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Meeting Community Needs
Language and Speech skills are vital to academic learning and success. Language is the foundation of communication. Reading, writing, gesturing, listening, and speaking is all methods of language. Learning takes place through the process of communication. The aptitude to communicate with peers and grown-ups in the educational setting is vital for a student to prosper in school. However, the problem of communication at this 2nd-grade level is the ESL. Comment by rammarly: Deleted:l Comment by rammarly: Deleted:are
Who are the people most affected by this problem?
The students are the ones hardest hit by this issue, especially in the classroom. A lot of times, students will routinely look to the teacher for correct answers rather than trying to find out what is going on for themselves. Sometimes this can be a problem among the student and the teacher. However, if the teacher assists them with the answer…
Garcia-Lascurain, M., Kicklighter, J. R., Jonnalagadda, S. S., Erin, A. B., & Duchon, D. (2006). Effect of a nutrition education program on NutritionRelated knowledge of English-as-second-language elementary school students: A pilot study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 8(1), 57-65. doi: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uvu.edu/10.1007/s10903-006-6342-9 Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:e
Wagner, R. M., & Huang, J. C. (2011). Relative performance of English second language students in university accounting courses. American Journal of Business Education, 4(5), 31-38. Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:e
Warren, E., Harris, K., & Miller, J. (2014). Supporting young ESL students from disadvantaged contexts in their engagement with mathematics: Teachers' pedagogical challenges. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 9(1), 10-25.
Based on these standards, the researchers used nineteen competence indicators from four areas for their qualitative analysis. Following the qualitative analysis of each week's postings, the researchers also used a quantitative analytical approach to evaluate changes in participants' communicative competence as assessed the above-described ESL Standards during the administration of the three activities. The variables used in the quantitative paired sample t-tests analyses were the frequencies of children's use of language coded using the specific indicators in the ESL Standards. Subsequent qualitative analyses were also conducted to evaluate participants' improvements in their use of English through the three consecutive activities.
Data collection instruments. As noted above, the messages were captured using NVivo 2.0 as a data collection tool.
Explanation of the adequacy of the following:
Data analysis procedures. The use of both qualitative and quantitative data analysis procedures helps to improve the trustworthiness of research findings (Owen &…
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Owen, P.S. & Demb, a. (2004). Dynamics and leadership in technology implementation.
Journal of Higher Education, 75(6), 636
Zha, S., Kelly, P., Park, M.K. & Fitzgerald, G. (2006, September). An investigation of communicative competence of ESL students using electronic discussion boards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(3), 349-367.
Teaching ESL Students
At least 3.5 million children every year are identified as possessing limited English proficiency and require additional support before they are mainstreamed into the regular classroom environment (Miller & Endo 2004: 786). Approaches to ESL instruction run the gamut from total immersion to fostering a largely bilingual approach to education for this group of students. The two typical program approaches are that of a transitional bilingual education (TBE) versus a structured (sheltered) English immersion (SEI) program. In TBE, students are instructed in their native language and slowly transitioned to English, and are mainstreamed within 2-3 years to an English-only environment. In the SEI model, all instruction is provided in English immediately, with no accommodations (Tong 2009). A "major challenge that schools face under the pressure of the landmark No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is to prepare ELLs with native-like English proficiency through various instructional models…
Miller, P. & Endo, H. (2004). Understanding and meeting the needs of ESL learners. Phi Delta
Owens, A. (2010). In the Aftermath of question 2: Students with Limited English Proficiency in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants: Special report.
Vocabulary Acquisition in ESOL Students
English as foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) classrooms widely neglected the area of vocabulary, until lately. Grammar lessons are founded on a collection of rules having coherent structure, expected to be remembered or followed by students. However, the same doesn't hold true when it comes to vocabulary (Jeff, 2010). In the past few years, this area of English learning has gained importance as a necessary component to be learned by ESL students. It is believed by many to be just as crucial as reading, speaking, writing, and listening (Jeff, 2010). Work of different researchers state that knowledge of vocabulary aids language use, which in turn helps expand vocabulary knowledge, while knowledge about the world leads to increased language use and vocabulary knowledge (p. 6). The above contextualized outlook towards vocabulary learning will aid students in expanding their vocabulary by means of authentic communication (Jeff, 2010).
Adel M. Alharbi. (2015). Building Vocabulary for Language Learning: Approach for ESL Learners to Study New Vocabulary. Journal of International Students. ISSN: 2162-3104 Print / ISSN: 2166-3750 Online Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 501-511
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (1992). Myths and misconceptions about second language learning. ERIC Digest. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2/content_storage_01/0000000b/80/2a/1d/2b.pdf
Francis, D. J., Rivera, M., Lesaux, N., Keiffer, M., & Rivera, H. (2006). Practical guidelines for the education of English language learners: Research-based recommendations for instruction and academic interventions. Portsmouth, NH: Center on Instruction. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/ELL1 - Interventions.pdf
However, I believe wholeheartedly that it is possible to help ESOL students keep up with classroom material and overcome the language barrier without suffering either socially or academically. Research reveals several ways teachers can work within diverse linguistic environments such as cooperative learning.
Because I have two boys of my own who both attend private schools, I also have insight into different pedagogy and educational environments. The philosophies of teachers who work in private schools does not differ greatly from those in public schools but the student body tends to be more homogenous in terms of socio-economic class than it would be in a comparable public school. Wherever I work as a teacher I will be acutely sensitive to the issues related to class including access to technology and other…
School-Wide Assessment Plan
Schoolwide Devlopment Plan
Assessing the Context or Input
As a certified teacher in Special Education and capable to teach English to English Language Learners, I plan to create an assessment plan to measure abilities of students in high need areas in my school to read and write. Since I am equipped with a robust background and the essential skills to teach in these areas and to assess the needs of students who fall under this category, I will appear more subject specific and the overall improvement plan should be easier as I strive to develop and implement the correct assessment-instruction process. My focus during the first part of the project will revolve around the creation of a range of assessments in order to gather background information about my learners and instructional contexts in which we teach them. This information will then help me design my instructional plan,…
Bernhardt, V.L. (2006). Using data to improve student learning in school districts. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Brooks, G.W. (2007). Teachers as Readers and Writers and as Teachers of Reading and Writing. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(3), 177-191. doi: 10.2307/27548176
Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B., & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. doi: 10.2307/20204298
Lesaux, N.K. (2012). Reading and Reading Instruction for Children from Low-Income and Non-English-Speaking Households. The Future of Children, 22(2), 73-88. doi: 10.2307/23317412
The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.
Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.
Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.
In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…
Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.
Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.
Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.
Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
Stereotypes have proven dangerous because they prevent communication, create barriers the mutual recognition of humanity between individuals of different groups, and have been used to justify violence, or the denial rights and opportunities to certain individuals
here do most of the new words in English come from today?
Most of the new words today are of foreign extraction.
hat are pro-mimics? hat does it have to do with teaching?
Using mimicry is one way to encourage ESOL learners to become more comfortable with the sounds of English speech. Using words that sound like what they mean, like onomatopoeias, and encouraging students to repeat the words of native speakers, encourages familiarity with the language.
Step One: Identification." State of Vermont: Education. 1994. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.vermont.gov/new/pdfdoc/pgm_esl/guide_94/guide_94_05.pdf
ESL Terminology." ESL Terms. University of Vermont. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.wsu.edu/esl/ESLterms.html
Step One: Identification." State of Vermont: Education. 1994. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.vermont.gov/new/pdfdoc/pgm_esl/guide_94/guide_94_05.pdf
ESL Terminology." ESL Terms. University of Vermont. 21 Oct 2007. http://education.wsu.edu/esl/ESLterms.html
Moreover, if a student asked to be transferred to a mainstream class he or she did not receive approval. Errors in the U.S. school system have made it possible for African-American students to be involved in bilingual classes. So far, nothing seems to be out of the ordinary, but the strange thing is that they've been put to learn alongside Chinese speaking students also involved in bilingual programs. The motive for this is that the only available places that the black students could fill had been in the Chinese bilingual classes. (Chavez & Lyons)
Parents are not willing to accept having their English-speaking children being sent to bilingual classes any more. Students that aren't literate in English or Spanish are being prevented from learning English and from fitting in the American society.
The people that are not fond of bilingual education programs claim that the theory that children have to…
Krashen, Stephen. "Why Bilingual Education?," Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Ericdigests Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-3/bilingual.html
Linda Chavez, and James J. Lyons, "Q: Is Bilingual Education Failing to Help America's Schoolchildren?," Insight on the News 3 June 1996, Questia, 23 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000358053 .
Mar'a Estela Brisk, Bilingual Education From Compensatory to Quality Schooling (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998) 1, Questia, 23 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14165477 .
Natalie Cerda & Christina M. Hernandez, "Bilingual Education,"Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Bilingual Education Web site: http://www.freewebs.com/cerdahdz/historyofbilingualed.htm
Reaction to the source
The authors presented a well developed and cohesive approach to analyzing the manner in which young people learn a foreign language.
Kartal, G. (2006). Working with an imperfect medium: Speech recognition technology in reading practice. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15(3), 303-305.
Description of the focus of the source
The focus of this study was the read-aloud behaviors of learners who were assigned an experimental computer-based program that used speech recognition software for reading practice that provided novice students with immediate feedback.
Usefulness of the source
The useful of this source was primarily for classroom ESOL teachers using speech-recognition applications.
Limitations of the source
Many ESOL classrooms may not feature speech-recognition software, making this study purely speculative for these educators.
Description of the intended audience
Primary school ESOL teachers.
Although speech-recognition software has become more accurate in its interpretation of speech, the technology…
ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.
Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…
Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.
Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
performed by the student. The case study took place in the classroom environment, as part of the students part time job in Early Childhood Education, where there are normative and special education students present. The case study objectives involved problem solving, strategy implementation, and differentiated instruction. The specific area of focus in the case study is difficulty with literacy or reading.
This was a challenging situation because the case study took place in an Early Childhood Education setting. At this stage, there is not much evidence of literacy. At this point in development, most of the students are emerging as readers. That is not to say that there is no evidence of literacy, as literacy does begin with the identification and memorization of letters. In the classroom where my case study took place, there were a total of fifteen students on any given day. There was usually one leader teacher,…
Ganzin, Dr. A. (2012). Traumatized Learning: The Emotional Consequences of Protracted Reading Difficulties. Learning Stewards, Web Available from: http://www.childrenofthecode.org/interviews/granzin.htm#top . 2012 November 30.
Weir, K. (2011). Catching reading problems early. Monitor on Psychology, 42(4), Web, Available from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2011/04/reading-problems.aspx. 2012 November 29.
Though extrapolating these results to public K-12 programs is somewhat premature, especially given the difference in resources between the average university and the schools that comprise the Mobile County school system, it seems reasonable that developing techniques of ESL instruction within mainstream classes could be beneficial to all.
Indeed, the standardization of expectations and benchmarks for academic success have proven an effective means of designing and implementing programs, as well. Both ESL standards developed by various educational organizations and agencies as well as overall academic standards for performance and achievement have, when applied to ESL students in proper settings, led to greater student improvements and teacher performance (Nunan 2007). The overriding principle of the Mobile County ESL program is to develop the same level of achievement for ESL students as exists for all students in the system, meaning that some sort of standards-based instruction is already present in this program,…
IES. (2007). "Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades." Institute of education sciences. U.S. Dept. Of Education.
MPCSS. (2010). Mobile county public schools. Accessed 18 September 2010. http://www.mcpss.com/?DivisionID=2149&DepartmentID=2013&ToggleSideNav=ShowAll
Nunan, D. (2007). "Standards-Based Approaches to the Evaluation of ESL Instruction." International handbook of English language teaching 15(3), pp. 421-38.
O'Day, J. (209). "Good Instruction is Good for Everyone -- Or Is It? English Language Learners in a Balanced Literacy Approach." Journal of education for students placed at risk 14, pp. 97-119.
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…
Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf
Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
Internet in Elementary ESL/EFL Classroom
Thanks to the technology, both teachers and students would find their learning sessions in class more enjoyable and more challenging than before. The Internet gives important experiences both for students and teachers, where they could advance their learning process very rapidly through the dynamic medium.
