Ethical Decision Making Essays Examples

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Ethical Decisions That Corporations Must Make Are

Words: 844 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7834983

Ethical decisions that corporations must make are not always the least costly ones when it comes to fixing a problem. When a CEO is confronted with a choice of doing the ethical, customer-friendly decision, or saving money and shipping a product that is clearly not safe or in the best interest of children, there should be only one solution. That solution is to do the right thing: take the loss, bite the bullet, and pay for the fix so the product that is sent to the public is safe and fully represents the advertising that was designed to entice customers in the first place.

Memo to the Toy Company CEO: Background on Ethics and Toys

In the case of the toy whistles that have more lead than is safe for human health, it is absolutely imperative that the toys that are sent out meet the strictest standards for safety. This is vital to remember not just for the safety of children who may be harmed by excessive amounts of lead; doing the ethical thing is vital for the image of the corporation. The negative publicity from an incident in which a child gets sick because a product was not safe…… [Read More]

AT&T. (2011). Corporate Governance / AT&T Inc. Code of Ethics. Retrieved July 24, 2013,

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Ethical Dilemma the Fourteen Decision-Making

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43047228

When searching for ideas use imagination and stimulate that imagination by brain-storming with others and reading the latest publications on the topic -- remember that approaches for difficult issue are always changing. Ten years ago, antidepressants were prescribed almost automatically for depression, now the use of such medication and their side effects, especially in teens, is under scrutiny.

Step 6: Evaluate the evidence

Sometimes writing things down can be helpful. When contemplating different strategies of approaching the topic, charting and rating evaluations of the tentative solutions provides clarity. Viewing any data and studies side-by-side can be useful as well. Compare and test these solutions in a series of hypothetical scenarios before trying them out in the real world.

Step 7: Make the educated guess (hypothesis)

After reviewing the evidence, boil down the client's situation into a general statement. Make an educated guess about what is the core problem; choose the best solution to address the issue. Then, make predictions as to how the client will react.

Step 8: Challenge the hypothesis

Before entering the session, challenge your assumptions. Consider alternatives -- are you stereotyping the client/relying too much on past experiences?

Step 9: Reach a conclusion

Communicate what you want…… [Read More]

Decision-making worksheet. (2009). Retrieved February 22, 2009 at

Fourteen decision-making steps
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Decision Making by a Healthcare Leader in Case of an Ethical Dilemma

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3855789

Ethical Analysis

Memo on a Ethical Analysis

____, Student

____ (due date)


Decision making by a Healthcare Leader in case of an Ethical Dilemma

in an interview of my health care administrator of the long care health facility where I work, I asked, "How do you make a wise decision in a situation relating to an ethical dilemma?"


Description of the Answer

It seemed like my question took the administrator by surprise perhaps he did not expect such a question when I requested for an interview. However, he looked composed and amused by my question. Confidently and leaning a little bit forward and supporting his hands on his desk, he responded. He first pointed out the numerous occasions when ethical dilemmas were evident in his health care administration career at the health facility. He said that he learnt over time through many experiences and a little consultation and research on how such issues have been handled in the past by other health care leaders.

First, he said that in dealing with a dilemma in his practice, he would get composed and avoid panicking, and then define the ethical conflict or issue confronting him. Then, he continued to say…… [Read More]

Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. American Counseling Association, 1-5.

Pope, K.S., & Vasquez, M.J. (2010). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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Ethical Decisions

Words: 705 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57695905

Ethical Decision Making

In general, there are three major ethical approaches to decision-making: that of consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Ethical dilemmas arise when there is a conflict of values or when it is impossible to satisfy all of the needs of stakeholders. A good example of this relates to food insecurity and the growing crisis of malnutrition and obesity amongst the poorest inhabitants of America. Some have advocated limiting the types of foods that can be bought with EBT (electronic benefits transfer) cards to healthy and nutritious foods -- for example, banning buying soda and candy with this supported nutrition program. Others have argued that it is wrong to limit a person's choice of foods simply because he or she is poor, while a wealthier person does not have to suffer such dehumanizing scrutiny of their eating habits.

From a consequentialist standpoint, the consequences of an ethical decision are what matter. Viewed from this perspective, if people eat less junk food the consequences are that they are likely to be healthier. The most famous form of consequentialism is that of utilitarianism, which stresses that the greatest good for the greatest number of people should be the objective of all…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Chaussee, J. (2013). Talk of banning soda from food stamp benefits elicits upset and uncertainty.

