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Equal Opportunity Health Care
Norman Daniels correctly argues, "If social obligations to provide appropriate health care are not met, then individuals are wronged. An injustice is done to them." The society is a body that helps to cater for the various needs of its components including the society members. Obligations are some of the requirements that are supposed to be met in order to foster equitable existence in the society. This study provides different reasons and justifications supporting the claim that people in a society are wronged if the social obligations to provide health care are not met.
There are many theories that handle on the existence and human actions in the society. The relevance of many theories is posed on how they are related to the natural course of life in the human society. Utilitarian theory gives a more previewed view of the happenings in the society as…
Cambridge Training and Development. (2000). Advanced health & social care. Oxford:
Daniels, N., Light, D.W., & Caplan, R.L. (1996). Benchmarks of fairness for health care reform. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. (1965). Equal opportunity in hospitals and health facilities: Civil rights policies under the Hill-Burton program. Washington.
Daniels, N., Light, D.W., & Caplan, R.L. (1996). Benchmarks of fairness for health care reform. New York [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press.
The most important piece of legislation concerning equal opportunity is the Civil ights Act of 1964. The act, in particular Title VII, provides the framework for several equal opportunity acts to follow, and established that workplaces should be free from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex and national origin (U.S. EEOC, 2014). The legal framework of this act has been extended with several other acts that prohibit discrimination against other groups. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prohibits discrimination against those with disabilities, subject to certain provisions. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act is an amendment to Title VII that specifically forbids discrimination against a woman because of pregnancy, childbirth or a medical condition related to pregnancy. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 added age to the list of things against which discrimination is forbidden under Title VII. A recent addition is the Genetic…
EEOC.gov. (2009). Laws enforced by the EEOC. EEOC.gov. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/
EEOC.gov. (2014). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. EEOC.gov. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from
Has the cultivating of equal opportunity programs helped the people of South Africa, and the people of the United States, move forward? The answer to the question would appear to be obvious -- given that equal opportunities have the potential to make life fair and just for any society. However, the facts do not back up the appearances of "equal opportunities" -- and this paper delves into the question of real progress vis-a-vis equal opportunity, especially in South Africa.
Equal opportunity in South Africa? A 1997 article in the Industrial Relations Journal (Bowmaker-Falconer, et al.) reports that although the new constitution (approved in 1996) contains an "equality clause making discrimination unconstitutional," that same constitution also contains "a paradox by exception" (223). That is, the constitution permits "employment equity programs" (similar to affirmative action programs) directed "as particular groups" (Bowmaker-Falconer, 223). ON page 225 the authors point out that…
Bauer, Nickolaus. (2012). Entrenched inequality threatens SA's future. Mail & Guardian.
Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://mg.co.za .
Bowmaker-Falconer, Angus, Horwitz, Frank M., Jain, Harish, and Taggar, Simon. (1997).
Employment equality programmes in South Africa: current trends. Industrial Relations
Equal opportunity legislation seeks to eliminate the prejudicial hiring practices that were common in the United States prior to this legislation. The initial Civil ights Act of 1964 provided the foundation for the structure of equal opportunity laws, and the structure around which those laws could be enforced. Since that point, several other laws have added to the canon of statutes intended to ensure that most Americans are on equal footing when it comes to hiring and promotions. This paper will go over some of these laws.
Equal Employment Opportunity
The most important equal employment opportunity law was the Civil ights Act of 1964, which provided that there should not be any discrimination in any element of employment on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin or sex. These are to be enforce by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC, 2014). This law was the first serious attempt to…
EEOC. (2014). Laws enforced by the EEOC. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved May 26, 2014 from http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/
For a child who is a slow learner of English, for example, a home visit to a family could create a sense of confidence and connection that would ultimately create a better learning environment in the classroom. I found the story about the teacher who became "that teacher" in the minds of the student's family particularly heart-warming.
Working with individuals within the home environment is not always practical or possible. Similar strategies could, however, be implemented in the multi-lingual classroom. When teaching a new word or idea in the target language, for example, the teacher could elicit translations of the same concept in the students' native languages. This would create the impression of equality among not only one native language and English, but among all the languages and cultures represented in the classroom.
Involving the family life of an ELL student does not necessarily mean making home visits to each…
Failure to provide equal opportunities for advancement within the corporation, could represent a violation of Title VII of the Civil ights Act of 1964 (U.S. EEOC, 2010). Violations of this act can pose a serious threat to the company and can result in heavy fines, or in some cases, loss of a contract due to failure to comply with the act. Due to the severity of the nature of EEOC violations, the company must make certain that these issues are resolved.
It is felt that education and awareness should be the first line of defense in resolution of the resolution of current complaints and in the prevention of similar complaints in the future. Education needs to take place both among senior and junior engineers. Both of these groups of employees need to be made aware of what has happened in the past and how they can help to prevent such…
Jenkins, S. & Curtin, P. (2006). Adapting Job Analysis Methodology to Improve Evaluation
Practice. American Journal of Evaluation. 27 (4): 485-494.
Palacios, J. (2006). Subtle Discrimination in the Workplace. Online Ethics Center for Engineering 8/7/2006 National Academy of Engineering. Retrieved February 13, 2010
Equal Opportunity and Workplace Diversity -- what does it mean?
Equal opportunity implies that all individuals be dealt with similarly or comparatively and not impeded by preferences or inclination or favoritism. This implies that the most appropriate individual for a particular position or work or advancement is the individual who acquires that position focused around capabilities, experience, and information (Australia Breastfeeding Association, n.d).
As long as Labor laws and employment laws are concerned, employers would be responsible to delegate and practice equality in opportunities and will not indulge in bias or prejudice on the basis of sex, religion, race, ethnicity, nationality, disability or age, generally speaking. On the other hand, an employer that is resolved to equality in treatment additionally resolves to reasonable employment constructs in all areas of relationship that exist between the worker and management or owner, as the case might be. For instance, something as basic as…
What Are the Different Types of Resource Conservation? n.d, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-different-types-of-resource-conservation.htm : Retrieved 28 January 2015
Rest periods and breaks (n.d) http://www.citizensinformation.ie/en/employment/employment_rights_and_conditions/hours_of_work/rest_periods_and_breaks.html : Retrieved 28 January 2015
Chris Adams, 2014, What is Organizational Ergonomics? http://ergonomics.about.com/od/ergonomicbasics/f/What-Is-Organizational-Ergonomics.htm : Retrieved 28 January 2015
Guidelines for Producing Instructional and Other Printed Materials in Alternate Media for Persons with Disabilities, (April 2000), http://www.htctu.net/publications/guidelines/altmedia/altmedia.htm
oth the liberal democratic and the business rationale need to be clearly articulated in a coherent communications strategy.
5) Statistical data. Detailed statistical data is needed to pinpoint which groups require positive action and to evaluate the impact of programs that incorporate targets or timetables for such groups in quantitative terms.
6) Contract compliance. The experience from the U.S.A. (and to a lesser extent Canada) suggests that contract compliance is an effective positive action policy, changing key employers' practices with minimum pain and resistance and resulting in improved employment and retention rates amongst large corporations.
7) Covenants. The experience of the Netherlands suggests that the small-scale direct approach adopted for the Covenants that facilitate co-ordination between employers with vacancies and labor exchanges with access to ethnic minority jobseekers can increase ethnic minority employment rates.