At the first place, Marco (2002) said, the using of Internet as a new medium with content-based approach in ESL and EFL classroom would:
Increase students' motivation and participation, give students more time to interact with language and content area, improve their reading and writing skills in meaningful contexts, and expose students to self-paced autonomous, learner controlled learning, rather than teacher controlled."
There are a lot of options to create classroom activities that include the using of web and e-mails. For elementary students in ESL and EFL classroom, it would give a breakthrough where not only they can learn English…
Ellinger, B., Sandler, S., Chayen, D., Goldfrad, K., and Yarosky, J. (2001). Weaving The Web Into an EAP Reading Program. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 39 No. 2. pp. 22-25.
Ellis, B. Nov 1996. Integrating Science & Technology in the Elementary Classroom. Retrieved November 20, 2002 from Texas A&M University Commerce. Web site: http://faculty.tamu-commerce.edu/espinoza/s/ellis-b-657.html
Green, D.W., and O'Brien, T. Jun 2002. The Internet and the Upper Elementary Classroom: Making a Difference? Retrieved November 20, 2002 from: From Now On The Educational Technology Journal. Vol. 11 No. 9. Web site: http://www.fno.org/jun02/impact.html
Marco, M.J.L. (2002). Internet Content-based Activities for English for Specific Purposes. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 40 No. 3. pp. 20-25.
Dramatic eading for ESL
Differentiated eading with 10th Grade EFL Students
ESL literature is replete with studies focused on optimal learning environments and enhancements to student motivation (Lazaraton, 1886). Some of this literature parallels earlier work by linguists, psychologists (Harter, 1981), and educators (ichards & odgers, 2001), and early childhood researchers (Vygotsky, 1986) who specialize in language acquisition. Indeed, there is a plethora of anecdotal information about how to use visuals, games, music, and drama to increase ESL students' engagement in their learning. However, formal research about the effectiveness of drama as context for teaching English as a second language is not readily found in the literature.
This case study offers a discussion of the use of drama as part of a differentiated reading strategy to teach literature to 10th grade ESL students. Although the highlighted strategy is generally applicable, the literature used in this exercise is Of Mice and…
Baxter, J. (1999). A message from the old world to the new: Teaching classic fiction through drama. English Journal, 89(2), 119-124.
Berlinger, M.R. (2000). Encouraging English expression through script-based improvisations. The Internet TESL Journal, VI (4), April 2000. Retrieved February 25, 2011. from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Berlinger-ScriptImprov.html
Boulton, M. (1968). The anatomy of drama (3rd ed.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rded.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
group work, especially for the ESL student? Are there any drawbacks? If so, how might one minimize them? (Chap 14. Sustaining Interactive with Group Work)
Group work among students working toward the same goal creates positive energy known as synergy. When one student is having difficulty understanding a concept, he or she can learn from their peers and understand the material in a calmer environment. Group work also allows students to become more experienced with public speaking in real world environments, and helps to improve language speaking.
What is the potential importance of self-awareness of style, and how can ESL teachers foster such self-awareness? (Chap 16. Strategies Based Instruction, pp 261- 268)
Being self-aware of your actions and body language is very important in conveying your point across. Body language helps to add emphasis to what an individual is trying to get across in conversational exchange. Teachers can express how…
Applying language universal in the ESL format
I would show the ESL students the commonalties between their specific language and English. For instance that both languages have distinction between vowels and consonants and also between front and back vowels as well as between obstruent and sonorant consonants.
Going on to grammar I would show them that distinction exists in both too between noun and verb, between pronoun and between subject and object.
Using their language as contrast, I would select subject, verb, pronoun object, choosing via images and actions to illustrate these (e.g. book being both object and noun). Book I would show them can have an -s' added in English as plural but 'fright' which is a verb cannot have an s added to it.
My first activity, in other words, would be to show them that commonalties exist between the new strange language and their own, and that…
Lam (2000) noted that the top-down implementation of technology by administration and senior staff may make teachers resent and avoid its utilization. He added that concern regarding legitimacy of the computer as an effective educational tool has an influence on teacher adoption. He suggested that language teachers are not technophobes, as some believe, but do not incorporate technology because institutions and programs fail to notice the importance of training teachers and matching their goals with the tools they wish to use. Differences in acceptance and adoption of technology also occur in students, with some being more accepting of computer-aided learning than others. According to Na (2001), male students frequently have more confidence in computer technology than females. It is also known that students have different learning styles (VanZile-Tamsen & Livingston, J.A., 1999; Sankaran et al., 2000). There is thus a need to match course formats with students' attitudes and learning…
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
Although these students are very active learners, they also enjoy reading silently and time for their own thinking. The students enjoy participating in sports, dancing, and singing.
Luis (not his real name) is a bright, outgoing 3rd grade boy. After speaking with Mrs. Jones, I learned he has been in the United States since the end of 1st grade. During the (approximately) two years Luis has lived in the United States, he has gone back to Mexico for extended periods. Luis is verbal and is not shy. He can speak fairly well, but struggles with some English. The push in services Luis receives is from a paraprofessional who has had some ESL training. The Para comes in twice a day to work with Luis. In addition, Mrs. Jones has taken the proactive approach of labeling "everything" in the room as well as partnering Luis with strong students.