Oakland North Retrieved from: 
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Ethical Decisions in Business Is Great There

Words: 356 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46590433

ethical decisions in business is great. There are many instances where ethical decisions are necessary in business operations, and corporations can get themselves into trouble even when they are trying to be ethical if they do not have a strong and effective procedural structure to guide employees in making such decisions. One aspect of ethical decision making comes under the heading of crisis management as corporations are faced with some huge problem that may involve liability and legal issues but that certainly involves questions of public image. A second aspect is the day-to-day decisions that have not yet reached the point of crisis but which could if ethical decisions are not made. Even without any external threat to a company, an ongoing process of ethical decision-making crates an atmosphere in a company that is beneficial, that contributes more to society, and that helps create an environment in which employees may flourish and do their best.

Developing such an ethical-decision making process may be no more difficult than adapting the idea of the Golden Rule to the…… [Read More]

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Decision-Making and Ethics

Words: 1767 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50850821


Employees and business management personal are taught business ethics as a fundamental guideline. It is tasked with assigning a particular meaning and role to business on the whole. Taking ethical decisions entails keeping certain aspects in mind. Written below is a brief argument on the points regarding ethics and a scenario is setup where business ethics are employed.

In layman words, business ethics entails working within reasonable means in a financial environment. Some particular aspects are required to achieve that (Brusseau). The decisions are guided by principles, comprehending the facts, making a valid argument and lastly ethics basically entails discerning between right and wrong (Brusseau). The overall result is secondary to the process at hand. The end result consists of constructing and making valid arguments. Hence, business ethics isn't really brainwashing. It's just fine tuning. The conclusions are formed from transparent values, confirmed facts and viable arguments (Brusseau).

Keeping business ethics in perspective, there are questions pertaining the roles and responsibilities which the corporations and leaders should have apart from producing revenue, the academic world commenced work on ethics until only recently (Brusseau). The very first international scale academic conference on business ethics took place in 1974 at University…… [Read More]

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Decision-Making in Cost Accounting With a Focus on Ethics

Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70592258

Accounting Responsibility

Responsibility of managers in managing projects and creating budgets

Managerial ethics is essential in managing projects and creating budgets. Ethical accounting ensures all financial information is reported to business owners, directors or managers. Managers who fail to report negative information or use a company's internal financial information for personal gain can create serious legal situations for businesses (Vitez, N.d.). Business owners and managers often require all information, whether good or bad, when reviewing business operations and making decisions. It is also important to create accurate budgets. There is often a temptation to tweak budgets to fulfill personal goals. For example, if you favored a particular project you may try to make it more appealing financially. However, it is necessary to be as objective as possible to ensure that you create budgets ethically.

Accountable for achieving financial performance targets

Managers are often under immense pressure to meet financial performance targets. In some cases this can lead managers to make bad decisions. For example, managers can perform activities that are not necessarily in the organizations best interest but help them reach their financial targets. This can be done legally and was as illegally. For example, a manager might transfer inventory…… [Read More]

Fooshe, G. (N.d.). 10 Financial Principles that are Biblical. Retrieved from Back to the Bible:

Senaratne, S. (2011, July/August). The role of ethics in accounting. Retrieved from CIMA: -- August-2011/The-role-of-ethics-in-accounting/
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Ethical Decision the Role of

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20753966

[electronic resource] Journal of Business Ethics

Lin, C. And Ding, C.(2003) "Modeling Information Ethics: The Joint Moderating Role of Locus of Control and Job Insecurity," Journal of Business Ethics, 48:(4), 335- 346.

Molander, E. A 1987), 'A Paradigm for Design, Promulgation and Enforcement of Ethical Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 6, 619-631.

Paradice, D. B (1990) 'Ethical Attitudes of Entry- Level MIS Personnel', Information and Management 18, 143-151.

Parker, D. B (1981) 'Ethical Dilemmas in Computer Technology', in Ethics and the Management of Computer Technology (Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Business Ethics, Bentley

Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (1996)'Computer Ethics: The Role of Personal, Informal, and Formal Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 15, 425 -- 437.

Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (2000)'Judgements about Computer Ethics: Do Individual, Co-worker, and Company Judgements Differ? Do Company Codes Make a Difference?

Quinn, J. (1997) "Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical Attitudes of Owner/Managers of Small Business," Journal of Business Ethics, 16, 119-127.

Stevens, B (1999) 'Communicating Ethical Values: A Study of Employee Perceptions', Journal of Business Ethics 20, 113 -- 120.