8) Enforcement mechanisms. In addition to being clearly and coherently explained and defended, positive action policies…
Cheung, S-Y. And Heath, a. (forthcoming), 'Nice Work if you can get it: ethnic minority Disadvantage in Great Britain'. In Heath, a. And Cheung, S.Y. (eds.) Unequal Chances: Ethnic Minorities in Western Labour Markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press. In Dhami, Ravinder Singh; Squires, Judith; and Modood, Tariq (2006) Developing Positive Action Policies: Learning from the Experiences of Europe and North America. Department for Work and Pensions. Research Report No. 406. Online available at http://www.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2005-2006/rrep406.pdf
Dhami, Ravinder Singh; Squires, Judith; and Modood, Tariq (2006) Developing Positive Action Policies: Learning from the Experiences of Europe and North America. Department for Work and Pensions. Research Report No. 406. Online available at http://www.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2005-2006/rrep406.pdf
Breen, Eleanor (2006) Contribution to the EEO Autumn Review 2006 'Flexicurity'. European Employment Observatory. November. Online available at http://www.eu-employment-observatory.net/resources/reports/UK-FlexicurityAR06.pdf
Tsang, C.R. And Dietz, T. (2001) 'The unrelenting significance of minority statuses: gender, ethnicity, and economic attainment since affirmative action', Sociological Spectrum, 21: 61-80.
Equal opportunity is a very important concept in a free market society. Both America and South African have proven the merits behind a society grounded in equal opportunity. Both America and South Africa have thriving economies, with a high quality of life for all those within the civilization. This quality of life manifests itself in numerous ways including increase wealth, efficiencies, convenience, and longevity. All of which have their roots in a free market society dominated by capitalistic incentives. It is the combination of a free market enterprise with those of equal opportunity that gives rise to the spectacular increases in GDP and wealth per capita. The system of equal opportunity unlocks human potential as profit motives create incentives to innovate. These innovations give rise to still further innovations that ultimately enhance the overall quality of life for the entire world. Aspects such as automobiles, airplanes, radio, television, and the…
What makes both South Africa and America so successfully is the model that they employ in regards to equal opportunity. To be fair, the model is still skewed towards wealthy white males, however, the model provides ample opportunity for others. The basic model used in both countries begins with an initial starting point. For instance, an ad is posted for a lawn mower job online. For the most part, this is done in a correct manner by both South Africa and America. All eligible people should be given opportunity to compete and apply for the job. Next and where the model most frequently breaks down is the selection process. Here, the selection should consider the "qualifications deemed relevant to successful performance in a position or program." Using the lawn mower example, the applicant must be strong enough to push a lawn mower, endure excessive time in the heat, and be able to work in a quick manner. The selection process should not incorporate irrelevant aspects such as race.
This description was given for a reason. In many countries, the starting point and the selection process is not fair for society. In this instance, the ability to compete for a job is not as profound in other countries. In South Africa and America, the starting point is relatively equal with the selection process is becoming better through time. It is this equal opportunity that provides the greatest progress for both countries. Anybody can apply for whatever job they believed to be qualified for. It is then up to them to help the employer determine their merit (Carol, 1986).
Equal opportunity first provides an avenue in which anyone,
symbol of equality in society today; the restroom. The author argues that this setting, little as it features in public discussion and debate, offers a very pertinent symbol of inequality between the two groups representing women and men. To demonstrate this, the author uses bathroom lines in public gathering and entertainment centers such as theaters or concert halls. Invariably, women using the rest rooms during intermission times form a line while men take much less time to complete their bathroom activities. This has leads the author to the conclusion that providing public rest rooms of the same size to men and women does not, in fact, result in gender equality within these spaces. Indeed, the fact that the size equality of such spaces does not take into account the cultural differences between women and men creates marked disadvantages for women.
Some of these differences include that women need their own…
Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity
The policies of affirmative action aiming at assisting the black Americans are of recent origin. The policies have sought its origin to varied sources like legal structure, executive instructions, and court rulings. It was during the last three decades that these policies were being developed and they have become debatable as well. (Legal History) During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, a large number of African-Americans officiated in important public posts inclusive of two senators and 20 members in the House. However withdrawal of sustenance for reconstruction by the federal government in the late nineteenth century, the benefits extended to African-Americans were wiped out and substituted by a system of legal segregation such as that of Latinos, Asians, and Native Americans. (Affirmative Action: Background)
Descriptive information regarding the evolution of Affirmative action and the Equal Opportunity Act- and the opposition of such laws
Affirmative Action: Background" Retrieved at http://www.civilrights.org/research_center/civilrights101/affirmaction.html . Accessed on 27 July, 2004
Andre, Claire; Velasquez, Manuel; Mazur, Tim. (Summer 1992) "Affirmative Action: Twenty-five Years of Controversy" Issues in Ethics. Volume: 5, No: 2; pp: 64-73
Bergmann, Barbara. (1996) "In Defense of Affirmative Action" New York: Basic Books
Blanchard, Fletcher A; Crosby, Faye J. (1989) "Affirmative Action in Perspective" New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Human Relations and Equal Opportunity
Human relations is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the intersection of communications, psychology, sociology, and management to better understand how individuals and workers interact and engage in personal and professional relationships. The field of human relations emerged in the 19th century when Industrialization was roaring in the West. Researchers focused on ways of maximizing potential, understanding human relations activities, and the various types of motivation. Frederick Taylor was a leading researcher who is today known as the father of the scientific management approach: he focused on maximizing efficiency, minimizing waste, decreasing the amount of required labor, and producing a streamlined approach to human relations that was more science-driven than the humane approach (Locke, 1982). While Taylor helped to introduce the idea that all human interactions could be understood by processing data and crunching numbers, the reality is that human relations are still complex…
Alpert, G. P., Noble, J. J., & Rojek, J. (2015). Solidarity and the code of silence. Critical issues in policing: Contemporary readings, 106-121.
Alt?nda?, E., & Köseda??, Y. (2015). The relationship between emotional intelligence of managers, innovative corporate culture and employee performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 210, 270-282.
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Downey, S. N., van der Werff, L., Thomas, K. M., & Plaut, V. C. (2015). The role of diversity practices and inclusion in promoting trust and employee engagement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45(1), 35-44.
Locke, E. A. (1982). The ideas of Frederick W. Taylor: an evaluation. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 14-24.
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of organization. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
O\\'Connor, E. (1999). Minding the workers: The meaning of human ‘and human relations’ in Elton Mayo. Organization, 6(2), 223-246.
Onet. (2018). Equal opportunity representatives. Retrieved from https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/13-1041.03
Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
With the turn of the 21st century, a dramatic increase is being witnessed in the international flow of labor with repercussion for domestic labor supply and management. The native, racial and emigre mixture of the employees is predominantly important for the workplace. The importance of this domestic cultural multiplicity in the labor force, highlighted by worldwide influences and necessities, has lately encouraged the researchers to focus on the companies' and managers' response to diversity, be it of any form (Watson, Spoonley, & Fitzgerald, 2009).
If the workforce of the present times is compared with the one that was found 20 years ago, it will be easy to observe that there are "more white women, people of color, disabled persons, new and recent immigrants, gays and lesbians, and intergenerational mixes (i.e., baby boomers, Generation Xers, and Generation Nexters)" (iccucci, 2002) today. This situation has given birth…
Hemphills, H., & Hayne, R. (1997). Discrimination, Harassment, and the Failure of Diversity Training: What to Do Now. Westport, CT: Quorum Book. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/23366693/discrimination-harassment-and-the-failure-of-diversity
King, A.S. (1995, December). Capacity for Empathy: Confronting Discrimination in Managing Multicultural WorkForce Diversity. Business Communication Quarterly, 58(4), 46+. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-18023663/capacity-for-empathy-confronting-discrimination-in
Ollapally, A., & Bhatnagar, J. The Holistic Approach to Diversity Management: HR Implications. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(3), 454+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-210224380/the-holistic-approach-to-diversity-management-hr
Riccucci, N.M. (2002). Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/100875091/managing-diversity-in-public-sector-workforces
S. educational system. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education.
State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy.
