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Ethical Dilemma and Decision Making
In the selected scenario, a therapy patient is beginning to develop a trusting relationship with his therapist after spending a fir amount of time dealing with his depression. Under-employed and under-insured, it is clear that the patient still needs help but it is less clear that he has the necessary resources to continue paying for his therapy. Insurance payments could be guaranteed by embellishing his mental condition slightly, thus allowing the therapist to receive payment and providing the care needed, but is this proper? This paper will apply the fourteen steps in the ethical decision making process to derive an answer.
The basic situation of the ethical dilemma is whether or not it is ethically proper to report a more serious mental condition to the patient's insurance company in order to keep receiving payment for services he clearly needs. In other words, is…
Ethical Decision Making:
Ethics refers to principles that define behavior as fair and proper and they are concerned with how a moral person should behave when it comes to making an ethical decision (Josephson Institute of Ethics, 2002). Evaluating and deciding among competing options is often key in making a fair choice since principles do not always dictate a single "moral" course of action.
The decision of whether to lay off workers to enhance profits or to cut corners on quality to meet a deadline are examples of some choices regarding ethics business owners may face (Poznak Law Firm, 2003). The use of extremely low-wage foreign workers, especially in the garment industry, is a current concern and the subject is a complex one.
There are many valid differences of opinion regarding what constitutes ethical behavior and how ethical decisions should be made and the subject is a complex one (Poznak…
AmCham. (April 2, 2003). Business Ethics as a factor of Country Competitiveness. Country Competitiveness Report.
Arvidson, Ed. (2002). The Wage Wrangle. Fresh Cup Magazine.
Josephson Institute Of Ethics. 2002. "Making Sense of Ethics." Retrieved on the Internet at http://www.josephsoninstitute.org/MED/MED-1makingsense.htm .
Poznak Law Firm. 2003. "Approaches to Ethical Decision Making." Retrieved on the Internet at http://www.poznaklaw.com/articles/bizethics.htm .
Output losses attributed toward alcohol were projected at $119 billion for 1995 (1). As this Alcohol Alert clarifies, several issues give to problem drinking that goes on in the workplace. Employers are in an exclusive situation to alleviate some of these factors and to inspire workers to seek assistance for alcohol problems.
IDENTIFY the key values and principles involved.
First, ethics or rules were broken because it is illegal to come to work under the influence of alcohol. But the purpose of these rules is not simply to control and manage disorganized or unacceptable conduct of employees. It is also meant to protect the other employees who are obligating their talents, time and exertions to the association. This shows to them that their group is just and fair. They key values involved are the fact Ethical principles do require that an individual make their corrective rules and guidelines fair, to…
Chethik, N. (2003). Redefining fatherhood. By nancy E. dowd. Fathering, 1, 1(1), 107-107.
Craig, M. (2005). Experiencing the Dowd Model. Journal of Ethical Business, 56-78.
Keaney, M. (2010). The radical political economics of douglas F. dowd. Journal of Economics, 34-67.
Sweeting, P.J. (2010). A trend-change extension of the cairns-blake-dowd model. Annals of Actuarial Science, 5(2), 143-162.
Ethical Decision Making Kimberly Gas Hub
ETHICAL DECISION MAKING IN KIMBELEY GAS HUB
The Kimberley Gas Hub is a controversial project to set up an LNG refinery facility at James Price Point near the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. The company Woodside is interested in setting up the project and it claims that it will boost the mining industry in the region and will bring economic development for the local people. Critics doubt these claims and state that the project would not have a big impact on economic development but it will have severe negative environmental consequences (Weber August, 09 2012). The controversy has increased since the project has been given a conditional go-ahead by Western Australia's Environmental Protection Agency (Lawson July, 16 2012). The ethical implications for any decision on this issue can be analyzed by using three different ethical approaches: utilitarianism, moral rights approach and justice approach.
Daft, Richard L. New Era of Management. Cengage Learning, 2008.
Hinman, Lawrence M. Ethics: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory. Cengage Learning, 2012.
Hitt, Michael A., J. Stewart Black, and Lyman W. Porter. Management. Pearson Education, 2006.
Lawson, Rebecca. Perth Now, "Kimberley gas hub gets nod from EPA ." Last modified July, 16 2012. Accessed August 13, 2012. http://www.perthnow.com.au/business/browse-gets-nod-from-epa/story-e6frg2r3-1226427146206 .
Ethical decision making is a method that is utilized by most of the health care professionals all over the world. he principles of beneficence and autonomy are very crucial when it comes to carefully guiding the decision making process. A nurse needs to understand that the importance of these principles and thus use these principles for the patient's benefit. Chally and Loriz (1998) and Kolouroutis and horstenson (1999) have stressed on the relevance of nurses using this model to guide their practice and thus make decisions accordingly.
Being careful of a patient's autonomy means that the nurse is able to respect and understand that the patient has all the rights to make a decision about the care and treatment that the patient receives. (Mappes & DeGrazia, 2006) It is true that the patient may not have enough medical insight as the nurse and he may even make the…
The procedure led to brain ischemia. This implies that the brain of Mr. Lee, or a part of it, was damaged. Since Mrs. Annie was an expert and a senior nurse, she could be held responsible for charges of refusing to treat the patient and letting the junior nurses perform the procedure that led to the damage (Royal College of Nursing, 2013).
In her defense, Mrs. Annie could take up the plea that the guardian or the patient did not specify that they wanted her to remove the tubing. Since she believed that this was not the right thing to do, in good interest and spirit, because removing the tubing could mean the death of the patient, she decided not to take part in the procedure (Dolgoff et. al,
Ethical Decision-Making in Criminal Justice
In the study and practice of criminal justice, determining ethical decision-making is a very challenging, if not impossible, undertaking for individuals committed to uphold the principles of justice, particularly social justice. The concept of ethical decision-making begs the question, "what is ethics, and what behavior and decisions would be considered ethical or not ethical?" In discussing the issue of ethics in criminal justice, author Banks (2008) presented numerous perspectives and arguments that represent a facet of ethical decision-making. However, she asserted that among these perspectives, ethical pluralism "seems to offer the best hope for resolving problems of relativities" (p. 16). In ethical pluralism, one accepts that there exist multiple truths, recognizing that these truths may or may not be true; ultimately, the individual who subsists to ethical pluralism is open to the idea that a belief or school of thought can be true even if…
Banks, C. (2008). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. CA: Sage.