Description of Learning:
Educational institutions are teaching subjects for a digital future but it is from a superficial manner however students need a deeper knowledge of it as a curriculum. When teaching students about math, it should be integrated in all subjects they are learning by being motivated by educators (Singhal, 1997). As shown in the examined scenario planning with an elementary school, it is apparent things became better for the students as far as the educational resources, and environment, which ultimately affects the learning process. Educational institutions must engage partnerships with other schools around the world. By providing student exchanges they will produce world class students, the internet is facilitating the process of globalization and providing virtual interaction with others. As it is shown in schools, technology is the key to change the educational environment and resources. The internet is encouraging students to engage in meaningful cross cultural dialogue…
Develop a set of criteria for any ESL textbook. Locate three to five books, and then analyze each textbook based on either your ELD or SDAIE lesson plan or your own set of criteria. Provide the rationale and support for the textbook you choose to use.ESL textbooks can vary widely as it relates to overall structure and content. Although the information is very similar within the text, the presentation can heavily influence the learning of the perspective student. The ability to align context with its application for example, allows students the ability to better assimilate the information in a manner best conducive to their learning. The magnitude of sample questions and how they are structured throughout the text is another important quality particularly for an ESL textbook. These elements are ESL texts rely heavily on understanding and practice. It is not enough to simply memorize material. Instead, the application of…
References 1. Crookes, G. (2003). A practicum in TESOL: Professional development through teaching practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN-10: 0521823056, ISBN-13: 978-0521823050.2. Farrell, T. S. C. (2005). Succeeding with English language learners: A guide for beginning teachers. Corwin Press. ISBN-10: 1412924391, ISBN-13: 978-1412924399. P3. Johnson, K. E. (2009). Second language teacher education: A sociocultural perspective. New York: Routledge. ISBN-10: 041580079X, ISBN-13: 978-04158007922
When it comes to children and how well they do (or do not do) in schools, a lot of the invective and scrutiny is directed towards the teachers at the school and the administrators that govern the same. Whether it be parents showing disdain for how well the students are not doing or whether it be national laws such as No Child Left Behind, the teachers seem to shoulder a lot of the blame when students do not perform as expected or desired. However, to just blame the teachers would be unwise because they are only part of equation and some would argue that teachers are not even the biggest part of the equation. While having adept teachers imparting knowledge to students is important, having parents or guardians of those children that are involved and engaged is even more important.
One of the linchpins of student success…
Harji, M. B., Balakrishnan, K., & Letchumanan, K. (2016). SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement
in Young Children's ESL Reading Development. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 1-
Hemmerechts, K., Agirdag, O., & Kavadias, D. (2017). The relationship between parental
, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…
Herron, Carol, Dubreil, Sebastien, Corrie, Cathleen, and Cole, Steven. (2002). A Classroom
Investigation: Can Video Improve Intermediate-Level French Language Students' Ability
To Learn about a Foreign Culture? The Modern Language Journal, 86(i), 36-53.
Herron, Carol, Cole, Steven P., Corrie, Cathleen, and Dubreil, Sebastien. (1999). The
The chapter goes on to explicate each writing task by means of examples and further specific guidance for teachers. t is also suggested that the tasks do not need to be applied in isolation, but that they can also be used in combination for greater effectiveness. Examples are given of experience and guided tasks that can be done in groups. n this regard, the author points out that group work has advantages for both teachers, learners, and the learning process itself. Teachers' supervision and grading workloads are reduced, while learners view each other as a learning resource in addition to the teacher.
The chapter concludes by a short section that guides teachers' decision-making when implementing the four writing task types. t is suggested that teachers use a critical approach to determine which tasks would be most appropriate.
found the chapter extremely interesting, as teaching writing to ESL/EFL students is always…
In this regard, I found the chapter's insights on reproduction exercises such as dicto-comp and dicto-gloss very helpful. Rather than expecting them to understand a complicated explanation and diagram of what an essay should look like, I think I would save both them and myself a large amount of frustration by first allowing them to reproduce a piece of writing in this genre. In general, the chapter contributed to my development as a teacher.
Nation, ISP (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing. New York, NY: Routledge (Tailor & Francis)
dramatic change in the American public schools' demographics due to the country's immigration peak; the highest in the nation's history. This is happening at a time when American schools are charged with the highest accountability level for students' performance in academics. The country's cultural, ethnic and linguistic diversity is reflected by the families and students in K-12 classrooms. It is important that teachers prepare to satisfy the diverse linguistic, developmental, educational and cultural needs of such students for them to learn and develop optimally. Today, more than ever, teachers face the challenge of how they can best meet the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. Therefore, every educator today is an ESL/ELL teacher. This paper looks into one of the needs of CLD students and how teachers can help them attain their needs. The paper Will look specifically into the needs of a CLD learner - Jack A.…
Alford, J. (2001). Learning language and critical literacy: Adolescent ESL students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 45(3). pp. 238-242.
Boyd-Batstone, P. (2004). Focused anecdotal records assessment: A tool for standards based authentic assessment. The Reading Teacher, 58 (3), pp. 230-239.
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. National Center for Education Statistics. (2011) English language learners in public schools. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d12/tables/dt12_047.asp
National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers. (2010). Common Core State Standards for English language arts and literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Washington, DC: Authors.
Interview ith Teacher of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
The United States educational environment consists of students from different cultural and linguistic background, and a classroom may consist of students who are native English speakers and students whose origins are from Latin America, Asia, Africa, Middle East and Europe. Thus, many teachers often face challenges in adopting an effective and appropriate methodology to teach students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
This study carries out an open-interview with a teacher of culturally and linguistically diverse students to enhance a greater understanding of his teaching methodology.
The researcher uses the open-interview method to allow the teacher to express all views about the strategy used in managing culturally and linguistically diverse students. The questions used to collect the information are presented in Appendix 1.
Outcome of the Interview with a Teacher of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
The teacher reveals that his…
Echevarria, J.J. Vogt, M. and Short, D.J. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. (4th Edition). Pearson. 2012.
Moore, K.D. & Hansen, J. Effective Strategies for Teaching in K-8 Classrooms. USA. SAGE Publications, Inc.2012.
SIOP . Frequently Asked Questions. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. USA. 2015.
Richard-Amato, P.A. Make it Happen: Interactive to Participatory Language Teaching - Evolving Theory and Practice (4th Edition). Pearson Education ESL. 2010.
teacher has in helping students develop their writing. Traditional methods of grading and scoring children's writing are being replaced in the modern educational system with feedback and constructive criticism of the work, rather than a trophy grade or labeling score. This study reviews literature previously compiled on the subject of feedback in the development of children's writing, as well as conducting original research with a small group of students and teachers that helps evaluate the role of feedback in writing, as well as determining what types of feedback are the most effective.
