Ethical Decision Making Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:


View Full Essay

Ethical Decisions That Corporations Must Make Are

Words: 844 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7834983

Ethical decisions that corporations must make are not always the least costly ones when it comes to fixing a problem. hen a CEO is confronted with a choice of doing the ethical, customer-friendly decision, or saving money and shipping a product that is clearly not safe or in the best interest of children, there should be only one solution. That solution is to do the right thing: take the loss, bite the bullet, and pay for the fix so the product that is sent to the public is safe and fully represents the advertising that was designed to entice customers in the first place.

Memo to the Toy Company CEO: Background on Ethics and Toys

In the case of the toy whistles that have more lead than is safe for human health, it is absolutely imperative that the toys that are sent out meet the strictest standards for safety. This…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AT&T. (2011). Corporate Governance / AT&T Inc. Code of Ethics. Retrieved July 24, 2013,


University of Illinois at Chicago. (2001). Business Ethics. Retrieved July 24, 2013, from .
View Full Essay

Ethical Dilemma the Fourteen Decision-Making

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43047228

hen searching for ideas use imagination and stimulate that imagination by brain-storming with others and reading the latest publications on the topic -- remember that approaches for difficult issue are always changing. Ten years ago, antidepressants were prescribed almost automatically for depression, now the use of such medication and their side effects, especially in teens, is under scrutiny.

Step 6: Evaluate the evidence

Sometimes writing things down can be helpful. hen contemplating different strategies of approaching the topic, charting and rating evaluations of the tentative solutions provides clarity. Viewing any data and studies side-by-side can be useful as well. Compare and test these solutions in a series of hypothetical scenarios before trying them out in the real world.

Step 7: Make the educated guess (hypothesis)

After reviewing the evidence, boil down the client's situation into a general statement. Make an educated guess about what is the core problem; choose the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Decision-making worksheet. (2009). Retrieved February 22, 2009 at

Fourteen decision-making steps
View Full Essay

Decision Making by a Healthcare Leader in Case of an Ethical Dilemma

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3855789

Ethical Analysis

Memo on a Ethical Analysis

____, Student

____ (due date)


Decision making by a Healthcare Leader in case of an Ethical Dilemma

in an interview of my health care administrator of the long care health facility where I work, I asked, "How do you make a wise decision in a situation relating to an ethical dilemma?"


Description of the Answer

It seemed like my question took the administrator by surprise perhaps he did not expect such a question when I requested for an interview. However, he looked composed and amused by my question. Confidently and leaning a little bit forward and supporting his hands on his desk, he responded. He first pointed out the numerous occasions when ethical dilemmas were evident in his health care administration career at the health facility. He said that he learnt over time through many experiences and a little consultation and…… [Read More]


Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. American Counseling Association, 1-5.

Pope, K.S., & Vasquez, M.J. (2010). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
View Full Essay

Ethical Decisions

Words: 705 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57695905

Ethical Decision Making

In general, there are three major ethical approaches to decision-making: that of consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Ethical dilemmas arise when there is a conflict of values or when it is impossible to satisfy all of the needs of stakeholders. A good example of this relates to food insecurity and the growing crisis of malnutrition and obesity amongst the poorest inhabitants of America. Some have advocated limiting the types of foods that can be bought with EBT (electronic benefits transfer) cards to healthy and nutritious foods -- for example, banning buying soda and candy with this supported nutrition program. Others have argued that it is wrong to limit a person's choice of foods simply because he or she is poor, while a wealthier person does not have to suffer such dehumanizing scrutiny of their eating habits.

From a consequentialist standpoint, the consequences of an ethical decision are…… [Read More]


Chaussee, J. (2013). Talk of banning soda from food stamp benefits elicits upset and uncertainty.

Oakland North Retrieved from: 

Hursthouse, Rosalind. (2013). Virtue ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved from: .
View Full Essay

Ethical Decisions in Business Is Great There

Words: 356 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46590433

ethical decisions in business is great. There are many instances where ethical decisions are necessary in business operations, and corporations can get themselves into trouble even when they are trying to be ethical if they do not have a strong and effective procedural structure to guide employees in making such decisions. One aspect of ethical decision making comes under the heading of crisis management as corporations are faced with some huge problem that may involve liability and legal issues but that certainly involves questions of public image. A second aspect is the day-to-day decisions that have not yet reached the point of crisis but which could if ethical decisions are not made. Even without any external threat to a company, an ongoing process of ethical decision-making crates an atmosphere in a company that is beneficial, that contributes more to society, and that helps create an environment in which employees may…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ethical Decision

Words: 931 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76990847

Ethical Decision

Nursing professionals have to make routine decisions bearing ethical principles and regulations in mind. Proper decision-making necessitates a grasp of the interface between nursing, laws, and ethics (Furlong, 2007, p. 29). But nursing professionals across the world face increasing difficulty when attempting to work with integrity amid the complicated ethical decisions and pressure they encounter. "Notes on Nursing" by Florence Nightingale describes the ethical obligations of communication, confidentiality, and the importance of fulfilling patient requirements (Ulrich et al., 2010)