Maute, J. (2002). "In pursuit of justice" in high profile criminal matters." Fordham Law Review, Vol. 70, Issue 5.
Smith, A. (1998). "Nice work if you can get it": "Ethical" jury selection in criminal defense." Fordham Law Review, Vol. 67, Issue 2.
Fidelity is also an obligation, to the journalist's ethics in particular truthtelling. Beneficence could be applied to helping law enforcement. As the decision at hand consists of two mutually exclusive options, one of these obligations would need to be overriding. It is most likely that for the journalist this would be to communicate all of the information in keeping with the journalistic code of ethics. This approach, however, does not represent a resolution of the ethical dilemma so much as it represents a cop-out. The decision as to the absolute obligation is too subjective. If the decision-maker was going to "go with his gut," there was no need to treat the issue as an ethical dilemma in the first place. The notion of an ethical dilemma is given short shrift by a system that argues there is a dilemma but the answer is to do whatever you want and argue…
Ethical Decision Making in Sales Organizations
The study of marketing, sales and company ethics has a very diverse foundation of empirical and analytical research ranging from gender- and trait-based analysis to the defining of models that seek to capture the dynamics that create ethical paradoxes and drive decision-making in organizations. In the research completed and presented in the article A Framework For Personal Selling and Sales Management Ethical Decision Making (Ferrell, Johnston, Ferrell, 2007) the authors carefully analyze trait-based and situational ethics theories and previous research. The first sections of this well-written and researched article illustrate that trait theories alone cannot explain the spectrum of ethics within sales and marketing departments and their decision-making processes, or provide insights into corporate cultural mindsets with regard to ethics. What the authors do however in this initial section of the article is frame up the foundation of their model, A Framework For Selling…
Ferrell, O.C., Johnston, M.W., & Ferrell, L. (2007). A framework for personal selling and sales management ethical decision making. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 27(4), 291-299.
Joseph, G.W., Pergola, T.M., & Butler, M.G. (2011). All you have to do is rearrange the numbers. Journal of Business Cases and Applications, 4, 1-20.
Martin, C.A. (2012). An empirical examination of the antecedents of ethical intentions in professional selling. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 9(1), 19-26.
Wotruba, T.R. (1990). A comprehensive framework for the analysis of ethical behavior, with a focus on sales organizations. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 10(2), 29-29.
For example, virtually every element of heightened security measures necessitates a corresponding reduction in certain kinds of liberties that American citizens have come to expect in a free society. Both concerns represent rights: it is right to implement measures intended to protect the general public by thwarting potential terrorists; likewise, it is equally right to seek to preserve individual liberties in a society that has been built on valuing those liberties. Erring on the side of the former necessarily entails interfering with personal liberties. Erring on the side of the latter could very well result in the failure to protect the public from terrorism.
More generally, administrating police services involves continuously weighing right-versus-right issues. For another example, many police agencies have had to consider the relative value and importance of pursuing fleeing vehicles against the value and importance of public safety in relation to the risks to the public posed…
Fitch, B. "Good Decisions: Tips and Strategies for Avoiding Psychological Traps." FBI
Law Enforcement Bulletin Vol. 79, No. 6 (2010).
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Ethical Decision Making
New Year's Eve Crisis
The ethical issues related here include the financial health of both Michael's Pasta Company (which now includes Southern Pasta) and of the restaurant chain affected by the tainted products, and the physical health of restaurant patrons. Other ethical issues such as simple honesty and business integrity are also involved in the case details, though they do not really affect the decision to be made.
Stakeholders include Michael himself as well as his company(ies) and all employees at under his employment; the restaurant's owners, managers, chefs, and customers; the FDA and other relevant governmental agencies; and eventually the former owners of Southern Pasta. From the previous Southern owner's point-of-view, the damage has been done and clearly a clean escape is being sought, so knowledge of the issues is likely to be disavowed. Michael and his company would like to minimize public knowledge regarding this…
Ethical Decision Making:
Uustal (1993) proposed a decision-making model that offers tangible steps for arriving at a morally acceptable solution when experiencing an ethical dilemma. Generally, nurses are usually faced with ethical dilemmas that are largely attributed to the nature of their work. One of the ethical dilemmas I have experienced as a nurse in the clinical setting is a situation involving a child diagnosed with brain tumor. Before the diagnosis, the child had been severely sick and went for several days without eating, which increased the severity of his illness. Even though the physicians were doing their best to save the child's life, the family became extremely worried. As a result, his parents gave him marijuana because of their extensive knowledge regarding his medical benefits. While the decision proved beneficial, the faces the risk of experiencing a recurrence of the brain tumor (James, 2011).
Uustal's model of decision-making can…
Dahnke, M.D. (n.d.). The Role of the American Nurses Association Code in Ethical Decision
Making. Retrieved September 13, 2013, from http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/static?pageid=864590
James, S.D. (2011, May 5). Montana Dad Gives Cancer-Stricken Boy Marijuana Behind
Doctor's Back. ABC News. Retrieved September 13, 2013, from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/montana-father-medical-marijuana-cancer-stricken-toddler-son/story?id=13529490&singlePage=true
Ethical Decision-Making Issues for a QA Project Manager in the Department of Veterans Affairs
Today, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates the country's largest healthcare system, and an important part of that system is overseeing the quality of healthcare services that are provided to the nation's veterans. This paper provides the results of a semi-structured, face-to-face interview with Mr. Brad Western, a quality assurance (QA) project manager at a local VA medical center. The structured interview questions and response are followed by a summary of the interview results and the main findings that emerged.
How those issues get resolved?
The response to this question focused on Mr. Western's role as the medical center's congressional liaison, and the ethical issues that were encountered on a routine basis as well as some special cases. According to Mr. Western, "The most frequent calls I receive from congressional offices concerns the lengthy amount…
279-306) and therefore sets the foundation for the development of an ethical culture in the organization. Finally and most importantly, the product manager must concentrate on those customers served with the appliance and put their well-being, safety and satisfaction above personal gain both from a financial and career recognition standpoint.