Sims, R.L. And Keon, T.L. (1999) 'Determinates of Ethical Decision Making: The Relationship of the Perceived Organizational Environment', Journal…… [Read More]

Bass, K., Barnett, T., and Brown, G.(1999) "Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgments, and Ethical Behavioral Intentions." Business Ethics Quarterly, 9:(2),, 183- 205.

Barnes, R. F (1990), 'The Making of an Ethics Code', Bulletin of the American Society
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Ethical Dilemmas and a Decision Making Model

Words: 2373 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64341937

Counseling -- Ethical Dilemma -- Case Study

A 17-year-old Jewish female student advises a counselor that she went to a party last weekend with an African-American 17-year-old boy, and ended up passed out in an upstairs bedroom. She was awakened by the boy forcing himself on her. She protested loudly, but said that no one came to help her. The client claims the counselor is the only person she has told that she was raped. For the past five days, she has endured the snickering and sneering of Derrick and his friends in the hallways "as they smugly march around with their worlds intact" while she "dies a little more inside each day." She says she has been having trouble focusing on school, and she blames herself for the incident, saying she drank way too much even though she doesn't think she had very much to drink that night. She wonders aloud to the counselor if she could have been drugged. She begs the counselor not to tell anyone, especially her parents. How should the counselor proceed?

B. Body: Corey, Corey and Callanan's Decision-Making Model

The decision-making model chosen is Corey, Corey and Callanan's eight-step model, which employs the six…… [Read More]

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Organization Decision-Making

Words: 2990 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10032150

Organization Decision Making

Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it is obvious that a change is necessary, it dose have to take place if the organization has hopes of remaining viable. (Basic Context of Organizational Change)

Organizational Change:

Successful organizational change can be implemented by the management of the firm, and with the involvement of the executive board members and…… [Read More]

Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From Accessed on 14 July, 2005
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Ethical Problem's Relevant Values Stakeholders Decision Making

Words: 3888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4540143

Ethical Problem(s)

Relevant Values


Decision Making


Problems with Utilitarianism


Rawlsian Ethics

Ross's Ethical Theory

Natural Law Theory

Ethical Analysis


A Pennsylvania hospital is faced with a non-U.S. born 5-year-old daughter of undocumented immigrants who has a life-threatening need for a 2 million dollar transplant. Using critical analysis and your ethics knowledge render and defend a decision about whether to provide the transplant.

Ethical problem(s)

One of the ethical problems present is the fact that the 5-year-old was born in undocumented immigrants parents. She also was a non-United States citizen. Another problem is the child has a life threatening disease that requires a transplant for a substantiate amount of money that is two million dollar to be spending on a non-U.S. citizen. The case that is being presented brings into focus a number of the most currently vital questions that occur in the gap of medicine and politics. If this case were one of only medicine, then both the questions and the answers would be relatively simple: Would the patient benefit in a substantial way from receiving the transplant? If the answer would be yes, then doctors could be free of political and economic constraints and would…… [Read More]

Dwyer, J. (2004, February). Illegal immigrants, health care, and social responsibility. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 34-41. Retrieved from

Kershaw, S. (2007). U.S. rule limits emergency care for immigrants. Retrieved from
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Decision Making and Accounting Theories Business Owners

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84061437

Decision Making and Accounting Theories

Business owners find that they always have to put on business hats when they are starting up or managing their businesses. However in business it is not the owners who are meant to make decisions only, decisions can also be made by employees. When classification of business decisions is done it is on the basis of how predictable that particular decision is. Programmed decisions are those that are straightforward, routine and repetitive. They can easily be dealt with by the creation of procedures and routines. On the other hand there are decisions that are unstructured and valid which do not require systems that are clear cut so as to be made. Those in business are often faced with various decisions which they have to make some of which are particularly important when it comes to the profitable existence of any business. Decisions result to success there is no successes that can be realized until a decision is made (Wicks, 2013).

People in business make so many decisions each day which include financial decisions, structure, strategic decisions, manpower decisions, operational decisions and many more. However, it is only once in a while that a leader makes…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Kaipa, P. & Radjou, N. (2013). 7 Business Decisions That Looked Bad but Turned Good. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from

Wicks, D. (2013). Top 5 Biggest Decisions Business Owners Make. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from 
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Ethical Leadership and Decision Making

Words: 2009 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35373064


The situation encountered at the DFR Insurance Corporation has a twofold moral: ethics are crucial for the success of the business operations, and, the employees are the core of organizational triumph. Also, as it is already generally accepted, organizations need to constantly change and adapt to the conditions of the micro and macroenvironments. In this order of ideas then, they should not implement change only when a major modification occurred in the environment, but they should promote change as an ongoing process, as the central piece of the corporate culture (Davenport, Harris and Cantrell, 2004).

