 5 degrees or more. Also, compacted soil proves to be less efficient than loose soil in the absorption of polluted storm and urban water runoff, (Stormwatercenter.net). Strategic placement of buffer zones is also a major factor in the effectiveness of the buffer areas. Mature forests and vegetated areas are ideal in choosing buffer zone sites. It has been shown through several studies that the more root systems in the ground of buffer zones, means the more pollutants absorbed from the ground water.

However, the three buffer zones working in harmony with environmental factors prove to be more efficient, and are a great asset in keeping local environments less polluted from residential and urban developments. Effective implementations of these strategic buffer zones can help…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center of Watershed Protection. (). Article #41. Watershed Protection Techniques. http://www.cwp.org/Downloads/ELC_PWP41.pdf

Mulligan, Gerard E. (Feb 2007). "Aquatic Buffers." Westchester County Soil and Water Conservation District. http://www.westchestergov.com/planning/environmental/Reports/WaterResourceBufferBroch.pdf

Stormwatercenter.net. (2007) "Aquatic Buffers Fact Sheet."  http://www.stormwatercenter.net/Assorted%20Fact%20Sheets/Tool3_Buffers/BufferZones.htm
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Environmental History in The Trouble

Words: 2134 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93525130

Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).

However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…… [Read More]

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Environmental Issue in Florida Florida

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7906309

ildlife which does not have natural predators in Florida was introduced by people who had bought those animals or reptiles and could not control them, or had to leave the state, and therefore abandoned them in the Everglades. The best example is the one of a Burmese python which was let go in the Everglades and had attached an alligator. Both animals did not survive the encounter, yet it shows that human are the main threat to the environment.

To summarize the environmental issues in Florida, we can say that the main issue is the development and encroachment into the Everglades. The lush mangrove and saw grass marshes of South Florida are the last of a great wilderness that, until the 20th century, stretched for hundreds of miles. Our Everglades refuge countless species, including endangered Florida panthers, Cape Sable seaside sparrows and American crocodiles. Many years of encroaching development have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

NAI. Everglades. NDI Wild Places . 26 April 2010 .

NAI2. Saving the Everglades. 2010. 26 April 2010 .

Natural Resources Defense Council. Florida Everglades. 20 September 2009. 26 April 2010 .

Parker, Karen. Wildlife 'rescues' can do more harm than good. 19 April 2010. 26 April 2010 .
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Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineers of

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84085324



hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…… [Read More]

Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.

Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
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Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395592

Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…… [Read More]

(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).

Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).

The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
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International Environmental Laws on Oil Gas Production Effects

Words: 2138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30626844

International Environmental Laws on Oil/Gas Production

Effects of Oil and Gas Production to the Environment in Norway

Over the years, oil and gas production companies have been a serious global concern. This is due to impacts on the environment associated with its production. International principles setup aims at governing the extraction and usage of such sources of energy. Norway is located in Europe, located near North Sea. Its high level of energy production has highly boosted the Gross National product (GNP) of Europe. Oil, gas and hydroelectric power having contributed significantly to the rapid development of industries in Europe and contribute around 50% to the economy. Discovery of oil and gas was in early 1960's, and currently, Norway is the seventh largest producer of oil and gas internationally. There have been contravenes between energy producing industries and the environmental activists. Several principles set to govern energy production have been set,…… [Read More]

References

Development of E.C.O.A., 2001. Environmental Performance Reviews: Norway. Holand: OECD publishers.

Edwards, J., 1998. Europe. Scandinavia: Nelson Thornes Publishers.

