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Definition of an Ethical Framework
An ethical framework that would be useful to me is one which I can use it to assess how to go about behaving in a given circumstance. The framework should be based on the virtue-ethics perspective. As Lutz (1996) points out, “Piaget and Kohlberg belong to the cognitive-developmental tradition of developmental psychology” in which the moral development of a child is decided through social interaction and comes about naturally rather than through formal education (p. 1). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is that there are six stages of moral development. First, there is the stage in which the child does what is right to avoid being punished. Second comes the stage in which the child does what is right because he perceives it serves his own interests. Third comes the stage in which the child desires to see himself as a good person and for…
Overview of the legal system:
In Australia, each state is responsible for legislation under which child care services are licensed. Licensing provides a legal "floor" below which no service is permitted to operate, according to CCQA. These include structural factors related to space, range of equipment, number and ages of children, staff-to-child ratio, and qualifications of staff. All of these factors are what contribute to quality.
Legislative Basis: A child care center is defined in Section 3 of the Children's Services Act 1985 as "any place or premises in which more than 4 young children are, for monetary or other consideration, cared for on a non-residential basis apart from their guardians." Therefore, a child care license is necessary in order to operate under the requirements of the Children's Services (Child Care Center) Regulations 1988.
Other related laws to be observed:
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the…
employ the 6-step model described by Wagner and Toren in their article, for evaluating a particular healthcare scenario. Managers are in charge of ensuring and fostering an ethical and secure work atmosphere wherein nurses can deliver quality patient care. It is often stated in the nursing profession that the key duties of managers include taking care of patient needs and upholding their right to be delivered quality healthcare. This 6-step model provides a means to conflict resolution via a model of ethical decision-making. A number of conditions and steps are proposed for examining and solving ethical quandaries.
• Definition of ethical issue;
• Clarification of professional and personal values, regulations and ethical tenets involved;
• Identification of alternative courses of action;
• Selection of a particular course of action;
• Initiation of discussions on unsolved problems;
• Solution generalization to similar problems.
Definition of Ethical Issue
A child, aged six,…
Muirhead, P. (2004). When parents and physicians disagree: What is the ethical pathway? Paediatrics & Child Health, 9(2), 85 -- 86.
Sirbaugh, P. E., & Diekema, D. S. (2011). Consent for emergency medical services for children and adolescents. From the American Academy of Pediatrics, 128(2), 427 -- 433. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1166
The best practices in medical ethics. (n.d). Retrieved August 8, 2016, from http://www.medicalassistantcertification.org/medical-ethics/
humans have been concerned with the most expedient and effective means of punishment for a crime committed. ecently, the United States has turned more to a correctional than a rehabilitative approach to punishing offenders. Studies conflict as to the success of this approach, although numbers of crimes have declined moderately. In addition, such incarceration leads to other problems such as considerably higher costs and increasing numbers of offenders having chronic diseases such as AIDS.
According to Gould and Sitren in "Crime and Punishment: Punishment Philosophies and Ethical Dilemmas," there are three major frameworks that address the purpose of punishment -- utilitarianism, deontology and peacemaking.
Utilitarianism recognizes the purpose of punishment in terms of the end result. For utilitarians, punishment is justifiable because it creates a greater balance of happiness vs. unhappiness. For Bentham, punishment should be utilized to maximize the total pleasure or minimize the total pain of all parties…
YOU NEED TO ADD THE OTHER ONES HERE, SINCE YOUR FAX DID NOT INCLUDE THE BIBLIO. THANKS
Bedeau, H.A. (2002) Thinking and Writing about Philosophy. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Braswell, M., Fuller, J, & Lozoff, B. (2001). Corrections, Peacemaking and Restorative Justice: Transforming Individuals and Institutions. Ottowa, Canada: Anderson Publishing.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Te profiled organization is Yout LifeLine America, ttp://www.youtlifelineamerica.com. Te organization is a not-for-profit 501 c3 tax-exempt status and domiciled in O'Fallon Missouri, United States. Yout LifeLine America (YLA) operates in multiple cities trougout America providing services targeted to te adolescent. Specifically, YLA coordinate efforts to influence yout via suc mediums as te arts, entertainment, sports and celebrities, to teac ways to be productive and encourage a mindset of sustained development.
YLA is a small business employing below ten employees. Te Founder & CEO is Roland Williams, Director of Development & Programs is Cedric Cobb, Katryn Vasconcellos is Event Guru, and Angela Castelli is Vice President of Operations. According to Angela Castelli, YLA as a very targeted approac to assisting te yout population.
"Tis organization as identified te gaps tat exist in our yout's culture today, educates and empowers tem to develop te skills tat allow tem to reac…
Dismal Ethics. Economist; 1/8/2011, Vol. 398 Issue 8715, p76-76, 1p, 1 Color Photograph
Thomson, G.S. 2010, "Taxonomy of Business Ethics Theories," SSRN Working Paper Series,, pp. n/a.
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Within the specific business climate, a major reason attesting to the value of the lessons learnt is represented by the role of the organizational culture. The organizational culture can be defined as the "values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization. Organizational culture is the sum total of an organization's past and current assumptions, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations" (Business Dictionary).
The organizational culture is as such the nucleus of any company and it impacts the means in which the employees work and function and also the means in which the organizational objectives are met. An organizational culture focused on ethical behavior will function in an ethical manner and will as such create a positive reputation and positive results, whereas a company with an…
Organizational culture, Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational-culture.html last accessed on November 18, 2011
Borderud, S.R., 2009, The ethical framework
Trevino, L.K., Nelson, K.A., Developing ethical organizations: ethics as organizational culture
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
Emphasize the importance of courtesy, organization, and calmness to all staff members. These qualities on the part of the staff can reinforce the importance of generally good and ethical behaviour to the tourists, which may then carry over to their behaviour in the destination country.