More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…
Buzuvist, Erin E. 2001. "A" for effort: evaluating recent state education reform in response to judicial demands for equity and adequacy. Cornell Law Review. Cornell University
Crofton, Ian. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia. Guiness Publication.
Education Quotes. (2006). Retrieved January 17, 2007, at http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_education.html
Gylfason, Thorvaldur. (2000) Natural Resources, Education, and Economic Development.
Several justifications for the continuous disparity in wages have been explained. It is obvious that women usually receive less and the central issue is to find out the cause. Men have attempted since decades to provide a justification by the help of hypothesis of various academic qualifications achieved by men or the various occupational responsibilities or vocations controlled by women as against those controlled by men. One reason is that women are featured in the remuneration gap equation, and a lot of these women belonging to a bygone period that continue to be dependent on the behavior and circumstances prevailing in the yester years. (Nash, 68)
Adversaries of uniformity in remuneration assert that preferences and not inequity is responsible for the disparity in the remuneration gap. People who are not in support of bridging the gap in remuneration between men and women think that the gap is present due to…
Acker, Joan. Doing Comparable Work: Gender, Class and Pay Equity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Amott, Teresa. Caught in the Crisis: Women and the U.S. Economy Today. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.
Bellas, M.L. Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Salaries: Does Gender Bias Play a Role? Journal of Higher Education. Volume: 68; No: 3; 1997; pp: 299-321
Furchtgott-Roth, Diana; Stolba, Christine. Equal Pay for Equal Work. American enterprise. Volume: 12; No: 1; July 1999; pp: 37-42
opportunities, including education, employment, and entrepreneurship that immigrants have in America.
America provides opportunities for all races:
America guarantees that one will not be discriminated on the basis on of his race,
National origin, gender, age etc.
All citizens in America have the right to an equal education, which includes a bilingual education.
Teaching immigrants the English language on an academic level allows them to communicate on a level equivalent to other professionals in the work place.
Immigrants who learn the English Language on a communicable level gives him or her the same equal legal rights as natural born Americans, for example-no hidden surprises in legal contracts.
Foundations help immigrants start up their own businesses in America.
Immigrants, upon receiving citizenship, have the same rights to own businesses in America as Native Americans.
Immigrants of other countries are allowed to contribute their uniqueness to this country when they open…
Frost, Martin, (01/22/1999)
Where-Freedom Seekers Yearn to be Free; Halting Immigrants Deprives America of Fresh Talent that Keeps in on Top
Knight-Ridder News Service
Kelley, S., (9/18/2002)
Representative Rosa DeLauro first introduced an identical bill in the House of Representatives on the same day. These Congresswomen have introduced identical legislation in their respective chambers annually since 2005. The Act was most recently introduced on March 6, 2007. (Absoluteastronomy.com, n.d.)
The Congress did not ignore the EPA's economic consequences on the salaries and employment opportunities for both men and women. First, as an amendment of the FLSA, the EPA is part of the same legislative structure that houses the federal minimum wage laws. The EPA acts as a wage equalizer between men and women for equal jobs, and has the potential of acting as a price floor on the salaries of men or women for particular jobs. As such, the EPA had the potential of causing some of the same problems observed by minimum wage laws: unemployment, and additional discrimination. (Absoluteastronomy.com, n.d.)
From the EEOC's initial enforcement…
Absoluteastronomy.com. (n.d.). Equal Pay Act of 1963. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from Absolute Astronomy: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Equal_Pay_Act_of_1963
Brunner, B. (n.d.). The Wage Gap. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from Infoplease:
EEOC. (n.d.). Equal Pay and Discrimination. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from U.S. Equal
" (2000) There are other factors associated with change that enhance the ability for the independent hotels to compete as there is a segment of customers with the desire to discover for themselves what best satisfies their taste. The independent hotels offer guests "the option of maintaining their differentiation while affiliating with 'soft' brands, which reflect a defined product and offer similar service support as franchisers or chains." (Swig, 2000) Swig additionally reports that Rob Cornell of Preferred Hotels believes that "global distribution brands have evolved today to provide the independent hotel owner; manager access to the latest in reservation distribution and marketing technology, partner relationships, quality stands, volume purchasing and sales infrastructure. " (2000) Technology is said to be the "new vehicle" that enables equal access..." (Swig, 2000) Finally, Swig states that "membership or affiliate organizations have matured and gained credibility with consumers. At the same time these groups…
Bibliography & References
Hotel Augustin: Bergen, Norway (2007) (2007) Scandinavian Travel Specialists Since 1967 Online available at http://www.scantours.com/augustin_hotel.htm.
Augustin Hotel - C. Sundts Gate, Bergen, Norway (2007) hotelgenie.com located online available at http://www.hotelgenie.com/bergen/augustin.shtml.
Swig, Rick (2000) Independent Hotels: The New Brand Alternative. RSBA & Associates: Hospitality Consulting Services. Ideas and Trends. June 2000.
Verret, Carol (2005) Independent Hotels & Resorts: Ride the Wave or Float with the Tide. Carol Verret Consulting and Training. Ideas and Trends Hotel Online. 2005 March. Online available at http://www.hotel-online.com/News/PR2005_1st/Mar05_RisingTide.html .
The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases (16 Wall. 36), cannot be understood without keeping in view the history of the times when they were adopted, and the general objects they plainly sought to accomplish. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed. Discriminations against them had been habitual.
100 U.S. 303, 306).
Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. It held that:
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. Part III, p. 335 (Act of Mar. 1, 1875).
Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003).
These figures dwarfed what other big businesses paid for discriminatory practices. These businesses included Texaco, Inc.; Shoney's, Inc., Winn-Dixie, Stores, Inc.; and CSX Transportation, Inc. Critics saw Coca-Cola's settlement as signaling a major breakthrough among big businesses as coming to terms with diversity in the workplace (King). ecause the company has been a leader in many areas, these critics regarded it as setting an example of greater openness to promotions across races of employees (King).
Settlement terms included $23.7 million as back pay; $58.7 million as compensatory damages; and $10 million as promotional achievement award fund distributed to the complainants. A remaining $20 million went to attorney's fees and $36 million to the implementation of internal program reforms. Coca-Cola would also create an external, seven-member task force to insure that the terms were complied with and to oversee the company's diversity efforts (King).
According to Social Networks. - Connections in…
Bland, T. (1999). Equal pay enforcement heats up. 4 pages. HR Magazine: Society for Human
Bronstad, a. (2001). EEOC alleges Beverley Hilton discrimination. 2 pages. Los Angeles
Business Journal: CBJ, LP
William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,
Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.
Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…
Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.
Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.
Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
To be eligible for FMLA an employee must have a condition that makes him or her unable to perform their essential job function" (Vikesland, 2006). Previously-existing amendments to the Civil ights Act prohibited discrimination against women based upon pregnancy and the Equal Pay Act (EPA) of 1963 mandated equal pay for women and men doing the same work (EEOC, 2011, Official Website).
