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Ethical Egoism & Abortion
Ethical egoism, as a philosophical position, holds that it is an ethical obligation for people to act in their own self-interest. How does this philosophical position deal with the debate over the morality of abortion? It is necessary, before beginning a closer analysis, to define our terms. Abortion is a hotly contested issue, but our sense of ethics here needs to be understood first as distinct from religion or law, both of which often bring with them a sense of ethical obligation. It is true that abortion can violate a religious prohibition -- although this view is most often associated in the United States with Christian religious groups, it is not limited to them. We might note, for example, that the traditional Hippocratic Oath administered to physicians contains a solemn promise never to perform no abortion, sworn to a whole pantheon of non-Christian polytheistic pagan gods.…
Denis, L. (2007) Abortion and Kant's formula of Universal Law. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 37:4, 547-580. Retrieved from: http://www.canadianjournalofphilosophy.com/PDFs/cjp37-4--547-580 -- Denis.pdf
Gordon, L. (1982) Why nineteenth-century feminists did not support "birth control" and twentieth-century feminists do: feminism, reproduction, and the family. In Thorne, B. And Yalom, M. (eds.) Rethinking the Family: Some Feminist Questions. New York: Longman.
Kalin, J. (1981) In defense of egoism. In Reid, CL (ed.) Choice and Action: An Introduction to Ethics. New York: Macmillan.
Saletan, W. (2009) Tiller's killer: is it wrong to murder an abortionist? Slate.com. Retrieved from: http://www.templeton-cambridge.org/fellows/showarticle.php?article=371
Most philosophers, however, reject egoism or ethical egoism as it violates the foundations of an ethical system. Two persons to both maximize their respective self-interests will lead to conflict. Moreover, egoism inclines towards the exploitation of the weak. When a person is caught performing an illegal act or an act violating a professional code of ethics, it is almost always because of egoistic behavior that he committed it (Cengage).
Gun Control and Ethical Egoism
Law enforcers are allowed to carry weapons to use in the performance of their duty to arrest suspects and to protect themselves from criminal elements. Other individuals are also permitted to bear arms for justifiable reasons, mainly for protection, such as treasurers, bodyguards and prosecution witnesses in criminal cases. ut the possession of weapons has not been totally strictly controlled. In many cases, they fall into the hands of criminals themselves or accidentally hurt or destroy…
Cengage (2013). Determining moral behavior. Chapter 2 FPO. Cengage Brain: Cengage
Sites. Retrieved on April 19, 2013 from http://www.cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/5054/Chapter2.pdf
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: University of Tennessee at Martin. Retrieved on April 19, 2013 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#SSH2c.ii
Goodman, P. (2013). Pros and cons of gun control laws in the U.S. HubPages: HubPages,
Others argue against Ethical Egoism. The work of Pecorino states as an argument against Ethical Egoism the facts as follows: Ethical Egoism "provides no moral basis for solving conflicts between people; (2) Ethical Egoism "obligates each person to prevent others from doing the right thing; (3) Has the same logical basis as racism"; (4) "The egoist cannot advise others to be egoists because it works against the first egoists interest"; and (5) "No one person can expect the entire world's population to act in such a way as to produce the most benefit (pleasure) for that one person." (2000)
IV. Contrast of Doctrines of Motivation
Ethical Egoism is driven from a different motivation that is Psychological Egoism in that Ethical Egoism holds a view that one should do what is ethical and what is in his own best interest simultaneously if possible while Psychological Egoism holds that self-interest is above…
Hobbes, T. (1968) Leviathan, edited with an introduction by C.P. Macpherson, (Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1968) Chapter 6, "Good," p.120.
Baier, Kurt. 1991 "Egoism" in a Companion to Ethics. (ed. P. Singer) Oxford: Blackwell, 197-204.
Pecorino, Phillip a. (2000) Chapter 8: Ethics Teleological Theories Sunysuffolk Edu. Accessed 3 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/pecorip/SCCCWEB/ETEXTS/INTRO_TEXT/hapter%208%20Ethics/Teleological_Theories.htm.
Ethical Egoism & Psychological Egoism
Let us go through these arguments. The first argument does not suggest that a person involved in business should disregard any ethical obligations. One can economically survive in business without violating the norms of morality. Moreover, as Beverluis argues, "we are in a real sense 'doing' business ethics. For what is a 'right'? If one puts forward the claim to have certain moral rights (as opposed to legal rights), one is willy-nilly engaged in the activity of business ethics . . . (ibid).
The second and the third arguments again are hypothetical and do not necessarily prove that one needs to disregard moral considerations. As Beverluis states, "[o]ne can (normally) survive economically without selling one's soul. One may not become rich but the argument turns on survival, not riches" (ibid). As for the fourth argument, it is again a hypothetical assumption. One can in the same way say that…
Beverluis, E.H., 1987. Is There "No Such Thing as Business Ethics"? Journal of Business Ethics, (6), pp. 81-88.
Chong, C.K., 1992. Ethical Egoism and the Moral Point-of-View. Journal of Value Inquiry, (26), pp. 23-36.
Emmons, D., 1969. Refuting the Egoist. Personalist (50), pp. 309-319.
Frankena, W., 1963. Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ethical egoism unsatisfactory moral theory; important corrective ethics -sacrifice. Briefly relate ethical egoism, defended Ayn Rand, ethics -sacrifice, presented Carol Gilligan's stage moral development.
Conventional morality tends to prioritize self-sacrifice as the ideal, particularly for females. However, the valorization of self-sacrifice can be taken too far -- Gilligan's theory of gender-based moral development seems to suggest that it is 'natural' for girls to prioritize harmony over objective ethical systems, even over their own welfare or personal sense of morality. For women to feel as though they have the right to pursue an education, to be competitive, and to have equal rights in the workplace and at home they must believe they have a certain intrinsic moral right to realize their personal goals. Too much self-sacrifice can result in codependency or supporting other people to the point that others take advantage of the person who is giving…
Ethics and Morality
In basic terms, ethical egoism can be regarded as an ethical position (normative) in which case an agent ought to undertake a course of action that maximizes his or her own self-interest. Thus in this case, the primary duty of the agent is to promote his or her own interests. In this text, I concern myself with ethical egoism. In so doing, I develop several arguments in favor of the theory. Further, I highlight several objections that could possibly be used to counter my arguments.