In terms of business ethics and ethical leadership and decision making, it becomes obvious that the managers must act in accordance with the moral norms. They must, otherwise put, combine their business skills and their people skills in an adequate behavior that promotes and fosters the well-being of all categories of stakeholders.

The change implemented by the new executives at DFR Insurance failed to retrieve the desired results. The dissatisfied employees begun to register low performances as a result of low morale and this generates the need for additional human resource strategies. Had these strategies been considered in the beginning and had more emphasis…… [Read More]

Bourg, J., 2003, Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil, Ethics and International Affairs, Vol. 17

Davenport, T.H., Harris, J.G., Cantrell, S., 2004, Enterprise Systems and Ongoing Process Change, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 10
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Ethical Decision 'Not to Resuscitate' Is Indeed

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37490633

Ethical Decision

'Not to Resuscitate' is indeed a difficult decision that has to be made by the patient, when he or she is in good health, or the guardians of the patient. However, according to the law and ethical code of conduct, the medical practitioner, or whoever is in charge of the health care of a patient in a hospital setting, should always inform the patient about the whole procedure (L., 2008). There are certain indications when resuscitation needs to be performed on the patients, meanwhile there are also some contradictions where it should not be performed on the patient. Nonetheless, the final decision lies with the patient or with family. The indications of this decision include a case in which resuscitation would be of any help to save the life of the patient. For example, if the patient is dying and who has been given all sorts of treatment but death has now become imminent and there is no treatment that will save the patient, then resuscitation is normally not performed on the patient. On the other hand, if there is any comorbidity because of resuscitation would be of no help then a request for 'Not to Resuscitate' is…… [Read More]

Miller, Franklin and Wertheimer, Alan (2009). "The Ethics of Consent: Theory and Practice." Oxford Scholarship Online, Print.

Nandimath, Omaprakash V. (2009). Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India. Indian J. Urol. 25(3): 343-347.
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Decision Making Barnes and Noble Inc Is

Words: 2828 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61425189

Decision Making

Barnes and Noble Inc. is one of the most successful bookstores in the world. The company operates throughout the United States and boasts roomy inviting stores. In addition to books, the company also sells DVDs and music. The company operates both brick and mortar stores and it is also the largest internet bookstore. Furthermore, Barnes & Noble, Inc. is a Fortune 500 company and the largest bookseller in the world. In addition, "The company is a leading content, commerce and technology company that provides customers easy and convenient access to books, magazines, newspapers and other content across its multi-channel distribution platform. As of January 29, 2011, the company operates 705 retail bookstores in regional shopping malls, major strip centers and freestanding locations in 50 states, and 636 college bookstores serving nearly 4 million students and faculty members at colleges and universities across the United States (For Investors)." The purpose of this discussion is to examine the manner in which the company makes decisions based on three different scenarios including new store location, introducing new products and new business acquisitions. The research will focus on the manner in which decisions are made at different levels of the organization. Understanding…… [Read More]

Barnes & Noble Annual Report 2010. Retrieved from; 

Corporate Governance Guidelines. Retrieved from;
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Decision-Making What Are the Newest

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96315243

The dominant, goal-oriented person can focus on the ultimate objective, the influence-based person can examine the interpersonal dynamics of the decisions that must be made, the steady person can foster harmony and a positive atmosphere, and the conscientious person can stay on task in a reliable fashion. While clashing personalities can thwart reaching positive and goal-directed solutions, they can create a better solution and check the excesses of one another, like the selfishness and refusal to consider the human element in the dominant personality, the disorganization of the influence-based person, the risk-adverse views of the steady person, and the rule-bound contentious type. Communication can be facilitated through email and other constant types of technological contact on a daily basis -- this can create better group bonding, although there is always a risk that the brevity and informality of the format can create rather than break down barriers.

Modern decision-making theory, faced with a newly globalized world with multifaceted components that are still interdependent upon one another, stresses a participative management approach, an approach that acknowledges a subordinate may have just as much of an ability to arrive at a solution about a knotty organizational problem as someone with an official…… [Read More]

DISC: Explanations and preferences. (2005). Changing minds. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
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Decision Making Decision-Making The Applicability

Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94000124

Not even the most brilliant, ethical, and rational person has the ability to research every conceivable implication and alternative before making every decision in life.