Protected groups can allege they have been the victims of discrimination based upon charges of disparate treatment and disparate impact. Disparate treatment means that the worker was denied opportunities or advancement based upon his or her membership in a protected category because of the explicit intention of the employer, such as a sexist employer that openly discriminates against women. Disparate impact cases, in contrast, refer to discriminatory policies that have a disparate impact upon a particular group of employees (Payne 2009: 60). For example, an employer might require…
EEOC. (2011). Official Website. Retrieved June 10, 2011 at http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/ index.cfm
Pynes, Joan, E. (2009) Human resource management for public and non-profit organizations:
A strategic approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Vikesland, Gary. (2006). The Family & Medical Leave Act. Employer-Employee.com
Education and Equality of Opportunity
The issue of equality in access to education has been a long running argument and each time legislations are passed and initiatives invented towards trying to make education actually equal and accessible, there are gaping gaps that still make these efforts run short of their target goal. There are several terms that are used in the education department that need to be well understood since most have been misused and hence leading to either a stereotype view of education, or a skewed perspective that only helps to make the situation worse than it already is.
The achievement gap; this is often referred to as the disparity or difference in the performance of students in various groups. From the surface of it, it looks justifiable definition, however, these groupings that are use to measure the academic performance are quite stereotyped and the academic achievements have nothing…
Reardon S.F., (2011). The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/reardon%20whither%20opportunity%20-%20chapter%205.pdf
Teachers College Columbia University, (2005). The Academic Achievement Gap: Facts and Figures. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://www.tc.columbia.edu/news.htm?articleID=5183
Monopoly of Opportunity
The concept of capitalism is often associated with concepts of free competition and opportunity and equal opportunity, where there is the ability of any firm to compete, and those with an entrepreneurial spirit may rise to the top of business and/or politics. In a recent article published by The Atlantic, Liu argues that the rather than providing opportunities equally, the system of capitalism seen in the U.S. constrains and exacerbates the existing economic, and therefore, social strata. The basic argument is that the rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer, effectivity creating an opportunity monopoly (Liu 1). The issue is not only associated with economic power but the way this is then impacting on and providing social power, including political power, as well as commercial power (Liu 1). By examining this article, and the underlying arguments, it is possible to appreciate the way in…
Liu, E. "End the Opportunity Monopoly." The Atlantic 2016. Web. .
de Tocqueville, A. "Why among the Americans All Honest Callings Are Considered Honorable," Tocqueville; Book II, Web.
The job opportunity
Data analyst at Ciber, as solicited in the following advertisement from www.jobview.monster.com
"Ciber is looking for a Data Analyst to analyze data from various GFS. This Senior Data Analyst will have experience working in an enterprise environment and crunching numbers that have high levels of visibility.
Strong to expert level skills and experience in MS Excel: if statements, vlookup, hlookup, pivot tables, macros, etc.
A rich history of analytical and problem solving skills and accomplishments.
Analytical and detail oriented individual that enjoys working with data solutions.
Strong to expert skills in data manipulation with tools like MS Excel and Excel reporting.
Ability to quickly comprehend complex spreadsheets/data.
Intermediate SQL query, & SSRS background.
Good communication and presentation skills to executive management audiences.
Skilled at working with large data sets in Excel, quickly resolving data-related issues.
Clean lines of communication to Executive…
If this were the case then the provisions of the Equal Pay Act might be of some assistance, although women's lower rates of payment might be explained by reference to factors such as age/work experience/seniority within the workplace or concentration in lower grades which might (but might not) be discrimination-free. Alternatively, women might be doing the same jobs as men, but doing them in female workplaces, with the effect that no comparison would be possible under the Equal Pay Act" (p. 215).
Essentially, what McColgan (1997) is implying is that there could be logical reasons for women earning fewer cents on the dollar than men, most of which have to do with women having spent less time in the workforce than men. While this logic might have applied in much of the last half of the twentieth century, our current generation has long passed the era when women were primarily…
Figart, D.M., Mutari, E. & Power, M. (2002) Living wages, Equal wages: Gender and labor market policies in the United States. New York: Routledge
Green, C. & Ferber, M. (2005, March) Do detailed work histories help to explain gender and race/ethnic wage differentials?, Review of Social Economy 63, 55-85.
Harvey C. & Allard, J.M. (2005). Understanding and managing diversity: readings, cases and exercises, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall, New Jersey
Lengnick-Hall, M.L., Lengnick-Hall, C.A., Andrade, L.S. & Drake, B. (2009), Strategic human resource management: the evolution of the field, Human Resource Management Review,19(2),64-85.
Advice is given to supervisors on how to correct poor appearance and employee misconduct. In these instances, progressive guidelines and other requirements must be taken into account the completing disciplinary actions and in resolving employee grievances and appeals. Information is given to employees to encourage a better understanding of management's goals and policies. Information is also given to employees in order to assist them in improving poor performance, on or off duty misconduct, and/or to address personal issues that influence them in the workplace. Employees are told about appropriate policies, legislation, and bargaining agreements. Employees are also directed about their complaint and appeal rights and discrimination and whistleblower safeguards (Employee elations, 2009).
Preserving a positive, productive work environment is significant for all managers. This is often accomplished by engaging in: mentoring and coaching your staff, regular feedback, including annual performance reviews, open and honest communication regarding group, unit and university…
Compensation and Benefits. (n.d.). Retrieved August 18, 2010, from Auxillium West Web site:
Employee Health and Safety. (2009). Retrieved August 19, 2010, from Small Business Notes
Web site: http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/operating/hr/safety.html
Greater care needs to be taken to ensure equal opportunities earlier in life, rather than later. If Jennings had had the opportunity to attend a public school that truly prepared him for college and later life, his race and circumstances would be entirely inconsequential insofar as his application to Brown. His "A" s could have stood up to anyone else's, had that been the case; his SAT scores would no doubt have been more in line with his GPA as well. One could very reasonably argue that it is incumbent upon the government, federal, state, and/or local to provide equal public education facilities to all students, and this is the true failure in the Jennings case.
Equal opportunity needs to be handed out early in life, rather than later. Ensuring an equal chance at success should not -- and does not -- consist of handing out rewards in the shape…
Sykes, Marquita. "The Origins of Affirmative Action." National Organization for Women. Accessed 27 July 2009. http://www.now.org /nnt/08-95/affirmhs.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Military Veteran Hiring Situation -- My Testimony
A military veteran entering into civilian life can face tough challenges, especially when it comes to finding a suitable, well-paying job in today's American economy. But I have been blessed to find a good job, and I am extremely grateful to ITA International for the opportunity they have provided for me.
After serving my country for ten years in the United States Army, it was very important for me to find a civilian job in Virginia. Not just any job, but a job that would allow me to use my career training as a project manager.
Indeed, it was my good fortune to come into contact with ITA International in February 2016, an equal opportunity company in Virginia that reaches out to military veterans. Through online sources (Linked-In), I located the ITA International recruiter, and supplied my resume.
The ITA International recruiter contacted…
Price of bond= 0.385543*1000 +6.144567*100= $385.54.64+$614.45
Price of bond= $1,000
So, price of bond B. is $1,000 b. For market interest rate equal to 12%:
Price for bond a:
Market interest rate is equal Coupon rate is equal Face value Frequency Number of years to maturity Number of Periods Discount rate annually Discount rate per period n, periods r, per period 12%
10% $1,000 Annual 20-20-12.00% annual 12.00% 20-12.00%
Now we need to calculate PVIF and PVIFA.
