Eriksons Theory Essays (Examples)

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Erikson According to Erik Erickson's Theory of

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24732687


According to Erik Erickson's theory of psychosocial development, there are eight stages through which an individual should pass in the development from infancy through adulthood. If someone does not achieve the goal of a particular stage, s/he will be unable to move past it and will suffer the consequences for life. The goal of a stage is considered a personality trait; failure to reach the goal is considered to be the lack of a trait. For example, the final stage in Erikson's construct is "integrity vs. despair." A person who reaches that stage successfully is said to have integrity, while one who is not successful does not. Erikson referred to each stage as a "crisis." He did not use the word in the pejorative sense, but rather to express the idea of a turning point in one's life (Atalay, 2007, p. 16). In the sad case study of the four-year-old girl, she is unlikely to reach this eighth and final stage in Erikson's scheme. Because of her circumstances at home, she is still in the first stage, trust vs. mistrust. She has learned that she cannot trust her mother to meet her most basic emotional needs and thus she…… [Read More]


Atalay, M. (2007). Psychology of crisis: An overall account of the psychology of Erikson.

Ekev Academic Review 11(33), pp. 15-34.

Erikson Institute: Erik H. Erikson. (2011). Retrieved from

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Erikson Leading in Times of Change Erikson

Words: 2734 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23204931

Erikson Leading in Times of Change

Erikson: Leading In Times Of Change

The Leadership Style of Carl-Henric Svanberg

The leadership style of Carl-Henric Svanberg can be explained in terms of the context of the leadership situation. Svanberg's appointment as CEO of Erikson was an unprecedented move in the history of the company because he was the first CEO to be brought in from outside the industry. This created some discomfort to people within the organization. But most external to the company also felt optimistic about his taking control of the affairs of the company. The company itself was passing through a historic crisis in the form of declining profitability and a shrinking market. Network operators had ceased expanding their infrastructure which was a big blow to the growth Erikson had been experiencing for almost a decade. Svanberg was sensitive to the unique position he and the company were in and sought to make the best of the available resources. He leveraged on the optimism of those who expected him to bring a new perspective to the restructuring of the ailing company.

Through his positive outlook and framing of the situation along with his inclusive approach towards everything from strategy development…… [Read More]


Adler, N.J., 1996. Global women political leaders: An invisible history and increasingly important future. Leadership Quarterly, 7 (1), pp. 133-161.

Alvesson, M. And Svenningsson, S., 2003. The great disappearing act: Difficulties in doing "Leadership." Leadership Quarterly, 14 (3), pp. 359-381.

Barge, J.K. And Fairhurst, G.T., 2008. Living leadership: A systemic constructionist approach. Leadership, 4 (3), pp. 227-251.

Cranfield School of Management, 2007. Interview: Professor Keith Grint. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 May 2012].
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Erikson's Stage 4 Middle Childhood

Words: 427 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32705578

At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school, was able to hold his own with his older brothers, and to feel better about his ability to show leadership towards others on the team and to his younger siblings.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.

Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at
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Erikson Those Who Are Unclear

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61710487

Erikson also states that the development of personality continued through the entire life cycle, rather than just during childhood as Freud has postulated. Finally, Erikson believed that each stage of development had both positive and negative elements.

Erikson's departure from the Freudian school was not readily accepted, even by those who were close to him and admired his work. In each of Erikson's developmental stages there is conflict with bipolar outcomes, as previously described. In Erikson's belief, each individual must experience both sides of the conflict in order to incorporate them into life and to synthesize these into a higher level of functioning. This differs from Freud's theory in that each stage has a name, rather than relation to pleasure from a body zone (oral, anal, etc.). According to Erikson, when the conflict is worked through in a constructive manner, this positive experience then becomes the more dominant part of the ego which then allows the individual to move toward further healthy and positive development in later stages. If the individual cannot move past the conflict or the conflict is not resolved in a positive manner, than the negative element of the stage will prevent or retard the individual's development.…… [Read More]


Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Smith JR. (1995) Friendship and Social Relations in Children. Transaction Publishers, New York.

Wallerstein, R.S. (1998). Erikson's Concept of Ego Identity Reconsidered. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 46:229-247

Leffert M. (2007) Postmodernism and its impact on psychoanalysis. Bull Menninger Clin. 71; 1:22-41.

Marzi a, Hautmann G, Maestro S. (2006) Critical reflections on intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis. Int J. Psychoanal 87; 1297-1314.
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Erikson's Perspective on the Personality of Landon Carter

Words: 5028 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30406685

Landon Carter's Character through

Erik Erikson's stages of development

Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)

A Walk to Remember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around the life of a school heart throb Landon Carter and Jamie Sullivan, who is complete opposite of Landon. The movie starts with a prank ending up wrong with Carter having to take part in the school play. Where Carter is not very serious about his life, Jamie is a much…… [Read More]


A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.

Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.

Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.

Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
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Theories in Psychotherapy

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62395903

Psychosocial Development Theory

In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what it means to develop as a human being from childhood to adulthood today. Their major departure from Freud's theory rests on the fact that the social environment plays a significant role in human development.

Like Freud, Erikson's theory is based upon the belief that childhood plays a vital role in…… [Read More]


Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from:

Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from:

Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from:

Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from:
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Erikson's Life Stages Still Applicable

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37191771

Adulthood -- According to Erikson

Define Adulthood

Adolescence is a time of transition that is pivotal to the development of the adult psyche and identity. My definition of adolescence maintains continued brain development as central, as it important to recognize that the human brain does not keep up with the development of the human body in the period of adolescence. While an adolescent may appear to be an adult by conventional measures: as adolescents enter their early 20s, they typically cease growing in stature, give evidence of secondary gender attributes, and fundamentally take care of basic individual needs -- generally, short of earning a living. While societies provide highly variable grace periods for further maturing, much of the foundation for adulthood is in place by the time individuals transition from the teen years to the twenties. However, as the scientific literature indicates, the adolescent brain will continue to develop for several years, well into the twenties. This brain maturity will give evidence of better decision-making, less impulsivity, and an emerging sense of one's mortality -- primarily pre-frontal cerebellar activities.

Throughout his treatment of the stages of life, Erikson describes two extreme resolutions to each crisis, he recognizes that there is…… [Read More]

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Psychology Theories of Personality Focus on Inner

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37863305


Theories of personality focus on inner traits of individuals, which may or may not be viewed as static. The most important schools of personality psychology include Psychodynamic Theory, Freud's Theory of Personality, Humanistic Theory, B.F. Skinner's Theory of Personality, Social Learning Theory, and Evolutionary Personality Theory. While all these theories share in common their goal to explain, analyze, and understand human behavior in terms of personality explanations, there are important differences in these main approaches. The differences will affect theory but also practice of psychology.

