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Defining environmental science: The quest for sustainability
Environmental science or environmental studies are defined as the "study of a range of environments, from the bodies we live, to the physical structures, institutions and industries we build, to the politics, languages and cultural practices we use to communicate, and to the earth and its complex multitude of animals, flora and bio-physical elements and processes" (What is environmental science, 2012, York University). The word derives from the French world 'environs,' which means everything around us (What is environmental science, 2012, York University). A critical component of environmental studies has become how to enhance the sustainability of human life in conjunction with the environment. Humans today are not seeking simply to understand the environment but to live in harmony with it. Environmentalism seeks to acknowledge that humans are part of the environment, not merely consumers of it. "Sustainability creates…
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:
Britten, Nick. (2009). Scientists grow meat in a laboratory. The Telegraph. Retrieved:
Minerals play a very important part in society, in terms of both the economy and health. People use minerals to stay healthy by means of food supplements. Minerals are also present in foods that people eat. Minerals also play a very important part in the mining industry and in the economy. According to the Mine-Engineer.com (2011) Website, the mining industry in the United States includes 140,000 employees.
Metallic minerals can be melted to obtain new products. Two examples of these are iron and copper. They are usually associated with igneous rocks and are generally used to manufacture products that can be used for various purposes. Such products might include wire or wheels. Non-metallic minerals are not melted to yield new products. Two example include salt and marble, which can be used for flavoring food and building material, respectively.
Minerals are extracted and processed during the…
Arnalds, O. And Archer, S. (2010). Rangeland Desertification. Retrieved from: http://www.rala.is/rade/KLUWER/info.htm
Greenfacts (2011). Scientific Facts on Agriculture and Development. Retrieved from: http://www.greenfacts.org/en/agriculture-iaastd/l-2/1-agriculture-challenges.htm#0
Heiligman, R. (2010). Forest Management. Retrieved from: http://ohioline.osu.edu/for-fact/0034.html
Mine-Engineer.com (2011). Why do we mine? Retrieved from: http://mine-engineer.com/mining/mine2.htm
ransportation technology is no exception: the single largest element responsible for the high-output power requirements of internal combustion engines had always been the need to overcome friction. For the same reason, all mechanical means of producing energy for transportation systems also require copious amounts of lubrication, adding another major source of environmental impact from petroleum waste products (Rodrigue, 2010).
he physical mechanics of thermal friction also contributes greatly to the pollution of the environment by virtue of the minute rubber particles from millions of truck and automobile tires continuously released into the atmosphere. In many cases, the materials used to manufacture rubber tires are highly toxic in the form of its absorption in soil and water (Rodrigue, 2010). More importantly, the gaseous release of carbon emissions from internal combustion engines contributes tremendously to acid rain and may account for as much as one-quarter of all nitrogen fallout on bodies of…
The physical mechanics of thermal friction also contributes greatly to the pollution of the environment by virtue of the minute rubber particles from millions of truck and automobile tires continuously released into the atmosphere. In many cases, the materials used to manufacture rubber tires are highly toxic in the form of its absorption in soil and water (Rodrigue, 2010). More importantly, the gaseous release of carbon emissions from internal combustion engines contributes tremendously to acid rain and may account for as much as one-quarter of all nitrogen fallout on bodies of water. Naturally, this unnatural chemical change introduced to the ecosystem accounts for numerous types of disruption to delicate habitats of indigenous biological organisms (Rodrigue, 2010).
Over time, the continuous exposure of road surfaces and infrastructure to acid rain and the constant mechanical loading and unloading of many tons of commercial traffic combines to erode the physical and structural integrity of the roads and infrastructure supports themselves (Rodrigue, 2010). Roads and infrastructure left in states of disrepair pose safety risks to all vehicles using those roads and, in many cases, to the surrounding communities as well. Ironically, even the repairs necessary to prevent those potential negative consequences are associated with their own independent potential risks to the environment. Specifically, the very construction processes necessary to repair roads and infrastructure utilize additional commercial transportation and also chemical and other byproducts of those construction processes that become additional sources of pollution and artificial changes to the ecosystem that threaten the environment (Rodrigue, 2010).
In that regard, the most realistic solutions include developing alternate forms of energy production (such as electrical power) for transportation systems and the economization of loading to minimize inefficiency and waste in commercial transportation. Finally, the prompt, continuous, and timely repair of roads and infrastructure to protect them as much as possible from long-term damage would avoid much of the necessity for major construction projects to repair extensive damage attributable to long-term neglect (Rodrigue, 2010).
Although proximity to the spraying of humans may be an issue, refuge during the spraying is possible, while it is impossible to entirely avoid exposure to insects throughout the summer. In contrast, when insecticide is sprayed, individuals can be specifically instructed to take cover during those times, and if necessary shelter could be provided to those individuals with inadequate housing, such as migrant workers.
Step 4. isk characterization. What is probability of individual or population having adverse health effect? isk characterization evaluates data from dose-response assessment and exposure assessment (steps 2 and 3). isk characterization indicates that Mexican-Americans, many of which are agricultural workers, are more vulnerable to pesticide exposure than other groups.
Although it is argued that the poor or uneducated would not follow the safety precautions required by the Malathion application program, this is also true of individuals who fail to take precautions against West Nile. Uninformed residents,…
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2005). Toxicologic information about insecticides used for eradicating mosquitoes. Malathion (CAS Number 121-75-5).
Retrieved July 18, 2008, from h http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/consultations/west_nile_virus/Malathion.html .