When the corporate culture, exposure to customers of a potentially unsafe product, and the need for staying in compliance to government regulations are considered, the product manager needs to think first of the ights Approach to ethics as defined by Kant, as in selling any product there is the explicit trust that any product sold is going to perform to the level and safety customers expect. In conjunction with this, the product manager also needs to consider the Utilitarian Approach to ethical decision making, as choosing to ship a product not in compliance that has the potential to harm customers…
Kouzes, J & Posner, B (2003). The Leadership Challenge. Jossey-Bass; 3rd edition. New York, NY. August 7, 2003; pp. 279-336, Chapters 11 & 12
Morality for today's nurses
Analyze the MORAL model as a useful tool for ethical decision making.
The MORAL model is an extremely useful tool for ethical decision making. In fact, it is somewhat of a relief to realize that there are tools that help one to objectively evaluate an ethical situation. Oftentimes, ethics seems so subjective. Therefore, the MORAL model is a welcome addition to nurses as well as to everyday people who simply need help objectively examining an ethical situation.
On the one hand, this model is valuable because it causes nurses to examine a situation holistically. Specifically, the first step of the model (massage the situation) involves nurses examining a particular situation from a variety of lenses. Doing so is pivotal to understanding what is truly at stake and for whom it is at stake. The variation of the different perspectives with which a nurse views a situation…
Guido, G. (2014). Legal and Ethical Issues in Nursing (6th ed.). Pearson, Boston, MA
Ethical Decision Making and the HM
The real purpose for setting up any organization is to realize profits for the stakeholders who have channeled resources towards establishment of the same. However, as the organization is set up and even later on running, it is important to always have the ethical considerations upheld in every department within the organization. One of the central departments in any organization that will be charged with ensuring ethical decision making process is strictly followed is the human resources management. Business ethics involves the application of ethics to business behavior and the decision making process in the business setting. The connection between business ethics and decision making comes about as a result of the considerations that leaders in businesses put before they make their decisions . When decision making and ethics go hand-in-hand, the decision makers ensure that they strive not to make unethical decisions as…
Kidder, R. (2012).Ethical decision making and behavior. Retrieved February 29, 2016 from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/39590_Chapter7.pdf
Chmielewski, C. (2013). Values and culture in ethical decision making Retrieved February 29, 2016 from http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Values-and-culture-in-ethical-decision-making.aspx
Ethical Decision-Making in usiness
Ethics refers to what we believe is right or wrong and shows in what we do or do not do (Walsh 2003). It does not provide all the answers or clear answers about what is right or wrong to everyone at all times. ut it does propose what is acceptable universally in all or many of the aspects of life. It involves standards of actions or human conduct. It is applied consciously or unconsciously in the choices that people make, whether in ordinary circumstances or in times of crisis. These choices we make actually shape our personality and also result from our personality. In most cases, ethics refers to what people ought or should do and thus reflects people's values and priorities. It is most crucial when making major or life-and-death decisions. In situations such as these, it is important that the decision-maker obtains as much…
Chmielewski, Christine. The Importance of Values and Culture in Ethical Decision-
Making. NACADA National Academy Advising Association, 2014. Retrieved on November 23, 2014 from http://www.nacada.ksu, edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Values-and-Culture-in-ethical-decision-making.aspx
ERD. Plus: The Decision-Making Process. Ethics Today: Ethics Resource Center, 2009.
Retrieved on November 23, 2014 from http://www.ethics.org/resource/plus-decision-making-process
Cultural Differences in Ethical Decision-Making Using Multidimensional Ethics Scale
The objective of this study is to examine cultural differences in ethical decision-making using the multidimensional ethics scale. The Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES) was developed originally by Reidenbach and Robin (1988, 1990) and is one of the most often used measures in business ethics research. (Lin and Ho, 2008, p.1213) The MES is an instrument found to be useful in business ethics research as well as accounting ethical issues in a few studies. Due to the trending toward globalization of the business environment there are reported to be "an increasing number of occasions for accounting professionals to offer financial information to their stakeholders around the world and facilitate the development of international businesses. Accounting ethical issues can no longer be considered as a problem within a single business or nation." (Lin and Ho, 2008, p.1213)
Multidimensional Ethics Scale Model
Gupta, Seema (2010) A Multidimensional Ethics Scale for Indian Managers' Moral Decision Making. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organizational Studies. Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010. Retrieved from: http://ejbo.jyu.fi/pdf/ejbo_vol15_no1_pages_5-14.pdf
Lin, Chieh-Yu and Ho, Yi-Jui (2008) An Examining of cultural Differences in Ethical Decision Making Using the Multidimensional Ethics Scale. Social Behavior and Personality. 2008.
Liu, Xin and Chen, Yishan (2012) Information Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Study of Ethical Decision-Making Between U.S. And Chinese Business Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science. Vol.3 No. 8. Special Issue April 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_8_Special_Issue_April_2012/6.pdf
McMahon, Joan Marie (2002) An Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Multidimensional Ethics Scale and a Perceived Moral Intensity Scale, and the Effects of Moral Intensity on Ethical Judgment.
APPLYING COOPER'S ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING MODEL
Case #1 -- a Questionable Hire
On the main issue of the ethical propriety of the group's decision to forego hiring Anne, Cooper's model and other objective ethical analyses would suggest that the group's decision was unethical. On the second issue of Felicia's choice to violate the strict rule about maintaining the confidentiality about the decision, Cooper's model would likely have permitted certain kinds of rule violations but not others. In principle, Felicia's decision to violate confidentiality was ethical under the circumstances but Cooper's model would have required closer attention to the phase pertaining to projecting the probable consequences of the decision on Felicia's part to fully satisfy her respective ethical obligations.
With respect to the main issue of the group's decision-making process, the most important element of Cooper's model would have been the phase of defining the ethical issue or dilemma. Felicia would have…
organization's culture and etical decision-making? Wen talking about te Mayo Clinic.