Fitzmaurie, M., 2010. Research Handbook on Iinternational Environmental Law. 3rd ed. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gardinerr, S., Caney, S. & Jamieson, D., 2003. Climate Ethics: Essential Readings. 1 ed. Chicago: Springer.
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United States Military and Environmental Law

Words: 6165 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54567760

U.S. MILITAY AND ENVIONMENTAL LAW

Military & Environmental Law

Environmental Analysis and Impact of the United States Military

Military activity affects the environment in direct and indirect ways. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of military training and readiness activities and the impact of armed conflict and war on the environment. Most environmental impact that results from armed conflict and war occurs in foreign and not domestic environments. However, military training and readiness activities have the potential to impact both domestic and international environments. Different standards apply to the regulation of military activity based on the geographic, national, and political arenas in which military activity occurs. Another dimension that affects the environmental impact standards to which the military is held accountable is based on the perceptions and attitudes of lawmakers, citizens, and warriors toward peacetime and readiness operations vs. armed conflict and war. This paper will…… [Read More]

References

Bearden, D.M. (2007). Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: Background and Issues for Congress, CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22149.pdf

Boelaert-Suominen, S. AJ. (XXXX) The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict, International Environmental Law and Naval War, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies. Retrieved http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/navy/np15_envir_law_naval.pdf

Currents Magazine, (2010, Fall). Navy Air Systems Command, Environmental Issues. Retrieved http://www.enviro-navair.navy.mil/index.cfm?pg=currents

Customary International Humanitarian Law. (2010). ICRC, Customary IHL Database, International Committee of the Red Cross, Retrieved http://www.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule44
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Global Pollution Has Increased Significantly

Words: 1562 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17928543

While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.

ibliography

1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm

2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html

3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html

4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html

5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf

6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html

7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm

2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,,  http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html 

3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html

4) Blacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, ' http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
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War on Pollution of the

Words: 2299 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97943031

.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)

The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf

Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf

Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage

Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
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Oceans & Plastic Pollution the

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31117096

9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.

Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).

There is lethal danger for small…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University

Press, New York City, 585

Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.

Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
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Environmental Science Class Title the Oil Industry

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19137747

Environmental Science class.. Title the Oil Industry Environment

APA Guidelines format 4-6 References I 4-6 Pages ritten text photos / data tables

The effects of the Oil Industry on the Environment

In spite of the fact that society has experienced significant moral progress in the recent decades, people continue to associate well-being with financial profits regardless of the effects that their actions have on society and this is reflected by the fact that the oil industry has inflicted great damage on the environment in the last few years. The fact that society has come to depend on oil makes it especially difficult for someone to experience positive results as a result of criticizing individuals involved in the oil business. Communities who have access to free oil wells are privileged and society has virtually learnt to exploit any oil source that it can possibly find. This has devastating consequences on the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Ali-Akpajiak, Sofo, C.A. Pyke, Toni, "Measuring poverty in Nigeria," (Oxfam, 2003)

Struzik, Ed, "Killing Wolves: A Product ofAlberta's Big Oil and Gas Boom," retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website:  http://e360.yale.edu/feature/alberta_canada_energy_boom_places_wolves_in_the_crosshairs/2459/ 

Taylor, Dorcetta, E. "Environment and Social Justice: An International Perspective," (Emerald Group Publishing, 2010)

McQuaid, John, "The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill:An Accident Waiting to Happen" retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website:  http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_gulf_of_mexico_oil_spill_an_accident_waiting_to_happen/2272/
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Environmental Safety in Contemporary Society

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58330375

In fact, the changes in technology and complexities of modern life enhance this idea. This is nowhere as apparent as it is in the idea of environmental safety and health, for actions taken in one part of the world do have a profound effect on other parts of the world. Even in modern, developed nations like the United States, we find mercury from Chinese factories, dust from Saharan Africa and smog from Mexico -- accounting for about 30% of the nation's ozone problems (Watson, 2005).