Ethical Egoism: Supporting Arguments
In the opinion of Arrington (1998), "ethical egoism is the claim that every person ought to act so as to promote her own self-interest." Several arguments can be used in support of ethical egoism. To begin with, it is important to note that each individual is more often than not perfectly aware of his or her needs and…
Arrington, R.L. (1998). Western Ethics: An Historical Introduction. Malden Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell.
Shafer-Landau, R. (2007). Ethical Theory: An Anthology. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ethics and Nursing
One of the nurses you work with is an ethical egoist, should you report him to your nurses' supervisor? Why or why not?
This person should not be reported because the definition of what is meant by good has not been given. For example, Socrates could be considered an ethical egoist because he held the position that persons of intelligence always act in their own self-interest, i.e., for their own personal good, but what he meant by that was that they do good to others and to the spiritual being above them and in this manner do good for themselves. However, another person might define the good as something that gives any passing benefit whatsoever, such as pleasure or monetary gain -- and this concept of the good would not meet Socrates' approval, i.e., he would not call it good. Yet this same person might also identify…
Bennett, Christopher. "Utilitarianism." What is this thing called ethics?. London:
Routledge, 2010. 55-73
Ethical Egoism. (n.d.). PLE. Retrieved from http://philosophy.lander.edu/ethics/ethical_ego.html
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…
These are ethics that know no cultural bounds. hat is perceived as ethical in one society as well as any other is an example of a natural law. These are typically based on the human desire for equality as well as the desire to do good ("hat is Natural Law?"). Furthermore, natural rights evolve legally from natural laws often. They also often see an intertwining of religious beliefs, although they can also be expressed as more an intertwining of moral beliefs that are then supported by religion. The primary weakness of natural law theory is that it is sometimes difficult to determine if a belief is truly universal, or simply cultural.
Virtue ethics determines whether an action is right or wrong by the virtue of the action.
Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that…
"Kant's Moral Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 23 Feb. 2004. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
MacKinnon, Barbara. Ethics: theory and contemporary issues. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1995. Print.
"Virtue Ethics." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 18 July 2007. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
"What is Ethical Relativism?" Philosophy - AllAboutPhilosophy.org. N.p., 2011. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
Ethical treatment of prisoners is a complex question, involving the nature of the prison system in the U.S. And the nature of those incarcerated in it, as well as ethical obligations that individuals owe to society as well as those that society owes to those who are imprisoned. Deontological ethics might hold, for example, that those who have violated the law and the basic moral norms of society deserve to be punished but at the same time even those convicted and imprisoned have certain basic human rights. For example, they have the right to food, clothing, shelter and medical care, and cannot be tortured, abused or brutalized. Another problem from a deontological perspective would be to criticize a society where blacks and Hispanics are a minority of the population but also the majority of the prison population, including those on death row. Indeed, they are more likely to be profiled,…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Prison Inmate Characteristics (2009). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…
So long as the employees are aware of the potential on-the-job dangers, which they must be simply by having been hired, they have the right to choose whether or not to work long hours or to wear protective gear. A person who enters an automobile does so knowing that highway accidents are common; a bicycle rider who does not wear a helmet makes s similar choice. To deny the rights of individuals insults their intelligence
In fact, the rules and regulations that strangle personal freedoms also squelch the individual's intellect because when told what to do, a person is likely to follow the rules blindly without investigating the real risks involved. Mandating protective gear might, in fact, lead to a false sense of security among workers who believe that their hard hats will protect them in any situation when in fact, they will not. Libertarianism respects the rights and abilities…
Best Ethical Approaches and Alternatives
Frankly, the Satyam case is not one that requires splitting the proverbial hairs sometimes associated with more complex ethical analyses. Virtually every known ethical system other than egoism would condemn aju's conduct (osenstand, 2008; Shaw & Barry, 2007). Unfortunately, the magnitude of the harm caused and the vast numbers of individuals detrimentally affected by aju's subterfuge absolutely defies any conceivable ethical solution that relies on restitution or compensation to the victims.
In the Satyam case, aju would not benefit from any of the ethical systems considered. Act utilitarian ethical analysis would condemn aju's actions simply by virtue of their consequences on the countless victims of his conduct. ights-based ethical analysis would reach the same conclusion regardless of whether the system relies on objective or conventional ethical rules. Justice-based ethics would condemn aju's conduct because it violated both objective ethical principles and the formal rules governing…
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
Morals and Ethical Theory
Morals & Ethical Theory
The objective of this study is to read pages 1 -- 26 of Stephen D. Hales work entitled "This Is Philosophy" and to answer the questions of:
(1) Is morality just what God tells me to do? (Divine Command Theory);
(2) Is morality just my own personal code? (Egoism); and (3) Is morality just how society says we should act? (Moral Relativism) This study will state one reason why each theory is agreed with and one reason why is theory is not agreed with.
Is Morality Just hat God Tells Me To Do?
(Divine Command Theory)
According to Hales, morality could be based on an authority who commands individuals on their moral duties and who serves as an enforcer of these principles since the individual "without a lawgiver, a rulers to lay down the moral law" is simply "adrift with no deeper…
Dobrin, A. (2012) Moral Relativism: Its Limit. Am I Right? How to Live Ethically. Psychology Today. Retrieved from: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/am-i-right/201204/moral-relativism-its-limit
Ethical Egoism (nd) Drury Education. Retrieved from: http://www2.drury.edu/cpanza/egoism.pdf
Kreeft, P. A Refutation of Moral Relativism -- Transcription. (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.peterkreeft.com/audio/05_relativism/relativism_transcription.htm#3
Rachels, J. (n.d.) Egoism and Moral Scepticism. In: Exploring Ethics. An Introductory Anthology. (ed) Steven M. Cahn. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from: http://www.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195342000/student_resources/partone/chapter7/
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…
MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
The first option is by far the most ethical from a utilitarian perspective. The first option allows the business to maintain its going concern condition. It will also help mitigate the damage of layoffs, wage restrictions, and benefit reductions to staff. This option, therefore provides the greatest amount of good to society at the lowest possible cost. The reputation of the business would also remain intact, further providing benefit to society, in that management is dedicated to its employees.
From an egoism perspective, the second option would be the most ethical. It allows for Joe Woodman, to serve his own needs at the expense of lost jobs, wages and benefits to others. Under the assumption that Joe wants to maintain control of the business, this alternative allows him to do so, while also helping the company generate stable and consistent cash flow. The use of expert management, would also…
Con: This approach can be excessively rigid and fail to take into consideration social nuances
Neutral: Kant, the developer of the categorical imperative and the founding father of this ideology, saw his view as a kind of middle path -- he did not believe that all actions set moral laws for all time, but that some types of moral principles should remain inviolate.