Behaviorism was one of the earliest expressions of psychological inquiry. Therefore, it makes sense to begin with an understanding of behavioral theories of personality. Behaviorism suggests that individual behavior is the key to understanding personality. Because of its emphasis on behavior rather than emotion or cognition, behavioral theories of personality are relatively weak and limited in scope. However, it is still worth understanding the contributions of B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson to the study of personality.

Psychodynamic theories of personality are highly relevant to the study of psychology because they have become pervasive in the understanding of human nature. Sigmund Freud's theory of personality falls under the rubric of Psychodynamic theories of personality.…… [Read More]


Cherry, K. (n.d.). Theories of Personality. Retrieved online:

McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: 

"Psychodynamic Theories of Personality," (n.d.). Retrieved online:
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Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial

Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47489992

Franz and White (1985) argue that while Erikson's stages are generally sound, they could be made stronger by a discussion of the underlying process of interpersonal attachment. They argue that the tension of intimacy vs. isolation do not adequately account for how males and females form interpersonal attachments.

The writers are clear, however, that these shortcomings do not invalidate Erikson's theory.

Instead, they are looking for ways in which his theory could be made stronger and more nuanced.

In conclusion, Erikson's models remain quite relevant, as can be seen in the illustrations of these stages and in the body of research that his work has spawned. Erikson is among the first theorists who theorized continued psychosocial development past adolescence. For this reason alone, Erikson's work will continue to occupy an important space in Western psychology.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Asbury K, Dunn JF, Pike A, Plomin R. 2003. "Nonshared environmental influences on individual differences in early behavioral development: a monozygotic twin differences study." Child Development. 73:3.

Culp, R. 2000. "Relationships Among Paternal Involvement and Young Children's Perceived Self-Competence and Behavioral Problems." Journal of Child and Family Studies. 9:1.

Franz, C and White, K. 1985. "Individuation and attachment in personality development: Extending Erikson's theory." Journal of Personality. 53:2.
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Erik Erikson a Summary of Biographical Information

Words: 1764 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30207964

Erik Erikson

a summary of biographical information about the psychologist Erik Erikson

The work of Erik Erikson is like that of Freud it touches upon the individual growth but while Freud analyzed himself, and stated the growth in terms of the very infant, after which he assumed that the mind does not adapt or grow, in the sense of the personality, except ego, though himself an ego psychologist, Erik's works are different because unlike Freud he did not stop at the formative years. Freud did not have an identity crisis which Erik had, and which seems to have dogged him all through his childhood and adolescence. This can be noticed from his "career, his theories, and his impact on psychoanalysis, psychology, history, and the broader culture." (Douvan, 1997)

There are major elements in his theories that are threaded together. One is the growth during adolescence, and creation of internal values, building tastes, and nurturing one's own talents. This is based on the person's culture which also influences the creation of the individual identity, is basically based on his own life experiences. Nevertheless they have had absolute influence in the general thought in developmental psychology. Needless to say, he has gone…… [Read More]


Berzoff, Joan; Flanagan, Laura Melano; Hertz, Patricia. (2011) "Inside Out and Outside In:

Psychodynamic Clinical Theory and Psychopathology in Contemporary Multicultural Contexts" Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Elizabeth Douvan (1997) "Erik Erikson: Critical Times, Critical Theory" Child Psychiatry

and Human Development, vol. 28, no. 1, pp: 15-21.
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Meta-Theories and Aging Meta-Theories a

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53732675

The theory describes stages as patterns of behavior which are typical for a certain development period and it leads to a different pattern that is more advanced and more unusual Olson & Byron, 1942()

The organismic meta-theory is represented by Erikson's theory of personality which illustrates an important feature of the development in an organismic viewpoint. At each stage of development, there is the resolution of a particular crisis which is a turning point and which serves as a healthy balance between the opposing traits of the particular stage of development. The resolution of this crisis leads to the development of a virtue which is a good thing. If the crisis goes unresolved, the person struggles with the crisis and this impedes the healthy development of the individual Hoogendyk & Richardson, 1980()

The organismic view is associated with the structural or qualitative changes. It states that a person is different in a qualitative view point as they continue to develop. The organismic view is also associated some sort of discontinuity which is market by the stages of development. It states that the organism is composed of various parts which are interconnected and interrelated to make the complete organized whole being.…… [Read More]


Courtright, J.A., Fairhurst, G.T., & Rogers, L.E. (1989). Interaction Patterns in Organic and Mechanistic Systems. The Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), 773-802.

Engel, M. (2004). What's Wrong with Contextualism, and a Noncontextualist Resolution of the Skeptical Paradox. Erkenntnis (1975-), 61(2/3), 203-231.

Glennan, S. (2002). Rethinking Mechanistic Explanation. Philosophy of Science, 69(S3), S342-S353.

Halliday, D. (2007). Contextualism, Comparatives and Gradability. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, 132(2), 381-393.
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Ecological Systems Theory How Children

Words: 1467 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41045091

Conyne, Ellen Cook, and the University of Cincinnati Counseling Program. In a nutshell, Bronfenbrenner's theory points to environmental factors as playing a major role in human or child development (Derksen, Warren).

The Impact of the Theory on Career Goals

It teaches that children grow and develop with a series of different relationship systems like circles forming from within and moving outward (NACCE, 2012; Yngist, 2011). It shows how a child is affected by each system and how he affects it. In turn, each system affects, and is affected by, other oncoming systems. These are linked and interlinked among themselves. Moreover, each system contains risks as well as opportunities for a child's development and the stronger and more positive the connections between systems, the better it is for the child (NACCE, Yngist).

According to the Theory, the mesosystem consists of relationships between different microsystems between family and child care and between child care and community (NACCE, 2012; Yngist, 2011). The child is entrenched at the center. The microsystem is the inner system closest to the child. It consists of the family, the local community, play groups, child care and schools. The exosystem consists of relationships that do not affect the child…… [Read More]


Derksen, T. (2010). The influence of ecological theory in child and youth care. TDerksen

Journal. Retrieved on May 24, 2013 from

NACCE (2012). Ecological theory of Bronfenbrenner. North American Community for Cultural Ecology. Retrieved on May 24, 2013 from

Warren, J. (2010). Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of development. Articlesbase:
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How Counseling Services Benefit People-Based on Theories of Human Development

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8557938

(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)

Psychosocial Theory

Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (

VI. Benefits of Counseling and Development Theories

The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (Blocher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present to facilitate the meeting of developmental needs and the mastering of developmental tasks. Tasks and concerns encountered at specific stages are understood to be hindered, blocked, or resolved depending upon the presence or absence of environmental conditions and responses." (Muro, 2007, p. 7)

Develop mentalist hold that "relationships among cognitions,…… [Read More]


Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from:

Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: 

Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from:

Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from:
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Freud Erikson Pavlov Freud Erikson

Words: 1146 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82109187

For Pavlov, there was less an emphasis on constant, internal conflict and strife, and an even greater stress than Erikson upon the ability of the environment to shape behavior, and by shaping external behavior shape the psyche. Conflict did not occur within the individual, rather it was imposed upon the individual externally by a stimulus, positive or negative associations were given with that stimulus, and learning and development took place as behaviors continued, even in the absence of the original reward or punishment. This learning could be sexual or asexual in nature, and learning took place throughout an individual's lifetime.