Maintain a neutral stance on the culture of the destination country or countries. Making clear that all cultures have equal value and that ethical behaviour must be expected of all visitors. It must also be clear through explicit instructions and by example that tourists often have greater power than the people they are visiting and so must act with respect and restraint.
Obey the laws, regulations, customs, and traditions of both departure and destination countries. This is clearly linked to the above. (Fennell: 2006; Fennell & Malloy: 2007).
Charter airline companies are private corporations, which ensures that those who own them (either directly or indirectly…
Fennell, D.A. (2006). Tourism Ethics. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Fennell, D.A. And Malloy, D.C. (2007). Codes of Ethics in Tourism: Practice, Theory and Synthesis. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Holden, a. (2005). Tourism Studies and the Social Sciences. Oxon, England: Routledge.
Krippendorf, J. (1987) the Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Ethical Challenge Scenaios in Healthcae Administation
Scenaio 1: You have withdawn an offe at the last minute (due to poo efeences) to an ICU nuse manage candidate who has moved acoss the county to accept the job. The only way you will avoid a lawsuit is if she is hied somewhee else soon. A close colleague calls to ask you fankly why you withdew the offe. What do you say?
This paticula scenaio seems like moe of a legal issue than an ethical question. An ethical dilemma would be about whethe to talk to the fiend o not. It seems that thee ae a few sepaate issues with egad to the oveall scenaio. Fist, of couse is the legality of talking to the fiend at all. Why does she want to know? Did she ecommend the employee? Next, what does an offe of employment mean? Anothe point to expound upon…
references: A survey of recently enacted state legislation. William and Mary Law Review, 39(1). 177-228.
Meier, K.J., & Hicklin, A. (2008). Employee turnover and organizational performance: testing a hypothesis from classical public administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4). 573-582.
Robinson, R.K., Jackson, W.T., Franklin, G.M., & Clayton, R.W. (2010). The changing legal environment for employers: Implications for small businesses. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 22(1). 91-99.
Yoder, B. (2008). How reasonable Is "Reasonable"? The search for a satisfactory approach to employment handbooks. Duke Law Journal, 57(5). 1517-1529.
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…
Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.
Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.
Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…
1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.
2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
From the utilitarian perspective, it can be assumed that the use of spyware will reduce the private use of computers and restore the lost work hours, which is a benefit for the company. Employee relationships with the company will be damaged, however, perhaps irrevocably, and this could also affect productivity. Managing the data from the spyware will also require company resources, which can be seen as a detriment. Deontologically speaking, it is generally considered wrong to spy, but it is also wrong to waste company time when an employee is accepting money in an agreement to work, not take care of private business. The two wrongs do not cancel each other out, but either decision leaves one side wronged, so neither system provides a direct answer to the problem.
A combination of the two approaches is not impossible, and in fact makes a great deal of sense in this scenario.…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). "Deontological ethics." Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Accessed 24 January 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/#DeoThe
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2008). "Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach to Ethics." Markula center for applied ethics. Accessed 24 January 2010.
Mautner, T., ed. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of philosophy. New York: Penguin.
The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.
The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.
It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.
During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark
Ethical Analysis -- Strategy for Palliative Care
The sector for healthcare has, in the last 50 years, improved in its efforts towards cost minimization and service delivery enhancement. Some elements of improvement (such as automation) ensued from technological advances. However, other elements (such as strategy application) owe their establishment in the health sector to endeavors on the part of intelligent, like-minded people who understand life's worth, and that of minimal suffering when it comes to illness. Palliative care represents one such effort. It denotes a system targeted at delivering respite from painful, disturbing symptoms through the affirmation of life and considering death to be a process. Palliative care, as defined by the World Health Organization, is an approach, which enhances quality of life (QOL) of patients, suffering from life-threatening ailments, and their family via prevention and symptom relief. This, they achieve through early diagnosis, and proper assessment and pain treatment,…
Chambers, M. (2015) The Strategic Importance of Palliative Care Within the Irish Heath Service, The Irish Hospice Foundation, http://hospicefoundation.ie/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/The-strategic-importance-of-palliative-care-within-the-Irish-health-service-Perspectives-on-future-service-delivery.pdf (Retrieved;13,12,2015)
Fromme, E., Smith, M. (2015) Ethical Issues in Palliative Care, UptoDate, http://www.uptodate.com/contents/ethical-issues-in-palliative-care (Retrieved;13/11/2015)
Gabel, S. (2010) Ethics and values in Clinical practice: Whom do they help?, Mayo Foundation and Licence Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084645 / (Retrieved, 13/11/2015)
Policy Directive, (2010) Palliative Care Strategic Framework 2010-2013, Ministry of Health, NSW, http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2010/pdf/PD2010_003.pdf (Retyrieved:13/11/2015)
He offered me $1,000 to set an appointment with the candidate. I refused to accept the bride, and as such, behaved in an ethical manner.
From a teleological standpoint, my decision was a positive one since it was made in the sense and the sake of the final goal, that is the preservation of a good reputation for the candidate. Also, the decision also empowered my personal morale. Still, the finality of the action was that the business man approached another campaign staff and the decision made impacted primarily myself, rather than the actual system of political bribes.
2.2. Personal ethics and deontological frameworks
At the level of deontological ethics, I also acted in full accordance with the specifications and moral expectations of the position I was occupying at the time. In other words, I acted based on the norms and rules of behavior applicable when acting on a campaign…
Adam, D., 2009, ExxonMobil continuing to fund climate skeptic groups, records show, the Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jul/01/exxon-mobil-climate-change-sceptics-fundinglast accessed on June 1, 2012
Carroll, a.B., Buchholtz, a.K., 2011, Business and society: ethics, sustainability and stakeholder management, 8th edition, Cengage Learning
Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high cost of low price
U.S. Congress, 2005, Congressional record, V. 151, Pt. 20, June 20 to June 27, 2005, Government Printing Office
In this world view, the Canadian system of business regulation is ripe for the pruning of its lower branches, where the most liberal, socially, and environmentally-friendly legislation has been enacted that has cut into the bottom line of businesses nationwide (DuPlessis, Enman, Gunz, O'Byrne, 2011). Often, the conservative perspective would like to give personal legal rights to businesses with less consideration put upon the responsibilities that arise from such a legal status. This is to say that businesses, like people, should be afforded rights as well as responsibilities as the cost of the rights granted and enjoyed.