For calculation of PVIFA (i, n) and PVIF I is equal to 20 periods and n=12%
PVIFA= (1- 1/(1+.12)^20)/.12
Price of bond= 0.103667*1000+7.469444*100=$851
Price of bond a = $851
Price of bond B:
Market interest rate is equal Coupon rate is equal Face value Frequency Number of years to maturity Number of Periods Discount rate annually Discount rate per period n, periods r, per period 12%…
Equal Pay Act: Difficult but Essential to Enforce
According to the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2009, women made about 80% of what men of the same race performing the same jobs did. Historical data from the BLS (and this is consistent with other sources) demonstrate that things have improved little in terms of pay equity for women over the past half century or so (Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost ). This is true despite the fact that in 1963, the Pay Equity Act became federal law in 1963. It is nearly impossible not to consider this law a failure in its effects given that so little has changed. (One might argue that things might have gotten worse for women absent this law, but this argument seems at least primarily specious.)
Congress enacted the law, which amended the Fair Labor Standards Act, for a number of reasons, including the…
AFL/CIO, "Pay Equity," retrieved 5 February 2010 from http://www.aflcio.org/issues/jobseconomy/women/equalpay/ ).
Bureau of Labor Statistics, retrieved 4 February 2010 from http://data.bls.gov/cgi -
The first article in this connection is written by Donald Heller. The article explains how rising costs impact enrollment in colleges and universities. The author found that all things being equal, rising tuition costs will lead to lower enrollment. A decline in enrollment is however a subjective issue dependent on some other factors including type of institution. For example it has been found the community…
Heller, Donald. The effects of tuition prices and financial
Aid on enrollment in higher education Accessed online
Dickson L, Pender. In-State Tuition Benefits Affect the Enrollment of Non-Citizens?
Evidence from Universities in Texas. Accessed online
Elsie Hill defines equality broadly, to include all manner of equal protections under the law and equal access to opportunities and legally ensconced freedoms. According to Hill, women are not entitled to control over their own earnings and even over their own children. Women are also excluded from serving in public office, even though they are taxpayers. Hill calls for the removal of any and all forms of discrimination. The author proposes the Woman’s Equal Rights Bill, which would create a federal standard for gender equality, thereby precluding the rights of states to perpetuate their own misogynistic laws. Hill also claims that the passing of the Woman’s Equal Rights Bill would promote a parallel amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing the rights of women.
Florence Kelley, on the other hand, opposes the Woman’s Equal Rights Bill, claiming that women need different laws from men because they are biologically different. Kelley assumes…
The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…
references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.
Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.
Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.
Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
Economic Motivators for Employers on Employment ates for People With Disabilities in Atlanta
Definition of Disability
Statistics for Individuals with Disabilities
Effects Of ADA On Persons With Disabilities
Economic Motivators for Employers Hiring People with Disabilities
Factors Affecting Economic Motivators for Employers
Lack of Information and Knowledge egarding Economic Motivators
Misconception about Individuals with Disabilities
Inaccessible Hiring Strategies
Conflicts with Existing Programs
Lack of Appropriate Planning and Difficulties in implementations Economic Incentive Programs
Unemployment Among People with Disabilities
CHAPTE III: METHODOLOGY
Selection of Participants
Complete description of the esearch Participants
Type of Sampling
Appropriateness/rationale for use in the study 53
Ethical Consideration 54
Data Analysis 55
Qualitative esearch Analysis 55
Quantitative esearch Analysis 57
The esearcher's ole 58
Andrew, D. P. S., Pedersen, P. M., & McEvoy, C. D. (2011). Research Methods and Design In Sport Management. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Arthur, S., A. Corden, A. Green, J. Lewis, J. Loumidis, R. Sainsbury, B. Stafford, P. Thornton, & R. Walker, R .(1999). New Deal for disabled people: Early implementation, Research Report No 106, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.
Ashworth, K., Hartfree, Y & Stephenson, A. (2001). Well, enough to work? Research Report No. 145, (UK) Department of Work and Pensions, Corporate Document Services, Leeds.
Baker, M. & Tippin, D. (2003). More than just another obstacle: Health, Domestic Purposes Beneficiaries, and the transition to paid work, paper presented at the Social Policy, Research and Evaluation conference Connecting Policy, Research and Practice, 29-30 April, Wellington.
, 2005; Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009).
Human esources Implications of Equal Pay Concepts
While applicable employment legislation prohibits discrimination in compensation based strictly on gender, it does not necessarily require equal pay in circumstances where there are purely objective differences justifying those differences (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009). There are, in fact, numerous factors on the basis of which compensation differences may be permissible; for example, seniority, performance reviews, experience, the achievement of specific goals or objectives, and the objective overall quality of the work performed by respective employees may all be appropriate criteria for justifying unequal pay (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009).
In light of the applicable legislation and the nature of the appropriate criteria that justify differential compensation, promotion, and benefits, human resource professionals must establish very detailed position analyses and job descriptions (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, et al., 2009). This is the simplest and…
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-
Noe, R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B., and Wright, P. (2009). Human Resource
Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace." (Steiger, 2007) Specifically written by Justice Ginsburg is that as follows:
worker knows immediately if she is denied a promotion or transfer, if she is fired or refused employment. And promotions, transfers, hirings, and firings are generally public events, known to co-workers. When an employer makes a decision of such open and definitive character, an employee can immediately seek out an explanation and evaluate it for pretext. Compensation disparities, in contrast, are often hidden from sight." (Steiger, 2007)
Steiger reports that…
Abrams, Jim (2009) House Approves Bill to Fight Wage Discrimination. Yahoo News. 9 Jan 2009. Online available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090109/ap_on_go_co/pay_equity
Barko, N. (2000. June 19). The Other Gender Gap. (Online) Available http://www.prospect.org/archives/V11-15/barko-n.html .
Bland, T.S. (1999, July). Equal Pay Enforcement Heats Up. HR Magazine, p. 138-145.
Bland, T.S., Nail, T.N., Knox, D.P. (2000, May). OFCCP, White House push comparable worth. HR News, p. 22-24.
ather than being idle and receiving public benefit, individuals of working age typically prefer completing useful work. Mark P. Altieri, an associate professor of accounting at Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, and Jason A. othman, (2006), an associate at Wickens, Herzer, Panza, Cook and Batista, note a number of enhancements to WOTC in the article, "Surviving Katrina: Tax breaks for victims of the costliest catastrophe in American history."
According to Altieri and othman (2006), in regard to the WOTC - general law, under IC section 51, the WOTC provides motivation for employers to hire economically disadvantaged individuals. These disadvantaged individuals include qualified ex-felons, food-stamp recipients, veterans, summer youth employees, as well as individuals who receive certain welfare benefits (Altieri & othman, ¶ 23). Altieri and othman explain that in the past, the WOTC -- Katrina was expanded to embrace individuals whose principal residence on August 28, 2005, was located in…
Altieri, M.P., & Rothman, J.A. (2006). Surviving Katrina: Tax breaks for victims of the costliest catastrophe in american history. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2), 58+. Retrieved June 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013771777
Anonymous. (2008). Special tax credit aids Paulding Co. development. Toledo Business Journal.
Telex Communications, Inc. Retrieved June 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1619413051.html Battersby, M.E. (2009). The Memorial Day tax surprise. Metal Center News. Sackett Business
The ideology of race only came to justify the existence of slavery after all 'equal' men were said to have inherent rights. Until then, virtually all peoples of the world had been enslaved at one point or another, even before the existence of 'races,' and inferiority as a category could be applied to the poor, to despised ethnicities like the Irish, or even to despised members of other tribes in Africa.
Fields, Barbara. "Presentation." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2001. February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-02.htm
Africa: A Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson. RM Arts, 1984.
Horton, James O. "Origin of race, slavery." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2003.