Virtue ethics or human nature moral theory
Pro: This stresses the need to be a good person, to make good moral decisions. It focuses on the good that 'doing good' can provide both for the actor and the subject of moral decision-making.
Con: Good people, even when they believe they are doing the right thing, can engage in actions that have very negative moral consequences.
Neutral: Virtue ethics has come into prominence in recent decades, perhaps because of the increasing focus upon the 'self' in modern culture,…
S. citizens. This is a popular argument offered by the same sex marriage movement and it is one that is compelling.
For many years homosexuality was considered illegal behavior in most jurisdictions in the United States but most such statutes have been abolished and so gays and lesbians are now full citizens who have the right to expect full rights of citizenship. This means that whatever one's ethical or moral standards might be does not mean that such standards must be expressed in the laws. Many Americans object morally and ethically to the display of pornography; the publishing of songs with colorful lyrics; and, suggestive books and magazines but each of these examples is protected by the First Amendment and the rights of gays and lesbians to marry should enjoy the same protection.
The proponents of virtue ethics are not alone in their support of same sex marriage. Followers of…
Corvino, J. (1999). Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality (Studies in Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefiedl Publishers.
Koppelman, A. (2001). On the Moral Foundations of Legal Expressivism. Maryland Law Review, 777-784.
Lewin, E. (2004). Does Marriage have a future? Journal of Marriage and Family, 1000-1006.
Is Gay/Lesbian Marriage Ethical
Moral Skepticism and Knowledge
Moral Skepticism and Moral Knowledge
Morality is a much debated philosophical idea, wherein the arguments range from ethical egoism being the perfect sample of moral ethics to altruism being the perfect -- and otherwise opposite -- viewpoint. Both ideas have strong followings, and ethical egoism along is broadened to even more branches within philosophical studies. There is still much reconciliation to be done between the various problems of philosophical thought and ethical egoism or lack thereof.
Ethical egoism is a particular form of egoism where one who is moral "ought" to do what is in one's self-interest. The morality behind egoism generally points toward the idea of self-interest; that a moral being's moral path is by focusing on one's self. This type of egoism should not be mistaken for psychological egoism, however. Psychological egoism makes a claim that beings act only in their self-interest.…
Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
Hume, David. A Treatise of Human Nature,. London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911. Print.
Jefferson, Thomas. "Letter from Jefferson to Thomas Law." The Founding Faith Archive. 13 June 1814. Web. 20 Apr. 2011. .
Rand, Ayn, and Leonard Peikoff. Atlas Shrugged. New York, NY: Signet, 2007. Print.
NHS Corporate Social esponsibility Practice
In a contemporary business environment, organizations are struggling with the new roles to meet the needs of present generation without compromising the needs of future generation. Within a business environment, stakeholders are calling upon corporate organizations to implement operations that will meet the societal values and the natural environment. Organizations are also being called upon to apply principles of corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) in the business operations. Corpo-rate social responsibility (CS) is the process where corporate organizations demonstrate the inclusion of social responsibility and environmental concerns in their business activities. (D'Amato, Henderson, & Henderson, 2009). It is no longer acceptable for a firm to conduct business without demonstrating societal concern.
The objective of this report is to evaluate the current Corporate Social esponsibility practice of National Health Service (NHS). The report uses Carroll's pyramid models to demonstrate the effectiveness of NHS Corporate Social esponsibility practice,…
Bowie, N.E. (1999). Business Ethics and Normative Theories. Black well Publishing. UK.
Burton, B.K., Farh, J.L. & Hegarty, W.H. (2000). Comparison of a Cross-Cultural Corporate Social Responsibility Orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States Students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(2):151-167.
Carroll, A.B. (1999). Evolution of a Definitional Construct of Corporate social responsibility Business and Society, 38(3): 268-295.
D'Amato, A. Henderson, S. & Henderson, S.(2009).Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Business. CCL Press. USA.
Military Orders that May be Unethical
Utilitarianism is a philosophical theory states that ethics are determined by the social group in which the moral determination is made. It has been described by various philosophers as the great happiness principle or pleasure principle. In essence, what is ethical or moral is determined by what makes a person or a group of persons the happiest. If a course of action brings the majority of people happiness, then it is ethical. On the contrary, if a certain set of actions brings the majority unhappiness, then it is unethical. Utility is thus the ultimate form of happiness and the best way by which to achieve happiness both for the individual and for the majority of the population within a given society. This seems logical but can become complicated when applying the concept of utilitarianism to a larger group, such as a government. hether the…
Bayles, M.D. (1968). Contemporary Utilitarianism. Anchor Books.
Mill, J.S. (2002). Utilitarianism. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
Popkin, R. (1950). A note on the 'proof' of utility in J.S. Mill. Ethics. 61(1).
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. Routledge.
Health Care ight or Privilege
Health Care ight Privilege
Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.
Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…
Brownstein, B. (1980). Pareto optimality, external benefits and public goods: a subjectivist approach. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, IV (1), 93-106. Retrieved from mises.org/journals/jls/4_1/4_1_6.pdf
Gensler, H. (1998). Ethics: a contemporary introduction. New York: Routledge.
Glannon, W. (2005). Biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hare, R. (1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press.
Ethics and Leadership Failures: The Enron Case
Gibney's 2005 documentary film Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room reveals some of the main ethical weaknesses in an unbridled neoliberal capitalist market system. Barely addressing environmental and social justice issues, the filmmakers instead choose to focus on organizational culture, leadership, and ethical decision making within the corporation. The film illustrates the core concepts of business ethics and shows how executives shape company values and behaviors. Disturbingly, the Enron case also shows how unethical corporate behavior is linked with unethical behavior in government.
Summarize in one paragraph how you would explain Enron's ethical meltdown
Enron's ethical meltdown is a result of two interrelated issues: unethical individuals making unethical decisions, and an organizational culture that enables unethical decisions to proliferate. The unethical decisions and behaviors mainly have to do with stock market manipulation and the falsifying of information related to the actual performance…
It is like a double-edged sword, one must understand the pros and cons to every option. Yes with option one, it appears that by having the bank take over that this offers the best case scenario for everyone but Joe must weigh the possible repercussions and how they will affect business. In other words, this may be saving everyone's job and the company but at what cost to quality of the job and the company? This bank intervention may not be worth the hassle if the culture of the company changes for the negative. This can have a direct influence on productivity and morale. Joe needs to keep all the details in mind before deciding.