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). 2006 West Nile Virus activity in the United States. West Nile Virus Statistics, Surveillance, and Control. Retrieved July 18, 2008, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm
By regulation, the design of the nuclear reactor must include stipulations for human operator error and equipment failure. Nuclear Plants in the western world use a Defense in Depth idea which is a system with numerous safety components, each with back-up and design to accommodate human error. The components include:
"Control of adioactivity - This requires being able to control the neutron flux. If the neutron flux is decreased the radioactivity is decreased. The most common way to reduce the neutron flux is include neutron-absorbing control rods. These control rods can be partially inserted into the reactor core to reduce the reactions. The control rods are very important because the reaction could run out of control if fission events are extremely frequent. In modern nuclear power plants, the insertion of all the control rods into the reactor core occurs in a few seconds, thus halting the nuclear reaction as rapidly…
Chapter 1 -- The future of nuclear power -- overview and conclusions. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/pdf/nuclearpower-ch1-3.pdf
Dettmering, C. (n.d.). The feasibility of nuclear energy as a major power source.
Maden, C. (2011). The power behind power. Modern Power Systems, 31(2), 32-33.
A number of countries are also likely to fall short of one or more legally required 2010 emission ceilings of four significant air pollutants. The requirement to decrease contact to air contamination persists to be a significant matter (About air pollution, n.d.).
Air contamination persists to be a very important issue. Air contaminants discharged in one country are often transported in the environment and harm human well-being and the environment somewhere else. Two pollutants, fine particulate substance and ground-level ozone, are now usually accepted as the most noteworthy in terms of impacts on health. Long lasting and peak contact can lead to an assortment of health consequences, ranging from minor results on the respiratory system to early mortality (About air pollution, n.d.).
Clean water is necessary to existence. egrettably, ever since the Industrial evolution, most of Europe's rivers have been taken care of recklessly by being used as an expedient…
About air pollution. (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2010, from European Environment Agency
Web site: http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/about-air-pollution
About Water. (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2010, from European Environment Agency
The United States EPA's AirNow program issues an Air Quality Index (AQI) based on the presence of five major pollutants: ground-level ozone, particle pollution, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The AirNow program compiles AQI data daily, issuing warnings on particularly polluted "action days." The AirNow website offers a summary of its results in list or map form. Information about air quality and the AQI is also color-coded to provide the public with non-technical basic knowledge about air quality in their community and potential health effects, if any.
The AirNow map of the United States paints a fairly rosy picture of air quality throughout the United States. Most areas, and especially the highly populated regions of the northeast, rate "good." The regions with "moderate" air quality include the Gulf region, parts of Appalachia, and parts of Southern California.
The AQI summary offers more detailed information about American cities.…
1. AirNow. "Clean Air Means Quality of Life. http://airnow.gov / (Accessed April 18, 2007)
2. Kirkwood, John L. "No One Should Have to Breathe Unsafe Air. http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/nl/content3.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=40676&ct=323661¬oc=1 (Accessed April 18, 2007)
3. American Lung Association. "Quitting Smoking. http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=33567#why (Accessed April 18, 2007)
4. AirNow. "Your Health.
Thos facilities that come in under that allowable limit because of air pollution control systems can then sell their leftover allowances to other facilities and organizations on the open market. This allows the facilities that buy up such allowances or pollution credits to pollute more, because other facilities are polluting less. This type of system has some potentially good points, by rewarding facilities that control air pollution and providing a means for those who cannot afford the latest air pollution technologies or who have not completed upgrades to buy some maneuvering room until they can get that done (What is Cap and Trade, n.d.).
A cap-and-trade strategy provides an incentive for all segments of the economy to compete to discover the best ways to cut emissions. In this type of system the government plays a small role, and leaves the main decisions to the private sector. The government would establish…
Cap and Trade. (2009). Retrieved November 28, 2009, from Environmental Protection Agency
Web site: http://www.epa.gov/captrade/
Climate Change. (2009). Retrieved November 28, 2009, from Environmental Protection Agency
Web site: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/basicinfo.html
What is the annual yield of cranberries in New Jersey? What is the dollar value of cranberries to New Jersey's economy? 547, 500 barrels; $20.3 million.
Will climate change create positive or negative growing conditions for cranberries in New Jersey for the next 50 years? For the next 100 years? Be sure to support your well written argument with data meaning number, graphs, and sources! Climate change will create negative growing conditions for cranberries in New Jersey for the next 50 years. It will create even worse conditions for growing this crop in the next 100 years. The climate change is resulting in hotter temperatures, which the Bangor Daily News reported is "undermining" (Walsh, 2011) cranberry harvests.
a) Effects of temperature increase over the next 50 years on growing of cranberries: supported by an explanation of 3 pieces of supporting evidence. Cranberries grow well in weather that is…
Colimore, E. (2009). New Jersey cranberries thriving as U.S. yield falls. The Philadelphia Inquirer.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). Future climate change. www.epa.gov Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/future.html
Walsh, T. (2011). Climate change may benefit Down East Maine's cranberry growers. Bangor Daily News.
LD50 values are not always given on the pesticide label; rather, the relative toxicity of a pesticide product is exposed by one of three signal words: DANGE, WANING, or CAUTION. The rationale for signal words is to alert the user to the level of toxicity of the product. The signal word is usually assigned based on the pesticide's inhalation, oral or dermal toxicity, whichever is the most toxic" (Lethal Dosage (LD50) Values, 2009).