Overview & Evaluation of the Project
According to a seasoned author of the ritish Educational Research Journal, "Education without educational research can be governed by dogma, superstition, tradition and other forms of prejudice about what will work well and be 'good for' those involved in the educational process." (Murphy 1996) Education is an ongoing process, and even the…
Brindley, S. (1995) Teaching English. New York: Routledge.
Bush, L.L. & Santi, S. (2004, August) Designing & Assessing Effective Writing Assignments. Center for Learning and Teaching Excellence. http://clte.asu.edu/writing/
Donaldson, M. (1989) Children's Minds. London: Fontana Press.
ERIC. (2001) Grading Students' Classroom Writing: Issues and Strategies. Counseling and Student Services Clearinghouse. U.S. Department of Education. CAPS Publication.
It also breaks down the inevitable hierarchies that may exist in a class between students who believe they 'aren't as smart' as their peers.
Address how information is transformed into knowledge as it passes through the three stages of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory in these students. Cite examples of strategies employed during working memory to ensure processing into long-term processing.
The sensory memory stage is very transient. "Sensory memory briefly holds the tremendous amount of information coming in from the senses. Unless you focus your attention on some part of that information, the memory disappears in about one second" (Bennoit 2001). To retain the memory of a particular sight, sound, smell, texture or taste, the individual must usually be mindful and conscious of creating the memory. He or she must make an association with the sensory stimuli and currently-existing knowledge. Auditory memory tends to last a few seconds longer…
Benoit, Anthony G. "Memory." Introduction to Psychology. November 21, 2001. April 9, 2011.
Rebora, Andrea. "Survey: Teachers concerned about resources for students with diverse learning needs." Education Week. March 23, 2011. April 9, 2011. http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2011/03/23/metlife_diverse.html?tkn=VVCEN/ZXptFZ
Mathematics Instruction in English on ELL Second Grade Students
J. Elizabeth Estevez
Educ2205I-Content Research Seminar
Mathematics is a powerful tool for interpreting the world. Research has shown that for children to learn how to use mathematics to organize, understand, compare, and interpret their experiences, mathematics must be connected to their lives. Such connections help students to make sense of mathematics and view it as relevant. There has, however, been controversy with regard to children from non-English backgrounds and the best ways to get them to make those connections. Questions are raised regarding how to instruct these children who are referred to as English language learners (ELL's). Should they initially be taught in their native language with gradual exposure to English in language classes, or should they be immersed in English as early as possible. Based upon ideas presented in research studies and my own ideas as a former bilingual teacher,…
local school district has recently implemented a program designed to assist students that are currently in need of training in English as a Second Language (ESL). Many of these ESL students hail from a country and/or culture that features other languages other than English which puts them at a distinct disadvantage in schools that teach primarily using the English language, both verbally and in written form. What the school district would like to measure is how effective and beneficial the program has been for the students who have used it. Additional issues that the school would like to see addressed by the study include; the impact of the program on English language proficiency, overall student academic progress, and the satisfaction levels of the students, teachers, parents, administrators and other stakeholders.
esearch Questions and Hypothesis
The study will be guided by research questions and a hypothesis based upon the fact that…
Classen, N.; Covic, N.M.; Idsardi, E.F.; Sandham, L.A.; Gildenhuys, A. & Lemke, S.;
(2015) Applying a transdisciplinary mixed methods research design to explore sustainable diets in rural South Africa, International Journal of Qualitative
Methods, 14(2) p. 69-91
Devers, K.J. & Frankel, R.M.; (2000) Study design in qualitative research -- Sampling
com). Having English sound 'stressed' correctly is often a challenge for French speakers.
Compared with some other languages, French and English have fairly similar grammatical structures. Both languages, for example, have auxiliary verbs, participles, active/passive voice, past/present/future tenses. But "there are frequent occasions when French uses a different tense to convey a particular meaning than English. Some common examples are the following faulty sentences: I have played tennis yesterday. I can't play now. I do my homework. I live in London since last year. I will tell you as soon as I will know" (Vu 2008).
Difficulties in English dialects may also pose a challenge to French speakers who have learned English in a 'normalized' fashion, denuded of regional accents. "Variation in English presents considerable challenge to schools, grounded as they are in standard English norms" (Adger 2009). French speakers, who have heard English mostly from television and in school,…
Adger, Carolyn Temple. (2009). Issues and implications of English dialects for teaching English
TESOL Professional Papers #3 Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://www.tesol.org/s_TESOL/sec_document.asp?CID=403&DID=1061
Differences between French and English. (2009). About.com. Retrieved March 25, 2009 at http://french.about.com/library/bl-differences.htm
Vu, Nguyen Ngoc. (2008). The differences between English and French. University of Phoenix.
The study used student projects as the main vehicle for integrating active learning methods into the lecture. The study took place during a 10-week class, with four projects being assigned to groups of size four to six. Projects centered on (1) statistical tests of goodness-of-fit; (2) design of a simple experiment and analysis of variance using two factors; (3) factorial design experiment and analysis; and (4) regression analysis. In each project, there was emphasis placed on the purposefulness of the experiment, the design, and the ensuing collection of data. Each project lasted about two weeks, including around 90 minutes of in-class work used for project instruction, questions, and discussion. A primary weakness of the research was insufficient time in which to conduct classroom presentations by the students themselves concerning their projects and the learning processes that took place.
Extent to Which Findings Can Be Generalized to Student Population. While the…
Heron, Alison H. (2003). A Study of Agency: Multiple Constructions of Choice and Decision
Making in an Inquiry-Based Summer School Program for Struggling Readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(7), 568.
Kvam, P.H. (2000). The Effect of Active Learning Methods on Student Retention in Engineering Statistics. The American Statistician, 54(2), 136.
Lewis, V.K. & Shaha, S.H. (Spring 2003). Maximizing learning and attitudinal gains through integrated curricula. Education, 123(3), 537.
Furthermore, by actively engaging students in the multimedia development process, their critical thinking skills are put to good use, vocabulary retention is enhanced and students will likely enjoy the process far more than a traditional lecture format or simply reviewing what multimedia materials are provided by educators.