Ethical / Moral Issue

Karen, a nurse practitioner (NP) fresh out of college, working in a little town, is visited by a first-time expectant mother (previous menstrual period -- 5 weeks ago), Susan uttley, aged 29 years. Karen wishes to begin prenatal care for the patient, who, although married, visits alone and claims she hasn't informed her husband of her condition, as he wished to postpone starting a family,…… [Read More]


Corbin, J. R. (2007). Confidentiality & the Duty to Warn: Ethical and Legal Implications for the Therapeutic Relationship. The New Social Worker, 14(4). Retrieved 5 September 2016 from

Furlong, E. (2007). Right or Wrong: Legal and Ethical Issues and Decision-Making. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Retrieved 5 September 2016 from 

Kaplan, C. (2016). Ethical Dilemmas. Advance Healthcare Network for NPs & PAs. Retrieved 5 September 2016 from

Ulrich, C. M., Taylor, C., Soeken, K., O'Donnell, P., Farrar, A., Danis, M. & Grady, C. (2010). Everyday Ethics: Ethical Issues and Stress in Nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(11), doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05425.x. Retrieved 5 September 2016 from
View Full Essay

Decision-Making and Ethics

Words: 1767 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50850821


Employees and business management personal are taught business ethics as a fundamental guideline. It is tasked with assigning a particular meaning and role to business on the whole. Taking ethical decisions entails keeping certain aspects in mind. Written below is a brief argument on the points regarding ethics and a scenario is setup where business ethics are employed.

In layman words, business ethics entails working within reasonable means in a financial environment. Some particular aspects are required to achieve that (Brusseau). The decisions are guided by principles, comprehending the facts, making a valid argument and lastly ethics basically entails discerning between right and wrong (Brusseau). The overall result is secondary to the process at hand. The end result consists of constructing and making valid arguments. Hence, business ethics isn't really brainwashing. It's just fine tuning. The conclusions are formed from transparent values, confirmed facts and viable arguments (Brusseau).

Keeping…… [Read More]



Brusseau, J. (2011). Business Ethics Workshop (1st ed.). Flat World Knowledge. (Course Book)


Archibald, A. (2007, December 30). Employees' Responsibilities In Business Ethics. Retrieved January 9, 2014, from
View Full Essay

Ethical Decision the Role of

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20753966

[electronic resource] Journal of Business Ethics

Lin, C. And Ding, C.(2003) "Modeling Information Ethics: The Joint Moderating ole of Locus of Control and Job Insecurity," Journal of Business Ethics, 48:(4), 335- 346.

Molander, E. A 1987), 'A Paradigm for Design, Promulgation and Enforcement of Ethical Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 6, 619-631.

Paradice, D. B (1990) 'Ethical Attitudes of Entry- Level MIS Personnel', Information and Management 18, 143-151.

Parker, D. B (1981) 'Ethical Dilemmas in Computer Technology', in Ethics and the Management of Computer Technology (Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Business Ethics, Bentley

Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (1996)'Computer Ethics: The ole of Personal, Informal, and Formal Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 15, 425 -- 437.

Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (2000)'Judgements about Computer Ethics: Do Individual, Co-worker, and Company Judgements Differ? Do Company Codes Make a Difference?

Quinn, J. (1997) "Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical…… [Read More]


Bass, K., Barnett, T., and Brown, G.(1999) "Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgments, and Ethical Behavioral Intentions." Business Ethics Quarterly, 9:(2),, 183- 205.

Barnes, R. F (1990), 'The Making of an Ethics Code', Bulletin of the American Society

for Information Science, pp. 24 -- 25.

Cassell, C., Johnson, P., and K. Smith (1997) 'Opening the Black Box: Corporate Codes of Ethics in the Organizational Context', Journal of Business Ethics 16, 1077 -- 1093.
View Full Essay

Ethical Dilemmas and a Decision Making Model

Words: 2373 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64341937

Counseling -- Ethical Dilemma -- Case Study

A 17-year-old Jewish female student advises a counselor that she went to a party last weekend with an African-American 17-year-old boy, and ended up passed out in an upstairs bedroom. She was awakened by the boy forcing himself on her. She protested loudly, but said that no one came to help her. The client claims the counselor is the only person she has told that she was raped. For the past five days, she has endured the snickering and sneering of Derrick and his friends in the hallways "as they smugly march around with their worlds intact" while she "dies a little more inside each day." She says she has been having trouble focusing on school, and she blames herself for the incident, saying she drank way too much even though she doesn't think she had very much to drink that night. She…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Counseling Association. (2014). American Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

American Counseling Association. (2016). About us. Retrieved from

Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition . Independence, KY: Brooks/Cole CENGAGE Learning.

Cottone, R. R., & Claus, R. E. (2000). Ethical decision-making models: A review of the literature. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 275-283.
View Full Essay

Organization Decision-Making

Words: 2990 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10032150

Organization Decision Making

Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…… [Read More]


Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From Accessed on 14 July, 2005

Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
View Full Essay

Ethical Problem's Relevant Values Stakeholders Decision Making

Words: 3888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4540143

Ethical Problem(s)

elevant Values


Decision Making


Problems with Utilitarianism


awlsian Ethics

oss's Ethical Theory

Natural Law Theory

Ethical Analysis


A Pennsylvania hospital is faced with a non-U.S. born 5-year-old daughter of undocumented immigrants who has a life-threatening need for a 2 million dollar transplant. Using critical analysis and your ethics knowledge render and defend a decision about whether to provide the transplant.