From the other side of the tracks, from a more liberal perspective, business ethics and regulations are different hands on the same body. This is to say that this group of people believes that the more businesses are regulated and ethically fixed; the better off an economy is (DuPlessis, Enman, Gunz, O'Byrne, 2011).…
Anderson, Bruce. (2008). "Business Ethics v Business Law: Rules, More Rules, and Deliberation." Legisprudence. Vol. 2, No. 3. Pp. 217-230.
Carasco, Emily F. And Singh, Jang B. (2008). "Human Rights in Global Business Ethics Codes." Business and Society review. Vol. 113, No. 3. Pp. 347-374.
DuPlessis, Dorothy; Enman, Steven; Gunz, Sally; and O'Byrne, Shannon. (2011). Canadian Business and the Law, 4th ed. Nelson Education: Scarborough, on.
Husted, Bryan W. (2008). "Toward a Model of Cross-Cultural Business Ethics: The Impact of Individualism and Collectivism on the Ethical Decision-Making Process." Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 82, No. 2. Pp. 293-305.
Unfortunately, most quantitative studies lack external validity in the research design to allow for general conclusions.
Teaching Theories and Nursing
It was Nightingale that recognized the potential of combining sound logical reflection and empirical research in the development of scientific knowledge that lead to evidence-based practices of today. She saw the need to only classify one's illness by the best possible available knowledge but to also collect patient information in the form of survey. Nightingale's work was also groundbreaking as it was the first to integrate such ideas into one method. She understood how factors such as housing and nutrition could have a direct influence on the patient's health and prognosis (McDonald, 2001, p. 68). Still many researchers to come would look at her work as primitive, inconclusive and one-sided. They would see how such details act as an extension of evidence and the attention paid to details as research…
Ackermans, W. & Lohnes, P. (1981). Research methods for nurses. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Allen, K. (2005 Aug.). Online Learning: constructivism and conversation as an approach to learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 247-256.
Bigge, M.L., & Shremis, S.S. (1999). Learning Theories for teachers. New York: Addison- Wesley Longman.
Bilyeu, S.M. (2005 April 1). When families complicate patient care: a case study with guidelines for approaching ethical dilemmas. MedSurg Nursing, 6.
Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…
MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
In a case such as with the Exxon Valdez, the company essentially saw the two arguments of shareholder value and ethics as mutually exclusive. To resolve the issue, the company chose to focus on shareholder value as a means of making its decision, and ultimately chose not to retrofit the ships. Thus, the company chose to look at the situation strictly from the shareholder model, where management is the agent of the shareholder only, and only seeks to increase shareholder wealth.
For many firms, this is not the normal approach. Many companies take different approaches to corporate social responsibility, perhaps with a stakeholder theory. Under the stakeholder theory, the environment and the citizens of the areas that could be potentially affected by a spill would be taken into account. This approach has an appeal because it forces managers to think about the broader implications of their actions, and…
Orts, E. & Strudler, A. (2002). The ethical and environmental limits of stakeholder theory. Business Ethics Quarterly. Vol. 12 (2) 215-233.
Ethical System and Its Justification
In the definition of an ethical system, there are both the ethical theories and ethical principles. These provide the viewpoints upon which an ethical analysis is conducted Schwartz, 2003.
They provide guidance as to what path to take to arrive at the final decision James, 2000.
To me, good is defined as that action which is ethical in nature and which complies with the standards of the society at large.
There are several actions that I consider to be good. One example is helping another student revise for an exam. Secondly, there is the action of helping an elderly woman cross the street. There is also the act of encouraging and motivating people in their daily lives. Another action that I consider to be good is that of letting certain persons such as the elderly or a pregnant woman cut the line where you are…
James, H.S., Jr. (2000). Reinforcing Ethical Decision Making through Organizational Structure. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(1), 43-58.
Morris, M.H., Schindehutte, M., Walton, J., & Allen, J. (2002). The Ethical Context of Entrepreneurship: Proposing and Testing a Developmental Framework. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(4), 331-361.
Schwartz, M.S. (2003). The "Ethics" of Ethical Investing. Journal of Business Ethics, 43(3), 195-213.
Thong, J.Y.L., & Yap, C.-S. (1998). Testing an Ethical Decision-Making Theory: The Case of Softlifting. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(1), 213-237.
Apple's Current Position On Its Ethical And Social esponsibilities
Corporations are increasingly seeking a vision in maintaining social responsibility alongside a vision in business. There are also demands for greater accountability and transparency in corporate actions of organized consumers, state representatives and grass movements (Garsten, 2003). Many corporations aim to engage in corporate citizenship and to be socially responsible by adhering to social accountability standards and voluntary codes of conduct. This essay endeavors to examine Apple's current position on the social and ethical responsibilities and to determine whether it has met the responsibilities. The study also determines the impact caused by the violation of ethics and social responsibilities among Apple's suppliers.
Current Position on the Company's Ethical and Social esponsibilities
Corporate Social esponsibility comprises of actions that are not required by the law, but extend beyond the transactional interest of companies and further social good. CS is often used to…
Creel, T. (2010). Environmental Reporting Practices of the Largest U.S. Companies. Management Accounting Quarterly 12(10): 13-20
Garsten, C. (2003). The cosmopolitan organization -- an essay on corporate accountability. Global Networks 3(3):355 -- 370
Kenney, M. (2011). How venture capital became a component of the U.S. National System of Innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(6): 1677 -- 1723
Northrop, E. (2013). The Accuracy, Market Ethic, and Individual Morality Surrounding the Profit Maximization Assumption. American Economist, Vol. 58, No. 2: 111-124
Business operations are deemed viable of they succeed in establishing conditions that guarantee safety for its product consumers. Specified standards are applied by business entities to attain such viability. These considerations are critical in product safety, intellectual property, and marketing in general. If a company or business entity violates any of the aspects mentioned, it stands a high risk being caught in a web of ethical and legal complications that might destroy it. PhamaCARE finds itself in such a precarious predicament owing to its blatant violation of a number of legal and ethical standards. There were both ethical and legal problems that impacted on its clients and businesses. Investigating behavior is paramount in uncovering issues related to legal and ethical problems of any business entity.