February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-04.htm
Obadina, Tunde. "Role of African Slave Traders." Edofolks. February 9, 2009. http://www.edofolks.com/html/pub157.htm
Smedley, Audrey. "Origin of the idea of race." Anthropology Newsletter. November 1997.
Reprinted 2003 on Race:…
Fields, Barbara. "Presentation." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS Website. 2001. February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-02.htm
Africa: A Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson. RM Arts, 1984.
Horton, James O. "Origin of race, slavery." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS Website. 2003.
negotiation, signing the contract and the actual operations of import that follow. Below is a rough plan of the report:
Commercial letters. Offer Demand.
Characteristics of Thai culture. Negotiation in an intercultural context
Signing the contract
Example of the contract
Transport and Freight
Payment. Letter of Credit
Customs and Custom Duties
The first thing that the importer will be concerned with is identifying the Thai market and possible partners. This kind of information is usually delivered by mixed (bilateral) chambers of trade. As of my knowledge, a bilateral Canadian- Thai chamber of trade does not exist as such, so that information on producers and exporters of tins from Thailand will most likely be gathered either from the International Chamber of Trade in Paris or from local sources.
Once the Thai exporters have been identified, the Canadian importer can proceed to send each of them an…
Employment Opportunities for Women
The importance of diversity in today's workplace cannot be overemphasized. An important aspect of diversity relates to gender diversity. Historically, the representation of women at the workplace has been significantly skewed, especially with respect to key organizational positions such as board chairperson, CEO, and senior management (Nielsen & Huse, 2010). Women are usually concentrated in administrative, clerical, and other less demanding jobs (Paludi, 2012). This is particularly true for the author's organization, where all board and management positions are currently held by men. This paper provides a plan for increasing employment opportunities for women at the organization. The plan specifically includes a rationale for intentional employment of women in key organizational leadership positions, a strategy, and a profile for recruitment.
ationale for Increased Employment opportunities for Women
Whereas consensus is yet to be reached, research has increasingly demonstrated the benefits that may be brought about by…
Nielsen, S., & Huse, M. (2010). The contribution of women on boards of directors: going beyond the surface. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 18(2), 136- 148.
Paludi, M. (2012). Managing diversity in today's workplace. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Swanson, J., Kowalski, K., Gettman, H., & Lee, J. (2012). Leadership characteristics and Title IX: a possible mechanism for the impact of sports participation on work outcomes. International Leadership Journal, 4(2), 40-61.
Latino community leaders want to achieve equality in the United States for Latino-Americans and immigrants, but they want to preserve their cultural uniqueness and traditions in the same way that other immigrant groups have done in America. hile the academic opportunities that are now open to Latinos in America are encouraging, and the career opportunities that are becoming available through alternative dispute resolution is helpful, Latinos are still struggling, as has every immigrant in American society, with maintaining their identity as a cultural group. Assimilation, Latino experts hold, is a good thing, but loss of cultural identity is not (119). So there remains an emphasis on helping the Latino community recognize and to celebrate its own identity.
Contreras, Josefina M., Kathryn a. Kerns, and Angela M. Neal-Barnett, eds. Latino Children and Families in the United States: Current Research and Future Directions / . estport, CT: Praeger, 2002.…
Contreras, Josefina M., Kathryn a. Kerns, and Angela M. Neal-Barnett, eds. Latino Children and Families in the United States: Current Research and Future Directions / . Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002. Questia. 22 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102099820 .
Shaunessy, Elizabeth, et al. "Understanding the Experiences of Bilingual, Latino/a Adolescents: Voices from Gifted and General Education." Roeper Review 29.3 (2007): 174+. Questia. 22 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020787821 .
The disparity in income of male vs. female heads of household is striking. Analysis of census data revealed that, in 1949, approximately thirty percent of households headed by white males were living in poverty, compared to just under thirteen percent a decade later. For women, more than half lived in poverty in 1949; by 1959, that figure declined to thirty-eight percent. The prosperity of the 1950s was not universally enjoyed. Female heads of household at the end of the decade were not better off than their male counterparts had been ten years earlier.
Financing for decent, inexpensive homes was readily available to servicemen returning from World War II. Coontz (1992) argued that this boom in home ownership led to "increasingly pervasive and sophisticated marketing [that] contributed to socially constructed perceptions of "need" and to unprecedented levels of consumer debt (Edwards, 2001). It was new consumer values that helped propel mothers…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. [Amazon
Kindle editions version.
Delmont, S. (1996). A woman's place in education. Great Britain: Avebury.
Edwards, M.E. (2001). Home ownership, affordability, and mothers' changing work and family roles. Social Science Quarterly, 82 (2), 369-383.
WOMEN'S IGHTS: EQUALITY IN THE WOKFOCE, EQUAL PAY
Women's ights: Equality in the Workplace, Equal Pay
Legislative background. The word "sex" is always an attention-getter, and when used in legislation, it can be polarizing. Public Law 82-352 (78 Stat. 241) was passed by Congress in 1964 as a civil rights statute. The Law made it a crime to discriminate in all aspects of employment on the basis of race and sex. epresentative Howard W. Smith (D-VA) added the word "sex" at the eleventh hour (O'Neill, 2011), reported to keep the bill from being passed. As a conservative Southerner, Smith was seen as an opponent of federal civil rights legislation. But Smith defended his action, explaining that he had amended the bill because of his work with the National Women's Party and his efforts to support Alice Paul. The effort to retain the word "sex" in the bill was led by…
About NOW, National Organization of Women. Retrieved http://www.now.org / organization/info.html
About Us, Women's International Forum. Retrieved http://www.iwf.org/
About Us, WorkLife Law. 2011. A Center of UC Hastings College of the Law. Retrieved http://www.worklifelaw.org/ProveitAgain.html
Thomas, M. 2011. Another equal pay day. Really? Ms. Foundation for Women. Retrieved http://ms.foundation.org/
omen in Higher Education -- 1785-1890
Higher educational opportunities for women in the U.S. were scarce in the late 18th century through the nineteenth century, and even into the 20th century as well. omen were expected to stay in the home, raise the children, cook and clean for the husband, not go out and get an advanced education. This paper reflects the few opportunities that were available to women and how those opportunities were seized upon by women eager to better themselves and pursue careers -- notwithstanding firm resistance by society and by colleges and universities run by men.
omen and Higher Education by 1860
In his book A History of American Higher Education, author John Thelin points out that by 1860, just before the Civil ar, there were "…at lease forty-five institutions" that were offering college and university degrees to women (Thelin, 2012). Those higher education institutions were referred…
Norgren, J. (2010). Ladies of Legend: The First Generation of American Women Attorneys
Journal of Supreme Court History, 35(1), 71-90.
Spillman, S. (2012). Institutional Limits: Christine Ladd-Franklin, Fellowships, and American Women's Academic Careers, 1880-1920. History of Education Quarterly,
J-Food has an opportunity to become the first one to shift in the "all-you-can-eat steak buffet" notion to grow into a market leader. The steady attractiveness of steak along with a perception of economy in buffet seems to be the perfect combination in foreign markets and is bound to produce the same results here (Clancy et al., 2000).
By analyzing the situation in the market, we have characterized groups into various subdivisions. The only exclusion comes when we characterize our subdivision for lunch. We strongly trust, and have observed, that a much widespread desire prevails for this lunchtime slot because our pricing is on the economical side and includes our J-Food's Specialty Beef burger. The following are our targeted subdivisions (Clancy et al., 2000).
* Age -- Aged, Baby-Boomers, youthful couples with children, and labor of all areas.