Ethical problem(s)

One of the ethical problems present is the fact that the 5-year-old was born in undocumented immigrants parents. She also was a non-United States citizen. Another problem is the child has a life threatening disease that requires a transplant for a substantiate amount of money that is two million dollar to be spending on a non-U.S. citizen. The case that is being presented brings into focus a number of the most currently vital questions that occur in the gap of medicine and…… [Read More]


Dwyer, J. (2004, February). Illegal immigrants, health care, and social responsibility. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 34-41. Retrieved from

Kershaw, S. (2007). U.S. rule limits emergency care for immigrants. Retrieved from

Maximiano, J.M.B. (2003). Corporate social responsibility: Basic principles and best practices: Historico-philosophical issues in international business. Manila: DLSU University Press.
View Full Essay

Decision Making and Accounting Theories Business Owners

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84061437

Decision Making and Accounting Theories

Business owners find that they always have to put on business hats when they are starting up or managing their businesses. However in business it is not the owners who are meant to make decisions only, decisions can also be made by employees. When classification of business decisions is done it is on the basis of how predictable that particular decision is. Programmed decisions are those that are straightforward, routine and repetitive. They can easily be dealt with by the creation of procedures and routines. On the other hand there are decisions that are unstructured and valid which do not require systems that are clear cut so as to be made. Those in business are often faced with various decisions which they have to make some of which are particularly important when it comes to the profitable existence of any business. Decisions result to success…… [Read More]


Kaipa, P. & Radjou, N. (2013). 7 Business Decisions That Looked Bad but Turned Good. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from

Wicks, D. (2013). Top 5 Biggest Decisions Business Owners Make. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from 

Krippendorff, K. (2013). The Greatest Business Decisions of All Time. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from 

Kruse, K. (2013). The Top 5 Business Decisions of All Time. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from
View Full Essay

Ethical Decision 'Not to Resuscitate' Is Indeed

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37490633

Ethical Decision

'Not to Resuscitate' is indeed a difficult decision that has to be made by the patient, when he or she is in good health, or the guardians of the patient. However, according to the law and ethical code of conduct, the medical practitioner, or whoever is in charge of the health care of a patient in a hospital setting, should always inform the patient about the whole procedure (L., 2008). There are certain indications when resuscitation needs to be performed on the patients, meanwhile there are also some contradictions where it should not be performed on the patient. Nonetheless, the final decision lies with the patient or with family. The indications of this decision include a case in which resuscitation would be of any help to save the life of the patient. For example, if the patient is dying and who has been given all sorts of treatment…… [Read More]


Miller, Franklin and Wertheimer, Alan (2009). "The Ethics of Consent: Theory and Practice." Oxford Scholarship Online, Print.

Nandimath, Omaprakash V. (2009). Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India. Indian J. Urol. 25(3): 343-347.

O' Neill, O (2003).Some limits of informed consent. J Med Ethics.

Salins, Naveen S.; Pai, Sachin G.; Vidyasagar, MS; Sobhana, Manikkath (2010).Ethics and Medico Legal Aspects of "Not for Resuscitation." Indian J. Palliat Care.
View Full Essay

Decision Making Barnes and Noble Inc Is

Words: 2828 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61425189

Decision Making

Barnes and Noble Inc. is one of the most successful bookstores in the world. The company operates throughout the United States and boasts roomy inviting stores. In addition to books, the company also sells DVDs and music. The company operates both brick and mortar stores and it is also the largest internet bookstore. Furthermore, Barnes & Noble, Inc. is a Fortune 500 company and the largest bookseller in the world. In addition, "The company is a leading content, commerce and technology company that provides customers easy and convenient access to books, magazines, newspapers and other content across its multi-channel distribution platform. As of January 29, 2011, the company operates 705 retail bookstores in regional shopping malls, major strip centers and freestanding locations in 50 states, and 636 college bookstores serving nearly 4 million students and faculty members at colleges and universities across the United States (For Investors)." The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnes & Noble Annual Report 2010. Retrieved from; 

Corporate Governance Guidelines. Retrieved from; 

For Investors. Retrieved from; 

Forman C., Ghose, A., Goldfarb, A. (2009) Between Local and Electronic Markets: How the Benefit of Buying Online Depends on Where You Live. 55(1)
View Full Essay

Decision-Making What Are the Newest

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96315243

The dominant, goal-oriented person can focus on the ultimate objective, the influence-based person can examine the interpersonal dynamics of the decisions that must be made, the steady person can foster harmony and a positive atmosphere, and the conscientious person can stay on task in a reliable fashion. hile clashing personalities can thwart reaching positive and goal-directed solutions, they can create a better solution and check the excesses of one another, like the selfishness and refusal to consider the human element in the dominant personality, the disorganization of the influence-based person, the risk-adverse views of the steady person, and the rule-bound contentious type. Communication can be facilitated through email and other constant types of technological contact on a daily basis -- this can create better group bonding, although there is always a risk that the brevity and informality of the format can create rather than break down barriers.