One of the overriding issues that emerged from this study was the fact that students were actively engaged in the educational material development process, but this did not mean that they were simply assigned a task and allowed the "muddle through" the process. ather, this approach required extensive planning and preparation on the part of the second language educator to provide the framework that was needed for the students to succeed. This process is more challenging than might be expected, and involves far more than just placing existing course content online or on a CD/DVD format. Consideration must be given to how the…
Nikolva, O.R. (2002). Effects of students' participation in authoring of multimedia materials on student acquisition of vocabulary. Language, Learning & Technology, 6(1), 100.
Effects of Students' Participation in Authoring of Multimedia Materials on Student Acquisition of Vocabulary.
This study investigated the effects on vocabulary acquisition of student participation in authoring a multimedia instructional module. Sixty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, and each group was randomly assigned to one of two treatments. The control subjects were asked to study a French text downloaded from the Internet and presented on a computer. In the text,
Many of the students at the school are intelligent, but they do not know how to put that intelligence to good use, because no one has ever taught them that they are capable of doing many things that they may want to do. Since this is the case, the teachers at the school must be given tools that are practical and can be easily incorporated into what they already do, which will help to stimulate the minds of the students that they work with when it comes to teaching them language literacy. While not an easy task, it is a worthwhile one that should be considered. Children are the future of this country and it seems wrong to neglect any of them, regardless of their race, ethnicity, background, language ability, or mental capabilities.
Those that can be educated should be educated, and ways must be found to ensure that this…
ESOL Learner's Language & Reading Skills
You are invited to participate in a research project being conducted by researchers from Western Governors University. The researchers are conducting research to determine the most effective ways to improve the English reading abilities of immigrant students.
The purpose of this research is to survey ESL teachers, students, and parents in order to identify how much time students spend speaking in their native languages and the impact this has on their fluency in reading English. This research project will require students to read sample chapters aloud on two different occasions. Students may also be asked to increase the amount of time spent using their English speaking skills. The research will be conducted over a week period, where parents, faculty, and students will be interviewed and provided with surveys. Students will be required to continue all of their routine classroom activities with two additions of…
Reading Profile of a Student
The student I selected is a 10-year-old 4th grade student who is a self-described “lover of books.” She views herself as a great reader and she is always carrying a book with her. I ask her if she thinks everyone should read more, and she says most emphatically, “Yes!” She maintains a very positive attitude toward reading—“Even when you don’t care for what you’re reading?” I ask. She says that she always finds something to like, no matter what she is reading. She says if someone took the time to write it, she can take the time to find something nice about it. “Sometimes I have to stop and think about what I read or I’ll think about a story for days wondering what I just read.” I ask what stories do that for her and she answers, “Poe! That guy is crazy!” I am…
I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.
The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…
Haugen, L. (1998). Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement. Iowa State University. Retrieved online: http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/philosophy.html
Sofsian, D. (n.d.). Teacher education philosophies. Retrieved online: http://ezinearticles.com/?Teacher-Education-Philosophies&id=227410
Wilt, B.L. (2003). A personal philosophy of education. Retrieved online: http://schoolmarm.org/main/index.php?page=p-genphil
Correction: The study showed that women are more likely than men to see color.
Original: Men blind to finer differences in color.
Correction: Men are blind to finer differences in color.
Original: During the lab my partner see only basic colors.
Correction: During the lab my partner saw only basic colors.
Helping the Student
Although it was difficult, I stayed with my conventional way of tutoring for these mistakes. We slowly worked through her paper line by line pausing at each mistake and I would let her try and figure out the proper form of the verb to use. An example of the conversation we had back and forth was as follows:
Me (reading out loud): The study find evidence that cones was effected...Lets stop there and go back. The study find is not correct.
Student: I see, would it be finded?
Me: Not exactly, lets look up the verb…
His parents enrolled him in the church pre-school, hoping that the structured program and interaction with other children his age would be beneficial. The teacher, with just an associate's degree in early childhood education, was not prepared to work with a child with special needs. Amos, who was completely non-verbal, was often frustrated when no one understood him. His parents and siblings had automatically made accommodations for him, but the other three-year-olds could not, nor could the teacher. When Amos got frustrated, he would scream, hit the teacher or other students, and even kick and bite if someone tried to restrain him. The church told Amos's parents that he could not stay, and they agreed, although they were disappointed and frustrated.
At home, Amos's family does not know what to do with him; his behavior is increasingly challenging. He frequently has tantrums and seems very frustrated. He has gained a…
Dyal, A., Carpenter, L.B., & Wright, J.V. (2009). Assistive technology: what every school leader should know. BNET: CBS Business Network. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_3_129/ai_n31481907/?tag=mantle
GED, ESL, & ABE
Individuals wanting to pursue an education or an educational venue have choices to fit their particular circumstance. An Adult Basic Education (ABE) allows individuals to learn basic skills needed to not only perform in an educational setting, but in a trade or in the workforce. It teaches skills from remedial math to basic reading for individuals sixteen and older who have no previous or very little previous high school education. The General Educational Development (GED) or the General Equivalency Diploma as it is often referred to as, has a more educational component and comparable to getting a high school diploma. In order for the GED to be earned, a student needs to fulfill a high school curriculum and needs to get a certain score in order to be awarded this diploma. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes are for students who know very little to…
Adult Basic Education. United States Department of Education. 01 September 2009. 16 July 2011.
ESL: English of a Second Language. 2011. 16 July 2011
international student who has lived in the United States for two years. My first year in the States was spent at ESL school, during which I learned how to speak, read, and write English. Although I still have some difficulty with the language and am not yet fluent, I look forward to improving my English skills as I stay in the country. I have been attending junior college for the past year, and have enjoyed a rich and dynamic social life. I enjoy my classes and the people at my school, but I am ready for a change. I would like to pursue different curriculum than that offered at my junior college. The education I have received provided a broad set of courses that allowed me to improve my English skills and learn the basics of different subjects. My time at junior college prepared me for the challenges of an…
each Group of Students Who Have Never Learned
English before, what would you do during the first three weeks? What would be the characteristics of the things you intended to teach? If your students made mistakes, what would you do? If they refused to talk, what would you do?