* Family Unit -- We will send requests to small…
Allen, E. And Fjermestad, J. "E-Commerce Strategies: The Manufacturer Retailer Consumer Relationship," Proceedings of the 5th Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2000.
Betts, M. "It's Official: There really is a 'Digital Economy'," Computerworld, June 2000.
Carter, B. "Dying Dot-coms, Dwindling TV Ads," The New York Times, December 18, 2000.
Clancy, K.J. And Kriegafsd P.C. (2000). Counter intuitive Marketing. The Free Press.
The authors are successful in this aim up to a large extent. However, they have not discussed gender discrimination individually; rather this topic has been explained collectively with the multi-cultural workforce management. The OB theories, models, and organizational justice approaches which the authors have used in writing this book can help in explaining the inequality practices which modern business organizations have adopted at their workplaces.
"The New American Workplace"
By James O'Toole, & Edward E. Lawler
This book is based on the results of a nation-wide survey conducted by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to analyze the working conditions in the country from the perspective of working patterns, equal opportunities, flexible work options, gender inequality, and the like. The book is co-authored by the Chairman of the team himself. The findings of the research suggest that business organizations…
Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.
Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:
"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."
Both of these…
Bluestone, B. (2001, December 10). The inequality express. The American Prospect. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://prospect.org/article/inequality-express
Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (1976). Education and inequality. In Schooling in capitalistic America: Educational reform and contraditions of economic life. New York: Basic Books Inc., 347-352. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://homepage.smc.edu/delpiccolo_guido/Soc1/soc1readings/education%20and%20inequality_final.pdf
Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York: Random House.
Murray, C. (2008). The age of educational romanticism. The New Criterion, Vol. 26, Issue 9, 35-42. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=c1982738-7db5-4e79-a111-f63982ce3e61%40sessionmgr111&hid=106
Learning and Development Solutions What Factors Would You Take Into Consideration
The environment is one of the factors that enhance the learning process and offering solutions among learners. The environment refers to any physical and psychological presence, which constitutes a surrounding during the time of learning. In every learning endeavor, it is often important to consider the effects that the environment has on the learning that is taking place, the achievement of the learning objectives, and the nature of the solutions derived from the learning process. The environment influences the learner at the process of learning and deriving solutions to problems at hand. The influence of the environment could be either positive or negative. This factor should be considered since it is intrinsic at the point of learning. The environment also includes the physical and natural existence at the process of learning. As such, the learning environment should be…
Armstrong, S., & Fukami, C. V, 2009, The SAGE handbook of management learning, education and development. London, SAGE.
Park, C. C, 2007, Asian-American education: acculturation, literacy development, and learning. Charlotte, N.C., IAP.
Discrimination and Affirmative Action
Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) prohibits private and state and local government employers with 15 or more employees from discriminating against individuals on the basis of disability. Title I of the ADA also generally requires covered employers to make reasonable accommodations -- changes in the workplace or in the way things are usually done that provide individuals with disabilities equal employment opportunities." (U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission, 2008) In order to meet the ADA's definition of disability the individual must have a "physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; (2) has a record of such an impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment. This definition of disability may differ from the definition used in other laws. For example, the term "disabled veteran" means an individual…
Chapter 4-1, Equal Employment Opportunity Program (Sept. 12, 2003) U.S. Department of Justice. retrieved from: http://www.justice.gov/jmd/ps/chpt4-1.html
Dunn, CP (1997) The Normative Defense for Affirmative Action. Journal of Management Inquiry. Retrieved from: http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/dunnweb/pubs.aa.html
ETERANS WITH SERVICE-CONNECTED DISABILITIES AND THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA): A GUIDE FOR EMPLOYERS (2008) U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission. Retrieved from: http://archive.eeoc.gov/facts/veterans-disabilities-employers.ht
NSPECTOR GENERAL INSTRUCTION 1440.1 (2005) SUBJECT: Equal Employment Opportunity Program. Department of Defense. Retrieved from: http://www.dodig.mil/fo/Foia/ERR/IGDINST%201440.1%20IG%20Signed%2011-09-05.pdf
As a part of its responsibility to monitor federal agency compliance with Section 501, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) collects and compiles data regarding agencies' hiring and advancement of workers with disabilities. At the time of hiring, federal agencies provide employees the opportunity to self-disclose that they have a disability, on a Standard Form 256 (SF-256); the numbers of people who so identify are reported to the EEOC. In1979, EEOC officially designated certain disabilities as targeted disabilities in its Management Directive 703 issued on December 6, 1979, which in 2003 was superseded by Management Directive 715. MD 715 defines targeted disabilities as "Disabilities that the federal government, as a matter of policy, has identified for special emphasis in affirmative action programs. They are: 1) deafness; 2) blindness; 3) missing extremities; 4) partial paralysis; 5) complete paralysis; 6) convulsive disorders; 7) mental retardation; 8) mental illness; and 9) distortion…
Supreme Court Decisions Interpreting the Americans with Disabilities Act, subpart
II (J)(1), at http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/2002/supremecourt_ada.htm , quoting the National Council on Disability, TOWARD INDEPENDENCE, app., at a-15 & a-37 (1986).
Robert L. Burgdorf Jr., "Substantially Limited" Protection from Disability
Discrimination: The Special Treatment Model and Misconstructions of the Definition of Disability, 42 Villanova L. Rev. 409, 529 -- 533 (1997)
Downside of Affirmative Action
Affirmative action has increasingly become a popular subject of debate. Not only does the phrase "affirmative action" mean different things to different people, but also there are different arguments for and against it. While many people tout the benefits of affirmative action programs, they have acted as a stumbling block for minorities and have essentially created a starker disparity in the struggle for equal opportunity between white people and other minority groups.
enefits of Affirmative Action
Affirmative action (AA) refers to the social practice in which members of historically disadvantaged groups are given preferential treatment in an attempt by the United States to compensate for any harm that was caused to their ancestors in the past (Crock, 1995). For example, African-Americans receive special benefits because of the U.S. history of slavery.
President Lyndon . Johnson originally created affirmative action programs in 1965 to correct discrimination that…
CNN. (January 16, 2003). Bush criticizes university 'quota system'. CNN.com. Retrieved on the Internet at http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/01/15/bush.affirmativeaction/ .
Crock, Stan. A Thunderous Impact on Equal Opportunity. Business Week, June 26, 1995: p. 37.
Giraldo, Zaida I. What Everyone Should Know About Affirmative Action. Peaceful Action, May 1995: pp. 44-46.
Wilson, R. Affirmative Action: Yesterday, Today, and Beyond. American Council on Education, 1995.
The society has always looked down upon women whose roles are always as the subordinate of her male counterpart. The modern business world has seen the presence of women in top managerial positions and the organizations are steered successfully. It is important to provide equal training opportunities because anybody despite gender can be a leader Jones and George 66()
Business organizations are faced with everyday challenges influenced by culture, gender and characteristics of an effective leader. Leadership skills have to be acquired to ensure coordination of all these aspects, so as to ensure the company derives maximum profits from its activities. Anyone can be a leader as it is not based on masculinity. Cultural values have to observe so that coordination of the employees is harmonized. On the other hand it is important to acknowledge our diversities and work towards programs that unify us while at the same time…
Carli, L.L., and a.H. Eagly. Gender, Hierarchy, and Leadership. California: Blackwell for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, 2001. Print.
Jones, G.R., and J.M. George. Contemporary Management. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007. Print.
Press, Harvard Business School. Managing Diversity: Expert Solutions to Everyday Challenges. Texas: Harvard Business Press, 2009. Print.