Modern decision-making theory,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DISC: Explanations and preferences. (2005). Changing minds. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
View Full Essay

Decision Making Decision-Making The Applicability

Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94000124

Not even the most brilliant, ethical, and rational person has the ability to research every conceivable implication and alternative before making every decision in life.

Group decision-making is another method of decision-making, where the decision is often arrived at by consensus or committee, such as coming to a decision as to where to take a family vacation. The decision is often time-consuming, because ideally it must please everyone, although quite often no one is fully pleased (Petress, 2002). Multiple levels of irrationality are injected into the process, even if the 'team leader' (the parents who are paying for the vacation) have the final veto. To make the group decision-making process more efficient, often a vote is taken at the end of the discussion if the effort is supposed to be democratic. It can be superior to individual decision-making in that individuals can point out when group members are being irrational,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, G. (2004). "Decision Making." University of Florida. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at 

Levitt, Barbara & Clifford Nass. (Jun 1989) "The lid on the garbage can: institutional constraints on decision making in the technical core of college-text publishers." Administrative Science Quarterly. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at

Petress, Ken. (2002). "An alternative model for decision-making." Journal of Instructional Psychology. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at

Williams, Tim. (Mar 2004). "Setting Impossible Standards."
View Full Essay

Ethical Decisions in a Patient's

Words: 2178 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 882404

That record must state that the patient's medical condition is terminal, irreversible and indefinite, involves permanent unconsciousness and that life-sustaining treatment would create tremendous or extraordinary burden on the patient. The guardian's decision to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment must be filed with 2 witnesses, one of whom is the attending physician. The guardian may be a parent, adult sibling, healthcare provider, the CEO of the health facility or the commissioner of an agency in charge of mentally retarded who are terminally ill. Healthcare practitioners need to understand the state and local laws governing the delivery system. They should also reach out to the guardian who may be unaware of these laws. If refusing medical care is not allowed by these laws, guardians should resort to active lobbying (King).

Nurses' Values and Managing Pain and Ethics

Unprecedented medical advances view death as a disease that must be treated rather than…… [Read More]


Bimbacher, D. (2007). Terminal sedation, euthanasia and causal roles. Medscape General Medicine: Medscape. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from

Cardoso, T et al. (2003). Life-sustaiing treatment decisions in Portuguese intensive care units: a national survey of intensive care physicians. Critical Care: Biomed Central

Ltd. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from

King, E.L. (2007). Refusing medical care in New York state: politics and implementation of policy. 7 (3) Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: Medscape.
View Full Essay

Ethical Decisions Given That the

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39744424

As such, were the credit manager to approve of the loan in the given and uncertain circumstances, the bank might:

Be reworded for the trust they had bestowed in the client, who would pay up his debts; in this case the bank will earn a loyal customer

Be faced with financial losses as the client is unable to pay up his debts and return the borrowed money.

If on the other hand, the credit manager denies the loan request, the bank could:

Lose a potential customer and lose the financial resources derived from his payment of interest rate

Protect itself from the risk of not recovering its loan.

The situation encountered at Providian is a good example that unsafe actions which imply an increased amount of risk can be highly profitable, but can also turn into real disasters. The financial institution has set the trend for loaning money to rather…… [Read More]


Bad Credit? No Credit? College Student? Providian Loves You, Leadership Case Problem
View Full Essay

Decision-Making Is One of the

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7272903

" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).

Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).

THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Decision-Making Models Strengths & Weaknesses

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1996987

The brainstorming approach: The Grubb & Ellis Company

In contrast to the City of Miami, the Grubb & Ellis Company, a commercial real estate advisory firm, uses the 'brainstorming' method of decision-making. A creative business such as Grubb & Ellis clearly believes it benefits from a decision-making model that encourages a 'free for all' of information. In this model, individuals write down, collectively or individually, every idea that comes to mind, good or bad. No censorship is allowed. Quite often, unique and off-beat solutions are generated through this method, and sometimes even the 'craziest' ideas can germinate practical solutions.

The only problem with the brainstorming model is that because it is so democratic, the organization can get bogged down debating an array of available alternatives, when a quick decision is required. Eventually, a solution must be arrived at, and the organization may find itself forced to shift to a more…… [Read More]


Six-Step Decision Making Model. (201). Decision-Making Confidence. Retrieved February 12,

2010 at
View Full Essay

Ethics Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice

Words: 1664 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60942488

Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice


A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.

. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing

In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…… [Read More]


Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from

Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2

Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June

15, 2012 from
View Full Essay

Ethics and Decision Making With

Words: 4532 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18079971

In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.

The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…… [Read More]


Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall

DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.

Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.
View Full Essay

Ethics in Decision-Making

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23221674

Ethics in Decision-Making

Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.

According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…… [Read More]

The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).

For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.

What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
View Full Essay

Uustal 1993 Proposed a Decision-Making Model Concrete

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 842294

Uustal (1993) proposed a decision-making model concrete steps arrive a morally acceptable solution faced ethical dilemma. What type ethical dilemma encountered clinical setting? How decision-making model identified Uustal applied situation? Be specific describing steps.