4. What is the difference between prospective and retrospective cohort studies?
There are two key types of cohort study, the retrospective and the prospective cohort study. The foremost dissimilarity involving the two is that the retrospective looks at phenomenons that have already taken place, whilst the potential kind begins from the current. The retrospective case study is past in temperament. Whilst still starting with the partition into cohorts, the researcher looks at past data in order to…
Cohort Study. (2011). Retrieved April 2, 2011, from Web site: http://www.experiment-
Fauci, Anthony S. (2006). 2005 Robert H. Ebert Memorial Lecture Emerging and Re-emerging
Infectious Diseases: The Perpetual Challenge. Retrieved April 2, 2011, from Web site:
Suburban Sprawl: Problems and Solutions
The objective of this work is to discuss the cost and benefits of low density suburban development and to who it is that gains and loses.
Low density urban sprawl was seen as the answer to housing the growth urban population in both Australia and USA cities. However, this has proven to be untrue and the facts speak quite differently. Health problems are many in these areas perpetuated by the crowding and increased use of automobile as a form of travel.
Urban sprawl can be defined as: "Sprawl is the spreading out of a city and its suburbs over more and more rural land at the periphery of an urban area. This involves the conversion of open space (rural land) into built-up, developed land over time."(Numbers USA, 2005)
esearch establishes that urban sprawl is linked to less walking and riding of bicycles and…
Chapter 9 Can Urban Expansion Be Sustainable? Sprawl Apologists and Smart Growth in the New World 9.1. Approaching Urban Futures in Defense of Dispersal http://wwwistp.murdoch.edu.au/publications/projects/jan/pdf/ch9.pdf
Potential for $mart Growth Services and Technology Transfer in Emerging Markets Prepared by the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) September 1999 http://www.ecee.org/pubs/Transport/intro.htm
Urban Sprawl and Public Health Vol. 17 May-June 2002 http://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/articles/Urban%20Sprawl%20and%20Public%20Health%20-%20PHR.pdf
The published results also show that female students with special needs that had been placed in a general education setting were less satisfactorily integrated than the males, Bakker explains. hy general education students rejected girls in this context requires additional research, according to the authors. On the other hand, this research in no way should be interpreted as negative regarding the concept of mainstreaming students with special needs.
M.J. Reid and colleagues write in the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (2007) that the "Incredible Years" program -- another strategy using parents and placing students with special needs into mainstream classrooms -- has shown some success. In this research, some students were placed in general education classrooms and others were part of a program designed to enlighten and train parents of children with special needs. The results show that when mothers receive training from the schools, children showed "less…
Bakker, J.T.A., Denessen, E., Bosman, a.M.T., Triger, E.M., and Bouts, L. (2007).
Sociometric status and self-image of children with specific and general learning disabilities in Dutch general education classes. Learning Disability Quarterly, Vol. 30,
Chaabane, Ben, D.B., Aleber-Morgan, S.R., and Debar, R.M. (2009). The effects of parent-
" By writing her book, Carson in fact is credited with launching "the modern environmental movement," the authors insist. And her book was far more than just the "cumulative and devastating biological effects of pesticides," Bekoff writes; "it is about life itself, focusing on the many different webs of nature that go unnoticed, misunderstood, and unappreciated until we lose them."
Carson's book was "a wake-up call for us to do something about how we destroy and desecrate nature"; it also alerted millions of readers to the "appalling abuse and torture of animals in slaughterhouses" and set forward the notion that ecosystems and species are more important that the comfort of and profits of humans, Bekoff writes. Like Thoreau and John Muir, Carson was very concerned about humans' attempts to "mold Nature to our satisfaction," and to "redecorate nature," as she wrote on page 245 of her book. She wrote that…
Bekoff, Mark, & Nystrom, Jan. (2004). The Other Side of Silence: Rachel Carson's Views of Animals. Zygon, 39, 861-872.
A that they assumed that the entire world of plants and animals, even the land itself, was sacred
Paleolithic humans did not see themselves as better than other features in the natural world. They thought that everything in the natural world including plants, animals, bodies of water and the Earth itself contained spirits (Oelschlaeger, p. 17).
A that they surmised that divinity could take many narural forrns and that metaphor was the mode of divine access
The belief that all objects contained spirits led to the idea that divinity is present in all things. They did not create greater and lesser gods because they did not see any one element of nature, including themselves, as superior to any other element in nature, (Oelschlaeger, p. 21) but used metaphors to explain their relationship to the rest of the world. An example of that would be totemic beliefs (Oelschlaeger, p. 13).…
Any opposing views of the issue
Of course, some fisherman may protest that they need to make a living now and protest limits on fishing endangered fish species. Restaurateurs may protest they are just giving the customer what he or she desires. But they must remember the analogy of the 'dust bowl' in America -- exploit the earth now, but pay the price with a barren ocean in the future.
Other water or land resource problems that might result from your issue
Locally, people dependant upon the tourist industry in fishing communities, where fish restaurants are an important part of the economy may suffer. But besides the damage to the ecosystem that can result from overfishing, many people are dependent upon fish for sustenance all over the globe. Damage to the ocean and to the supply of food derived from the ocean harms all of humanity as well as the…
Koster, P. (2007). Chapter 2: Why overfishing is a problem. Overfishing.org. Retrieved 16 Aug 2008 at http://overfishing.org/pages/why_is_overfishing_a_problem.php
Koster, P. (2007). Chapter 3: What I can do to help. Overfishing.org. Retrieved 16 Aug 2008 at http://overfishing.org/pages/what_can_I_do_to_help.php
Overfishing." (2008). Monterey Bay Aquarium. Retrieved 16 Aug 2008 at http://www.mbayaq.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/sfw_of.asp
S. Army Corp of Engineers is the designated entity for making such assessments and recommendations for shoreline and streambank erosion protection project work however; individual contractors do work with the Federal government in completing these types of projects. The U.S. Army of Engineers document entitled: "Civil Works Program" states that the Corps of Engineers "looks for the most economical, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions to shore protection." (2008) According to the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, shore protection projects "are usually cost-shared with the State, the local jurisdiction where the project is located or both."