First impressions are important in establishing a good relationship between teachers and students. Foreign students often come to the classroom with many fears. (Cary, 2000) herefore, it is very important that the teacher establish a friendly, enthusiastic atmosphere free of any negative vibes. (Samway, 1999) Even though the students are afraid, this can be eased by a friendly smile and pleasant small talk. his is especially important before giving any sort of assessment test, which should be given during the first class of the term as part of class orientation.
During the first three weeks, I would make an effort to…
This shows that a second language learner will have low motivation, high anxiety, and low achievement if he has low self-confidence. I do not have low self-confidence so I would probably be more open to learning Spanish.
Cary, Stephen. Working with Second Language Learners. Heinemann, 2000.
Samway, Katherine. Myths and Realities: Best Practices for Language Minority Students. Heinemann, 1999.
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Second language reading comprehension is known to be extremely complex, multi-componential, dynamic and multi-dimensional due to the fact that it involves numerous interactions among different reader factors. The factors are (L1)-first language literacy, L1 backdrop, background knowledge, language proficiency, knowledge of pragmatics and genre, motivation, metalinguistic knowledge, metacognition, and strategy, as well as contextual factors (e.g., content and text topic, genre and text type, text readability, both verbal and non-verbal (Phakiti, 2006; Salataci & Akyel, 2002).
Teaching English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) can be very demanding and calls for teacher's understanding of not only the teaching methodology and nature of reading, but also learner's nature and the context under which the teaching or reading occurs. ESL is mostly a requirement where English is the official language for communication. EFL is used commonly in situations in which English is not the official language for communication, neither is it…
Phakiti, A. (2006). Theoretical and pedagogical issues in ESL/EFL teaching of strategic reading. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL,
Salataci, R. & Akyel, A. (2002). Possible effects of strategy instruction on L1 and L2
reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 14, 1-17.
Taber, J. (n.d.). A Brief History of ESL Instruction: Theories, Methodologies, and Upheavals.
Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's
English as a Second Language Learner
The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…
Alper, L. & Hyerle, D (2006). Thinking Maps: A language for leadership. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps.Inc.
Anderson, S., Yilmaz, D., & Washburn-Moses, L. (2004). Middle and high school students with learning disabilities: Practical academic interventions for general education teachers -- A review of the literature. American Secondary Education, 32(2), 19-38.
Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advances organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272
Bahr, G.S. & Dansereau, D.F (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education 73(2), 101-118
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of "seriousness" with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in…
Barbetta, P., Norona, K. & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom behavior management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. Preventing School Failures. Vol. 49, Issue 3, p 11-19.
Bear, G.G. (2008). Best practices in classroom discipline. In Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology V (1403-1420). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists
Bear, G.G., Cavalier, A., & Manning, M. (2005). Developing self-discipline and preventing and correcting misbehavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Fletcher, L., & Crochiere, N. (2004). How to Design and Deliver Speeches (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
No teacher can entirely avoid the realities of student standardized assessment. But teachers must make informed choices in the classroom in regards to how students are instructed, based upon individual student needs and awareness of student diversity. There are significant questions regarding the potential biases of many standardized tests, particularly in regards to historically discriminated-against racial, ethnic, and socio-economic groups. Teachers must be aware of these questions and biases and act as advocates for their students on a schoolwide and statewide level to ensure fairness.
Ethical Standards in Assessment:
Minimizing Bias and Student Diversity in Assessment
Education is supposed to be a great social leveler. Unfortunately, many concerns have been raised regarding the ability of commonly-used educational assessment tools to provide unbiased information about all students, regardless of students’ demographic characteristics. Teachers must balance the need to prepare students for these highly pressured exam environments with the need for…
English Only Case
Educating Hispanic Students:
Obstacles and avenues to improve academic achievement.
Per the article, what is the status of Hispanic Students in the U.S.
Even with the fact that the number of Hispanic Students in the U.S. experienced a significant growth during recent years, the authorities failed to design educational programs meant to assist them in integrating society effectively. The Department of Education has directed its attention toward diminishing and eventually closing the gap between Hispanic students and White students. The current cultural environment in the country appears to prevent Hispanic students from being able to accumulate information similar to how White children do. Changing the environment is the key to enabling these respective students to integrate society and to eventually be able to play an active role in helping the Hispanic community as a whole experience progress.
The article lists factors associated with underachievement of Hispanic students;…
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
The student observed for the SOLOM (Student Oral Language Observation Matrix) is a female sophomore in high school. Her native language is Spanish and her SOLOM score for the observation was a 20/25 with limited English proficiency.
The observation took place in a classroom setting on May 10th, 2006, and the activities we utilized in the classroom included reading out loud, discussing what we had read, identifying key words in the reading, using visual aids to reinforce concepts, practicing spelling vocabulary words and pronouncing them, and practicing composition with students writing a short paragraph about what they had read.
My initial thoughts about the girl observe for this study are that she shows some promise in terms of learning the English language and becoming better at it. She understands key concepts and grammatical rules; it is only her inexperience with the language that appears to be a barrier at…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Levien, R. [mediathatmatters]. (2009, June 16). Immersion [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6Y0HAjLKYI
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in esl: A resource book for teaching k-12 english learners.. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Tesol. (n.d.). Tesol.org. Retrieved from http://www.tesol.org/advance-the-field/standards/prek-12-english-language-proficiency-standards
Post SOLOM Assessment
The student observed for the Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) was a native Spanish-speaking 16-year-old female who was a high school sophomore. Her native country was Mexico; she had two brothers and a sister, all younger; she lived with her siblings and parents in a home near the school, and they had been in the U.S. for three years. Her current language proficiency level is limited English proficiency with her SOLOM score being a 20/25. I have met with her parents who have expressed an interest in becoming more proficient in English so as to help their children improve with the language. This fits in with the theory of Pompa (n.d.) who promotes the concept of parents participating in their children's education and Vera & Israel (2012) observe the same.
Prior to administering the initial SOLOM, my perception of the student's proficiency was that it was…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Modern ELL Teacher. (n.d.). Google Sites. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/themoderndayeslteacher/home
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching K-12 English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Pompa, M. (n.d.). Building trust with families. AdLit. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/ells / .