Much of what constitutes nursing is being able to make decisions and carry out tasks according to those decisions. What nursing is often confronted with and feels unable to respond to in an effective manner at times is addressing and resolving specific ethical issues. One such issue we are concerned with here is caregiving for elderly individuals, specifically those at the end of life. Moreover, end-of-life decision making that affects physicians is of concerns to nurses as well since they are directly involved with caring for the individual. We believe quality of care is most imperious in such challenging moments because nurses have to confront a decisive and frail moment in a patient's life and must…… [Read More]

Reference List

Black, B.P. (2011). Proffesional nursing: Concepts & Challenges (6th edition). Elsevier.

Lundy, K.C., & Janes, S. (2001). Community health nursing: Caring for the public's health. London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.

Schumann, J.H., & Alfandre, D. (2008). "Clinical ethical decision making: The four topics approach." Seminars in Medical Practice, 11, 36-42.

White, S.V. (2001). Diann B. Uustal on excellence in ethics and quality in care. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 23(5), 25-29.doi: 10.1111/j.1945-1474.2001.tb00371.x
View Full Essay

Ethics in Organizational Decision Making

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25184029

Still, MIT countered "Our mission statement talks about principled, innovative leaders and we take the principled part seriously." (AP ire, 2005)

Part II. The impact of technology on work-related stress

ork should be growing less stressful -- given the ubiquity telecommuting, and the increased swiftness and interconnectedness of technical innovation that connects the individual to the workplace via the Internet. (Olson, 2003) However, the easier it becomes to get 'connected' to work, quite often the more the stress of the workforce bleeds into the quality life of one's home and the higher the expectations demanded of conscientious employees.

Cite a specific example (from work, industry, media etc.) where technology played/will play a role in an organizations behavior

For example, the connective nature of work enabled by the Internet, specifically with high-speed connections such as broadband, and when complimented with wireless phones, video conferencing, and other technologies, have enabled some workers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AP Wire. (9 Mar 2005) "Harvard rejects those who saw Admissions." The New York Times. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at

Olson, Elizabeth. (24 Aug 2003) Executive Life; at Home (of Course) With a Telecommuter." The New York Times. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at
View Full Essay

Nursing Process Clinical Decision Making Definition of

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 545757

Nursing Process Clinical Decision Making

Definition of Clinical Decision Making

Clinical decision-making is defined in the work of Higuchi and Donald (2002) entitled "Thinking Processes Used by Nurses in Clinical Decision Making" to be "a problem-solving activity that focuses on defining patient problems and selecting appropriate treatment interventions." (p.145) Clinical decision marking is stated to be that which "forms the basis of expert clinical practice." (Higuchi and Donald, 2002, p.145) The nurse works in clinical practice settings as a member of a health care team and this requires that the nurse communicate decisions to other team members "to ensure the continuity and coordination of patient care." (Higuchi and Donald, 2002, p.145) The nurse is further required to document clinical decisions in the patient's charts and plans for care. Clinical decision-making, according to Higuchi and Donald has been "studied using the theoretical perspectives of decision theory and information processing. Higuchi and…… [Read More]


Critical Thinking, Ethical Decision Making and the Nursing Process. Chapter 3, Retrieved from:

Higuchi, Kathryn A. Smith and Donald, Janet G. (nd) Thinking Processes Used by Nurses in Clinical Decision Making. Journal of Nursing Education. Retrieved from:

Potter, Patricia, et al. (2004) Mapping the Nursing Process: A New Approach for Understanding the Work of Nursing. Journal of Nursing Administration. Lippincott Nursing Center. February 2004. Vol. 34, No.2. Retrieved from:

Saver, Cynthia (2009) Novice to Expert: Through the Stages to Success in Nursing. 2 Dec 2009. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Ethics the Dowd Model of Ethical Decision

Words: 2150 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92804836


The Dowd Model of Ethical Decision Making in Medical Imaging: Two Dilemma Scenarios

adiologic Alcoholic

An ethical dilemma is raised in a situation where two "right" courses of action are found to be mutually exclusive of each other; that is, when doing one "right" thing necessarily leads to leaving the other "right" thing undone or even contravening this "right" and doing the opposite (Towsley-Cook & Young, 2007). A scenario in which an employee's rights must be weighed against those of the patient/consumer typifies this type of dilemma, and this is found in the current scenario: a medical imaging professional suspected of having alcohol problems comes to work with the smell of liquor on his breath and shows some trouble walking straight and enunciating clearly. After a confrontation by the supervisor, this employee refuses to take a blood test for drugs and alcohol. The dilemma exists in determining whether this…… [Read More]


ADW. (2010). False Positive. Ask Doc Web. Accessed 8 December 2010. 

Moeller, K., Lee, K. & Kissack, J. (2008). Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(1): 66-76.

Towsley-Cook, D. & Young, T. (2007). Ethical and Legal Issues for Imaging Professionals. New York: Elsevier.