All theorists, albeit to different degrees, addressed the complex interaction of cognitive, physical and emotional development on the overall development of the child.

Freud stressed that a child 'learns' the correct sexual and social identity from the conflicts of early childhood, and the way these conflicts are resolved can produce trauma and arrested development, or a normal, healthy attitude towards sexuality. Freud does not deny the importance of physical development, although he is less interested in biology than later theorists. Still, the biologically wired desire to survive and engage in sexual activity, as well as the prepubescent repressive childhood phase…… [Read More]

Works Cited

David, Doug & Alan Clifton. "Psychosocial Theory: Erikson." Haverford College. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008.

Ivan Pavlov." (1998). Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. 

Stevenson, David. "Id, Ego, and Superego." The Freud Web. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008.
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Eric Erikson Is a Founding

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78020850

During this stage the child learns to feel either confident or inferior based on external and internal cues of success and/or failure with completing these tasks. (Marlowe & Canestri 112-114) This stage lasts between the ages of 6 years and 12 years of age and is dominated by school. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (

5. Identity vs. role confusion, is the stage that corresponds to the ability of an individual to resolve social and personal conflicts with identity, and especially that revolved around sexual identity. This stage dominates the adolescent years as individuals begin to have adult like relationships and conform or reject social roles assigned their gender. As this is the stage at which most children leave the education system it is the last stage discussed in Marlowe and Canestri reading of Erikson. (Marlowe & Canestri 114-116) This role last roughly corresponds with the ages between 12-18 years and revolves around peer relationships and gender roles. ("Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" (

6. Intimacy vs. isolation, is the stage that roughly corresponds with the ages 19-40 and revolves around the individuals ability to successfully navigate and learn from adult love relationships. ("Erik Erikson's 8…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marlowe, Bruce a. Canestri, Alan S. Educational Psychology in Context. New York: Sage Publications, 2006.

Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development" Retrieved September 20, 2007 at
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Personality Development Most Personality Theories

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661972

shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; and ego integrity vs. despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the factors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. Thus, this theory too is immensely valuable as it enables parents and teachers to help a child successfully negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense of self.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through which personality develops. Thus, both theories stop short of explaining final personality outcomes and their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality typology explains my own personality accurately as a "ESFJ" or "Extroverted Feeling with Sensing" type. With a score of extroverted 56%, Sensing 22%, Feeling 56%, and Judging 33%, the test results describe my personality as a highly expressed extrovert and feeling person, a slightly expressed sensing person, and a moderately…… [Read More]


AllPsych. (2004, March 21). Personality Development. Psychology 101. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2004:
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Five Stages of Psychosexual Theory

Words: 943 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72046610

In some cultures, social and moral development is more important than whether a child speaks with proper grammar. Therefore, culture plays a huge role in what things a child will learn.

A culture that emphasizes the arts will yield educational systems more sympathetic to and supportive of the arts. Similarly, cultures that stress science will be more likely to fund science programs in school. Thus, culture affects childhood education on an institutional level too. Finally, what a child values personally is a product of his or her culture. Professional goals and personal goals are shaped by culture, as Vygotsky suggests.

4. What are the criticisms of Kohlberg's theory regarding moral development? What do you think of his theory (your opinion and give examples to support your response). What do you think the criticisms (your opinion and give examples to support your response).

Kohlberg's theory of moral development is critiqued because of its assumption that moral reasoning is based on law and order. The efficacy of justice in determining morality is questionable. For example, some individuals may make moral judgments innately, instinctually, and independently of any external controls. Kohlberg assumes social contracts that may or may not exist in all societies.…… [Read More]


Learning Disabilities Association of America (1999). "Early Identification - Motor Skills Milestones." Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at 

Lev Vygotsky." Retrieved Oct 12, 2008 at
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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature Review section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.



The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to the fact verbal abuse signs prove more difficult to recognize and prove than the more obvious signs of physical abuse. (Vardiganm, 2008)

During this clinical case study dissertation's Literature Review chapter, this researcher presents information, as well as diverse contentions accessed from a barrage, more than 25, of credible sources,…… [Read More]


American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

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Classic Internationalisation Theories

Words: 5335 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8934419

Firms with what organisational patterns are more likely to acquire existing firms? In what stage of internationalisation is acquisition more likely? Such research should not assume that such decisions are always rational. It may be that irrational factors are important at times. For example, it might be that the rush to acquire businesses in Europe prior to 1992 and to acquire companies in Asia in the mid-1990s reflected a bandwagon effect with firms developing strategies to legitimise their investments after the decision has been made (McDougall, et al., 2004). Research might also give attention to a broader range of entry modes beyond exporting, licensing and FDI. Strategic alliances with local or other foreign firms may involve no transfer of funds. Alliances are another entry mode option which deliver similar strategic advantages to joint ventures but have received little attention in the literature beyond those firms whose home country is either the U.S. Or Japan (Moen, 1999). Studies of structure and coordination of MNCs have been characterised by cross-sectoral approaches and findings expressed in static models (McNaughton & Bell, 2000). How and why do control and coordination mechanisms change over time and how do these changes interplay with strategic actions? Have…… [Read More]


Aspelund, a., and O. Moen 2001. "A Generation Perspective on Small Firms Internationalization -- From Traditional Exporters and Flexible Specialists to Born Globals," in Advances in International Marketing: Reassessing the Internationalization of the Firm, Vol. 11. Eds C.N. Axinn and P. Matthyssens. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, JAI Press, 197-226.

Bell, J., Crick, D. And Young, S. 2004. Small Firm Internationalization and Business Strategy: An Exploratory Study of Knowledge-Intensive and Traditional Manufacturing Firms in the UK. International Small Business Journal. 22(1):23-56.

Cavusgil, S. Tamer, Knight, Gary and Riesenberger, John R. 2008. International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0137128339. Chapter 3.

Christensen, P.R. 1997. "The Small and Medium Sized Exporters' Squeeze: Empirical Evidence and Model Reflections," Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 3, 49-65.
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Rct Relational Cultural Theory as

Words: 2229 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4486894

RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")

Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages especially in Erickson's stages one through four as they almost mirror Freud's psychosexual stages exactly.