Question 4: hat pressures does Joe face regarding honesty and telling the truth about his situation?
In this situation, Joe faces many pressures as most business owners would when faced with such challenges. He has…
Leadership Ethics? I did not have the information about the chapter. Citation style below.
Last name, first name. Book title. City of Publisher: Publisher name, year of publication.
Ethics and IT
Ethics and Information Technology
Doing Ethics Analysis
This case concerns trade secret misappropriation and theft of intellectual property, as well as issues of surveillance and cybercrime. Sergey Aleynikov attempted to steal computer code from Goldman Sachs in order to build competing technology for his new employer. Goldman Sachs prosecuted Aleynikov and won a conviction. The case discusses applicable case laws, including the difficulty of enforcing non-compete and non-disclosure agreements.
Sergey Aleynikov was employed by Goldman Sachs, and as part of his employment, had signed a confidentiality agreement. Aleynikov found new employment with Teza Technologies, where he was hired to build a high-speed trading platform to compete with Goldman Sachs. On his last day of employment for Goldman Sachs, Sergey Aleynikov downloaded proprietary high-speed trading computer code for use in his new employment at Teza Technologies. Aleynikov attempted to cover up evidence of his theft by erasing and…
Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics. University of Western Australia website. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://undergraduate.csse.uwa.edu.au/units/CITS3200/ethics/acs-ethics.htm
Mastin, L. (2011). Basics of Philosophy. Retrieved April 28., 2011 from http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_contractarianism.html
Sevenoaks School Philosophy Department. (2011). Ethics. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from http://www.sevenoaksphilosophy.org/ethics/egoism.html
Simpson, C. (2003). Doing Ethics: A universal technique in an accessibility contest. Retrieved April 29, 2011 from http://dl.acs.org.au/index.php/ajis/article/view/159/141
They seek pleasure and avoid pain in their assessment of the situation. Therefore, consequentialism is hedonistc and egotism. Using this argument, one could say that utilitarianism is more altruistic than consequentialism. However, utilitarianism is not completely altruistic either. Utilitarianism is neither altruistic nor egotistic. However, it is difficult to call consequentialism altruistic. Some acts might have a hint of altruism, but there are few that consider the consequences of others before direct consequences for ourselves.
Hedonism requires the absence of pain, in most cases. hen one is in pain, either emotional or physical, it is difficult to feel complete happiness. hat is considered pleasure and what is considered pain is up to interpretation. This is an open question to which there are no clear guidelines. Utilitarians are hedonists in that they consider pleasure to be the intrinsic good. They consider pain to be bad. However, this concept can be challenged…
Brink, D. And Copp, D. "Some forms and Limits of Consequentialism." Chapter 14.
A www.ingentaconnect.comThe Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, December 2005, pp. 357-380.
Hurka, T. And Copp, D. "Value Theory. www.ingentaconnect.comThe Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, December 2005, pp. 357-380.
In other cases, preserving confidentiality or entrusting the doctor with treatment-related decisions may be in the best interest of the patient and his or her family or community. Health care workers should carefully weigh consequences, in light of deontological ethics and institutional regulations.
Health care professionals working with patients with HIV / AIDS must be careful to temper consequentialism with deontology, to balance the psychological needs of the patient for confidentiality and autonomy with the practical needs of public health; or to balance the physical needs of a patient with HIV / AIDS with medical paternalism. Furthermore, discrimination against patients with HIV / AIDS is commonplace and often occurs inadvertently. Health care workers are obliged to confront their own biases regarding HIV / AIDS because to withhold adequate treatment is to violate a series of ethical principles including those based on deontology and on utilitarianism. For example, a health care…
Johnston, Carolyn and Slowther, Anne. "Patient Information and Confidentiality." UK Clinical Ethics Network. Sept 2003. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.ethox.org.uk/Ethics/econfidential.htm
Hamblin, Julie. "People Living with HIV: The Law, Ethics, and Discrimination." UNDP Issue Paper No. 4. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.undp.org/hiv/publications/issues/english/issue04e.htm
Ruddick, William. "Medical Ethics." Encyclopedia of Ethics. Lawrence and Charlotte Becker, Eds. 2nd edition. Garland, 1998. Retrieved Sept 15, 2006 at http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/philo/faculty/ruddick/papers/medethics.html
The Nike ethical dilemma
The Nike Company is undoubtedly ne of the most established companies with a strong brand across the globe. It has a big name a wide coverage across the globe hence by 2007 it was estimated to have employed 30,000 people across the globe and had $16 billion in terms of revenues. They have most of their factories located in the Asian countries like Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Though it was predominantly a shoe manufacturer and seller, Nike diversified their dealings into other merchandise like the wears in tennis, badminton, baseball, golf, cricket among other sports (Nike Inc. 2010).
Nike has had several accusations over the decades of having their products being made in "sweatshop." This means they have employees who are underage working in deplorable conditions with meagre pay that can only be referred to as below subsistence. It…
Nike Inc. (2010). Annual report pursuant to section 13 and 15(d) Filed on 7/20/2010. Retrieved October 28, 2014 from http://investors.nikeinc.com/files/doc_financials/AnnualReports/2010/docs/NIKE_2010_10-K.pdf
TED Case Studies, (2014). NIKE: Nike Shoes and Child Labor in Pakistan. Retrieved October 28, 2014 from http://www1.american.edu/ted/nike.htm
Price Fixing and Philosophy
In looking at price fixing in terms of philosophy, one can apply many ethical theories in order to understand the motives of such individuals who employ it as well as help individuals understand why the practice itself is an unethical one. In beginning a philosophical assessment, one can first look at several consequentialist theories, which employ a general cost-benefit analysis to one's actions.
University of Tennessee professor James Fieser (2010) notes that consequentialism states that an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable, and this applies directly to executives who believe that should they engage in price fixing and get away with it, the consequences will bring in significant profits for a company and therefore will benefit the company collectively as well as themselves (Feisher, 2009, p.1). In viewing this in such a manner, one can more directly…
Bork, R. (1966). Rule of reason and the per se concept: price fixing and the market division. Yale Law Journal, 75(1): pp. 377-415. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Feiser, J. (2009). Ethics. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#SH2c, on 19 September 2011.