Van Valkenberg, J., Gurley, L., Lam, R., Martino, S., Paschal, R., Temme, J. & Walker, R. (1998). Survey of alcohol, drug use by radiologic technologists. Radiologic Technology. Accessed 8 December 2010.;col1
View Full Essay

Understanding Decision-Making in Organizations

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78004600

Moral Leadership

hode's discussion illustrates that moral leadership combines several comprehensive business and social issues based on law, psychology, leadership, ethics, and political science. The evaluation allows strategic leadership to provide practical and theoretical policy guidelines. His study explores regarding moral leadership like the manner in which leaders sustain, transmit, and form their moral commitments (Parker & Fischhoff, 2005). Moral leadership evaluates the conditions that such processes are most useful. hode's discussion offers insight to the impacts of ethics training programs, codes, officers, and similar organizational initiatives. The focus also includes how practices and standards vary based on their contexts and cultures (hode, 2006).

hode is interested in what people do to other individuals, organizations, and societal levels for purposes of fostering moral leadership. Throughout hode's discussion, the scope of delivery identifies the elements that people are aware of and perceive to know based on the impact of ethics to…… [Read More]


Burton, B., & Goldsby, M. (2010). The moral floor: A philosophical examination of the connection between ethics and business. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(1), 145-154.

Discus Parker, A., Fischhoff, B. (2005). Decision-making competence: External validation through an individual-differences approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 18(1), 1-28.

Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R., & MacDonald, C. (2013). Business ethics: Decision-making for personal integrity & social responsibility (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Michel, L. (2007). Understanding decision making in organizations to focus its practices where it matters. Measuring Business Excellence, 11(1), 33-45.
View Full Essay

Leadership Decision-Making and Teamwork Article

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54799842

This study was similar to the third study in that both involved a retrospective review of data based on prior studies and program data. This study differed from the third study in that the prior study involved only a review of published literature, whereas the third study consisted of action research through both off-site data collection conducted through interviews of participating faculty members as well as a more in depth on-site action site case study of one educational institution. Additionally, while the second study concerned issues pertaining to the training of medical students in professional teamwork and collaboration skills in the professional medical setting, the third study concerned the manner in which community colleges establish and implement in-house "grow-your-own" staff development programs

Reille, a. And Kezar, a. "Balancing the Pros and Cons of Community

College 'Grow-Your-Own' Leadership Programs" Community College

Review 38 (1) 2010: 59-82.

This study consisted of action…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ethics in Decision Making Charnchai

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9627529

While the initiative is laudable, the results are not palpable and cannot be extrapolated, indicating as such that research on the topic has still to be conducted.

At the level of the individual, the reading of the article confirmed the complexity of the ethics and morals within the business community. Still, aside from this, it also indicated that the organizational entities are primarily focused on their profitability objectives, and they will strive to attain these goals at the expense of either suppliers, either suppliers and employees. The firms strive to make those ethically and morally sound decisions for the satisfaction of their customers.

Finally, the article changed the perception over the topic of ethical and moral decision making by widening the overall comprehension of the issue. Before reading the article, ethics and morality were perceived as something innate, or learned from the home. Still, the article opens a new window…… [Read More]


Tangpong, C., Pesek, J.G., Shareholder value ideology, reciprocity and decision making in moral dilemmas
View Full Essay

Ethics and Accounting - Financial Decision-Making Ethics

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77157584

Ethics and Accounting - Financial Decision-Making

Ethics in Accounting and Financial Decision Making

The article Ethical guidance and constraints under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 by .M. Orin (2008), espouses the belief that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act did not go far enough in its desire to stop unethical financial practices by businesses. The article addresses what the Act actually does, which is to help companies practice more due diligence and lessen the chances of getting involved in unethical financial practices. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act involves important legal issues. The due diligence is one of those issues, but another is the need for accountants and lawyers to report the corporations they work with for wrongdoing if they see or suspect a serious financial issue (Coffee, 2002). This has been a concern for some because it technically compromises the attorney-client privilege. This was necessary, though, in the face of all of the corporate scandals…… [Read More]


Coffee, J.C. Jr. (2002, September). Leading issues under Sarbanes-Oxley, Part 1, New York Law Journal: 5.

Koehn, J.L. & Del Vecchio, S.C. (2004, February). Ripple effects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The CPA Journal: 36-40.

Orin, R.M. (2008). Ethical guidance and constraints under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance: 141-171.
View Full Essay

Ethical Self-Assessment

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35057319

Ethical Self-Assessment

The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…… [Read More]


Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.

Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.

Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.

Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
View Full Essay

Ethical Theory

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29740557

Ethical Theory

Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.

Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31023695

Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…… [Read More]


BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from

Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley

Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme

Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
View Full Essay

Ethical Issues Are Now Just as Much

Words: 4469 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94979976

Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…… [Read More]


American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from

Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.

Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
View Full Essay

Ethical Analysis Through Cooper's Ethical

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60662773

50 had been stolen out of the $1,000 in his drawer. The police interviewed Jones and after he admitted that he had ended his friendship over an unpaid $157 debt, they arrested him believing the neighbor's claim to have seen Jones climb out his window when he thought he was dreaming.