Pursuant to the scenario above, identify three (3) legal issues and problems PharmaCARE has in relation to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of…
Creating an ethical foundation is crucial for success within a changing consumer environment (Driscoll & Hoffman 2000). As more and more consumers become concerned with organization's social and environmental responsibilities, organizations with clear unethical or deviant behaviors are seeing sharp declines in terms of consumer reputations. The modern market place is dictating higher standards for corporate responsibility and organizational ethics weaved within the framework of businesses. This is the reasons why Trudel & Cotte describe companies with greater ethical foundations as being more productive in terms of charging higher premiums. Essentially, consumers are willing to pay more for ethical products; "It seems that once companies hit a certain ethical threshold, consumers will reward them by paying higher process for their products" (Trudel & Cotte 2008). Consumers clearly notice the effort of creating an ethical foundation within production efforts (Lecture 1). Yet, the levels of ethical responsibility placed into…
Driscoll, Dawn-Marie & Hoffman, W. Michael. (2000). Ethics Matters: How to Implement Values-Driven Management. Brentley College Center for Business Ethics.
Lecture 1. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
Lecture 2. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
Lecture 3. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
These are ethics that know no cultural bounds. hat is perceived as ethical in one society as well as any other is an example of a natural law. These are typically based on the human desire for equality as well as the desire to do good ("hat is Natural Law?"). Furthermore, natural rights evolve legally from natural laws often. They also often see an intertwining of religious beliefs, although they can also be expressed as more an intertwining of moral beliefs that are then supported by religion. The primary weakness of natural law theory is that it is sometimes difficult to determine if a belief is truly universal, or simply cultural.
Virtue ethics determines whether an action is right or wrong by the virtue of the action.
Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that…
"Kant's Moral Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 23 Feb. 2004. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
MacKinnon, Barbara. Ethics: theory and contemporary issues. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1995. Print.
"Virtue Ethics." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 18 July 2007. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
"What is Ethical Relativism?" Philosophy - AllAboutPhilosophy.org. N.p., 2011. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
ability to make good choices between two or more competing options is the primary requirement of being ethical. Over the years, academicians and researchers have identified six traits or pillars of character that help in ethical and fair decision making which are within the limits of legality. These six traits include trustworthiness, responsibility, respect, caring, fairness and good citizenship. While being ethical is applicable at almost every step in life, in business e=being ethical or taking ethically correct and legally binding decisions are influenced by economic, professional and the social pressures.
Ethical and fair decision making also come along with a number of excuses that not being able to do so. These excuses often are put forward to cover up for a decision that could be considered as unethical or unfair and claim to be influenced by environmental factors including economic, social or regulatory and legal.
esearchers like B. McDowell,…
Ferrell, O. & Ferrell, L. (2009). Ethical business. New York: DK Pub.
McDowell, B. (2000). Ethics and excuses. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books.
Tsalikis, J. & Peralta, A. (2114). Priming effects on business ethical decision making. IJSIM, 01(01). http://dx.doi.org/10.15556/ijsim.01.01.001
Business Ethics and Corporate Social esponsibility Page |
Outside Evaluation elated to Corporate Governance and Business Ethics
Corporate social responsibility is the corporate conscience of the company that provides corporate self-regulation combined with business models (D Wood, 1991). The CS policy framework provides guidelines for businesses to have active compliance with the corporate laws, ethical standards and international norms if the company is doing business globally. The objective of CS policy guideline is to encourage company towards activities that supports positive work environment, consumer care, employee development, community responsibility, stakeholders concerns and external public affair. CS proactively augment the public interest (PI) by encouraging community growth and development, and voluntarily eliminate actions that harm the public interest, regardless of legality (Saether, Kim T. & uth V. Aguilera, 2008). The corporate social responsibility is the model of Creating Shared Value. The shared value model is built on the idea…
D Wood, (1991). Corporate Social Performance Revisited. The Academy of Management Review
Gray, R.H. Owen D.L. & Maunders, K.T. (1987) Corporate Social Reporting: Accounting and accountability, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall, 1987
Heiman, Frederick D. (2008). Designing effective incentive bonus programs
Retrieved on 20th Oct 2011 through:
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be…
Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.
Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.
Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.
Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
In this course, we learned that it is important to utilize the prevailing ethical perspectives, in particular to find the one most appropriate to the situation. The consequentialist perspective sheds light on my conclusions -- that national interest is the ultimate objective of both press freedoms and military action but that the latter form of national interest is more immediate in nature and therefore should supersede the former. I feel that my ability to examine this ethical dilemma from a number of viable perspectives and to determine the best perspective and subsequently apply that perspective is evidence that I have mastered the concepts of this course.
The role of press freedom in communication is at the heart of this issue. The ethics of the communication, when the dilemma involves two mutually exclusive points of national interest, is difficult to evaluate. In providing a framework for this evaluation and for this…
The topic of spiritual transformation will be grounded upon the ethics presented within the Holy Bible and the teachings of the Apostle Paul. There must be a solid foundation to build ethical principles on for a true transformation to occur. When the training up is unrecognized, the transformation process will ultimately fail in its attempt. With this in mind, there will be a question to be answered in delivery of the thesis and its corresponding evidence of argument. The question will be "What is the foundational source to ground spiritual formation on?" The ethical ground of the Pauline ethics will consist of such things as moral instructions, passion, love, community formation, and virtues. The ultimate goal of Christian ethics is the fulfillment of being Christ-like. The character of Jesus Christ is the greatest goal to strive for. The thesis statement is "A Christians ethical foundation must be centered…
Giannet, S.M. (2002). The Radical Ethics of Jesus. The American Journal of Biblical Theology. Retrieved from http://www.biblicaltheology.com/Research/GiannetS02.html
Hartog, P. (2011). The Integrative Role of the Spirit in the Ethics of Galatians. Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal, 16, 19-39.