Curriculum and Policy
DaSilva Iddings, Combs, and Moll (2012) discuss policies surrounding English language learners in the United States (ELL). The article begins by considering the nature and prevalence of this population, postulating that students from this category have come to outnumber native English speakers in American schools. This emphasizes the importance of effective English language instruction for such learners, since it would empower them to access better opportunities in the future and to become contributing members of society. According to the authors, however, educational policy in certain states hinders the ability of these students to access adequate language learning in English.
In Arizona, for example, the policy is based upon Proposition 203, which was approved for Arizona in November 2000. This initiative essentially replaces bilingual education in the state with what was known as "Structured English Immersion (SEI), by which students are to learn English only by means of…
DaSilva Iddings, A.C., Combs, M.C., and Moll, L. (2012). In the Arid Zone: Drying Out Educational Resource for English Language Learners Through Policy and Practice. Urban Education, 47:495
Elementary School ESL Teacher
Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…
Salcedo, C.S. (2010). The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall, delayed text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(6), 19-30. etrieved: http://search.proquest.com/docview/506757936?accountid=10901
One of the goals of teaching any foreign language is making the words seem fluid, easy, and natural to the new speaker as his or her own native dialect. However, this can be a challenging task for teachers of ESL, particularly given the multitasking they are forced to perform on a daily basis in the classroom and the additional academic demands under which they operate. Teaching English to a non-native speaker, and then attempting to aid the student to function in a biology or a math class, whether the alternative subject is in simplified English or even the student's first language, can sometimes seem like an insurmountable task. However, the 2010 article "The effects of songs in the…
Salcedo, C.S. (2010). The effects of songs in the foreign language classroom on text recall, delayed text recall and involuntary mental rehearsal. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 7(6), 19-30. Retrieved:
Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education
The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the 1980s and 19980s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. Increasingly complex, high-tech demands from industry and commerce mandate that every graduate, including those for whom English is a second language, acquire knowledge and skills to compete for jobs" (Beckett & Haley 2000). The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers. Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education…
Beckett, E.C., & Haley, P.K. (2000). Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL
fluency. The Clearing House, 74(2), 102-104.
Son, J. (2008). Using web-based language learning activities in the ESL classroom. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 4(4), 34-43.
Again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures and compliment their efforts either way.
The teacher will then tell the students that while pizza can be all different types of thicknesses in America, in Italy it is usually very thin, almost like a cracker. She will also tell them that in America, pizza is usually round, but in Italy, it is often rectangular in shape. Once again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures, and compliment their efforts either way.
Lastly, the teacher will tell the children that pizza in America is often loaded with all kinds of crazy toppings, but in Italy, the toppings are much sparser and tend to be just vegetables. Sometimes they don't even have cheese. Again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures and compliment their efforts either way.
The last part of…
Bloom B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longmans-Green
Coe, J. Pizza. Helium. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/996711-poetry-pizza
Difference between Italian food in Italy and "Italian" food in your country? (n.d.) Travel Expert Guide, retrieved from http://www.travelexpertguide.org/forum/Italy/Difference-between-italian-food-in-Italy-and-quot-italian-quot-food-in-your-country-319743.htm
NCSS Themes, retrieved from http://education.uncc.edu/theafner/SS%20Methods/ncss_themes_page4.htm
Of great benefit is the accompanying activity sheets that can be easily copied for use in the classroom setting. he work also goes even further by informing users through a presentation of the most important language skills to be learnt. his is supported by an excellent bibliography and answers to the questions. his book is an excellent resource for teachers and may even be used by some students based on their level of language competence. he work however could be more explicit in some areas as some of the directions are at times confusing. Additionally, there should be greater usage of online-based resources.
Frost, Richard. "esting and Assessment." eaching English: British Council, BBC. n.d. .
Frost draws on his personal experiences to demonstrate why testing does not work and what can be done to improve the assessment process. esting becomes a problem because students may become nervous and other challenges.…
The work provides the reader with a brief summary of some of the salient work on the subject of assessing writing. The readings are separated into background and theory, in this area the readings give sufficient coverage of the theoretical and foundational issues to ensure the reader has a basis understanding of the underlying themes. The section titled current issues presents the recent debates in the discipline as well as the most up-to-date concerns. Practices contains the experiences of practitioners as well as best approaches, there are several narrative and practical pieces in this section. The final section, additional resources points to other beneficial materials that can supplement the work found in the other sections. Each section contains multiple resources and while not making a claim to be exhaustive, the readings provide excellent coverage of the relevant subject area. This work is directed toward a general audience of teachers and persons with interest in the area. The value of the work is that it gives a quick summary of the material presented so that the reader can easily decide if that is the work required.
Rief, Linda. "Evaluation: Where I Am, Where I Want to Be." Seeking Diversity: Language Arts with Adolescents. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 1992. 121-32.
Straw, Stanley B. "Assessment and Evaluation in Written Composition: A Commonsense Perspective." Research in the Language Arts: Language and Schooling. Eds. Victor Froese and Stanley B. Straw. Baltimore: U. Park P. 1981. 181-202.
Why do Most ESL students struggle with reading and literacy and what can be done to improve this? Strategies teachers can use?
It is indeed the case that many ESL students have difficulty with reading and literacy but there are things that can be done to deal with this issue. According to an article found in the Journal of College eading and Learning, it common knowledge that the second language reading process, like the first language process, must be recognized as a "top-down/bottom-up" relationship amid the graphic display located with in the text, several echelons of linguistic knowledge and processes, and several cognitive activities (Weber; Upton). In addition
-up processing -- the recognition of letters and words, the accurate representation of temporal and order information, and the efficient coding of verbal information in short-term memory -- ensures that readers will be sensitive to information that is novel or that does…
Aebersold, J.A. & Field, M.L. (1997). From reader to reading teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Criteria for Evaluating Cultural Content of Reading Material"
Cummins. The acquisition of English as a Second Language.
Curriculum Repository Glossary. http://www.msdnaacr.net/curriculum/glossary.aspx