Lawrence, P. And Sonnenfield, J. (1978). Why do companies succumb to price fixing?
Introduction: Overview of the Relevant Facts
One of the problems of criminal justice today is the challenge of systemic racism that has been leveled by critics such as Angela Davis (2012) and numerous others. The charge is that the criminal justice system is inherently racist for a number of reasons (Lentin, 2020). These reasons include the existence of a for-profit private prison industrial complex that represents a clear conflict of interest to the system since the complex profits off incarcerations and businesses exploit the labor of the prisoners by paying them pennies on the dollar (Pelaez, 2019); and the fact that 37% of America’s prison population is black, yet blacks are only 12% of the total US population (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2014). On top of all this is the practice plea bargaining, which is pushed on those charged with a crime by prosecutors, essentially robbing the accused of due…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.
Gramlich, J. (2018). America’s incarceration rate is at a two-decade low. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/05/02/americas-incarceration-rate-is-at-a-two-decade-low/
Grossman, S. P. (2005). An Honest Approach to Plea Bargaining. Am. J. Trial Advoc., 29, 101.
Holmes, A. (2007). Ethics: Approaching moral decisions. Downers Grove, IL:InterVarsity Press.
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
Lentin, R. (2020). Incarceration, Disavowal and Ireland’s Prison Industrial Complex. In The Carceral Network in Ireland (pp. 259-278). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Nilsen, E. S. (2007). Decency, Dignity, and Desert: Restoring Ideals of Humane Punishment to Constitutional Discourse. UC Davis L. Rev., 41, 111.
Ethics and Social esponsibility:
Immigration and Amnesty in the United States
The question of immigration, especially in this country, is ever-present. From our past, and well into our future, the United States will be a nation of immigrants. However, as political candidates raise a number of questions relating to immigrants south of the border, one must wonder about how immigration has grown into such a hotly debated issue, and how it is separating this country. Though it is true that the United States needs immigration reform, one must also look at the traditions of the country, and how they can protect the less fortunate, especially in the area of immigration. The reason this must happen is because most come here with notions of a better place, where they can live safely and freely, and prosper as individuals. This nation ought to offer that to all individuals, for that is…
Amnesty International. "USA must fight anti-immigration sentiments in nine states" (2010). Amnesty International. < http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/usa-must-fight-anti-immigrant-sentiment-in-nine-states >.
Baier, K. (1990). "Egoism" in A companion to ethics, Ed., Peter Singer. Blackwell: Oxford.
Cox, A., & Posner, A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. 809,
Booker Prize-winning novel Amsterdam by Ian Mcewan is not really about euthanasia per se; it is about the twisted relationships between the two main characters, Clive Linley, composer, and Vernon Halliday, newspaper editor. Deeply affected by the death of their mutual friend and lover Molly Lane, Clive and Vernon agree that if they should ever exhibit the symptoms of some deadly illness, that they agree to assist the other in euthanasia. Thus, the two friends initially start out by presenting a view of euthanasia that is strongly ethical; euthanasia is a meaningful and sometimes even necessary means to alleviate unnecessary suffering. After all, life is already filled with enough suffering. Extension of life by a matter of days, weeks, or even years does not necessarily equate with promoting the values inherent to a good quality of life.
As the events of the novel progress, however, Vernon and Clive demonstrate that…
McEwan, Ian. Amsterdam. New York: Anchor, 1999.
Tono-Bungay diverges from the author's more popular science fiction (Costa 89). Tono-Bungay is ripe with social commentary, and many literary critics have gone so far as to describe the novel as a "galvanic fictional chronicle of the intellectual and moral history of England at the close of the 19th century," (Costa 89). Indeed, ells does capture prevailing trends in political, economic, and social thought, as well as currents in English history. A preoccupation with issues related to social class status and capitalism permeate the Edwardian novel. Although ells deftly refrains from overtly didactic or pedantic moralizing, Tono-Bungay cannot be understood without reference to the author's message related to ethical egoism, vanity, and human behavior within a capitalist system.
One of the overarching themes of Tono-Bungay is upward social mobility, and the ethical tradeoffs taken to achieve a boost in social status. George's upward social mobility takes place on a weak…
Costa, Richard Hauer. "H.G. Wells's Tono-Bungay: Review of New Studies." English Literature in Transition. Vol. 10, No. 2, 1967, pp. 89-96.
Dirda. Michael. "Revisiting H.G. Wells' Literary Masterpiece." Salon. 15 June, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.salon.com/2011/06/16/tono_bungay_hg_wells/
Liu, Sai-xiong. "On the Symbol Consumption of H.G. Wells' Tono-Bungay." Retrieved online: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-QQHD201106036.htm
Newell, Kenneth B. "The Structure of Wells's Tono-Bungay." English Literature in Transition. Vol. 4, No. 2, 1961, pp. 1-8.
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…
Anderson, J.F., & Dyson, L. (2000). Alabama Prison Chain Gangs: Reverting to Archaic Punishment to Reduce Crime and Discipline Offenders. Western Journal of Black Studies, 24(1), 9.
Haley, S. (2013). "Like I Was a Man": Chain Gangs, Gender, and the Domestic Carceral Sphere in Jim Crow Georgia. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 39(1), 53-77.
Guttierrez, A. (2013). Sufferings peculiarly their own: the thirteenth amendment, in defense of incarcerated women's reproductive rights, 15 Berkeley J.Afri.-Am. L. & Pol'y.
Banks, C. (2004) Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. SAGE.
An Ethical Analysis & Position Statement
Against the Practice of Capital Punishment
An Historical Overview
Issues and elevant Facts
Application of Ethical Theories
Support for Capital Punishment
Arguments Against Capital Punishment
An Historical Overview
The practice of capital punishment is often known by other names such as the death penalty or an execution, but the basic concept is that someone convicted of a crime that is worthy of their life (capital crime) is put to death after their conviction by some form an authority figure taking the life of the convicted. There are many different methods that have been employed to take a convicted person's life and history and it is striking to read about the creativity in which brutal forms of executions have been designed over the millennia. Even the Old Testament is riddled with a plethora of different crimes that are considered…
Binghamton University. "The Death Penalty." 6 March 2011. Paren Ethical. .
Chalfin, A., A. Haviland and S. Raphael. "What Do Panel Studies Tell Us About a Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment? A Critique of the Literature." Journal of Quatitative Criminology (2013): 5-43.