Group decision-making is another method of decision-making, where the decision is often arrived at by consensus or committee, such as coming to a decision as to where to take a family vacation. The decision is often time-consuming, because ideally it must please everyone, although quite often no one is fully pleased (Petress, 2002). Multiple levels of irrationality are injected into the process, even if the 'team leader' (the parents who are paying for the vacation) have the final veto. To make the group decision-making process more efficient, often a vote is taken at the end of the discussion if the effort is supposed to be democratic. It can be superior to individual decision-making in that individuals can point out when group members are being irrational, and use persuasion to change their minds, but just as easily it can have the opposite effect, and persuade the rational members of the group to make the more popular, but not necessarily the best or most efficient solution. The more popular decision might not be the most affordable or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Baker, G. (2004). "Decision Making." University of Florida. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at 

Levitt, Barbara & Clifford Nass. (Jun 1989) "The lid on the garbage can: institutional constraints on decision making in the technical core of college-text publishers." Administrative Science Quarterly. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at
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Ethical Decisions in a Patient's

Words: 2178 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 882404

That record must state that the patient's medical condition is terminal, irreversible and indefinite, involves permanent unconsciousness and that life-sustaining treatment would create tremendous or extraordinary burden on the patient. The guardian's decision to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment must be filed with 2 witnesses, one of whom is the attending physician. The guardian may be a parent, adult sibling, healthcare provider, the CEO of the health facility or the commissioner of an agency in charge of mentally retarded who are terminally ill. Healthcare practitioners need to understand the state and local laws governing the delivery system. They should also reach out to the guardian who may be unaware of these laws. If refusing medical care is not allowed by these laws, guardians should resort to active lobbying (King).

Nurses' Values and Managing Pain and Ethics

Unprecedented medical advances view death as a disease that must be treated rather than as a natural event in life (Zomorodo and Lynn 2010). Sophisticated technological interventions enable Americans to live through chronic conditions for an average of 17 years. In the critical care unit especially, this view of death has separated the patient and family from the natural dying experience. As a result,…… [Read More]

Meissner, A. et al. (2010). Epidemiology of, and factors associated with, end-of-life decisions in a surgical intensive care unit. 38 (4) Critical Care Medicine: Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from

Schwartz, J.K. (2004). The rule of double effect and its role in facilitatig food end-of-life palliative care. 8 (2) Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from
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Ethical Decisions Given That the

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39744424

As such, were the credit manager to approve of the loan in the given and uncertain circumstances, the bank might:

Be reworded for the trust they had bestowed in the client, who would pay up his debts; in this case the bank will earn a loyal customer

Be faced with financial losses as the client is unable to pay up his debts and return the borrowed money.

If on the other hand, the credit manager denies the loan request, the bank could:

Lose a potential customer and lose the financial resources derived from his payment of interest rate

Protect itself from the risk of not recovering its loan.

The situation encountered at Providian is a good example that unsafe actions which imply an increased amount of risk can be highly profitable, but can also turn into real disasters. The financial institution has set the trend for loaning money to rather dubious clients and by doing this has managed to become one of the largest financial institutions. However, their success was only valid on the short-term as the future would only bring one collapse after another. Providian must not be taken as granted fact that whoever loans money to a person…… [Read More]

Bad Credit? No Credit? College Student? Providian Loves You, Leadership Case Problem
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Decision-Making Is One of the

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7272903

" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).

Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).

THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has for the bailout by relying on the Federal Reserve's ability to create money, in effect, out of thin air. The Fed's money will enable the government to become involved in the management of markets and banks in ways not seen since the Great Depression. In the credit markets, for instance,…… [Read More]

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Decision-Making Models Strengths & Weaknesses

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1996987

The brainstorming approach: The Grubb & Ellis Company

In contrast to the City of Miami, the Grubb & Ellis Company, a commercial real estate advisory firm, uses the 'brainstorming' method of decision-making. A creative business such as Grubb & Ellis clearly believes it benefits from a decision-making model that encourages a 'free for all' of information. In this model, individuals write down, collectively or individually, every idea that comes to mind, good or bad. No censorship is allowed. Quite often, unique and off-beat solutions are generated through this method, and sometimes even the 'craziest' ideas can germinate practical solutions.

The only problem with the brainstorming model is that because it is so democratic, the organization can get bogged down debating an array of available alternatives, when a quick decision is required. Eventually, a solution must be arrived at, and the organization may find itself forced to shift to a more rational model, such as the Six-Step Method, to pick the best alternative, or the organizational leader must take command and select the best model in an authoritarian manner.

Doctrinal model decision making: U.S. Army

In the case of the army, a highly hierarchical, top-down decision making model is used. Given…… [Read More]

Six-Step Decision Making Model. (201). Decision-Making Confidence. Retrieved February 12,

2010 at