Harrison, N.V. (1996). The Holy Spirit and Ethics: A Response to Philip S. Keane. CTSA Proceedings, 51, 114-119.
Pettegrew, L. (2000). Theological Basis of Ethics. The Master's Seminary Journal, 11(2), 139-153.
Duties of a Correctional Psychologist
An increasing rate of violation of crimes characterizes the current global environment. Different forms of violence and aggression, including drug trafficking and abuse, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of violence necessitates the need for analyzing the roles of a correctional psychologist. he special roles played by the correctional psychologists such as providing environments that improve the safety of the staff and inmates, psychological services, inmate management, and conducting an evaluation of the inmate/prison population and its influence on inmates' health necessitated the study into the topic. In addition, the fact that the correctional psychology has numerous ethical dilemmas and conflicts makes it wanting to study the topic.
he working environment, professional and personal experiences made me interested in studying the duties and challenges facing correctional psychologist. he fact that correctional psychologists work in a simulative and challenging environment attracts my interests…
The study provides a variety of opportunities for future research. For example, it provides an avenue for conducting research on the organizational factors that influence decision-making of the correctional psychologists. Organizational factors such as structure have been predicted to affect the practicing of correctional psychologists. Therefore, this study will provide the basis for studies into the issue. In addition, the study provides opportunities for future research on the contributing factors to the transformation of the correctional psychologists and their roles. Other ways in which this study will provide opportunities for future research include studies that aim at criticizing legitimacy of studies conducted on the topic.
Corriea, K.M. (2009). A Handbook for Correctional Psychologists: Guidance for the Prison Practitioner. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD
principals who are equity-oriented, marginalized dynamics may crop up in schools that are changing demographically at a rapid pace (Cooper, 2009). This essay reflects upon how educators may play the role of transformative leaders by way of carrying out cultural work that tackles inequity, addresses and/or attempts to remove socio-cultural limits, and promotes inclusion. The theories of Cornel West on 'the new cultural politics of difference' appraise the topic, as do literary works on transformative leadership to promote social justice.
Highlighting the ever-changing policy responses in the history of educational leadership, along with their contextual settings, explains the necessity for another glimpse at the manner in which educational leadership should be considered in recent times. Gale & Densmore (2003) found that educational leaders are now faced with contradictory pressures -- on the one hand, to favor some student groups over others, yet, on the other hand, to ensure that disadvantaged…
Appiah, K.A. (2006). The politics of identity. Daedulus, 135(4), 15-22.
Barrett, A. (2012). Transformative leadership and the purpose of schooling. Unpublished dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
Bell, D.A. (1987). Neither separate schools nor mixed schools: The chronicle of the sacrificed Black schoolchildren. In D. Bell (Ed.); And we are not saved: The elusive quest for racial justice (pp. 102 -- 122). New York: Basic Books.
Brown, K.M. (2004). Leadership for social justice and equity: Weaving a transformative framework and pedagogy. Education Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 77-108.
Who is Watching the Watchers Privacy in the Early 21st Century
Notwithstanding the Fourth Amendment constitutional expectations to privacy that American consumers enjoy, the Internet of Things, the proliferation of closed-circuit cameras and GPS tracking systems has made true individual privacy is a thing of the distant past. Nevertheless, consumers have a legitimate right to expect that their right to privacy is respected and protected to the maximum extent possible and that businesses of all sizes and types conform to all relevant governmental regulatory and compliance requirements. To determine the current state of affairs, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature concerning the ethical considerations involved the use of tracking technologies to determine whether privacy policies or legislation should only apply to sensitive, personal information and to determine with some precision just who “watches the watchers.” Finally, a summary of the research and…
Apte, A. et al. (2019, June 25). Ethical considerations in the use of GPS-based movement tracking in health research – lessons from a care-seeking study in rural west India. Journal of Global Health (9)1, 103-123.
Ethical considerations to guide the use of digital proximity tracking technologies for COVID-19 contact tracing The World Health Organization. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/hp/Downloads/WHO-2019-nCoV-Ethics_Contact_tracing_apps-2020.1-eng.pdf.
Mittelstadt, B. D. et al. (2016, July-December). The ethics of algorithms: Mapping the debate. Big Data & Society, 1-21.
Ectopic Pegnancy and the Jehovah's Witness
It is impotant to be awae of cultual and eligious beliefs within a community, especially as a health cae povide, because when dealing with patients fom within that community thee can be tensions that aise if the teatment violates a pinciple of the cultual/eligious community. This would be the case wee a membe of Jehovah's Witness community to come into the hospital with the symptom descibed in the case study in which the woman has ectopic pegnancy. Because it is a tenant of the Jehovah's Witness community to eject blood tansfusion, it is impotant that a hospital have a back-up plan fo such cases so as to be able to pactice "bloodless medicine" in ode to save the lives of patients like the 25-yea-old woman in the case scenaio (Ratcliffe, 2004). This pape will discuss the impact of teating Jehovah's Witnesses when the teatment…
references and the Right to Forgo Life-Saving Treatments. Social Theory and Practice, 41(4): 716-733.