The Gaia Hypothesis, in fact, is a theory that the entire planet is large and complex living organism. This proposes that everything on earth, organic and inorganic, are completely integrated into a single and self-regulating complex system that maintains the conditions for life on earth (Gribbin, 2009). The complexity is so vast that we may not be able to completely understand it at present. For…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Our Nation's Air: Status and Trends Through 2010. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011 / report/fullreport.pdf

Gribbin, J. (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Watson, T. (March 14, 2005). Air Pollution from Other Countries Drifts into USA. USA Today -- the Nation. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-03-13-pollution-_x.htm

World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/
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Environmental Policies Comparing and Contrasting

Words: 375 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62104982

It not only recycles, but unlike Universal Studios it donates electronics, furniture, and office supplies to community organizations, so that the products will be put to good use. Like Universal Studios, the alt Disney Company is committed to purchasing recycled-content products, and uses packaging materials that can be reused or recycled. It tries to buy in bulk to minimize packaging waste ("aste Minimization: The alt Disney Company," 2007, the alt Disney Company ebsite). In a unique program that is not present at Universal Studios, the company educates Disney employees both in company policies regarding environmentally sound living and encourages and instructs employees to engage in such practices in their own homes.

orks Cited

Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day

Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf

Go Metro Specials."…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day

Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at  http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf 

Go Metro Specials." (2007). MTA. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mta.net/riding_metro/special_offer/monthly_specials.htm#P8_776

Waste Minimization: The Walt Disney Company" (2007). The Walt Disney Company
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Environmental Impact of Seaport Development

Words: 1846 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55802230

Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.

eferences

Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable

City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.

Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.

Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.

Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…… [Read More]

References

Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable

City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.

Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.

Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
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Environmental Psychology Securing Its Future by Harold

Words: 733 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20472726

Environmental Psychology: Securing its Future" by Harold M. Proshansky

Relatively young field, is it secure?

Epistemology: study or theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge

How did field begin, where is it going?

Environmental Psychology: Yesterday and Today

Yesterday

Empiricism -- theory of relying on observation, experiment, experience

Positivism -- theory that considers religion, metaphysics imperfect means, and relies on natural phenomenon and empirical sciences

Field developed in 1960s during social and political upheavals

But even before, after WWII -- new structures built, rapid growth -- increased research in social psychology, emphasis on attitude change, group processes, intergroup conflicts

Lewin (1948), Festinger, Schacter, and Back (1950) and Deutch (1949) students of Lewin (1948) -- began applying field theory conceptions to various social problems

Confluence of Forces

laboratory-experimental model but failure to apply to real world -- leads to loss of credibility and "malaise" in the social sciences in 1960s…… [Read More]

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Environmental Problem in the World

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14910790

Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).

None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm

Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.

Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.

Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
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Environmental Finance

Words: 4106 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23136493

CEFC and the Future of Environmental Finance

The Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) represents the most aggressive environmental finance initiative sponsored by the Australian Government to date. The CEFC is an independent entity established as part of the Clean Energy Future Policy by the Australian government. As of March 2012, funding for the program totaled AUS $10 billion in government backed investments for the commercialization and deployment of clean energy technologies. This research will explore the CEFC and its role in the development and deployment of environmentally friendly energy sources and alternatives.

Governments around the world recognize the need for developing clean and renewable energy sources that reduce their environmental impact. The topic of global warning and climate change has increased the need for the development of less energy intensive and environmentally damaging energy sources. Although the role of human beings in these changes is a topic of debate, it…… [Read More]

References

Business Innovation & Skills. 2011. The economics of the Green Investment Bank: Costs and Benefits, rationale and value for money. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/docs/e/12-554-economics-of-the-green-investment-bank.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2012].

Clean Energy Council. March 2012. Design Features of the Clean Energy Finance Corporation.Deloitte. [online] Available at: http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/...CEFC.../... [Accessed 10 June 2012].

Commonwealth of Australia. 2011. Clean Energy Finance Corporation, Expert Review. [online] Available at:  http://www.cefcexpertreview.gov.au/content/Content.aspx?doc=report/default.htm  [Accessed 10 June 2012].