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
The various options for shorelines and the accompanying designations which have been briefly related in this study as those designations and criteria relating to costs and options available for shoreline preservation and protection when compiled into a guidebook will serve greatly to expedite necessary shoreline construction projects and is an endeavor…
Shoreline Management Plans (2007) S. Department of Commerce: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ocean & Coastal Resource Management 22 Oct 2007. Online available at http://coastalmanagement.noaa.gov/initiatives/shoreline_ppr_planning.html
Stewart, Jeffree (nd) the Art & Science of Assigning Shoreline Environment Designations: In Shoreline Master Program Updates Washington Department of Ecology.
Management Measure for Shoreline and Streambank Stabilization
Section 4: Management Measures. National Management Measures Guidance.
" Beyond that, another 26,000 tons of "plastic packaging material" is dumped by the fishing industry each year, Sverdrup's text maintains. Why is plastic trash so bad? First, there are over 50 million tons of plastics produced in the U.S. annually, and secondly, a good deal of that plastic is responsible "for crippling and killing tens of thousands of marine animals yearly."
The Depleted Fisheries: There are plenty of existing threats to marine life, in particular those marine species humans depend on for nutrition, without the problem of toxic spills and the ongoing dumping of plastics. To wit, the fisheries themselves are being depleted by aggressive fishing practices. According to the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, Chapter 1, some "25 to 30% of the world's major fish stocks are overexploited." Also, of the 267 "major fish stocks" in America (99% of all fish landings) "roughly 20% are either already overfished,…
Hayden, Thomas. 2004. The Blue Planet (a new initiative in oceanography probes
Mysteries of the deep). U.S. News & World Report 137 (August): 46-52.
Oceans Alive. 2005. What's at Stake! Act Now to Stop Rollbacks of Overfishing
Regulations. Environmental Defense, available at http://www.actionnetwork.org/campaign/overfish/explanation .
Just sitting there, stop-and-go, slow-and-go, wasted two full weeks of work time per year; and the "excess fuel consumption due to congestion" added up to $1,055 for each resident of the Washington, D.C. area a year.
But wait - is the money spent on wasted fuel all the harm that is done? No, in fact, "vehicle exhaust remains a serious problem" in the D.C. area. Vehicles are the "main source of air pollution in the Washington region," according to the article in Environment. And there are other environmental impacts from urban sprawl in the D.C. area: a) floods happen more frequently because "a large portion of the land in the Washington area has been paved over," causing rapid run-off of rainfall instead of absorption in the ground; b) the rapidly expanding development of homes means more pesticides on lawns and "more pollutants are washed into the region's waterways"; c) wildlife…
Barry, Patrick L. "Urban Sprawl: the Big Picture." 2002. 20 March
Knaap, Gerrit, & Schiffman, Irving. "Sprawl, Sprawl, and More Sprawl." Journal of the American Planning Association 66.3 (2000): 332-335.
Merriman-Webster Online. "Urban Sprawl." 20 March 2005. http://www.m-w.com .
Clearly, developing alternative solutions to fossil fuels needs to seriously get started around the world. Many countries are simply ignoring the problem rather than developing programs to support development of alternatives. Solar power, wind power, geothermal power, and hydroelectric power are all things that can be used instead of fossil fuels, but there has been little incentive for developers to really support these alternative energies because there has been little public or governmental support. That is changing as more people realize that fossil fuels are causing global warming, and that they will eventually run out.
Mauritius, a small island in the Indian Ocean, is undergoing a program that will revolutionize their energy use, and could be implemented in other areas, too. They have created a program to generate cleaner, renewable energy, and worked on a program to reduce demand, too. Another author notes, "On the demand side, the…
Ackbarally, Nasseem. 2008. The future is green. African Business, August/September, 61.
Campbell, C.J. Oil, chemicals, and plastic. [Online] (2009), available at: http://www.oildepletionprotocol.org/getinformed/oilchemicalsandplastics 6 May 2009.
Chughtai, O. And Shannon, D. Fossil fuels. [Online] (2009), available at: http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/fossilfuels.htm 6 May 2009.
Deal, W.F., 2006. Energy perspectives. The Technology Teacher 65, no. 8: 10+.
d) If the water cycle were to be interrupted because, for instance, the weather became so hot as to allow for evaporation but not condensation or precipitation, we would have a limited time for survival. As water levels depleted, plant life would disappear first followed very quickly by animal life, including our own.
Bulverde is located in the South Texas Brush Country. Though it is still a very biodiverse region, development in the past 50 years has disrupted the habitats of many of its species. The ocelot, for instance, used to be plentiful in this region, but is now endangered because of the destruction of its native habitat from urban development.