You have determined from interviewing several mutual friends of Jones and the neighbor that Jones was indeed owed the $157, and that Jones did commit the burglary, but you can easily subpoena the EZ-Pass records to prove that Jones' car was an hour out of town at the time he claimed to have been sleeping at home when the burglary occurred. The American Bar Association (ABA) Model Rules of Professional Conduct also allows you to use this witness who provided the information about the neighbor's habits during the discovery process to impeach the credibility of the neighbor as well…… [Read More]

If you allow Jones to take this plea, the consequences will be comparatively harmless: he will have to return $157.50 that was rightfully his in the first place and he will have to avoid any criminal conduct for six months to avoid jail time on the burglary charge. Jones could still sue the neighbor in civil court and recoup his debt by proving his case with the witnesses to the debt that you already interviewed. If you tell Jones about the neighbor's affair and you introduce that information in court, his family will be devastated. Your dilemma is whether or not to allow Jones to take the guilty plea or advise him to go to trial and then use the neighbor's lies to prove that he could not have witnessed the crime and that he is of questionable character in terms of his truthfulness as a witness. You know that Jones is guilty because he admitted it and you also know that the neighbor did owe Jones the exact amount that Jones stole from his drawer.

Implementing Cooper's Analysis:

This situation illustrates Cooper's definition (1998) of a complex ethical issue that involves multiple perspectives. You can prove the neighbor lied about witnessing Jones in his apartment even though you know that Jones did, in fact, steal the money that night while the neighbor was with his girlfriend. From the point-of-view of general equitable principles, Jones was morally and ethically entitled to the money that he stole from the neighbor. From the legal perspective, Jones did commit the exact crime of which he stands accused because he resorted to theft to recoup his debt. You use of the witness to impeach the
View Full Essay

Decisions by School Superintendents Improper Attitude and

Words: 7657 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31703614

Decisions by School Superintendents

Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers

To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.

That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.

In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…… [Read More]


Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.

Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at .

Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
View Full Essay

Ethical Subjectivsim Ethical Subjectivism Ethical Subjectivism Could

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3742500

Ethical Subjectivsim

Ethical subjectivism

Ethical subjectivism could also be called 'relativism,' or the notion that there is no external, objective moral authority. We as humans create our ethical norms, and ethics are culturally contextual. Ethical subjectivism stands in contrast to objectivism, which holds that there are objective moral standards by which all moral actions should be judged. "Moral statements are made true or false by the attitudes and/or conventions of the observers, and any ethical sentence just implies an attitude, opinion, personal preference or feeling held by someone" (Ethical subjectivism, 2012, Philosophy Basics).

A good example of this can be seen in the pragmatic philosophy of William James. In his Varieties of eligious Experience, James argued that all faiths were effectively divided into two categories: that of the 'religion of healthy-mindedness' and the 'sick soul. "We have all known or met people who seem happy all the time, who are…… [Read More]


Agler, David. (2012). Lecture 3: Ethical subjectivism and emotivism.

Ethical subjectivism. (2012). Philosophy Basics. Retrieved:
View Full Essay

Ethical Theory or System Other Names for

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25764835

Ethical Theory or System

Other names for theory

eal World example

Workplace example

Consequence-based ethics

This approach prioritizes the value attached to results of actions. Consequence based approach points at the results of one's action on the others and the fact that other people tend to play a leading role in ethical decision-making.

One needs to evaluate the potential positive and negative effect of the available options in a situation and use the evaluation as a basis of decision making.

Consequentialist Theories

teleological, from the Greek telos

I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves

Organization prohibits conduct that is dishonest because this will affect the firm's accreditation. The organization has instituted stringent policy that ensures that honesty is upheld more so in dealing with stakeholders, more so the customers.

ights-based ethics

This theory attributes value…… [Read More]


Beauchamp, T.L. (2001). Philosophical Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy. Mcgraw-Hill.

McShea, J.R. (1979). Human Nature Ethical Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 386-401.
View Full Essay

Ethical Decision in the Context

Words: 816 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63678173

com. N.D.).

In choosing to dismiss the CEO the Board can create a significantly better situation for stakeholders than if they retained his services. Aggrieved customers can experience a feeling of closure over the event, and will be satisfied that the company is taking action by letting go the CEO. Flyers in general will recognize the move as the first step in cleaning house, and a wake-up call to the airline industry in general to proactively guard against the recurrence of a similar event. Flyers will also benefit from the passage of a passenger bill of rights which will have the backing of legislators if they can see the CEO's dismissal as an intelligent first step. Perhaps the greatest good will come to shareholders, as the company moves to arrest the fall in the stock price through rededicating itself to customer service and restoring trust. The internal shareholders: employees and…… [Read More]


Case Study. (N.D.). An Appropriate Response.

Stanford University. (March 27, 2009). The History of Utilitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from (N.D.). Jeremy Bentham Quotes. Retrieved May 11,

2011 from
View Full Essay

Ethical Lens Inventory There Is Probably Nobody

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97641224

Ethical Lens Inventory

There is probably nobody who goes through life without, at some point, being faced with an ethical dilemma. These are situations where either projected outcome might be equally undesirable, or where there are no clear rules to indicate the appropriate course of action. In these situations, it is helpful to first determine one's own ethical values and viewpoints. These can then be used to come to a decision that is least detrimental to one's own sense of fairness and justice. The ethical lens inventory is one tool that can be used to determine the specific nature of one's own sense of ethical fairness and justice (Ethics Game, 2009).