Dezhadbksh, H., P. Rubin and J. Shepherd. "Does Capital Punishment Have a Deterrent Effect? New Evidence from Postmoratorium Panel Data." American Law and Economics Review (2003): 344-376.
Mocain, H. and R. Gittings. "Getting off Death Row: Commuted Sentences and the Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment." Journal of Law and Economics (2003): 453-478.
ethics, teleology refers to consequentialist ethics, in which the morality of an action is based on its consequences rather than on the nature of the act itself. Utilitarianism is a type of teleological ethics, because utilitarianism is based on creating the maximum amount of happiness (or some other predetermined desirable outcome such as prosperity or health) for the most people possible. Ethical egoism, the view that benefitting the self justifies an action, is also a type of teleology ("Deontological and Teleological Assumptions in Normative Ethics," n.d.). Deontological ethics are opposite to teleological ethics because the consequences are less important than the nature of the act itself. According to the deontological ethical framework, an act is categorically moral or immoral. It does not matter if an act produces happiness or any other result. Deontology espouses the view that the ends do not justify the means; whereas the teleologist believes that the…
"Deontological and Teleological Assumptions in Normative Ethics," (n.d.). Regis University. Retrieved online: http://rhchp.regis.edu/hce/ethicsataglance/DeontologicalTeleological/DeontologicalTeleological_01.html
"Teleological Ethics," (n.d.). Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/585940/teleological-ethics
Advertising Is Effective in Stimulating Consumption
From print to radio to television commercials, advertising is defining the meaning of perfection.
In line with the Stuart Ewen's argument, advertising is dictating what to wear, what to eat and where to go.
How advertising relates to the area of "design, self, and society
Advertising contributes to the improvement of the society
Ads are inspiring and uplifting people, encouraging them to behave in ways that benefit them and others.
Advertising is brightening lives simply by being tasteful, entertaining and witty.
Most advertisements are instances of graphic design.
Here, graphic design refers to the process of visual problem solving and communication by using space, type, color, and image.
Advertisers use graphic designs such as branding, logos, posters, billboards, product packaging and website graphics.
For instance, an advertiser could use product packaging composed of artwork such as logo and pure design components like shapes, color…
Beard, F. K. (2007). Humor in the Advertising Business: Theory, Practice, and Wit. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Kirkpatrick, J. (2007). In Defense of Advertising: Arguments from Reason, Ethical Egoism, and Laissez-Faire Capitalism. Place of Publication Not Identified: TLJ Books.
Phillips, M. J. (2007). Ethics and Manipulation in Advertising: Answering a Flawed Indictment. Westport, Conn: Quorum.
Weiss, J. W. (2014). Business Ethics: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach. New York: Cengage Learning
The observances of the Lenten period beginning on Ash Wednesday deepen our relationship with God through enactment of the suffering of Christ. We have scripture to guide us and prepare us mentally, physically, and spiritually.
Joel 2, verses 12 to 18 refers to the “fasting, weeping, and mourning” that characterizes Lent. The fasting puts us in touch on a deeper level with the suffering of Christ. Yet we are immediately warned not to allow the sacred re-enactment to become an empty ritual. We are advised, “Rend your hearts, not your garments.” The outer expression of our mourning is unimportant and can even become egotistical if we do not simultaneously rend our hearts. Lent is our opportunity to ready ourselves to receive the mercy of God. We are ready when, and only when, we become willing to repent.
There is also power in the collective fasting that characterizes Lent. Although Jesus’s…
ethical decision making in general and then in the nursing profession. It addresses two key questions. What are the different ethical decision making processes? How could the ethical dilemma of informed consent in the nursing profession be resolved using one of these processes? The sources used to collect information are books and academic journals. The teleological approach suggests that informed consent is ethical because its benefits exceed its costs. In other words, its consequences are more unfavourable than opposite.
Ethical decision making is the process by which individuals choose an approach to deal with a moral issue they encounter. In everyday life, professionals often have to deal with moral issues. Therefore, frameworks for dealing with ethical dilemmas are required.
"Ethics is the science of the moral life. It is concerned with human conduct in relation to character and a conception of the good, commonly referred to as the highest good.…
Caples, S.C., Hanna, M.D., Phelps, L. (2008). Linking Ethics Decisions to Philosophical Rationales: An Empirical Study. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues. 11 (2), pp.93+
Dresser, H.W. (1925). Ethics in Theory and Application. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Lachman, V.D. (2006). Applied Ethics in Nursing. New York: Springer.
McConnell, T. (2000). Inalienable Rights: The Limits of Consent in Medicine and the Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
Off-duty time does not extend the 14-hour period.
15-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after having been on duty for 15 hours, following 8 consecutive hours off duty. Off-duty time is not included in the 15-hour period.
60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days. A driver may restart a 7/8 consecutive day period after taking 34 or more consecutive hours off duty.
60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit
May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days.
Sleeper Berth Provision
Drivers using the sleeper berth provision must take at least 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, plus a separate 2 consecutive hours either in the sleeper berth, off duty, or any combination of the two.
Sleeper Berth Provision
Drivers using a sleeper berth must take at least 8 hours in the sleeper berth, and may split the sleeper-berth time into two…
About DOT. (2012). U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.dot.gov/ .
Ashmore, R.B. & Staff, W.C. (1994). Teaching ethics: An interdisciplinary approach.
Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.
Belz, S.M., Robinson, G.S. & Casali, J.G. (2004). Temporal separation and self-rating of alertness as indicators of driver fatigue in commercial motor vehicle operators. Human Factors, 46(1), 154-156.
Military Orders That May be Unethical
Military orders are seen as non-optional when they are given. In other words, they cannot be ignored or discarded by those they are given to if the person does not want to follow them for any reason at all. They are not negotiable in any way, under any circumstances. But, are these orders always ethical? In some cases, it would seem as though these orders are not ethical. However, that depends on the person who has been asked to follow those orders and what he or she sees as being ethical. People have very different opinions about ethics, and they are more guidelines than rules when they are looked at by the majority of people. Because ethics are not completely static across a lifetime and because they can change from person to person, it is important to realize that ethics, as a concept, can…
Baghramian, M. (2004). Relativism, London: Routledge.
Crisp, R. & Slote, M. (1997). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Darwall, S. (2003). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: B. Blackwell.