Global Healthcare Ethics and the andomised HIV Trial
Healthcare professional face a range of ethical issues in the pursuance of their vocation. In the context of HIV research and the conducting of research among vulnerable population, such as poor expectant mothers in developing countries, the compete of global health ethics should provide a foundation for the assessment of ethical practices, both in planning, undertaking, and reviewing the work (WHO, 2014; Stapleton et al., 2013). Global health ethics is an interdisciplinary field, which covers not only health research, but also issues such as the provision of healthcare, and development of health policy, with the aim of understanding the moral values which should be implemented at a global level, undertaken utilising a predominantly geographic approach to macro level health issues (Stapleton et al., 2013). In this context, global health ethics is primarily concerned with issues such as pandemics, the effects of natural…
Kass. N.E., (2000), An Ethics Framework for Public Health, American Journal of public health, 91, 1776-1782
Pinto, A D; Upshur,, (2009), Global health Ethics for Students, Developing World Bioethics, 9(1), 1-10
Stapleton, G; Schroder-Back, P; Laaser, U; Meershoek, A; Popa, D, (2013), Global health ethics: an introduction to prominent theories and relevant topics, Global Health Action, 7, 235-69
World Health Organization, (WHO), (2014), Global Health Ethics, retrieved 19th December 2015 from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/164576/1/9789240694033_eng.pdf
Other less formal societal virtues may not be controlled by the state, but violation of social norms may often result in social rejection and other spontaneous negative consequences in public. For example, Jews and Muslims do not eat pork products or shellfish, Hindus do not eat cows, and in the United States, dogs and cats are considered pets exclusively, and rats considered filthy vermin; none of them are eaten. In many parts of India, cows are considered sacred and (depending on which particular society) rats are either revered and pampered in religious temples or trapped in large numbers for food. In many parts of the U.S., transvestites are considered social deviants; in parts of Indochina, they are celebrated.
The Argument for Objective Virtue:
Aristotle believed in universal truths, although he wrote less about exactly what virtues in particular emanate from those truths. Objective virtues are those that relate in some…
Ethical Dilemma- A Framework
Taking into account ethical concerns is one of the key components in providing healthcare in the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship (osenbaum, 1982). Nurses face ethical uncertainty, distress and conflict in their day-to-day work. When more than one ethical value applies to a particular case, and all of them recommend following a different course of action, then an ethical dilemma exists in such a case a nurse would be not be sure of which value takes precedence (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2009). This specific case involves a 6-year-old who is by law a minor and thus a physician must obtain informed consent from their legal guardian. However, the child's primary guardian is his non-biological mother who is citing her religious reason to refuse medical treatment, while the biological father who resides in another state wants the kid to be treated, a situation that leaves the…
American Counseling Association (2005). Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. College of Nurses of Ontario (2009). PRACTICE Standard: ethics. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from https://www.cno.org/Global/docs/prac/41034_Ethics.pdf
Forester-Miller H. & Davis T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from http://www.alabamacounseling.org/pdf/acaguide.pdf
Forester-Miller, H. & Rubenstein, R.L. (1992). Group Counseling: Ethics and Professional Issues. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds.) Introduction to Group Counseling (307-323). Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.
Haas, L.J. & Malouf, J.L. (1989). Keeping up the good work: A practitioner's guide to mental health ethics. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
Defining an Ethical Leader
Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric
The nature of leadership is multifaceted and often requires the continual mastery of new skills, insights, intelligence and perspectives to stay effective over the long-term. Such is the nature of ethical leadership, which requires a steadfast focus on a core set of ethical principles and values that guide a leader's judgment, ensuring consistency over the long-term. These are also the fundamental aspects of any leader's long-term credibility as well, and their ability to transform their enterprises over the long-term as well (John, 2005). Ethical leaders often resonate with credibility and the willingness to also change quickly in response to the needs of their organizations, employees, stakeholders and customers.
The purpose of this analysis is to define what an ethical leader is, how managers can progress to being more ethical in their leadership style, and how Jeff Immelt, CEO of general Electric,…
Crainer, S. (2009). From Edison to Immelt: The GE Way. Business Strategy Review, 20(3), 18-22.
Gonzalez, T.F., & Guillen, M. (2002). Leadership ethical dimension: A requirement in TQM implementation. The TQM Magazine, 14(3), 150-164.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Immelt, J. (2010). Renewing American Leadership. Vital Speeches of the Day, 76(2), 53.
Ethical and legal use of psychological testing has a significant impact on the standards and practices of psychological testing to demonstrate intervention for those being tested. The purpose of the ethical boundaries of psychological testing is to ensure that clinicians are utilizing the best test possible and then applying the results ethically to demonstrate assistance with diagnosis and intervention modes in a way that best meets the needs of the subject. This work will discuss the ethical application and utilization of psychological testing instruments to demonstrate the best possible outcomes and interventions for subjects in a way that recognizes tests strengths and limitations and ultimately leads to the appropriate and essential answers needed to aid people with diagnosis and treatment objectives. There are a significant number of psychological tests at the disposal of clinicians and they are in a constant state of revision by the entities that develop…
Emanuel, E.J., & Menikoff, J. (2011). Reforming the regulations governing research with human subjects. The New England Journal Of Medicine, 365(12), 1145-1150. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1106942
Green, B., Li, L., Morris, J., Gluzman, R., Davis, J.L., Wang, M., & Katz, R.V. (2011). Detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Who knows what? A framework for health promotion strategies. Health Education & Behavior, 38(6), 629-636. doi:10.1177/1090198110391529
Hogan, T.P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Nagy, T.F. (2011). Ethics in psychological assessment. In T.F. Nagy (Ed.), Essential ethics for psychologists: A primer for understanding and mastering core issues (pp. 171-183). Washington, DC U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12345-009
Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater horizon accident
One of the most eminent names in the oil and gas industry is British Petroleum, considered as the largest provider of oil and gas to its customers for transportation, energy for heating and light and retail services for petrochemical products globally. The financial and operational picture of the company's performance is illustrated in table1 below.
