Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what it means to develop as a human being from childhood to adulthood today. Their major departure from Freud's theory rests on the fact that the social environment plays a significant role in human development.
Like Freud, Erikson's theory is based upon the belief that childhood plays a vital role in the development of the personality (Davis and Clifton, n.d.). While accepting Freud's ideas on the id, ego, and superego, along with the idea of infantile sexuality, Erikson's theory incorporates two major departures from the early philosopher. Erikson...
The stages of development include the following:
Stage 1 is the development of basic trust vs. mistrust. This development is largely based upon the maternal relationship, since the relationship with the mother is the first that the child develops. The second stage is the development of autonomy vs. shame and doubt, which focuses on the increasingly complex familial and social relationships a child develops with others and with the self. Stage 3 is initiative vs. guilt, where autonomy develops further into initiative. Depending on the levels of initiative and guilt, stage 4 focuses on industry vs. inferiority. This is where the individual either distinguishes him- or herself as a fully conscious, free-thinking person or a conformist who can be manipulated by others. The development of identity vs. role confusion is the next stage, while intimacy vs. isolation is the sixth stage. The generativity in stage 7 develops from healthy intimate and professional relationships, while stagnation is its opposite. Erikson emphasizes that a desire to establish and guide the next generation, as well as…
Psychotherapies If Rape were legal This is a story about a cancer patient who objectifies women and his life changes drastically for the better after his therapist takes an aggressive stance in one of the personal therapy sessions after a disturbing incident in his group therapy session. This paper reviews the relationship between the patient and the therapist by analyzing their dynamic through the following psychotherapies: Dynamic, Person-Centered, REBT and Alderian. Dynamic Psychodynamic psychologists
Psychotherapy Psychology is a science that engages the mind of a person in understanding the behavior of the individual. The human behavior, particularly, is peculiar at times when confronted with certain situations or events. Consequently, like any other body system, the mind is subject to reactions to external influence that impair its normal functioning. This constitutes the basis for a need to develop a technique of treatment; that curbs these health
Psychotherapy Theories and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy The cognitive behavioral and person-centered approaches regarding counseling and psychotherapy come from a much different developmental history and theoretical underpinnings. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a psychological approach that addresses problematic behaviors that occur from the recurrence of bad thoughts and has shown useful to treat anxiety, depression, and substance abuse disorders among others. However, there are also many psychotherapy practices that can integrated
He prefers to assess in overall terms before analyzing mechanisms like defences and resistances. He held the view that it is not the parts that explain the meaning and importance of the whole, but the whole that explains the meaning and importance of the parts. This view is same as Jung's view on the totality of the psyche. Jung and Freud differ in the concept of reality. While Jung
" (Teasdale, 1995, pg. 25) These elements are important, because they are showing how this form of treatment can be effective in dealing with patients that are recovering. The problem is, making sure that there is: consistent follow up and dealing with some of the changing the thoughts they will experience over the long-term. (Teasdale, 1995, pp. 25 -- 39) As a result, this approach is effective at dealing with
The instillation and the maintaining of hope is one of the most important factors in any type of psychotherapy (Yalom 2005). Yalom (2005) notes that hope is needed to keep the patient going to therapy in order for the other factors to take place, and "faith in treatment mode can in itself be therapeutically effective" (2005). Yalom (2005) compares the importance of the instillation of hope to the efficacy of