However, they are also two of the forces that Miller must have railed against. Unfortunately both used research and experience that was primarily gender biased towards males and this colored the world of psychology for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.

Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276

Erikson, E.H. & Erikson, J. M . The Life Cycle Completed / Extended Version. New York:

W.W. Norton. 1997
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Freud Erikson and Pavlov -

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12284687

Freud's multi-tiered stages of development stresses the sexual nature of the evolution of human personality to the exclusion of all other drives.… [Read More]

The third key concept of Freud's theories centers on the importance of repression, and the long-term affects of the first five years of life. A fixation on the mother causes the young boy to develop an Oedipal complex, as he desires to kill his father and supplant his father's position. The girl develops resentment of her mother because she was not born with a penis, and as a result of penis envy, transfers her desire for a penis to a desire for her father. Eventually, the boy learns to identify with his father to 'have' his mother, just as the girl learns to emulate her mother to 'have' a penis in the form of a husband and son. Freud theorized that the repressive stage of sexual development, which occurs after age five, temporarily arrests this conflict and enables the child to become a fully socialized adolescent and adult later on, with appropriate, non-familial, transferred objects of affection.

Erickson: Freud's Adversary

Erik Erickson was a key critic of Freud's psychoanalytic theories. Erickson stressed the social component and influence upon human development, and advocated a multi-stage process of human development, in contrast to Freud's emphasis on infant sexuality (David & Clifton 2008). Eriksson's first key concept stressed that human conflict was never-ending, and suggested that rather than focusing on the conflict of personal identity. Erickson's second key concept is that each stage of development was marked by a more general conflict of, for example, "trust vs. mistrust" (David & Clifton 2008). The third concept is that not only the family was involved
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Nursing Theory Imogene King

Words: 7913 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41921604

Nursing Theory Analysis

Theory-based nursing is the phenomenon that has been researched much during the past two decades. Nursing theory has become the foundation for nursing practice with its own knowledge base. The current paper is an analysis of King's theory of goal attainment. King acquired her goal attainment theory model from an interpersonal system and a behavioral science. The nurse and patient communicate to achieve a common goal of patient satisfaction and better health outcomes. To achieve this goal, there is a need for nurses to explore patients' perceptions and expectations. It has been found in research that patients' satisfaction with healthcare is strongly linked to their satisfaction with nursing care. King attained that if the nurse is aware of patients' expectations of care that they can achieve the goal of patients' satisfaction. This theory is also applicable in the nursing education program for those nursing students having poor academic performance and for those at-risk students. Students and mentors can communicate to achieve the shared goal of student's academic improvement.

I. Examination of the origins of nursing theory

Modern nursing practice officially started from Nightingale and she also described that nursing knowledge and medical knowledge are different disciplines. Nursing…… [Read More]


Abramowitz, S., Cote, A.A., & Berry, E. (1987). Analyzing patient satisfaction: a multianalytic approach. QRB. Quality Review Bullenin, 4, 122-130.

Ahmad, M.M., & Alasad, J.A. (2004, October). Predictors of patients' experiences of nursing care in medical-surgical wards. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 10(5), 235-241.

American Nurses Association . (2005). Utilization guide for the ANA principles for nurse staffing (). Retrieved from Nursing World Organization website:

American Nurses Association. (1983). Standards of school nursing practice. In Standards of school nursing practice (p. 3).Scarborough, MD: National Association of School Nurses
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Nursing and Erikson

Words: 534 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2096487

Nursing and Erickson Psychosocial Developmental Theory

The objective of this study is to examine Erikson's psychosocial Developmental theory and to discuss how one might apply the theory to their selected nursing practice including a brief description of the theory, framework or philosophy.

The stages of psychosocial development proposed in the work of Erikson include personality stages, psychosexual modes, psychosocial modality and accompanying virtue. These are shown in the following chart labeled Figure 1 in this study.

Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory Stages, Modes, Modality and Virtues

Personality Stage

Psychosexual Mode

Psychosocial Modality


Trust vs. Mistrust



getting taking


Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt

retentive eliminative holding on letting go


Inititative vs. Guilt intrusive making


Industry vs. Inferiority


Identity vs. Role Confusion


Intimacy vs. Isolation


Generativity vs. Stagnation


Integrity vs.Despair


Source: Davis (1995, p. 1)

I. Use of This Theory in the Nursing Practice

Erikson's psychosocial development theory stages modes. Modality and virtues can be utilized in the nursing practice because knowledge of these various stages, modes, modalities and virtues assist the nursing practitioner in understanding how to best cope with the various patient specific personalities and the various psychosocial development stages of…… [Read More]


Current Nursing (2014) Theory of Psychosocial Development. Erik H. Erikson. Retrieved from:

Davis, D. (1995) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Haverford. Retrieved from:

Erikson's Development Theory and Its Impact on Nursing (2011) Current Nursing. Retrieved from:
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Forrest Gump Analysis of Jenny Theories

Words: 2150 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75289089

Mustanski et al. (2007) have conducted research on genetics and disposition and have found genetics can influence personality, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and social deviance. Since her father was clearly abusive and appeared to be a drinker as well, his impulsiveness and social deviance was evident. In looking at internal psychological states things like goals and self-efficacy beliefs are main determinants of behavior (Vancouver, More, & Yoder, 2008)

External factors influencing Jenny's personality, were her interactions socially within the environment in which she lived. Also contributing to her self-schema and how she viewed the environment was the development of knowledge structures. The different social and interpersonal experiences Jenny faced developed a self-schema that was different from those around her. Since Forrest was the only person she had that was positive in her life, her experiences drove her toward a negative self-schema. This would be the only way she might be able to understand the abuse she received throughout her lifetime.

Another external factor Jenny had to deal with was the stigma of being an abused child. She did her best to hide what was happening to her but it did not help her self-esteem. Pachankis (2007) proposes individuals with a concealable…… [Read More]

Reference List

Anderson, S.M., Saribay, a., & Thorpe, J.S. (2008). Simple kindness can go a long way:

Relationships, social identity, and engagement. Social Psychology. 39[1], 59-69.

Diehl, a.S., & Prout, M.F. (2002). Effects of posttraumatic stress disorder and child sexual abuse on self-efficacy development. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.

72[2], 262-265.
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Personality Theories

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21028139

Jet Li-Psychological Personality Analysis

The Image of Jet Li: Development of a Wu-Shu Master

For many years, Asian actors have not been given enough opportunities to break into the entertainment industry in the United States, popularly called the Hollywood. Only few Asian actors have made it big in Hollywood, of which the famed martial arts master Bruce Lee is considered as the first Asian who brought fame in the Asian entertainment industry through his martial arts movies. Jackie Chan, similarly, shares Bruce Lee's glory but in a different genre, where Chan uses martial arts not as a form of physical violence, but a form of art movement. Also, Chan's movies are mostly humorous, illustrating Chan's penchant for a feel-good movie for his audience.