Performance at a glance for 2010
Facts and figures
Sales and other operating revenues
eplacement cost profit
Number of employees
efineries (wholly or partly owned)
$297,107 million (year 2010)
($4,519) million (year 2010)
79,700 (at 31 Dec 2010)
18,071 million barrels of oil equivalent
Active in 29 countries
2,426 thousand barrels per day (year 2010)
(BP's Corporate website, 2010)
On 20th April 2010 the company faced a serious challenge when one of its oil rigs started leaking and simply couldn't…
BP's Corporate website, 2010. Annual Report 2010. Retrieved through http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=9035798&contentId=7066618 on 12th August 2010
Corner, P. Kinicki, A. And Keats, B. (1994) Integrating organizational and individual information processing perspectives on choice, Organizational Science, vol. 3.
Drucker, P. (1954) The Practice of Management, Harper and Row, New York, 1954.
Gellerman, S. (1989) Managing Ethics from the Top to Down, Sloan Management Review;
An ethical issue refers to a situation whereby an organization is required to choose amongst alternatives that must be evaluated as either wrong or right. For example, an ethical issue arises when a business company opts to make as much profit while pollution the environment, the dilemma here being the regulation and social consequences. The company management may opt to bribing the regulation implementing organization as long as they continue making short-term profits before the law catches up with them, by then they may be forced to attire with the rule or shut down but they will have made as much finances than when they may have started and the consequences on the social life will have reached the stage where it affects their health and made the environment unbearable. The principle of autonomy; which requires individuals to be left on their own independence to conduct their activities,…
Andrew, J. (2008). Utilitarianism and deontology theories. New York: John and sons ltd.
Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Salt Lake: Cengage Learning.
Joanne, B. (2010). Ethics and Business success. Mexico: Greenwood press.
John, K., & Berlyn, M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of decision making models. Normative and rationale models, 15 (14), 319-325.
Philosophy Case Study
The Ethical Provision of Health Insurance
The current state of healthcare is in crisis. The costs of healthcare are soaring, which has caused many employers to either reduce health insurance benefits for employees or to cease offering insurance coverage to their employees. Middle and lower income workers feel the pressure the most, with many of them opting out of insurance benefits, even when they are offered by employers. Currently, 80% of all uninsured people are working or are the dependents of workers. Many of the working uninsured now rely on publicly funded insurance programs, such as Medicaid, which is rapidly depleting state resources. Despite these facts, the United States has continued to resists efforts to socialize its medical system. The just solution to this dilemma is to offer state-sponsored systems of healthcare, which are not funded or subsidized with public money.
One of the major problems with…
This step entails communicating the decision to the concerned person or parties along with the penalties. This step also entails communicating the future course of action to concerned parties.
Close the case- the big errors that companies frequently make is that at times they let the case hang around on without any accomplishment on it. An imperative part of ethical decision making is to close the case by taking action as and when the decision has been communicated.
Set an example and move on- There is no damage in setting the examples for the other workers so that they have a complete awareness of it and they themselves stay away from making such mistakes at any costs. Making sure that everybody has good information of it, and then moving forward is one of imperative facet of ethical decision making (Problem-Solving and Decision-Making, 2010).
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010).…
A Framework for Thinking Ethically. (2010). Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
Forester-Miller, Holly and Davis, Thomas. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision
Making. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
hile some firms are content to subscribe to the bare minimum of ethical doctrines, others have pursued a broader stakeholder perspective. The stakeholder perspective posits that ethics derives from outcomes, which places it squarely in the consequentialist perspective, and that those outcomes be considered from the perspective of all stakeholders (Phillips, 2003). This represents an advancement on Friedman's theory, since he considered only the perspective of the firm's shareholders. Friedman's theory was built on the idea that the shareholders have put up their money to invest in the firm and allow management to build it, therefore management is an agent of the shareholder. The stakeholder perspective recognizes the contribution of all stakeholders. Employees also make an investment in the firm, and that investment may go beyond for which they are compensated. Customers, suppliers and other groups as well are invested to different degrees. The environment and society at large are…
Ethical issues impact business on multiple different levels, and sometimes businesses can find it difficult to make ethical or appropriate decisions. One recent headline-making case highlights how difficult ethical decision-making can be for real-life businesses faced with real-life scenarios. After an African-American waitress received a bill that had "None, Nigger" written in the tip line, she posted the tip on her Facebook page. She removed that post, but her father then posted it on Facebook. Her employer, ed Lobster, suspended her from work for this action (Lake, 2013). Her suspension caused a huge uproar and has probably resulted in the loss of customers for ed Lobster, making it clear that ethical behavior is a corporate issue that can affect a company's bottom line.
What the scenario also makes clear is that it can be impossible to predict the wide variety of ethical scenarios and solutions that…
Etherington, D. (2013, September 17). How to decide between the new Apple iPhone 5s and iPhone 5c. Retrieved September 18, 2013 from Tech Crunch website: http://techcrunch.com/2013/09/17/iPhone-5s-vs.-iPhone-5c/
John Wiley & Sons. (2013). Student companion site: Vonderembse, White: Operations
management: Concepts, methods, and strategies. Retrieved September 18, 2013 from Wiley website: http://bcs.wiley.com/he-bcs/Books?action=resource&bcsId=1528&itemId=0471393274&resourceId=1634&chapterId=4750
Lake, K. (2013, September 13). Waitress gets "none nigger "as tip at Red Lobster, then suspended for posting on Facebook. Retrieved September 18, 2013 from The Free Patriot website: http://freepatriot.org/2013/09/13/waitress-gets-none-nigger-tip-red-lobster-suspended-posting-facebook/
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
Personal Model of Ethical Leadership
Leadership has been defined as the "procedure of social influence where a person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the achievement of a common task" (Jam, 2012). Leadership is something that remains as one of the most appropriate features of the organizational context. A leader is an individual who influences a group of people in the direction of a specific result. It is not really dependent on title or official authority. Leaders are normally recognized by their volume for caring for others, clear communication, and a commitment to persevere. Some experts believe that good leaders are made not born and others say the opposite. Some leaders have the belief that when people have the willpower and desire, then they can become an effective leader. Some managers even mention that a good leader develops through a never ending procedure of self-study,…
Jam, J.I. (2012). IMPACT OF CORPORATE ETHICAL VAULUES ON ETHICAL LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE. International Journal of Business and Social Science,, 23(9), 23-56.