Te organization's culture
Mayo Clinic Model of Care describes its culture as consisting of "teamwork, collegiality, professionalism, mutual respect, and a commitment to progress for te organization and for individuals" (ttp://www.mayoclinic.org/pysician-jobs/culture.tml)
In concrete terms, tis is epitomized by an integrated team of multidisciplinary pysicians, scientists and ealt sciences professionals wo focus on te needs of te patients. As one professional wo transferred form mayo to anoter ospital described it:
At Mayo te focus is on te patient. Te needs of te patient come first... "Mayo as been, from te beginning, a group practice... You really ave to be a team player. People in administrative positions understand tat everyone is an important member of te team. (ttp://takingnote.tcf.org/2008/10/wat-makes-te.tml)
In tis way, te Mayo Clinic also describes its culture as one tat is "committed to teamwork -- and places team success aead…
What Makes the Mayo Clinic Different?
COOPE'S ETHICAL MODEL
Cooper's Ethical Decision-Making Model
The ethical decision-making model: Application to the workplace
According to Cooper (2012), ethical decision-making encompasses different 'levels' of analysis. The first, expressive, level is based upon gut instincts. Often, these may run counter to formal ethical systems, since they may be based upon impulses of disgust or prejudice. Conversely, our favorable feelings for certain employees may bias us in one way or the other. Next, the moral rules level, is precisely what it sounds like -- analyzing decisions solely based upon existing moral rules or conventional wisdom. These moral rules may not be formally stated or conceived of in a consistent fashion and may even be ethically questionable. For example, a company may tend to hire males to do heavy lifting rather than females, based upon subjective perceptions of competence in the job interview. The next level, the ethical analysis level of moral…
Cooper, Terry. (2012). The responsible administrator. Jossey-Bass.
Ethics is a major issue in the modern society since people face numerous situations that require ethical decision making. The need for ethical decision making is also attributable to the many ethical dilemmas we face in our everyday lives. Ethical decision making is considered as a critical component towards promoting good co-existence between people in a specific setting like a school or workplace. The use of ethical principles when making decisions is more important in conflict situations in order to generate amicable solutions to the parties involved in the conflict. In the past week, observations have been made on situations at the workplace in which decision making was or was not based on the use of ethical principles. This paper provides an analysis of these situations, implications of the situations on coworkers, and a plan for personal growth in responding to such situations.
Ethical Decision-making Situations…
Chonko, L. (2012, July). Slide 3 – Forms of Ethical Theories. Retrieved September 9, 2017, from http://www.dsef.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/EthicalTheories.pdf
Mintz, S. (2011, August 24). Ethical Dilemmas for Managers in the Workplace. Retrieved September 9, 2017, from http://www.workplaceethicsadvice.com/2011/08/ethical-dilemmas-for-managers-in-the-workplace.html
Process Work Institute. (n.d.). Ethical Principles and Standards. Retrieved from Process Work Institute website: http://www.processwork.edu/about-pwi/ethical-principles-and-standards-for-process-workers/
Ethical systems can be principled, but still contain reasonable exceptions without being purely relativistic. I acknowledge that there are many different types of moral situations under which one must apply one's principles.
My moral system most closely mirrors what could be called a 'virtue ethics' position: I believe in moral standards, but I believe that learning how to be a virtuous and compassionate person who is empathetic to others is the best way to live morally in the world (Hursthouse 2007). It is important to have high standards and yet to also be able to apply those standards to the complexities of real-life situations. Virtue ethics is not totally subjectivist in nature -- total subjectivism suggests that everyone decides what is moral based upon his or her own 'gut instinct' about the specifics of the situation. Being a moral person means having some personal sense of a larger…
Hursthouse, Rosalind. "Virtue ethics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
This step entails communicating the decision to the concerned person or parties along with the penalties. This step also entails communicating the future course of action to concerned parties.
Close the case- the big errors that companies frequently make is that at times they let the case hang around on without any accomplishment on it. An imperative part of ethical decision making is to close the case by taking action as and when the decision has been communicated.
Set an example and move on- There is no damage in setting the examples for the other workers so that they have a complete awareness of it and they themselves stay away from making such mistakes at any costs. Making sure that everybody has good information of it, and then moving forward is one of imperative facet of ethical decision making (Problem-Solving and Decision-Making, 2010).
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010).…
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010). Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
Forester-Miller, Holly and Davis, Thomas. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision
Making. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…
Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115
Joe has made considerable progress towards contract renewal between UWEAR and Peninsula Hotel chain and has planned a meeting with his management team to discuss the contract renewal. In light of the challenges relating to decline sales and profitability of UWEAR as well as the increased pressures to perform, Joe is optimistic that the contract renewal between these two firms will help in promoting continued success and employment with UWEAR. However, the contract negotiations have created a strained relationship between Joe and Bill lately because of the complexities involved in the negotiation process. Actually, the good relationship between Joe and Bill played an influential role in securing the contract renewal between the two companies despite the significantly cheaper offer from Threads4U. Bill has invited Joe and his wife for a short trip on the yacht, which will provide a good opportunity for both couples to catch up since…
UWEAR is undergoing a difficult period that has been characterized by declining sales and relatively low profit margins. This situation has generated considerable concerns and pressure of the firm's employees include Joe who is fearing cutbacks and layoffs because of the company's merger with PALEDENIM. However, Joe has established good relations with the CEO of Peninsula Hotels and signed a contract with them in the past financial year. Given the good relations that already exist between Joe and the CEO of this hotel chains, Peninsula is seeking to renew the contract for the upcoming financial year. However, the contract renewal has generated several concerns given that the initial price was so low while Threads4U has offered to beat that offer by 10%. As a result, Joe is facing a leadership and ethical decision-making dilemma that is exacerbated by the pressure to perform.
Joe's Probable Course of Action
In light of…
Managerial Social Responsibility - Volkswagen Diesel Scandal
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In order to determine the ethical decision Volkswagen should have made, one can use ethical decision-making models, such as: Utilitarianism; Kantian Ethics; Ethical Rights; and Distributive Justice. Though these four models use different approaches, one or more of them can result in a justified recommendation for the correct ethical decision that Volkswagen should have made.
Facts Underpinning the Ethical Dilemma
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In 2014-2015, U.S. emissions experts tested some Volkswagen vehicles and found deliberate fraud through the use of "defeat device" software that turns emissions equipment on for emissions tests and off for actual driving (Plungis & Hull, 2015). The deception…
Ewing, J., 2016. VW presentation in '06 showed how to foil emissions tests. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/business/international/vw-presentation-in-06-showed-how-to-foil-emissions-tests.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1
[Accessed 27 April 2016].