Another name that has emerged as another potential Asian martial arts actor is Jet Li, a wu-shu expert who hailed from Beijing, China. Jet Li is popularly known for his movies Once Upon a Time in China, as the Triad leader and villain in Lethal Weapon, and once again as the 'fighter against evil forces' -- with the movies The One and The Hero. Apart from these movies, Li had also been other movies that were originally…… [Read More]


Maier, H. (1969). Three Theories of Child Development. New York: University of Washington.

Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
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Empirically-Based Theories Question Prompt Discuss 2 Human Growth

Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47896580

Empirically-Based Theories Question/Prompt: Discuss 2 human growth development theories supported

One human growth and development theory that has been supported by research is Erikson's eight stages of life development (Slater, 2003, p. 53). One of the central notions of this theory is that the development of an individual continues for as long as he or she is alive. This idea is known as lifespan theory. Despite the fact that people are always developing, there are various stages that Erikson has identified that are common to the development of most people. The first five of these theories apply to teenagers and children; the final three are applicable to adults. For instance, stage five is the stage in which one has fully formed one's own identity and is now considered an adult. This stage is known as identity vs. role confusion, and is one that most teenagers have to face and surpass before they are adults. There is a fair amount of confidence that plays an integral role in this stage, as confidence is a principle distinguishing factor between adults and children/teenagers. Other stages in this particular theory of Erikson include the initial stage, which the psychologist termed trust vs. mistrust. During…… [Read More]


Dresner, O. (2007). Mourning and loss and the life cycle in the Book of Ruth. European Judaism. 40(2): 132-139.

Hochnerg, S. (2014). Isaiah 40 and Donne's "A valediction: Forbidding mourning": a case for possible influence. Christianity and Literature. 63(3): 325-335.

Ponds, K.T. (2014). Spiritual development with youth. Reclaiming Children & Youth. 23(1): 58-61.

Slater, C.L. (2003). Generativity vs. stagnation: An elaboration of Erikson's adult stage of human development. Journal of Adult Development. 10(1): 53-65.
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Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson in

Words: 388 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7393275

" (Harder 2002) This stage depends on the ability to help others and care for others in order to find strength, as one's family is usually grown and new goals must be developed. This ability Erikson calls "generativity." Success during this stage means not feeling inactivity and meaninglessness. (Myers. Stages)

The article discusses the father's success at generativity, or ability to find meaning in life and the ability to transmit values of culture through the family. The results of the research studied in the article is surprising because it found that just caring for their children did not predict the fathers' ability to achieve generativity, as one would think it would… [Read More]


Harder, a. (2002). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson Learning Place Retrieved October 10, 2006 at

Myers, Robert (Editor).Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers. (1998- 2006). Child Development Institute, LLC Retrieved October 10, 2006 at

A. (2006) Erik Erikson. The Psy Cafe: A Psychology Resource Site:

Palkovitz, R. (1998,
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Pediatric Community Experience Theories of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84986235

Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).

Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and Erickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new Etiquette Revolution for tots at New York's Plaza Hotel, which hosts a class the teaches children how to be respectful of others by offering advice on how to choose the right silverware.

Kohlberg would no doubt see the age group that apparently delights in the class as being in the 'nice/good' child stage or law…… [Read More]

Erik Erikson accepted the Freudian theory of infantile sexuality, but believed that other non-sexual issues were equally important in childhood development. He theorized that the infant moved from stages of "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust," followed by conflicts of "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt," "Initiative vs. Guilt," Industry vs. Inferiority, "Identity vs. Role Confusion, "Intimacy vs. Isolation," Generativity vs. Stagnation," and finally into the stage of "Ego Integrity vs. Despair." Personality malformation was likely to occur if the child's conflicts were not resolved, resulting in the child being stuck in one of these stages (Davis & Clifton, 2007, p.1). Jean Piaget, in contrast believed that the child's neurological capacity was the primary influence upon his or her ability to comprehend the world, as the child moved from the sensorimotor, to the preoperational, to the concrete operational stages, followed by the formal operational stage when the child could comprehend such concepts as 'here' and 'away,' and size, shape and mass ("Jean Piaget's Theory of Development,"2007). Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).

Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and Erickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new Etiquette Revolution for tots at New York's Plaza Hotel, which hosts a class the teaches children how to be respectful of others by offering advice on how to choose the right silverware.

Kohlberg would no doubt see the age group that apparently delights in the class as being in the 'nice/good' child stage or law and order conventional periods of development, and are thus eager to obey parents in exchange for approval while Erickson would see the desire to receive rule-governed behavior as a desire for affirmation of boundaries and trust in adult authorities. Freud would see such an obsession with control over oral and sanitary issues as a hold over from the anal and oral stages. The teacher of the class does show some acknowledgement of the existence of stages of childhood development, when she states that
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Application Social Work Leadership Theories

Words: 2748 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67228914

Social Work Leadership Theories and Areas of Application

Leadership Theories - Servant

The philosophy and collection of practices constituting the 'servant leadership' style enrich people's lives, improve organizations and, eventually, foster a kinder and fairer world. While the concept is ageless, the coining of the term "servant leadership" is attributed to Robert K. Greenleaf, who cites it in his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader. In his paper, Greenleaf states that servant-leaders are, first, servants. Leadership starts with one's inherent wish to serve. Subsequently, conscious choice generates the aspiration to lead. Such an individual sharply differs from the person who is, first, a leader, probably because of the latter's desire to procure material wealth or satisfy an abnormal power drive. Therefore, servant-first and leader-first types are positioned at two extremities of the continuum of leadership styles. Between the two, an endless assortment exists, forming part of human nature's infinite variety. The difference manifests in the focus of 'servant-first' individuals to ensure that others' highest priority requirements are met. The primary emphasis of servant-leaders is on individuals' and their respective communities' welfare and growth. Traditional leadership typically entails power exertion and accumulation by those situated at the peak of the power…… [Read More]


212 books. (2012, December 7). An Introduction to Organizational Communication. Retrieved from 212 Books:

Bal, V., Campbell, M., Steed, J., & Meddings, K. (n.d.). The Role of Power in Effective Leadership. Center for Creative Leadership.

Chuang, S.-F. (2013). Essential Skills For Leadership Effectiveness In Diverse Workplace Development. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 6(1).