Because of human habitation, the naturally occurring wildfires which used to keep the brushlands in balance have been prevented. In addition the introduction of non-native species of grain for agriculture has permanently altered and in some cases eliminated the…
Switching to solar heating would make a profound change, for heating and hot water can be heated freely and cleanly from the sun. By switching to energy efficient heating, air-conditioning and refrigeration, the greatest power users, consumers could have a huge impact on emissions. Changing to hybrid, fuel-efficient cars, public transportation and walking, when feasible, would have a profound impact on human-created carbon emissions. Penalizing and rewarding consumers and businesses through tax incentives and rebates could be very effective. One proposal that could go into immediate effect would be to put a surcharge on the purchase of gas-guzzling SUV's and Hummers that would in turn convert to a rebate for consumers purchasing hybrid cars. This would encourage car manufacturers to increase their production of hybrid autos (Jeep Grand Tragedy, ¶ 6-7). Insurance companies could switch to a Pay as you Drive (PAYD) auto insurance replacing premiums based on amount of…
Causes of Global Warming." Online posting. EcoBridge. June 6, 2006 http://www.ecobridge.org/ .
Flannery, Tim. The Weathermakers. New York: Atlantic Monthly
Jeep Grand Tragedy." The New Republic. Vol. 234. Issue 4,766. May 22, 2006: 7.
Relevance of Environmental Management in Today's usiness Climate
While today's business context serves our economy, its relevance with the proper management of our environment is setting up a great deal. Many businesses nowadays are in the light of running within the circle of commercial industries that strive not to present any negative effects to our environment. This arena is rapidly increasing especially in urban areas that are currently promoting improvements in combat to the decline of economy many nations around the world started to experience since two years ago.
Some of today's businesses aim to achieve their organization's objective without diminishing the safety of our environment. The endeavor is focused on making profits for their companies while protecting the environment. As indicated in their online business climate article, Perry County Development Corporation demonstrates this business line stating that Clean air and safe drinking water are everybody's concern, but the pro-business…
An Excellent Business Climate.
Perry County Development Corporation. 06 Oct 2003. http://www.pcdcorp.com/pages/busclim.html
Gallinger, Jason. Programs Helps Businesses Stay Within Environmental Regulations.
Pittsburgh Business Times. 06 Oct 2003. http://pittsburgh.bizjournals.com/pittsburgh/stories/2001/04/16/focus3.html
Obama Turns to Web to Illustrate the Effects of a Changing Climate
This article discusses how the use of technology and the internet can aid in the overall global warming education process. The article explains how President Obama is using a mobile app to depict the effects of global warming in local communities. Through technology, Obama hopes to create awareness of the overall global warming issue, and its impact on communities. The article states that out that individuals given a list of 20 issues, rank global warming as 19th. Through the use of the app, the Obama administration hopes to create an overall sense of urgency within the general public.
A particularly interesting aspect of the article was the amount of detailed coordination needed to produce the app. The mobile app is unique in that it attempts to depict the impact global warming has on communities' overtime. As…
Deforestation can also lead to soil erosion, and more silt in rivers, streams, and behind dams throughout the deforested area. Biological diversity, including many unique species and ecosystems are lost, as well.
IN order to stop deforestation, people must be more aware of the problem and stop using products made from wood, such as paper, cardboard, and other products. We also need to find alternatives for wood products, such as the recycling of paper and wood products, and building materials such as steel, and products like Trex, which is a non-wooden material used for outdoor decks and such. To stop deforestation, we have to stop cutting down trees. eplanting deforested areas does not help, because it takes too long for the trees to grow, and the damage cannot quickly be repaired.
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy ochen.…
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy Rochen. "The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day." 2008. 26 May 2008. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm
Very often workers must choose jobs based upon benefits, not where they wish to work. orkers may decide not to open up small businesses or work for smaller businesses who cannot offer them comprehensive care. and, of course the children of uninsured workers suffer, innocent victims of the system.
Even companies like Safeway that have made heroic efforts to foster healthy living and disease prevention initiatives to cut costs have stated that universal health care is necessary to contain costs and keep their workers healthy enough to work, with as few sick days as possible. (Cohen 2007:4). Unions, companies, and the government must work together to create a healthy, safer and more affordable medical tomorrow.
Cohen, Jonathan. "hat's the One Thing Big Business and the Left Have in Common?" The New York Times Magazine. 1 Apr 2007. [10 Apr 2007]. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01Healthcare.t.html?pagewanted=6&ei=5070&en=6ff729a7fa6330ac&ex=1176350400
Cohen, Jonathan. "What's the One Thing Big Business and the Left Have in Common?" The New York Times Magazine. 1 Apr 2007. [10 Apr 2007]. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/01/magazine/01Healthcare.t.html?pagewanted=6&ei=5070&en=6ff729a7fa6330ac&ex=1176350400
However, not every element of renewable energy will prove advantageous for us to implement. All of the forms of renewable energy have not been mass implemented on a large scale in the past. This means that we would have o completely redesign our energy plans in order to accommodate these new technologies. This will prove labor intensive and costly in the initial implementation stages (Hick 2009).
Yet, despite disadvantages, these new renewable energy sources are crucial to a better life tomorrow. Some prove much too costly to implement with any sort of immediate returns, such as massive wind energy plants. However, solar energy is much less costly, easier to access from an individual standpoint, and completely unlimited. Solar energy proves one of the most desirable and cost effective renewable energy sources for today, and can be implemented while we develop more strategies for the future.
Hick, Matthew. (2009). Advantages…
Hick, Matthew. (2009). Advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy. Renewable Energy Today. Retrieved October 11, 2009 at http://renewableenergy-today.com/Renewable-Energy/Advantages-Disadvantages-Renewable-Energy.html
White, Dowl. (2009). The advantages of renewable energy. Ezine Articles. Retrieved October 11, 2009 at http://ezinearticles.com/?the-Advantages-of-Renewable-Energy&id=1436956
The Japanese government has taken measures to prevent this from happening again, settlements have been reached, and today the national government is the body that certifies a person as afflicted by the disorder.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html)."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
Political Settlement of Minamata Disease Issues. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch5.html).