The ethical lens inventory includes four ethical lenses that might be used to determine one's own sense of values and ethics (Ethics Game, 2007). The most important element to recognize here is that ethics is not uniform, static, or…… [Read More]


Ethics Game (2009). Ethical Lens Inventory. Retrieved from: 

Ethics Game (2007). Introduction to Four Ethical Lenses. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Ethical and Personal Knowledge Development

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13684595

Ethical knowledge stems from the external world, what society has bred within us through our assimilation and experience within it. This is often set in place by societal foundations, legal requirements, and moral expectations of a community or culture at large. Ethical knowledge is thus shared by large groups of people from the same community or culture. From a nursing perspective, there is "a unique set of values and a particular culture and practice that affects the ethical decision-making processes" that are often shared by a number of members within the nursing community at large (Chinn & Kramer, 2010, p 93). On the other hand, personal knowledge is unique and often comes from our own internalization of the independent experiences each individual witness throughout his or her life. This is much more internal and variant than ethical knowledge, where each individual has a different knowledge base founded from their own…… [Read More]


Chinn, Peggy L. & Kramer, Maeona, K. (2010). Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing. Mosby / Elsevier.
View Full Essay

Ethical Problem or Dilemma the

Words: 1202 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77210268

But "few states with mandatory insurance for IVF still require couples to undergo three cycles of ovulation induction and artificial insemination before IVF" thus encouraging the use of a technology more likely to result in multiple births (Roan, 2007, p.4).

hen contemplating the use of fertility drugs or IVF, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology advocates discussing the possibility of selective reduction and the patient's comfort level with this practice before any procedures are performed. However, its guidelines, are not binding. For example, "the U.S. fertility industry has guidelines on how many embryos doctors can implant, with the number varying by age and other factors. The guidelines call for no more than one or two for a generally healthy woman under 35, and no more than three to five, depending on the embryos' maturity, for women over 40" (atkins & Neergaard 2008). Eight embryos would be "well beyond" these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caplan, Arthur. "Ethics and octuplets." The Philadelphia Inquirer. February 6, 2009.

June 13, 2009.

"Extreme multiple births carry tremendous risks." CNN. January 28, 2009. June 13, 2009.
View Full Essay

Decision Making Best Exemplifies What Happened on

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34589393

decision making best exemplifies what happened on the Deepwater Horizon rig?

The basic model that was used in the Deepwater Horizon accident was the bounded rational decision making approach. This is when everyone inside the organization will be focused on selecting options that work well within their current circumstances. The problem is that these individuals are not selecting an approach, which is in the best interests of everyone. Instead, there is an obsession in meeting short-term objectives at all costs. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon, everyone was ignoring obvious signs that the well was about to explode. The biggest reason why is managers were focused on meeting the productivity goals of the company at all costs. ("What are ational Models," 2012)

Which of the decision- making biases played a potential role in the disaster?

The kind of decision making biases that were occurring prior the Deepwater Horizon incident…… [Read More]


An Intuitive Decision Making Model. (2008). Rapid Business Intelligence. Retrieved from: 

Was Poor Decision Making a Cause of the Deepwater Horizon Disaster. (n.d.).

What are Rational Models. (2012). Decision Making. Retrieved from: 

Bly, M. (2011). Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation. Washington D.C.U.S. Government Printing Offices.
View Full Essay

Policy Decision-Making

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46854823

Public Institutions

Professional ethics refer to the ethics that surround a particular profession. These are the ethical standards that surround the job, and they will typically encompass a range of job-specific ethics and basic ethical standards in general. Organizational ethics are the set of ethical standards by which the organization operates. Each organization has its own culture, and that culture will have a built-in set of ethics that may be different from those of similar organizations. Social ethics are the ethics of a society.

At their heart, each code of ethics reflects the standards by which the group of people agrees to operate. So a society, a firm and a professional body are three different groups of people, and each can therefore have their own set of ethical standards and guidelines. Ethical guidelines are part of an agreed structure for any group of people. When one belongs to a group,…… [Read More]


Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from

Johnson, P. (2005). Rational-comprehensive decision-making. Auburn University. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from
View Full Essay

Ethical Behavior Really Exist in

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94158395

IV: How to influence stakeholders and shareholders to behave ethically

It would be perfectly normal for any organization or individual that is often faced with ethical dilemmas to be assisted by someone who is experienced in decision making and who is better qualified to deal with ethical dilemmas. Shareholders often tend to be biased in decision making, as they are aware that their wealth can be put at serious risk if they perform a wrong move. In contrast, stakeholders are more likely to behave objectively when they know that their decisions will not necessarily affect their social position. Thus, stakeholders can behave more ethically than shareholders, but the downside on this is that the former have more chances of performing mistakes, as they know that the risks involved in most conditions that they encounter are lesser on their side.

In particular situations, stakeholders can feel more inclined to behave unethically,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Klein, Linda S. "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).

2. Sauer, Wolfgang "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.

Linda S. Klein, "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).

Wolfgang Sauer, "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.