Cowles, T. B. (2015, December 7). Ten Strategies for Enhancing Multicultural Competency in Evaluation. Retrieved from Harvard Family Research Project:
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Applied Theory to Application With Teachers

Words: 1102 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8502367

Human Development and Education Theory

Behavioral psychologists and developmental theorists have traditionally categorized various periods of childhood and adolescence that correspond to VERY specific stages of cognitive and emotional development. While various experts differ widely in their characterization and analyses of the human developmental stages, modern educators recognize the importance of certain elements of behavioral and emotional development as equally important to early education as age-related cognitive stages of purely intellectual growth.

Traditional primary and secondary education programs are based on teaching methods and concepts designed in the nineteenth century and earlier. While the academic curricula expanded considerably during the course of the last hundred years' of American education, many of the methods still relied upon by modern educators mirror the principles designed primarily just to teach elementary reading and writing skills, which was the main (if not the sole) focus of the early education even well into the twentieth century. Consequently, they are hardly suited to incorporate principles of students' social and emotional well-being, nor do they necessarily promote or inspire independent or creative thinking abilities beyond rote memorization.

Modern education theorists recognize the interrelationships between the various stages of human psychological development and intellectual or learning potential of…… [Read More]


Smith, M.K. (2002) Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences.

The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Accessed July 6, 2004 at updated: 2/14/04)

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2001) Psychology and Life 16th ed.

Allyn & Bacon, New Jersey
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Nursing Care for Poor

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77075544

Polypharmacy Low Income Elderly

Poly-Pharmacy Low Income Elderly

The author of this report will offer a brief treatise on several social theories, one relating to nursing and one of them not related to nursing, and how they related to poly-pharmacy low income elderly patients. After describing the low income elderly group and what makes the vulnerable, there will be a description, compare and contrast of the theories. The theories that shall be covered are the Imogene King theory and the Erikson theory. While painting with too broad a brush as it relates to the vulnerability of low income elderly patients or social and cultural theories in general is unwise, some general trends and outcomes are fairly consistent and easy to spot with a little observation and analysis.


The group up for analysis in this report is poly-pharmacy low-income elderly patients. Poly-pharmacy is typically defined as a patient that takes four or more medications at the same time and the medications are usually for one or more chronic conditions that are being managed and controlled. The phenomenon of poly-pharmacy is seen as a growing problem. Indeed, it is seen as a problem around the world and not just in the…… [Read More]


Allen, K.R., Hazelett, S.E., Jarjoura, D., Wright, K., Fosnight, S.M., Kropp, D.J., & ...

Pfister, E.W. (2011). The after-discharge care management of low income frail elderly (AD-LIFE) randomized trial: Theoretical framework and study

Design. Population Health Management, 14(3), 137-142.

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Employees Training and Development Plan

Words: 2080 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50702300

Freud and Erikson Theory

Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory

This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.e. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by historical, ethnic, and cognitive factors. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has a heuristic aspect that has stimulated thinking among philosophers, theologians and psychologists. This paper will define, compare and contrast the theories proposed by Sigmund and Erikson.

II. Freud Theory

The psychosexual theory by Freud argues that phases of personality growth are based on maturation of the sex instinct and that…… [Read More]


Cherry, K. (n.d.). Freud vs. Erikson: How Do Their Theories Compare? Retrieved November 16, 2015, from Compared.htm#step2

Difference Between Erikson and Freud (2011, April 5). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from

Hayes, N. (1999). Access to Psychology. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton Educational

Jarvis, M. & Chandler, E. (2001).Angles on Psychology. Cheltenham, Australia: Nelson Thornes Limited.
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Ethological Perspective

Words: 789 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96442459


An ethological perspective

Erikson and Joan Stevenson-Hinde's "An ethological perspective"

According to Joan Stevenson-Hinde's 1994 study entitled "An ethological perspective," attachment-related behavior is stress-related behavior (such as the crying of a child) that is alleviated when the stressed individual once again retains proximity to another individual, such as a caregiver. Attachment-related behaviors do not directly relate to needs such as food or sex. In other words, the stressed behavior of a hungry customer in a restaurant who is satiated by the food brought by a waiter is not in an attachment-based relationship, unlike the crying child whose suffering is alleviated by a mother. These attachment-based behaviors are not exclusive to the human species, as many other animals manifest attachment-related anxiety.

Within Erikson's theory of development, attachment-related crises form part of his famous 'eight stages' of the human psychological growth cycle. Each stage is characterized by a social conflict the child must resolve to move on to the next stage in a healthy fashion. The first stage (which occurs between birth and age one), that of 'trust vs. mistrust,' is intimately related to the development of attachment-related behavior (Cherry 2012). A child with a competent caregiver that has his or…… [Read More]


Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Erikson's psychosocial stages of development.


Stevenson-Hinde, Joan. (1994). An ethological perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 5 (1): 62-65
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Elvis Presley

Words: 1726 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93496599

Elvis Presley

Subject's development: Erikson and Kohlberg

Elvis Presley is something of a paradox as an entertainer. He became famous for singing traditionally 'black' songs although he was a white singer with a largely white fan base. He began young and poor and died after creating 'Graceland,' his residence which became a museum to excess as well as his legacy as a singer. He also died overweight and addicted to prescription drugs. How did such a famous star come so far, yet fall so swiftly, a victim of his own success?

According to Erik Erikson's theory of human stages of development, all "people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development" at every stage (Cherry, 2012, Erikson's psychosocial stages of development). For example, during the first stage of development, that of trust vs. mistrust, the infant learns to trust his or her caregivers or develops a sense of fear and mistrust towards others. As with all of the stages of development, if this stage is not resolved successfully, the individual will continue to experience conflict related to this issue. "Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable"…… [Read More]


Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Erikson's psychosocial stages of development. Retrieved:

Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Hierarchy of needs. Retrieved:
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Jacob A Case Study Jacob

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75454418

He has received little personal affirmation for 'who he is' in all of the social settings in which he finds himself. He has had more success in school, but the challenges of his ADHD have resulted in disciplinary problems at time.