The Chisso Minamata Disease Kansai Lawsuit. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www1.odn.ne.jp/~aah07310/english/index-e.html).
Unknown. "Supreme Court holds state responsible for Minamata Disease." Kyodo orld News Service. (2004): 15 October.
Harada, Masazumi. M.D., Ph.D. "Minamata Disease and the Mercury Pollution of the Globe." (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.einap.org/envdis/Minamata.html )."
Minamata Disease Archives. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner.html).
Minamata Disease, The History and Measures. (accessed 31 January 2005). http://www.env.go.jp/en/topic/minamata2002/ch2.html).
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Environmental Science class.. Title the Oil Industry Environment
APA Guidelines format 4-6 References I 4-6 Pages ritten text photos / data tables
The effects of the Oil Industry on the Environment
In spite of the fact that society has experienced significant moral progress in the recent decades, people continue to associate well-being with financial profits regardless of the effects that their actions have on society and this is reflected by the fact that the oil industry has inflicted great damage on the environment in the last few years. The fact that society has come to depend on oil makes it especially difficult for someone to experience positive results as a result of criticizing individuals involved in the oil business. Communities who have access to free oil wells are privileged and society has virtually learnt to exploit any oil source that it can possibly find. This has devastating consequences on the…
Ali-Akpajiak, Sofo, C.A. Pyke, Toni, "Measuring poverty in Nigeria," (Oxfam, 2003)
Struzik, Ed, "Killing Wolves: A Product ofAlberta's Big Oil and Gas Boom," retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/alberta_canada_energy_boom_places_wolves_in_the_crosshairs/2459/
Taylor, Dorcetta, E. "Environment and Social Justice: An International Perspective," (Emerald Group Publishing, 2010)
McQuaid, John, "The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill:An Accident Waiting to Happen" retrieved March 29, 2012, from the Yale Environment 360 Website: http://e360.yale.edu/feature/the_gulf_of_mexico_oil_spill_an_accident_waiting_to_happen/2272/
On the other hand, nature-as-machine proponents view nature holistically, and the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts," (Oelschlaeger 1991 p. 130). Water is a lake, an ocean, or a river. Oelschlaeger calls seeing the forest instead of the trees "synoptic holism." The synoptic holism integral to the nature-as-organism view opposes the reductionistic atomism common to the nature-as-machine stance. In other words, where the reductionist sees a bunch of quarks, the holist sees a bird.
The nature-as-machine proponent also thinks in terms of external relations. Individual parts of the machine interact with other parts as independent entities; thus, they can be removed and replaced without upsetting the balance of nature. This stance supports the view of humanity as external to nature. On the other hand, the nature-as-organism proponent perceives nature in terms of internal relations, and human beings are part of nature's internal whole. Individual parts of nature…
Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). Wild nature. Chapter 4 in The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Environmental Psychology: Securing its Future" by Harold M. Proshansky
Relatively young field, is it secure?
Epistemology: study or theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge
How did field begin, where is it going?
Environmental Psychology: Yesterday and Today
Empiricism -- theory of relying on observation, experiment, experience
Positivism -- theory that considers religion, metaphysics imperfect means, and relies on natural phenomenon and empirical sciences
Field developed in 1960s during social and political upheavals
But even before, after WWII -- new structures built, rapid growth -- increased research in social psychology, emphasis on attitude change, group processes, intergroup conflicts
Lewin (1948), Festinger, Schacter, and Back (1950) and Deutch (1949) students of Lewin (1948) -- began applying field theory conceptions to various social problems
Confluence of Forces
laboratory-experimental model but failure to apply to real world -- leads to loss of credibility and "malaise" in the social sciences in 1960s…
As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the…
Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.
Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.
Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf.
Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf .
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
Environmental Industrial Management
Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.
Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…
Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]
Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.
Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.
Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Environmental and Organizational
Individual Commitment to Environment
Contribute to Profits
Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure
Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. egardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.
The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who…
Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf
Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247
Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures - creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…
Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
The objective of this paper is to examine the discipline of environmental psychology with an additional goal of defining it and comparing and contrasting some underlying theoretical approaches to environmental psychology. "Developmental psychology, as a discipline, is currently undergoing a paradigmatic/world view change. Consequently, several different theoretical approaches to the study of development and the life course have been proposed and advocated." (Wolf, 2009) There are three major world views and some developmental issues in regard to environmental psychology and this short response will attempt to outline them.
To begin, it is best to define the subject matter. Environmental psychology studies the ways in which humans perceive their environment. Human beings have certain ways in which they interact with their environment. Environmental psychology examines and makes assumptions based on these interactions such as interpretation, evaluation, operation, and response to stimuli. The bulk of environmental psychology focuses on a…
Das, Jagannath P., and Naglieri, Jack A. (1997). The Cognitive Assessment System. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews. Review of General Psychology. 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1, 3 -- 58.
Woolf, Linda M. (2009). Theoretical Perspectives Relevant to Developmental Psychology. Retrieved on December 5, 2009, from Webster at http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/theories.html .
Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).
A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the…
Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:
Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.
Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral
Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
Science Tasks (Document 2 of 2)
MOISTURE-RELATED HABITAT PREFERENCES IN ISOPODS
PROJECT DESIGN PLAN
Isopods -- also known as "sowbugs" or "pillbugs" -- are usually mistakenly thought of as insects. In reality they are the only terrestrial species of crustacean, and are evolutionarily more related to crabs, shrimp and lobster than any kind of "bug."