Department for Business Innovation and Skills. 2012. UK Green Investment Bank. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/greeninvestmentbank [Accessed 10 June 2012].
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Environmental Policy

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49385031

Exxon and Environmental Policy

Despite its assurance of the complete safety of its operations, the Exxon Valdez tanker hit a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound at midnight of March 24, 1989 and poured 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil from a ruptured hull of the ship (Explore North 1999). Within the next two months following the wreck, oil had spread to 470 miles to the southwest. The initial cleanup in the succeeding three years cost more than $2 billion, although no lives were lost. Wildlife destruction was staggering and the full impact of the disaster may never be known. The State of Alaska and the federal government filed both criminal and civil suits against Exxon in October 1991

In settling the civil charges, Exxon agreed to pay the State of Alaska and the United States $900 million within a 10-year period and the money would be…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Alaska Oil Spill Commission. SPILL: the Wreck of the Exxon Valdez. Final report, State of Alaska, 1995. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html

2. Earle, Sylvia. Sea Change: a Message of the Ocean. Perspectives on Marine Environment Quality Today. 1998-Year of the Ocean. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, 1995. http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/yoto/meeting/mar_env_316.html

3. Explore North. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Disaster, 1998.  http://www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa032499.htm 

4. Lefevre, Greg. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Cable News Network, Inc., 1998. http://www.cnnsf.com.newsvault/output/bigspill.html
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Environmental Concerns at Fll Fort

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74416715

Port Everglades is a predominantly industrial area, with a container port and cruise ship port. Overall, however, noise levels at FLL for all airlines are below the federal standards.

The effort to manage noise pollution at FLL is ongoing. The airport authorities have submitted Noise Mitigation Principles to the FAA and are awaiting feedback on a preferred alternative for noise mitigation. The Broward County Board of County Commissioners also has a consultant to implement the noise mitigation program forthcoming.

Recommendations

The growth of FLL has mirrored growth in the region. The population of South Florida is expected to grow a further 25% by 2020. This will increase the strain on FLL. The lands adjacent to the airport are all developed, so there is little room for expansion. The 9R/27L runway, for example, cannot be expanded to accommodate jet traffic because of the course of I-95. Therefore, flights on the 9L/27R…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.cleanairports.com/reports/gai_fllforweb.pdf

No author. (2008). Noise Information. Broward County. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.broward.org/airport/community_noise.htm; http://www.broward.org/airport/pdfs/fll_pqs_q22008.pdf

Andrus, Katherine (2006) ATA Comments on FAA Noise Analysis for Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport. Air Transportation Association. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://www.airlines.org/NR/exeres/2E3BE77B-86CF-41E2-BADD-1936AC6250FB.htm no author). (2000). Aviation and the environment: airport operations and future growth present environmental challenges United States General Accounting Office. Retrieved November 8, 2008 at http://books.google.com/books?id=1yTVCGk7DfMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=fll+environment+noise&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0

No author. (no date). FLL International: Building a Green Airport. Clean Airport Partnership.
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Environmental Policies and Citizen Contribution

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12528627

Citizen Groups Shaping Environmental Policy

The environmental issues have of late been a subject of concern to many people and many organizations. Governments all over the world have been under persistent pressure to implement policies and also enact laws that are friendly to the environment or are intentionally formulated to safeguard the environment. The Kyoto protocol was a pace setter in many aspects concerning the environmental care and conservation, hence many bodies borrow from it and help in the implantation of the guidelines that were outlined in that particular meeting of the global bodies and economic giants of the world. These groups that act as custodians of the environment include the citizen groups of diverse measures and backgrounds.

The citizen groups in this aspect include the industry groups, trade associations and the not-for-profit organizations. These are the renowned groups that use their influences to shape the perspectives that the government…… [Read More]

References

Desai Uday, (2002). Environmental Politics and Policy in Industrialized Countries. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false

Micehael E.K., (2002). Environmental Policy and Politics in the United States: Toward Environmental Sustainability? Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false

The Sierra Club, (2015). Citizen Groups Compelling U.S. EPA to Protect Appalchia's Water. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from  http://content.sierraclub.org/press-releases/2015/01/citizen-groups-compelling-us-epa-protect-appalachia-s-water