Plungis, J. & Hull, D., 2015. VW's emissions cheating found by curious clearn-air group. [Online]
Helping others is not explicitly prohibited in Objectivist philosophy: it is just not considered the highest moral good, in contrast to acting in one's own, personal self-interest. It should be noted that acting in self-interest can result in assisting others indirectly: for example, in a capitalist society, my desire to sell a product and a consumer's desire to purchase a product frequently result in both individuals benefiting from this exchange. But this is not the ultimate purpose and goal of the capitalist exchange. People may also help others to make themselves feel better but and regards this impulse as inferior to self-interested actions such as creating art or working to sustain one's business.
Although in theory helping the poor is not banned in the Objectivist philosophy, all of Ayn and's writings show profound mistrust of altruistic impulses and question the idea that helping the weakest members of society achieves…
Badhwar, N.K. & Long, R.T., (2015). Ayn Rand. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/ayn-rand/
Nash, L. (1981). Ethics without the sermon. Harvard Business Review, (59). Retrieved from:
Strategy for Moral Decision Making
To Choose in accordance with conscience
This section, of all the four sections stood out for me in the article since it deals with the daily application in the human approach to making choices. Centrally, this section tackles the role of the conscience in making the right or wrong choices taking into account the divine law and the reason behind that decision.
It also highlights the frequent difficulties that man often faces in making moral judgments, which in turn makes decision making, particularly with assurance of making the good or right decision being not so certain. It also makes it clear that discerning the will of God is not as obvious or easy as most may presume.
The section shows that the decision making process of man hence heavily relies on the experiences of self and others over the years, accompanied by the advice that…
Catechism of the Catholic Church, (nd). Life In Christ. Received January 19, 2017 from http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc/p3s1c1a6.htms
Santa Clara University, (2015). Thinking Ethically. Retrieved January 19, 2017 from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/ethics-resources/ethical-decision-making/thinking-ethically/
hen searching for ideas use imagination and stimulate that imagination by brain-storming with others and reading the latest publications on the topic -- remember that approaches for difficult issue are always changing. Ten years ago, antidepressants were prescribed almost automatically for depression, now the use of such medication and their side effects, especially in teens, is under scrutiny.
Step 6: Evaluate the evidence
Sometimes writing things down can be helpful. hen contemplating different strategies of approaching the topic, charting and rating evaluations of the tentative solutions provides clarity. Viewing any data and studies side-by-side can be useful as well. Compare and test these solutions in a series of hypothetical scenarios before trying them out in the real world.
Step 7: Make the educated guess (hypothesis)
After reviewing the evidence, boil down the client's situation into a general statement. Make an educated guess about what is the core problem; choose the…
Decision-making worksheet. (2009). Decisionmaking.org. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.decisionmaking.org/worksheet.pdf
Fourteen decision-making steps
Decision Making with Providers
The scenario facing Mike, the lab technician, is that of lateness, which attracted a reprimand from his supervisor. Seemingly, lateness had become a trend to Mike while reporting to work and that is why the supervisor had questioned him. He had made a promise that he would be punctual, the last time his supervisor questioned him. Mike's promise pegged on the importance he attached to his job because he was the sole breadwinner for his wife and newborn baby. Mike was overwhelmed by the thought that his job would be terminated in the possible reoccurrence of his tendencies to come to the workplace while late. He had received the assurance his supervisor (Grand Canyon University, n.d.).
On this day, Mike tries his best to reach work on time. Therefore, he leaves home twenty minutes before time but unfortunately, there was an accident on his commute. Although…
Dlugacz, Y.D., Restifo, A., & Greenwood, A. (2004). The quality handbook for health care organizations: a manager's guide to tools and programs. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass.
ECRI Institute. (July 2009). Risk Management, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety. Healthcare Risk Control .
Grand Canyon University. (n.d.). Allied Health Community. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from Scenario: Critical Decision Making for Providers. Mike, Lab Technician: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt307v/allied-health-community/allied-health-community-v1.1.html .
Kuhn, A.M., & Youngberg, B.J. (2002). The need for risk management to evolve to assure a culture of safety. Qual Saf Health Care, 11 (2), 158-62.
Memo on a Ethical Analysis
____ (due date)
Decision making by a Healthcare Leader in case of an Ethical Dilemma
in an interview of my health care administrator of the long care health facility where I work, I asked, "How do you make a wise decision in a situation relating to an ethical dilemma?"
Description of the Answer
It seemed like my question took the administrator by surprise perhaps he did not expect such a question when I requested for an interview. However, he looked composed and amused by my question. Confidently and leaning a little bit forward and supporting his hands on his desk, he responded. He first pointed out the numerous occasions when ethical dilemmas were evident in his health care administration career at the health facility. He said that he learnt over time through many experiences and a little consultation and…
Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. American Counseling Association, 1-5.
Pope, K.S., & Vasquez, M.J. (2010). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Employees and business management personal are taught business ethics as a fundamental guideline. It is tasked with assigning a particular meaning and role to business on the whole. Taking ethical decisions entails keeping certain aspects in mind. Written below is a brief argument on the points regarding ethics and a scenario is setup where business ethics are employed.
In layman words, business ethics entails working within reasonable means in a financial environment. Some particular aspects are required to achieve that (Brusseau). The decisions are guided by principles, comprehending the facts, making a valid argument and lastly ethics basically entails discerning between right and wrong (Brusseau). The overall result is secondary to the process at hand. The end result consists of constructing and making valid arguments. Hence, business ethics isn't really brainwashing. It's just fine tuning. The conclusions are formed from transparent values, confirmed facts and viable arguments (Brusseau).
Brusseau, J. (2011). Business Ethics Workshop (1st ed.). Flat World Knowledge. (Course Book)
Archibald, A. (2007, December 30). Employees' Responsibilities In Business Ethics. Retrieved January 9, 2014, from
[electronic resource] Journal of Business Ethics
Lin, C. And Ding, C.(2003) "Modeling Information Ethics: The Joint Moderating ole of Locus of Control and Job Insecurity," Journal of Business Ethics, 48:(4), 335- 346.