Devettere, R.J. (2002). Introduction to Virtue Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
PESONAL & OGANIZATIONAL ETHICS
Personal and Organizational Ethics Values for, for-Profit and Non-Profit Organizations
Ethics is a requirement of the society to both individuals and organizations. Ethics are applied to business and personal behaviors, and are used to determine how companies and individuals abide to policies. To indicate the application of ethical principles in organizations, an analysis is carried out of For-Profit and Non-For-Profit organizations, in this case Bank of America and Boys Club of America. This is by analyzing an ethical dilemma they are experiencing, their approach to the problem, and the legal, political, and social outcomes emerging from this cause of action.
The Boys Clubs of America is a non-for-profit organization founded in 1860s in Harford, Connecticut Formed with the aim of giving boys who roamed the streets a positive alternative. The club has undergone major changes beginning in 191 when several boys' clubs affiliated to…
Anonymous. (2009, Dec 16). Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Lowe's Announces $1 Million
Bach, R. (2010, March). A Letter from our Chairman Emeritus: March 2010. Retrieved from Boys and Girls Club of America: http://www.bgca.org/chairman/Pages/MarchLetterfromOurChairman.aspx
Bank of America. (2013). Retrieved March 21, 2013, from Bank of America: http://message.bankofamerica.com/heritage/#/ourheritage
BCOA. (2011). Boys of America. Retrieved from Boys of America: http://www.bgca.org/Pages/index.aspx .
On the surface, both ethical relativism and ethical egotism are appealing theories. The ethical relativist avoids many of the problems that arise from encounters with different moral codes, and can help to eliminate some of the culture clashes and social problems inherent in the human condition. For example, when many esterners come into contact with Middle Eastern cultures such as that of Saudi Arabia, they are tempted to pass judgment on the status of women. However, ethical relativism holds that all moral systems are valid, that ethics cannot be absolute or imposed from without. Therefore, ethical relativism is closely connected with cultural relativism. Such a stance makes it easy for people to get along and to resist fighting. "Anything goes," and "live and let live" are in fact some of the basic hallmarks of a liberal democracy and to an extent ethical relativism should always be at least entertained.…
Holt, Tim. "Divine Command Theory." Philosophy of Religion. 2005. Online at .
Weston, Anthony. A 21st Century Ethical Toolbox. Oxford University Press, 2001.
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…
According to the pure mathematics of utilitarianism, then, there is very little debate regarding this issue. No matter what the circumstance, a person who is experiencing true biologically-driven hunger due to a lack of enough food to eat will get far more utility out of the most basic morsel of nutrition and substance that could be achieved by the most magnificent meal for those who are used to plenty (and this comparison is even unfair, as the magnificent meal could be traded to feed that many more hungry people). It is an ethical duty, then, for those of us privileged enough to have plenty to share it with those who do not have enough.
Extending this logic further allows us to answer the question of whether this duty is greater amongst our neighbors, or if there is a global mandate for all mankind. The answer would be very different two…
The most convincing interpretation might be that, as she contended, she did not foresee the consequences. Parks stated that "it was not a time for me to be planning to get arrested." (Reader 2005). So, if she was not considering the consequences, then she was not thinking rationally; if she was not thinking rationally, according to Aristotle, then she was not behaving virtuously. Since we should probably use Parks' own words as the best evidence, we should conclude that Aristotle would not consider her a particularly virtuous individual.
Confucius, alternatively, maintained that all human morality was held together by a single concept: ren, or natural humanistic love. Simply put, ren is a love and respect for all things human. To Confucius, a person can only achieve ren if they undergo an attainment of knowledge to the point where they reach a workable grasp of the place for each form of…
Confucius. The Analects. Reader 2005.
Ross, David. Aristotle: the Nichomachean Ethics. New York: Oxford, 1998.
Unknown. "Rosa Parks, 92, Founding Symbol of Civil Rights Movement, Dies." Reader 2005.
Ethics of Spider Man
The character Spider Man is a foundational superhero of the modern era. His history and life demonstrate the development of an ordinary and even some would say subpar or at the very least "un-cool" young adolescent into a super hero by a twist of fate, i.e. being bit by a genetically modified spider on a science filed trip. The early life of the Spider Man character as depicted in both comic books, television cartoons and movies in live action or animation depict a young man, who stumbles upon a great power and then struggles with how to use that power. In the 2002 film depiction, and true to the comic storyline Peter's/Spiderman's ethics are developed through the film as he struggles with his new found powers, seizing the opportunity to use them for personal gain, by attempting to win money as an amateur fighter/wrestler in a…
Lee, S. (1962) (Spider Man) Amazing Fantasy Vol. 1 #15.
Jenkins, P. (September 2002) Peter Parker, Spider-Man Vol. 2 #48, titled "The Big Question,"
Raimi, S. (Director). (2002) Spider-Man [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
Raimi, S. (Director). (2004) Spider-Man 2 [Motion Picture]. USA. Columbia Pictures Co.
These are subjective values that represent the altruistic view of ethical behavior, and they apply to corporations as well as individuals within the corporations. Thus, the employees of the organization that sell phones to individuals who fit the profile of a terrorist or criminal are acting unethically, and it is the corporation's responsibility to ensure that does not occur. They should require some kind of identification or registration from all customers, and they should maintain the records so they can be searched and identified if necessary. Moral pragmatism demands that the provider use common sense as one of its ethical solutions to problems, and it makes common sense for the provider to require some kind of identification to protect and serve others in the community.
In conclusion, this is a true ethical dilemma in every sense of the words. Ultimately, it seems senseless to allow cell phone companies to sell…
Frain, Jonathan. "Call in if You Suspect Terror Threat." The Birmingham Post. 27 Feb. 2008: 6.
Because of their unwillingness to wear protective equipment they are putting the entire workforce at risk for injury.
The advantage of using this theory is that it allows one to come up with a fairly simple equation that can be used to determine the number of people affected and by how much. The disadvantage of this theory is that it is sometimes hard to figure out how to assign units of happiness to the actions that you are trying to measure (Shaw & Barry, 2007, pp. 45-46). There are many elements of subjectiveness when trying to apply this theory, but in this particular case I feel that the danger that all workers would be exposed to far outweighs some individuals that would be happier not wearing their protective equipment. Not only is their danger to the workers but there is also dangers to the plant as a whole. If a…
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
Yet, given the situation in which this decision cannot be overruled, it is necessary, under the libertarianism theory, to allow the same products to be distributed to other regions, without the imposition of any constraints.
3. Export commodities which have the potential for misuse. pecifically, did Nestle act irresponsibly in marketing infant formula to the third world?