The first step is to find some form of social intervention to result in a more stabilized situation at home, either offering Jacob's mother support if she is at risk of violence at the hands of her husband, or attempting to offer some conflict or anger management for the couple. In school, Jacob would benefit from additional resource room support to help him deal with his ADHD, along with academic enrichment to enhance his sense of self. Jacob may also be referred to a school therapist to help him engage in more effective social interactions with peers. The school nurse may wish to discuss with Jacob's parents different medications that might prove to be more helpful than the one he was on previously, given that they have shown a willingness to modify his diet and keep him on a regular sleep schedule to enhance his ability to learn in school.… [Read More]


Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. Retrieved at:

Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon

McLeod, Saul. (2007, August). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
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Lisa Was a Sophomore and While in

Words: 3300 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98681383

Lisa was a sophomore and while in the Alternative school, as was the case in the regular high school, she had been a student who had been in trouble frequently for talking back to and swearing at teachers, skipping class, not doing homework, hanging out after school and violating many of the community rules that were established by the group including smoking on school grounds, lying, being late for classes, and doing drugs. She hung out with what teachers called "the wrong crowd" after school: kids from a nearby community that were not as well off, and were part of a street gang. Lisa was white, but many of her friends were black, and the kids in this gang were vocally resistant to the inequalities that they saw in wealthy Scarsdale that were not in their poor community. Some of her afterschool friends were dropping out, and others were fighting to stay in school, but all were involved in drugs and alcohol. Lisa was very smart; particularly adept at mathematics, and was a relative genius in that area. She had many similarities to Christopher, in The Curious Incident of a dog in the Night, but did not have such extreme…… [Read More]


Lapsley, D. Moral Stage Theory. In Killen, M. & Smetana, J. (Ed). Handbook of Moral Development.

Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview

Week 9: (October 22): Self development and Social Contexts
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Understanding Youth

Words: 1182 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18211687


Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. Rather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic and genital stages in favor of a model that emphasized the development of children into autonomous, fully functioning individuals, free from neurotic shame and guilt imposed by parents during toilet training and early sexual experimentation. He also argued that schizophrenia, neurosis, hysteria and obsessive-compulsive disorders all had their roots in…… [Read More]


DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.

Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
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Psychosocial Development Case Study Analysis

Words: 2490 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18543743

Psychosocial development theory was developed by Erikson and it is the best theory in psychology. He believed that personality progresses are a continuous series of stages. His theory also believes in the influence of social experience across the lifetime. Ego identity is one of Erikson's main elements in psychosocial theory. This is the self-conscious that we develop through the daily social interaction. Everyday's experiences and information in life cause major changes. Erikson also believed that the need for competition motivated behavior and actions in human being. This need for competence builds the ego quality or ego strength. If these stages are not properly handled, the result will be a sense of inadequacy. Erikson described fully the different stages in the psychosocial development expounding on what transpires in each. Researchers have accepted his theory and it has been globally applied both by scholars and researchers.

Psychosocial development holds that the different conflicts people meet in life serve as major turning points. During these conflicts, there can be success or failure in the human life. The first stage in this theory is observed between birth and when the child is one year. This time the child is fully dependant and it fully…… [Read More]


Chmielewski, T.L., Lentz, T.A., Tillman, S.M., Moser, W., Indelicato, A., & George, Z. (2011). Longitudinal Changes in Psychosocial Factors & Their Association with Knee Pain & Function After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Physical Therapy, 91(9), 1355-1366

Chou, T. & Hofmann, S. (2012). Perception of racial discrimination & psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(1), 74-81

Clark, J., Sheward, K Marshall, B., & Allan, S. (2012). Staff perceptions on the impact of the Liverpool Care Pathway in aged residential care in New Zealand. International Journal Of Palliative Nursing, 18(4), 171-177

Gurney, B., Randle, A., Granger, C., & Fletcher, J. (2010). 'In time & in tune' -- the fostering attachments group Adoption & Fostering, 34(4), 50-60
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Psychoanalysis Offered Main Traditions Exploring Human Development

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82277827

Psychoanalysis offered main traditions exploring human development. Freud introduced psychosexual stages development Erikson introduced psychosocial stages development. Based information gathered weeks reading researching Brandman library formulate a 2 3-page APA style paper addressing: a.

Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development and Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development

Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development promotes the concept that each person possesses a form of sexual energy from the moment when he or she is born and that the respective energy develops in five stages as the individual becomes older. From Freud's point-of-view, all stages present in his theory of psychosexual development need to be completed in the order he devised in order for the individual to develop healthily. If they are not completed in a predetermined order, the individual is likely to experience problems integrating the social order, taking into account that he or she failed to develop correctly.

The Oral Stage is the first stage in Freud's theory of psychosexual development, it takes place between birth and eighteen months, and it involves the child becoming concentrated on oral pleasures. If the individual is provided with too much or too little focus on this concept, he or she is likely to…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Corey, Gerald, "Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy," (Cengage Learning, 01.01.2012)

Pressley, Michael, and McCormick, Christine B., "Child And Adolescent Development for Educators," (Guilford Press, 2007)

Nevid, Jeffrey S., "Psychology: Concepts and Applications," (Cengage Learning, 01.10.2008)

"Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development," Retrieved March 12, 2013, from the Allpsych Website:
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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at exactly those points where deviant behavior is most feared:

Men who fear witches soon find themselves surrounded by them; men become jealous of private property soon encounter eager thieves (Erikson, 1966, p. 22).

The interactionist or labeling perspective examines those social and psychological processes that take place among actors, audiences,…… [Read More]


Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
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Lifespan Development Britney Spears Many

Words: 6197 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98696323

Of course, Spears is still very young, and may face numerous future changes. However, at this time, she appears to have found some stability.


While Spears spent much of her early life in the public spotlight, it is actually difficult to assess her early cognitive development. This should come as no surprise when one looks at various theories of cognitive development. For example, Piaget discusses cognitive development, but all of his significant stages occur prior to the time that Spears became a public figure, and, therefore, prior to the time that biographers have reliable information about her development. However, Piaget's conclusions "that cognitive development is the product of complex interactions between the maturation of the nervous system and that of language, and that this maturation depends on children's social and physical interactions with the world around them" allow the observer to draw conclusions about Spears' early life without having direct knowledge of that life (The Brain from Top to Bottom, Unk.).

The sensory motor period occurs from 0 to 24 months and is characterized by learning reflexive behaviors and how the infant interacts with the world (Child Development Institute, 2011). There is nothing to suggest that Spears did not…… [Read More]


A&E Television. (2011). Britney Spears biography. Retrieved December 19, 2011 from website:

Borenson, H. (2008, January 11). The stages of life according to Jean Piaget. Retrieved December 19, 2011 from The Human Odyssey website:

The Brain from Top to Bottom. (Unk.). Piaget's model of cognitive development. Retrieved from 

Child Development Institute. (2011). Stages of intellectual development in children and teenagers. Retrieved from
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Transition Into Late Adulthood

Words: 2818 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39274754

Transition Into Late Adulthood

Late Adulthood

Grade Course

While at one hand an old man in his 60s would cherish the past years of his life sharing experiences about college sports, dating spots and holiday fun, an elderly woman would act grumpy showing discontent on every dish being served at a dinner. Such scenarios are commonly noticed in day-to-day life which surrounds people in their late adulthood; a period in 60s where according to Erik Erikson (1963), individuals aim at finding satisfaction in their lives instead of becoming disillusioned. Hence, the transition to late adulthood is a time marked with physical, social and emotional challenges which are usually faced by almost every person.