Molander, E. A 1987), 'A Paradigm for Design, Promulgation and Enforcement of Ethical Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 6, 619-631.
Paradice, D. B (1990) 'Ethical Attitudes of Entry- Level MIS Personnel', Information and Management 18, 143-151.
Parker, D. B (1981) 'Ethical Dilemmas in Computer Technology', in Ethics and the Management of Computer Technology (Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Business Ethics, Bentley
Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (1996)'Computer Ethics: The ole of Personal, Informal, and Formal Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 15, 425 -- 437.
Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (2000)'Judgements about Computer Ethics: Do Individual, Co-worker, and Company Judgements Differ? Do Company Codes Make a Difference?
Quinn, J. (1997) "Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical…
Bass, K., Barnett, T., and Brown, G.(1999) "Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgments, and Ethical Behavioral Intentions." Business Ethics Quarterly, 9:(2),, 183- 205.
Barnes, R. F (1990), 'The Making of an Ethics Code', Bulletin of the American Society
for Information Science, pp. 24 -- 25.
Cassell, C., Johnson, P., and K. Smith (1997) 'Opening the Black Box: Corporate Codes of Ethics in the Organizational Context', Journal of Business Ethics 16, 1077 -- 1093.
Counseling -- Ethical Dilemma -- Case Study
A 17-year-old Jewish female student advises a counselor that she went to a party last weekend with an African-American 17-year-old boy, and ended up passed out in an upstairs bedroom. She was awakened by the boy forcing himself on her. She protested loudly, but said that no one came to help her. The client claims the counselor is the only person she has told that she was raped. For the past five days, she has endured the snickering and sneering of Derrick and his friends in the hallways "as they smugly march around with their worlds intact" while she "dies a little more inside each day." She says she has been having trouble focusing on school, and she blames herself for the incident, saying she drank way too much even though she doesn't think she had very much to drink that night. She…
American Counseling Association. (2014). American Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Retrieved from www.counseling.org: http://www.counseling.org/docs/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=4
American Counseling Association. (2016). About us. Retrieved from www.counseling.org: https://www.counseling.org/about-us/about-aca
Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition . Independence, KY: Brooks/Cole CENGAGE Learning.
Cottone, R. R., & Claus, R. E. (2000). Ethical decision-making models: A review of the literature. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 275-283.
Ethically, the social worker did everything in the correct manner. The NASW Code of Ethics states that "when social workers provide counseling services to families, couples or groups, social workers should seek agreement among the parties involved concerning each individual's right to confidentiality" (Code of Ethics, 2014). In this case, the social worker accomplished that by requesting confidentiality agreements before the group sessions began. Actions to be taken now include the fact that the social worker should speak with the party that leaked the information as well as the injured party. Legally speaking, the court system would not likely take kindly to a case such as this nature. Ethically speaking however, the case is a good example of just how careful the social worker has to be. Excluding the patient that leaked the information from participation in the group setting would be a good first step. The rationale for these…
In a case such as with the Exxon Valdez, the company essentially saw the two arguments of shareholder value and ethics as mutually exclusive. To resolve the issue, the company chose to focus on shareholder value as a means of making its decision, and ultimately chose not to retrofit the ships. Thus, the company chose to look at the situation strictly from the shareholder model, where management is the agent of the shareholder only, and only seeks to increase shareholder wealth.
For many firms, this is not the normal approach. Many companies take different approaches to corporate social responsibility, perhaps with a stakeholder theory. Under the stakeholder theory, the environment and the citizens of the areas that could be potentially affected by a spill would be taken into account. This approach has an appeal because it forces managers to think about the broader implications of their actions, and…
Orts, E. & Strudler, A. (2002). The ethical and environmental limits of stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 12 (2) 215-233.
Organization Decision Making
Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…
Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/Docs/manage/decisions.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
Barnes and Noble Inc. is one of the most successful bookstores in the world. The company operates throughout the United States and boasts roomy inviting stores. In addition to books, the company also sells DVDs and music. The company operates both brick and mortar stores and it is also the largest internet bookstore. Furthermore, Barnes & Noble, Inc. is a Fortune 500 company and the largest bookseller in the world. In addition, "The company is a leading content, commerce and technology company that provides customers easy and convenient access to books, magazines, newspapers and other content across its multi-channel distribution platform. As of January 29, 2011, the company operates 705 retail bookstores in regional shopping malls, major strip centers and freestanding locations in 50 states, and 636 college bookstores serving nearly 4 million students and faculty members at colleges and universities across the United States (For Investors)." The…
Barnes & Noble Annual Report 2010. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/documents/bn_annual_report_2010.pdf
Corporate Governance Guidelines. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/for_investors/governance/Corporate_Governance_Guidelines/Corporate_Governance_Guidelines.html
For Investors. Retrieved from; http://www.barnesandnobleinc.com/for_investors/for_investors.html
Forman C., Ghose, A., Goldfarb, A. (2009) Between Local and Electronic Markets: How the Benefit of Buying Online Depends on Where You Live. 55(1)
The dominant, goal-oriented person can focus on the ultimate objective, the influence-based person can examine the interpersonal dynamics of the decisions that must be made, the steady person can foster harmony and a positive atmosphere, and the conscientious person can stay on task in a reliable fashion. hile clashing personalities can thwart reaching positive and goal-directed solutions, they can create a better solution and check the excesses of one another, like the selfishness and refusal to consider the human element in the dominant personality, the disorganization of the influence-based person, the risk-adverse views of the steady person, and the rule-bound contentious type. Communication can be facilitated through email and other constant types of technological contact on a daily basis -- this can create better group bonding, although there is always a risk that the brevity and informality of the format can create rather than break down barriers.
Modern decision-making theory,…
DISC: Explanations and preferences. (2005). Changing minds. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
Not even the most brilliant, ethical, and rational person has the ability to research every conceivable implication and alternative before making every decision in life.