The answer for this question is again a strong No, as the state should not become involved in market operations. Under the libertarianism theory, the role of the state is minimal and the political field is not to become involved in business decisions. Whilst the decision is in fact disputable in ethical terms, according to libertarianism, every consumption decision is to be made by individuals and the distributors and manufacturers should only be constrained by their clients, not by political regulations.
Machan, T.R., 2006, Libertarianism defended, Ashgate Publishing Ltd.,…
Machan, T.R., 2006, Libertarianism defended, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0754652165
In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Ross, W.D. Translator). Retrieved fromhttp://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/aristotle/Ethics.pdf September 30, 2010
Hartman Laura P. & Joe DesJardins. Business Ethics Decision Making for Personal integrity & Social Responsibility, Second Edition
However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
He has already placed himself under a cloud of suspicion by the community, and while he still possess the same essential rights, he cannot be regarded deserving of the same attention as the boy. Cappa's rights must be respected to the fullest because he, in so far as anyone knows, has always respected the rights of others. Smoot has not. The temporary abridgment of Smoot's rights in order to ensure the Natural Rights of Mickey Cappa would seem to be in accord with an ideal of happiness for all. In this kind of situation, the existence of a predator or abductor in the community represents a threat to everyone's natural rights. It is a threat that should be removed. If indeed, Sylvester Smoot is innocent, his interrogation can be viewed as means both of making sure that Mickey Cappa's rights were protected, as well as away of showing to the…
If the leaders of our national financial institutions had asked 'are these moral actions right, ethically speaking, from the point-of-view of my profession' rather than 'will these moral actions make money,' the world financial crisis would never have occurred.
Utilitarianism also tends to deemphasize minority rights -- but merely because a group is in the minority does not mean that it is engaged in a moral wrong. This can be seen in the current debate over gay marriage. Many people stress that marriage is 'naturally' between a man and a woman, simply because the majority of the population is heterosexual. However, by safeguarding only majority rights, African-Americans and other historically-discriminated against groups would never have been allowed to enjoy the promise of the American dream. Kantian principles demand upholding the moral integrity of all human beings, regardless of perceived consequences. During the American Civil Rights movement, many opponents of integration…
Mr. Killian proceeded to show that the organization's corporate culture was in fact based on a culture of integrity. This includes, he mentioned, "a culture of transparency and a culture of proper interrelationship with our partners," in the sense that the Code of Conduct, for example, was made public in governmental records and on the company's website.
esides the actual existence of the Code of Conduct and its proliferation with the employees and shareholders, the company uses several other instruments to enforce a culture of ethics in the workplace. One of the means by which it does this is the Verizon usiness Ethics Line, where every employee can call and report an internal act that breeched the Code of Conduct or the ethical regulations within the company.
We asked Mr. Killian what the organization does that might be considered philanthropic and he gave us a relevant example in this…
1. Verizon Business Code of Conduct. On the Internet at http://www.verizonbusiness.com/us/about/conduct/coc.pdf.Last retrieved on October 8, 2007
2. From the Internet, at http://www.verizonbusiness.com/us/govt/cust_sol/defense/mission_ops/.Last retrieved on October 8, 2007
Verizon Business Code of Conduct. On the Internet at
Rand's Rational Self Interest
Rand’s philosophy regarding selfishness and altruism contains a crucial dichotomy, as virtually anyone’s philosophy regarding opposite concepts would. However, the opposition in Rand’s concept may surprise those who are not familiar with her philosophy. At a very basic level, Rand is stating that selfishness is actually good, and that altruism is really evil in “Introduction to the Virtue of Selfishness”. Thus, there is opposition found within this opposition, as most people would say the inverse of the aforementioned statement. However, the author reveals there are facets of selfishness which are morally beneficial, and aspects of altruism which are decidedly malefic.
Rand’s philosophy, then, is that the polarization of these terms is responsible for the moral boons of the former and the moral disadvantages of the latter. The author states that most people equate selfishness with a blanket “evil” (Rand 5), which they do not distinguish from…
An estimated 1.5 million “preventable adverse drug events” occur each year in the United States alone; the number of medication errors that did not lead to adverse effects but remained undisclosed is unknown (Jenkins & Vaida, 2007, p. 41). The scenario is this: You are working as an advanced practice nurse at a community health clinic. You make an error when prescribing a drug to a patient. You do not think the patient would know that you made the error, and it certainly was not intentional.
Disclosure is an ethical and legal prerogative, showing respect for the patient and a willingness to accept professional responsibility. Consequentialist ethics do not apply to situations like these, because the broader issue is about changing advanced nursing practice and ensuring a culture of safety for all patients. Likewise, disclosure empowers the patient to make informed choices about reactions to the medical error while…
They have achieved gripping solutions to the two main questions put by the stakeholder's theory that underline the moral presupposition of running a business - which are regarding purpose and human relationships.
Stakeholder theory initiates with the supposition that values are necessarily and unequivocally a part of performing business and shuns the separation hypothesis. This hypothesis of separation starts with the assumption that ethics and economics can be clearly and stridently de-linked. A lot of advocates of a shareholder, solitary objective view of the enterprise differentiate the economic from the ethical outcomes and values. The resulting theory is a constricted view which cannot probably do justice to the panoply of human actions which is creation of value and trade. (Stakeholder Theory and the Corporate Objective evisited)
Business Ethics. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. etrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_ethics. Accessed on 5 July, 2005
Expanding the Value Horizon: Stakeholders as Source of Competitive…
Business Ethics. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_ethics . Accessed on 5 July, 2005
Expanding the Value Horizon: Stakeholders as Source of Competitive Advantage. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.sustainablevaluepartners.com/svp_stakeholder_value.pdf. Accessed on 5 July, 2005
Freeman, Edward, R; Wicks, Andrew C; Parmar, Bidhan. Stakeholder Theory and the Corporate Objective Revisited. Organization Science. Vol. 15, No. 3, May-June 2004, pp. 364-369. Retrieved at http://my.t-bird.edu/files/personalfiles/133488/10Corp_Obj_Freeman_Reply.pdf. Accessed on 5 July, 2005
Murphy, J.J. The Concepts of Vision and Mission Revisited: Case Histories Wal-Mart, Hewlet Packward, Matsu*****a Appliances and the Body Shop. Retrieved at http://www.negotiationeurope.com/articles/mission-vision.html . Accessed on 5 July, 2005