Life is divided into different phases where a child eventually grows up and is faced by the reality of life. With time, he has school, parties and fast food revolving around him when suddenly this is replaced with moving away from family, searching for a job and choosing a spouse. After passing this stage, individuals enter middle adulthood where apart from working upon their own family ties, they feel the need to do something for the society and younger generations. While reflecting back on their past, individuals…… [Read More]


Bennett, T. (2001). Understanding Everyday Life, Oxford: Blackwell

Carstense, L.L, Isaacowitz, D. & Charles, S.T. (2003). Life-span personality development and emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton

Fry, P.S & Debats, D.L. (2009). Perfectionism and the five-factor personality traits as predictors of mortality in older adults. Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 14 (4).
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Impact of Technology on Senior Health

Words: 2818 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4309147

Aging & Health Technologies

Theoretical perspectives on aging seem to suggest that people are either almost completely controlled by the social and normative expectations of being elderly, or that they are motivated by their own cycles of goals, outcomes and expectations. The phenomenological perspective of aging is an example of the first of these viewpoints. The life-span developmental models the second.

This piece seeks to review these two theoretical perspectives in regard to the newly emerging issue of the influence of technology on the health of aging people. It seeks to look first at the theoretical understandings. Then I provide an assessment of how different types of articles on the topic. Some tend to favor one (the phenomenological perspective) in that they often assume that older people are a unified group that basically acts with technology only in regard to serious health and care considerations. Other scientific and advocacy materials, on the other hand, approach their concerns from a life-span development approach as they look at the limitations of assuming that technology is only appropriate for disabling health concerns.


"Social phenomenologists focus their attention on ideas and presumed facts about ageing and how these are…… [Read More]


Brown, C. And Lowis, M. (2003). "Psychosocial development in the elderly: An investigation into Erikson's ninth stage." Journal of Aging Studies. Vol. 17. 415-426.

Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C. And Schulz, R. (2010). "A motivational theory of life-span development." Psychological Review. Vol. 117, No. 1. 32-60. DOI: 10.1037/a0017668.

Hough, M.G. (n.d.). "Exploring elder consumers' interactions with information technology." Journal of Business & Economics Research, Vol. 2, No. 6.

Intel (2008). "Technology for an aging population: Intel's Global Research Initiative." Viewable at
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Health Prevention Programs

Words: 2666 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64756401

Health Promotion Lesson Plan

The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.

Prevention has become a major issue in healthcare recently. Efforts to try to minimize lifestyle risks that could lead to greater consequences have been being implemented on a local and national level. Essentially, "modifiable risk factors include weight, diet, social habits, lifestyle choices, and stress reduction" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 27). Making lifestyle changes, especially…… [Read More]

References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web.
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Psychosocial and Developmental Assessment of

Words: 1878 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48279234

A relatively recent phenomenon in the American family is the increase in young adults living at home. This development changes the conditions of midlife for many parents who expected an empty nest at this stage of their lives (Birren & Schaie, 2001).

Relationships between parents and their adult children also are changing at this time because the "children" are now adults so they relate to their parents on a different level. For example, Colleen told me that her oldest son has even shared with her some intimate details about his love life. She said it was almost as if they were two women friends talking about their relationships. Where their conversations used to consist of talk about homework cleaning their rooms, now they talk to each other on a much more even playing field.

Attitudes toward this stage in life are changing as well. The impact of the "empty nest" on parents has been reexamined in recent decades. Rather than finding the expected responses of emptiness and concern as childbearing and childrearing ends, researchers have found that parents experience increased marital satisfaction, regardless of the quality of their relationships with their children. This reaction seems related to the fact that…… [Read More]


Birren, James E. & Schaie, K.W. (2001) Handbook of the psychology of aging, 5th ed. Academic Press

Erikson, E. (1950), Childhood and Society., New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Gould, R.L. (1998). Transformations: Growth and development in adult life. New York: Touchstone Books

Lachman, M.E. (2001) Handbook of midlife development, Wiley & Sons
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Elvis Presley

Words: 2717 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93659281

Legend and Legacy of Elvis Presley

The "King of Rock and Roll" may be dead from obesity and substance abuse, but his legend and legacy lives on in Graceland and among the legions of his fans that remain loyal to his memory and his music today. Indeed, Elvis music and memorabilia remain popular today, and visitors still flock to his home and burial place in Memphis, Tennessee. Therefore, the meteoric career of Elvis Presley provides an interesting case study concerning the positive and negative effects of fortune and fame on an otherwise-ordinary individual. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to develop a case study of the life of Elvis Presley, including an analysis of his life from various psychological perspectives and theories, an interpretation of his behavior and what shaped and explained his life story, and a discussion concerning those aspects of his behavior that can be labeled normal or abnormal by society. A discussion concerning the strengths of the case study approach for these purposes is followed by an analysis of what can be learned about what psychology as a tool for understanding individuals. Finally, an examination of how psychology can provide an…… [Read More]


Bertrand, M.T. (2007, Fall). Elvis Presley and the politics of popular memory. Southern Cultures, 13(3), 62-64.

Biederman, D.E., Pierson, E.P., Silfen, M.E., Glasser, J.A., Berry, R.C. & Sobel, L.S. (1996).

Law and business of the entertainment industries. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Chadwick, V. (1997). In search of Elvis: Music, race, art, religion. Boulder, CO: Westview
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Montessori Schools the Child as an Active

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90547602

Montessori Schools

The Child as an Active Learner

Theoretical Underpinnings

Foundations of the Montessori Learning Approach

Maria Montessori was a native of Chiaravalle Italy, born in 1870 during the time when Italy was declaring its independence (Kramer, 1988). Montessori did not originally wish to go into teaching, but your life path lead her to become the founder of the Montessori schools and philosophy. Montessori refused to assume traditional women's roles. Her independent spirit is reflected in her teaching methods which emphasizes independence, freedom within limits, and respect for the child's own natural psychological development. This research will explore the underpinnings of the Montessori approach and its relation to other learning theories.

There many schools that claim to be Montessori schools, but unless they have at least five basic elements, they are not true Montessori schools. These five elements are:

• mixed age classrooms, with classrooms for children ages 2-1/2 to 6 as the most common format

• students are allowed to choose their own activity within a prescribed range of options

• uninterrupted blocks for time

• a constructivist learning model where children learn concepts through discovery by working with materials, rather than receiving all classroom instruction

• specialized educational…… [Read More]


American Montessori Society. (2011). Introduction to Montessori. Retrieved from


American Montessori Society Head Quarters. (AMSHQ). (2011). AMS and the Montessori

Movement. Retrieved from