This evolutionary relationship to so many aquatic species -- and the dearth of land crustaceans besides the isopods -- raises interesting questions about the isopod choice of habitat.
Crustaceans obviously have a system of underwater respiration using gills. Isopods also have these gills but do not live underwater: they are predominantly found in moist damp environments (beneath a rotting log).
But could isopods live underwater if necessary, or are their gills fully adapted to land life now?
I proposed an experiment to determine habitat preferences in isopods. It would offer a representative sampling of isopods…
Gibb, Timothy J. And Oseto, Christian Y. (2006). Arthropod Collection and Identification: Field and Laboratory Techniques. San Diego and London: Elsevier Academic Press.
Robinson, William H. (2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. New York and London: Cambridge University Press.
Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal
What is Environmental Stewardship?
What are the problems?
Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?
A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness
Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.
This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…
Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.
Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.
Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2
Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html
Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)
Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
The first Grays arrived in 2010, but they did not come en masse until a century later. The initial group of twenty brought with them a plethora of testing equipment from their home planet and took with them a total of two thousand samples from our environment. With the cooperation of the United Nations Council on Extraterrestrial Life (UNCEL), the Grays were permitted to take with them soil samples from hundreds of Earth locations and hundreds of botanical samples, many of which were of plants edible to humans but many of which were deemed palatable by the Grays. The Grays also took atmospheric air samples and water samples, both saline and non-saline, with them. Once the extensive surveys determined that their species could and would live on Earth comfortably, and once UNCEL approved it, about ten thousand of the Grays were permitted to come to the planet. The…
He did clean up the area around the store from garbage lying around but never did anything apart from that. He did express interest in being a part of any group working towards helping out with the environment. He denied that his Chinese background might have had any impact on his attitude.
The individual from the Hispanic background was deeply involved with activities to help out with environmental issues. He is a computer Science major and manages had two websites dealing with those issues. He also maintains a blog about environmental hazards that he encounters. He takes pictures of whatever he thinks might be important and uploads them to his blog. He mentioned how he wants to use his skills in web design to reach out to students and make them aware of such issues. He has listed a lot of ways to get involved on his websites and uses…
10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.
11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed
12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.
5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…
Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation
hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.
The Main Environmental Challenges
hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…
Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.
Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu .
General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…
Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.
Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996
Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Chengjiang.htm
Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Emu.htm .
Science of Behavior Change
NIH Common Fund Programs: The science of behavior change
The science of behavior change is a critical area of NIH research because of the degree to which lifestyle changes can improve human health. Chronic diseases such as heart disease, type II diabetes, and stroke have all been linked to negative health behaviors like smoking and drinking. Only if scientists can understand how to motivate people to change their behaviors can a more effective prescription for remedying these ailments be constructed for our nation. Two NIH studies currently being undertaken are one which investigates how "environmental and biological factors associated with poverty and stress that underlie abnormal impulsivity that accompanies addiction to substances and unhealthy behaviors" and one which assesses environmental factors that influence the propensity for adolescents to exercise " to identify individual differences in voluntary exercise behavior and inform new ways to change exercise behavior…
Common Fund Makes New FY2010 Awards to Advance the Science of Behavior Change.
(2011). NIH: Science of behavior change. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at http://commonfund.nih.gov/behaviorchange/overview.aspx
Cuddihy, T. (et al. 2006). Exploring the relationship between daily steps, body mass index and physical self-esteem in female Australian adolescents. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 4 (1): 25-35.
Heyworth, Kelly. (2006). Girl Power. Fitness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/family/fitness/girl-power-how-teens-are-changing-the-face-of-fitness/
Such things, however, do not appear impossible given the state of science today.
There is one area of concern that science cannot totally resolve, unless it builds a time machine and can go into the future. That is, what are the total ramifications that result from science's wonders? Albert Einstein did not consider nuclear bombs when coming up with the equation of E=mc2
He considered himself a pacifist, yet encouraged the building of the bomb for fear that the Germans would create it first. He was looking toward the future. As he wrote to physicist Niels Bohr in December 1944, "When the war is over, then there will be in all countries a pursuit of secret war preparations with technological means, which will lead inevitably to preventative wars and to destruction even more terrible than the present destruction of life" (Clark, 2007, pg. 698). Then, close to death he stated:…
Clark, R. Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: Perennial, 2007
Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D. And Myers, JP. Our Stolen Future. New York:Abacus, 1996.
Gallopin, G.C., Funtowicz, S, O'Connor, M., and Ravetz, J. (2001) Science for the 21st century: from social contract to the scientific core. Int. Journal Social Science 168:
Hughes, M. (November 27, 2007). "CU Doctor Works on Breast Cancer Vaccine."
South Florida, especially Broward County, has showed the most eagerness, with eighty seven percent in favor of solar energy investment. Central Florida and the Gulf Coast were close behind, and eighty percent of those living in North Florida also favored more state venture for solar energy. hile voters of all ages said they approved of spending more on solar, ninety three percent of those between eighteen and thirty four agreed. Statewide, the accord crossed party lines, with eighty two percent of Republicans favoring more public capital for solar energy, compared with eighty seven percent of Democrats. The poll also showed strong support for solar energy even if it led to an increase in utility bills. Overall, eighty one percent of those polled said they were willing to pay more each month on their utility bill to sustain solar energy (Poll: Support up for solar energy investment, 2008).