Group decision-making is another method of decision-making, where the decision is often arrived at by consensus or committee, such as coming to a decision as to where to take a family vacation. The decision is often time-consuming, because ideally it must please everyone, although quite often no one is fully pleased (Petress, 2002). Multiple levels of irrationality are injected into the process, even if the 'team leader' (the parents who are paying for the vacation) have the final veto. To make the group decision-making process more efficient, often a vote is taken at the end of the discussion if the effort is supposed to be democratic. It can be superior to individual decision-making in that individuals can point out when group members are being irrational,…
Baker, G. (2004). "Decision Making." University of Florida. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://www.unf.edu/~gbaker/Man6204/Decision.PDF
Levitt, Barbara & Clifford Nass. (Jun 1989) "The lid on the garbage can: institutional constraints on decision making in the technical core of college-text publishers." Administrative Science Quarterly. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4035/is_n2_v34/ai_7376934
Petress, Ken. (2002). "An alternative model for decision-making." Journal of Instructional Psychology. Retrieved 20 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCG/is_3_29/ai_91707794/pg_1
Williams, Tim. (Mar 2004). "Setting Impossible Standards."
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).
Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).
THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…
The brainstorming approach: The Grubb & Ellis Company
In contrast to the City of Miami, the Grubb & Ellis Company, a commercial real estate advisory firm, uses the 'brainstorming' method of decision-making. A creative business such as Grubb & Ellis clearly believes it benefits from a decision-making model that encourages a 'free for all' of information. In this model, individuals write down, collectively or individually, every idea that comes to mind, good or bad. No censorship is allowed. Quite often, unique and off-beat solutions are generated through this method, and sometimes even the 'craziest' ideas can germinate practical solutions.
The only problem with the brainstorming model is that because it is so democratic, the organization can get bogged down debating an array of available alternatives, when a quick decision is required. Eventually, a solution must be arrived at, and the organization may find itself forced to shift to a more…
Six-Step Decision Making Model. (201). Decision-Making Confidence. Retrieved February 12,
2010 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/six-step-decision-making-process.html
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.
The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…
Barry, W., and Shaw, V. (2006) Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Donaldson, T., and Werhane, P. (2007) Ethical issues in business: a philosophical approach. Englewood-Heights, NJ: Prentice Hall
DesJardins.(2008) an introduction to business ethics. New York: McGraw Hill.
Friedman, M., & Becker, G. On economics. (2008) Chicago: University of Chicago.
Ethics in Decision-Making
Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.
According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…
The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).
For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.
What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
Uustal (1993) proposed a decision-making model concrete steps arrive a morally acceptable solution faced ethical dilemma. What type ethical dilemma encountered clinical setting? How decision-making model identified Uustal applied situation? Be specific describing steps.
Much of what constitutes nursing is being able to make decisions and carry out tasks according to those decisions. What nursing is often confronted with and feels unable to respond to in an effective manner at times is addressing and resolving specific ethical issues. One such issue we are concerned with here is caregiving for elderly individuals, specifically those at the end of life. Moreover, end-of-life decision making that affects physicians is of concerns to nurses as well since they are directly involved with caring for the individual. We believe quality of care is most imperious in such challenging moments because nurses have to confront a decisive and frail moment in a patient's life and must…
Black, B.P. (2011). Proffesional nursing: Concepts & Challenges (6th edition). Elsevier.
Lundy, K.C., & Janes, S. (2001). Community health nursing: Caring for the public's health. London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
Schumann, J.H., & Alfandre, D. (2008). "Clinical ethical decision making: The four topics approach." Seminars in Medical Practice, 11, 36-42.
White, S.V. (2001). Diann B. Uustal on excellence in ethics and quality in care. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 23(5), 25-29.doi: 10.1111/j.1945-1474.2001.tb00371.x
The Dowd Model of Ethical Decision Making in Medical Imaging: Two Dilemma Scenarios
An ethical dilemma is raised in a situation where two "right" courses of action are found to be mutually exclusive of each other; that is, when doing one "right" thing necessarily leads to leaving the other "right" thing undone or even contravening this "right" and doing the opposite (Towsley-Cook & Young, 2007). A scenario in which an employee's rights must be weighed against those of the patient/consumer typifies this type of dilemma, and this is found in the current scenario: a medical imaging professional suspected of having alcohol problems comes to work with the smell of liquor on his breath and shows some trouble walking straight and enunciating clearly. After a confrontation by the supervisor, this employee refuses to take a blood test for drugs and alcohol. The dilemma exists in determining whether this…
ADW. (2010). False Positive. Ask Doc Web. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://www.askdocweb.com/falsepositives.html
Moeller, K., Lee, K. & Kissack, J. (2008). Urine Drug Screening: Practical Guide for Clinicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(1): 66-76.
Towsley-Cook, D. & Young, T. (2007). Ethical and Legal Issues for Imaging Professionals. New York: Elsevier.
Van Valkenberg, J., Gurley, L., Lam, R., Martino, S., Paschal, R., Temme, J. & Walker, R. (1998). Survey of alcohol, drug use by radiologic technologists. Radiologic Technology. Accessed 8 December 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3387/is_n4_v69/ai_n28702788/pg_5/?tag=content;col1
hode's discussion illustrates that moral leadership combines several comprehensive business and social issues based on law, psychology, leadership, ethics, and political science. The evaluation allows strategic leadership to provide practical and theoretical policy guidelines. His study explores regarding moral leadership like the manner in which leaders sustain, transmit, and form their moral commitments (Parker & Fischhoff, 2005). Moral leadership evaluates the conditions that such processes are most useful. hode's discussion offers insight to the impacts of ethics training programs, codes, officers, and similar organizational initiatives. The focus also includes how practices and standards vary based on their contexts and cultures (hode, 2006).
hode is interested in what people do to other individuals, organizations, and societal levels for purposes of fostering moral leadership. Throughout hode's discussion, the scope of delivery identifies the elements that people are aware of and perceive to know based on the impact of ethics to…
Burton, B., & Goldsby, M. (2010). The moral floor: A philosophical examination of the connection between ethics and business. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(1), 145-154.
Discus Parker, A., Fischhoff, B. (2005). Decision-making competence: External validation through an individual-differences approach. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 18(1), 1-28.
Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R., & MacDonald, C. (2013). Business ethics: Decision-making for personal integrity & social responsibility (3rd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Michel, L. (2007). Understanding decision making in organizations to focus its practices where it matters. Measuring Business Excellence, 11(1), 33-45.