Terrell, R.D., and R.B. Lindsey. Culturally Proficient Leadership: The Personal Journey Begins Within. Corwin Press, 2008. Print.
Women in the Workforce
Training Plan: Breaking the Glass Ceiling at Intuit
Intuit revolutionized the accounting industry with innovative applications that assist with financial analysis and tax preparation. Since 1983 Intuit has been a proud leader providing our most famous products: Quicken and TurboTax to a wide variety of customers from individuals to small businesses and corporations. We have prided ourselves on providing an excellent workplace that sparks creativity and builds long-term relationships. Our atmosphere is one of continual learning and growth.
However, this focus on growth always means that there is room for improvement. The following examines a new training plan to help take advantage of one area that could be improved. Intuit attracts young movers and shakers. However, women have recently complained that their needs are being ignored. The following will examine a plan to include women in the Intuit mix in a way that allows them truly…
Intuit Inc., (2008, August 13). Intuit Unveils Small Business Connected Strategy. Intuit.
Retrieved from http://about.Intuit.com/about_Intuit/press_room/press_release/2008/0813.jsp li, M., Metz, I., & Kulik, C. (2007, December 4-7) Workforce gender diversity: Is it a source of competitive advantage? Paper presented at the 21st ANZAM conference, Sydney,
Australia Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/40898/1/40898.pdf
Griffiths, M. & Moore, K. (2010). 'Disappearing Women': A Study of Women Who Left the UK
social, economic, and political changes the country as experienced since 1783 are fulfilling the promises of the Revolution?
The American revolutionary war is one of the most significant events in the history of today's United States of America. It involved a war between the American colonies and Great Britain. This great historical event took place in the years 1775 to 1783 and led to the formation of United States of America. Conflicts leading to the war of independence arose from the tension between the 13 colonies of North America's residents and the Britain colonial government. The tensions leading to the America's independence war emerged from attempts by British government to raise revenue by taxing her colonies.
The war with Great Britain created awareness to Americans and pushed the nation into the search for a new and long-lasting society based on equality, liberty and independent ideas. Following the war of…
Morton, C.J. The American Revolution. United States of America: Green wood press, 2003. Print
Frank, A. American Revolution: People and perspectives. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Print
Women's history month calls attention to the contributions of women to military life in the United States. Similarly, National Disability Employment Awareness reminds all personnel that a person's disability does not define them, any more than a person's gender or ethnicity does. Women's History month, African-American History Month, and National Disability Employment Awareness remind military personnel about how some members of society had been systematically excluded and discriminated against until fairly recently. The observances ensure that discrimination is no longer tolerated in any place of employment.
The ethnic observances create an attitude of inclusion and acceptance, which is important for organizational culture. Cohesion in the military is especially important, which is why observing ethnic, cultural, gender, and other differences is important for the Department of Defense.
The military's diverse personnel and their different methods of communication and social interaction make the ethnic observances crucial. Observances should not be superficial. Instead,…
Deputy Chief of Staff, Equal Opportunity Branch. "Ethnic Observances." http://www.armyg1.army.mil/eo/ethnic.asp (Accessed Nov 12, 2009).
US Army IMCOM. http://www.drum.army.mil/sites/installation/eo-ethnic.asp (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
Huckleberry Finn and What Makes an American
What Makes Twain's Huckleberry Finn American?
"Those canonic ideals -- self-government, equal opportunity, freedom of speech and association, a belief in progress, were first proclaimed during the era of the evolution and the early republic and have developed more expansive meanings since then," these are the basic core ideals which make something truly American (Kazin & McCartin 1). The freedom to live as we want, say what we want, and govern ourselves -- these are what make us Americans in culture and ideology. In literature, these core elements are also often what define a book or character as truly American. Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn adheres to the very ideals of what it is to be an American, which is what makes the work and its author truly Americanized in style and content.
One of the most important ideals in the concept of Americanism…
Jehlen, Myra. "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Classic American Literature." Banned in Concord. 1995. Web. http://www.dlackey.org/weblog/docs/Banned_in_Concord.pdf
Kazin, Michael & McCartin, Joseph Anthony. Americanism: New Perspectives on the History of an Ideal. University of North Carolina Press. 2006.
Twain, Mark. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Harper Bros. 1910.
recruitment, hiring and training of employees. It involves research approaches to ensuring a hiring process that complies with legal requirements for an equitable workplace and design elements that includes your recommendations for an internal process to design jobs that properly describe the duties and responsibilities of the position and comply with ADA. A recruitment process that guarantees equal opportunity access for all potential employees as well as a selection process that includes all legally acceptable interviews, relevant testing only, a new employee orientation, and training process that fosters a diverse workplace
Job Design Process That Comply With ADA
The process involves analyzing the positions requirements by listing and describing of all the tasks under taken by the position holder. Then follows a careful examination of the performance of these tasks, how the position holder executes the tasks. The process considers aspects of people with various disabilities and the type of…
Above the Standard Procurement Group. (2010). Orientation -- Training New Employees.
Anastasio, M. (2011). Office of Equal Opportunity and Diversity. Retrieved from www.lanl.gov:
Uzoma, K. (2009, August 9). How to Foster diversity in the workplace. Retrieved from www.livestrong.com: http://www.livestrong.com/article/199487-how-to-foster-diversity-in-the-workplace/
Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart
Foundation of the Study
This study examines the legislative and judicial climate that enables corporations like Wal-Mart to engage in practices that violate workers' rights. The popular consensus is that Wal-Mart, the largest retail store in the United States, displays an inordinate disregard for the human dignity and morale of its employees and, despite continual litigation, continues to blatantly violate the legal rights of its employees. Wal-Mart faces charges of violating The Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (2011) by asking management to adjust time sheets so that overtime will not need to be paid, and so that all employees will work under the hourly limit required by the union in order to obtain membership. Employees were insured, without their knowledge, against their death by Wal-Mart. The company was named beneficiary; following death of an employee, the entire benefit amount was retained by the corporation. Not a…
Business Day, Companies. (2011) The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/
Byrne, T.P. (2009). False profits: Reviving the corporation's public purpose. Discourse, 57 UCLA L. Rev. Disc. 25, UCLA School of Law, UC Berkeley, (Associate, Chadbourne & Parke, LLP). Retrieved http://uclalawreview.org/?p=1056
Clifford, S. (2011, March 29). Where Wal-Mart failed, Aldi succeeds. The New York Times. Retrieved
National Geographic, 160 million of the Indian population is considered untouchables[footnoteRef:1]. The Untouchables are, according to the caste system in India, individuals that are deemed to be impure and, as a consequence, individuals against whom human rights violations are committed on a regular basis. These human rights abuses range from discrimination, to relegation to the lowest possible jobs and to outright violence. [1: Mayell, Hillary. 2003. India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination. National Geographic News. On the Internet at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html. Last retrieved on March 14, 2013]
IM hiring untouchables in India presents a complicated situation for the company, in many ways. The main dimensions that will need to be examined are the ethical and social responsibility component, as opposed to the cultural differences component. It is easier to start with the latter in order to better understand the potential dilemma in which IM is placed when recruiting untouchables in India.
1. Mayell, Hillary. 2003. India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination. National Geographic News. On the Internet at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
2. Associated Press. December 2007. About 1 in 5 IBM Employees Now in India. On the Internet at http://www.accessnorthga.com/detail.php?n=205230 . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013
3. Sujit, John. August 2012. If Cognizant is Indian, so are IBM and Accenture. The Times of India. On the Internet at http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Tech-a-tete/entry/if-cognizant-is-indian-so-are-ibm-and-accenture . Last retrieved on March 14, 2013