The sun is…
Borenstein, Severin. 2008. "The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
Production." Web. 29 March 2011.
"Clean Energy Never Looked So Good." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
"Environmental Effects of Solar Energy." 2011. Web. 29 March 2011.
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
As the road is being laid the fumes from the chemical materials and the concussive force of the construction equipment are devastating to local wildlife (Forman & Alexander, 1998). The result, is displaced organisms which ultimately put increased pressure for food, land, and water on other ecosystems. The extent of these ripple effects are still yet to be fully known.
In instances where above or below ground water supplies must be altered in order to make way for a new road system the effects are if anything more dire. When laying the bed of a road, it is nearly impossible to prevent a percentage of the chemicals used in the road surface itself from leeching into the soil (Forman & Deblinger, 2000). When in the presence of water those toxins are carried the course of the water supply affecting all of the vegetation and wildlife which it comes into contact…
National Environmental Policy Act was passed in 1970. Explain the formal process for an Environmental Impact Statement and detail the impact NEPA has had on the field of environmental science.
The National Environmental Policy Act imposes environmentally safe practices among different agencies inside the federal government. To enforce these provisions the law requires that environmental assessments and impact statements are conducted. These are measuring the total environmental effects from the activities of various federal agencies. This applies to all departments that are operating under the Executives branch. However, exemptions have been granted when it comes to the Office of the President, Congress and the courts. ("National Environmental Policy Act," 1970) ("National Environmental Policy Act," 2012) ("A Citizen's Guide to the NEPA," 2007)
The environmental impact statement (EIS) will be conducted whenever any federal agency is proposing some kind of project. That could have adverse implications on the environment. To determine…
A Citizen's Guide to the NEPA. (2007). DOE. Retrieved from: http://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/Citizens_Guide_Dec07.pdf
A Study of its Effectiveness. (1997). DOE. Retrieved from: http://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/nepa25fn.pdf
Guidelines and Principles. (1994). NOAA. Retrieved from: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/social_impact_guide.htm
National Environmental Policy Act. (1970). DOE. Retrieved from: http://ceq.hss.doe.gov/nepa/regs/nepa/nepaeqia.htm
Environment Science education and its effect on Students' Improvement
Does the current curriculum actually improve the student's decision making regarding environmental issues?
Sample Size and Sampling Method
Time Frame for the Study
Scope and Limitations
Current Environmental Science Curriculum
Is the current curriculum design actually improves the decision making regarding environmental issues?
For years it has been a tough job to implement the appropriate environmental education in the colleges. esearch in the field has pointed out several challenges in the creation of effective environmental curricula. esearchers also examined different strategies being used for the promotion of student awareness as well as fostering them to engage in the ever changing circumstances. The empirical research studies have made it clear that just acquiring the information on the environment science and ecology is not enough to motivate students to practically participate in environment protection. For the motivation there is a need…
Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.
Balgopal, M., & Wallace, A. (2009). Decisions and dilemmas: Using writing to learn activities to increase ecological literacy. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(13), 13 -- 22.
Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Biriukova, N. (2005).The formation of an ecological consciousness. Russian Education and Society, 47(12), 34 -- 45.
General Motors, along with the other major American automotive manufactures, fought attempts to instate more stringent emissions requirements upon vehicles. Toyota worked on its hybrid fleet, using research and development to answer the challenge posed by environmental regulators. Ideally, this is the response of companies to regulation, and the prosperity of Toyota and the failure of GM was once viewed as a cautionary tale. As consumers do not always buy what is 'good for them,' and good for the environment, regulatory pressures are required to eliminate or tax products and foods that harm the environment, such as gas-guzzling cars, corn-fed beef and pesticides. This makes using these products either illegal or more expensive and costly for consumers, thus creating an artificially higher demand for more environmentally-friendly products and increasing the incentive for companies to provide other products.
The problem with viewing regulation as a solution to environmental and economic problems,…
Environmental Worldview: A Confessional of Contradictions
To assess my environmental worldview, perhaps the most effective method to deploy is to reflect on a typical day in my life, when I am living at home and when I am outside the university community -- on a typical garbage day. On that day, I put out half a week's refuse, in a plastic, non-biodegradable bag, on my curb. (The store brand of plastic bags was on sale this week at the local supermarket.) As I look down my street, I see others engaged in a similar process. One woman in a housedress drags a huge black amorphous bag of refuse, another neighbor, a tired businessman in a suit, wheels large plastic bins with lids expressly designed to keep away the teeth and claws of other species. Then, I remember it is recycling day, and I dash into the home to lug out…
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior and Implications for the Environment
Humans are responsive creatures, and a wide array of environmental cues serves to shape human behavior. In some cases, the responses to environmental cues are strictly in the self-interests of the consumer, but in other cases, these responses can be modified to promote improved outcomes. Because people may not be able to gauge the impact of their individual behaviors on the environment, it is important to identify those environmental cues that promote and sustain environmentally responsible behaviors. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning how environmental cues shape behavior and how behavior can be modified to support sustainability to limit the negative impact on the environment. Finally, the paper provides two possible solutions that could successfully change behavior and habits to lessen negative environmental impact followed by a summary of the research and…
Dane-Staples, E. (2012, September). Gendered choices: Mascot interactions in minor league baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(3), 286-291.
Fulton, R. (2012, December). Perceptions of reality: 'Poverty tourism' often sits uneasily in the range of sightseeing options open to travellers in underdeveloped countries.
Geographical, 84(12), 52-59.
Henson, H.K. (2006, Summer). Evolutionary psychology, memes and the origin of war.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.