This study was similar to the third study in that both involved a retrospective review of data based on prior studies and program data. This study differed from the third study in that the prior study involved only a review of published literature, whereas the third study consisted of action research through both off-site data collection conducted through interviews of participating faculty members as well as a more in depth on-site action site case study of one educational institution. Additionally, while the second study concerned issues pertaining to the training of medical students in professional teamwork and collaboration skills in the professional medical setting, the third study concerned the manner in which community colleges establish and implement in-house "grow-your-own" staff development programs
Reille, a. And Kezar, a. "Balancing the Pros and Cons of Community
College 'Grow-Your-Own' Leadership Programs" Community College
Review 38 (1) 2010: 59-82.
This study consisted of action…
While the initiative is laudable, the results are not palpable and cannot be extrapolated, indicating as such that research on the topic has still to be conducted.
At the level of the individual, the reading of the article confirmed the complexity of the ethics and morals within the business community. Still, aside from this, it also indicated that the organizational entities are primarily focused on their profitability objectives, and they will strive to attain these goals at the expense of either suppliers, either suppliers and employees. The firms strive to make those ethically and morally sound decisions for the satisfaction of their customers.
Finally, the article changed the perception over the topic of ethical and moral decision making by widening the overall comprehension of the issue. Before reading the article, ethics and morality were perceived as something innate, or learned from the home. Still, the article opens a new window…
Tangpong, C., Pesek, J.G., Shareholder value ideology, reciprocity and decision making in moral dilemmas
Ethics and Accounting - Financial Decision-Making
Ethics in Accounting and Financial Decision Making
The article Ethical guidance and constraints under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 by .M. Orin (2008), espouses the belief that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act did not go far enough in its desire to stop unethical financial practices by businesses. The article addresses what the Act actually does, which is to help companies practice more due diligence and lessen the chances of getting involved in unethical financial practices. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act involves important legal issues. The due diligence is one of those issues, but another is the need for accountants and lawyers to report the corporations they work with for wrongdoing if they see or suspect a serious financial issue (Coffee, 2002). This has been a concern for some because it technically compromises the attorney-client privilege. This was necessary, though, in the face of all of the corporate scandals…
Coffee, J.C. Jr. (2002, September). Leading issues under Sarbanes-Oxley, Part 1, New York Law Journal: 5.
Koehn, J.L. & Del Vecchio, S.C. (2004, February). Ripple effects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The CPA Journal: 36-40.
Orin, R.M. (2008). Ethical guidance and constraints under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance: 141-171.
The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…
Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.
Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.
Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.
Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
50 had been stolen out of the $1,000 in his drawer. The police interviewed Jones and after he admitted that he had ended his friendship over an unpaid $157 debt, they arrested him believing the neighbor's claim to have seen Jones climb out his window when he thought he was dreaming.
You have determined from interviewing several mutual friends of Jones and the neighbor that Jones was indeed owed the $157, and that Jones did commit the burglary, but you can easily subpoena the EZ-Pass records to prove that Jones' car was an hour out of town at the time he claimed to have been sleeping at home when the burglary occurred. The American Bar Association (ABA) Model Rules of Professional Conduct also allows you to use this witness who provided the information about the neighbor's habits during the discovery process to impeach the credibility of the neighbor as well…
If you allow Jones to take this plea, the consequences will be comparatively harmless: he will have to return $157.50 that was rightfully his in the first place and he will have to avoid any criminal conduct for six months to avoid jail time on the burglary charge. Jones could still sue the neighbor in civil court and recoup his debt by proving his case with the witnesses to the debt that you already interviewed. If you tell Jones about the neighbor's affair and you introduce that information in court, his family will be devastated. Your dilemma is whether or not to allow Jones to take the guilty plea or advise him to go to trial and then use the neighbor's lies to prove that he could not have witnessed the crime and that he is of questionable character in terms of his truthfulness as a witness. You know that Jones is guilty because he admitted it and you also know that the neighbor did owe Jones the exact amount that Jones stole from his drawer.
Implementing Cooper's Analysis:
This situation illustrates Cooper's definition (1998) of a complex ethical issue that involves multiple perspectives. You can prove the neighbor lied about witnessing Jones in his apartment even though you know that Jones did, in fact, steal the money that night while the neighbor was with his girlfriend. From the point-of-view of general equitable principles, Jones was morally and ethically entitled to the money that he stole from the neighbor. From the legal perspective, Jones did commit the exact crime of which he stands accused because he resorted to theft to recoup his debt. You use of the witness to impeach the
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ethical subjectivism could also be called 'relativism,' or the notion that there is no external, objective moral authority. We as humans create our ethical norms, and ethics are culturally contextual. Ethical subjectivism stands in contrast to objectivism, which holds that there are objective moral standards by which all moral actions should be judged. "Moral statements are made true or false by the attitudes and/or conventions of the observers, and any ethical sentence just implies an attitude, opinion, personal preference or feeling held by someone" (Ethical subjectivism, 2012, Philosophy Basics).
A good example of this can be seen in the pragmatic philosophy of William James. In his Varieties of eligious Experience, James argued that all faiths were effectively divided into two categories: that of the 'religion of healthy-mindedness' and the 'sick soul. "We have all known or met people who seem happy all the time, who are…
Agler, David. (2012). Lecture 3: Ethical subjectivism and emotivism.
Ethical subjectivism. (2012). Philosophy Basics. Retrieved:
Ethical Theory or System
Other names for theory
eal World example
This approach prioritizes the value attached to results of actions. Consequence based approach points at the results of one's action on the others and the fact that other people tend to play a leading role in ethical decision-making.
One needs to evaluate the potential positive and negative effect of the available options in a situation and use the evaluation as a basis of decision making.
teleological, from the Greek telos
I believe people should be able to eat sand if they want to because they are free to make the decision themselves
Organization prohibits conduct that is dishonest because this will affect the firm's accreditation. The organization has instituted stringent policy that ensures that honesty is upheld more so in dealing with stakeholders, more so the customers.
This theory attributes value…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2001). Philosophical Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Philosophy. Mcgraw-Hill.
McShea, J.R. (1979). Human Nature Ethical Theory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 386-401.