Kacmar, K.M. (2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediating role of organizational politics and the moderating role of political skill. Journal of Business Ethics,, 23(11), 33-44.
Mayer, D.M. (2012). Examining the link between ethical leadership and employee misconduct: The mediating role of ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(6), 7-16.
Miao, Q.N. (2013). The relationship between ethical leadership and unethical pro-organizational behavior: Linear or curvilinear effects? Journal of Business Ethics, 22(5), 67-70.
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
As Spoor (2007) points out, it can be fruitful to examine alternative ethical and moral codes.
Am I taking a consequentialist approach (the ends justify the means)?
Banks (2008) delineates the ways law enforcement officers often use a consequentialist approach in their practice, which does allow for a broad interpretation of roles, duties, and goals. It is important, however, to keep in mind that consequentialism is not the only measure of morality.
Are my intentions and my actions different? What does my decision say about my character?
Aristotle was the first recorded European to discuss the notion of virtue ethics -- that the primary ethical inquiry is one related to the creation of strong moral fiber ("A Framework for Thinking Ethically," 1998). Therefore, it is important to think about how my actions reflect on my character as I seek to be a leader in my field.
"A Framework for Thinking Ethically," (1988). ETHICS 1, no. 2 (Winter 1988).
American Medical Association (2013). Ethical responsibility to study and prevent error and harm. Retrieved online: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion8121.page
Argandona, an. (1998). The stakeholder theory and the common good. Journal of Business Ethics 17.
Considered policies and programs
1. Criminal Justice system: Impact caused by a lengthy criminal justice system on crime suspects
2. Border Control Program: Significance of enhanced boarder control in preventing crime, drug trafficking and counterfeit goods
3. Innocence Program-Suspect Conviction processes: Consequences of wrongful conviction of inmates and measure needed to alleviate wrongful convictions
Impact of relevant political and ethical issues associated with the program evaluation
The criminal justice system has many good but also negative consequences. To the extent that there still are wrongful convictions and the policy makers may have to reevaluate the program with an objective of rethinking the loopholes. Zalman (2006) describes the importance of developing what he terms as an innocence movement. The objective is to litigate matters in the best interest of likely exonerates and promote a research and policy agenda that takes care of innocent convicts. Zalman (2006) proposes a research…
Bohme, C. (2000). The Wages of Seeking Help: Sexual Exploitation by Pofessionals. Westpot, CT: Paege Publishes. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27277229 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861
Baaten, E.B., & Handelsman, M.M. (1997). Client Pefeences fo Infomed Consent Infomation. Ethics & Behavio, 7(4), 311-328. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547
Holmes, C.A. (1998). Thee Is No Such Thing as a Theapist: An Intoduction to the Theapeutic Pocess. London: Kanac Books. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078
Redleaf, a., & Baid, S.A. (1998). Behind Closed Doos: Gende, Sexuality, and Touch in the Docto/Patient Relationship. Westpot, CT: Aubun House. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
Thon, B.E., Rubin, N.J., Holdeby, a.J., & Shealy, R.C. (1996). Client -- Theapist Intimacy: Responses of Psychotheapy Clients to a Consume-Oiented Bochue. Ethics & Behavio, 6(1), 17-28. Retieved Mach 8, 2008, fom Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
references for Informed Consent Information. Ethics & Behavior, 7(4), 311-328. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94803861 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547
Holmes, C.A. (1998). There Is No Such Thing as a Therapist: An Introduction to the Therapeutic Process. London: Karnac Books. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11241547 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078
Redleaf, a., & Baird, S.A. (1998). Behind Closed Doors: Gender, Sexuality, and Touch in the Doctor/Patient Relationship. Westport, CT: Auburn House. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23330078 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
Thorn, B.E., Rubin, N.J., Holderby, a.J., & Shealy, R.C. (1996). Client -- Therapist Intimacy: Responses of Psychotherapy Clients to a Consumer-Oriented Brochure. Ethics & Behavior, 6(1), 17-28. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94802088
Western Ethical Theories
The objective of this work is to examine Western Ethical theories including teleological, deontological, natural law, and interest view and virtue ethics.
The work of Bennett-Woods (2005) states that while the words 'ethics' and 'morality' are "often used interchangeably, morality is more precisely used to refer to the customs, principles of conduct and moral codes of an individual, group or society." Ethics, is also stated to be termed "moral philosophy of the science of morals" and is the branch of philosophy that examines "morality through the critical examination of right and wrong in human action." (Bennett-Woods, 2005)
The study of ethics is generally characterized into three specific domains of study include those of: (1) metaethics which is related to the nature of right and wrong insofar as the where and how of the original of ethical judgments and what these judgments mean regarding the human nature and…
Virtue Ethics (2010) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/
Eric Wingrove-Haugland (1999) The Foundations of the Core Values in Western Ethical Theories. Retrieved from: http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE99/Wingrove99.html
Lovin, R.W. (2004) Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishing Company. Retrieved from: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/content/BPL_Images/Content_store/Sample_chapter/0631216340/Schweiker_sample%20chapter_A%20companion%20to%20religious%20ehtics.pdf
Bennett-Woods, D. (2005 ) Ethics at a Glance. 2005 Regis University. Retrieved from: http://rhchp.regis.edu/HCE/EthicsAtAGlance/EthicsAtAGlance.pdf
Discuss the legal and ethical issues involved in Roe v. Wade
With the advent of 70's and particularly, aftermath of the decision of the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade during 1973, abortion policy has become a controversial issue in the merican politics. (Levine; Staiger; Kane; Zimmerman, 1996) The decision in Roe v. Wade reinforced the right of women to privacy with regard to her own body, incorporating the termination of pregnancy. (Pozga, 2010) Roe v. Wade delineated more specifically the rights of fetus as well as the mother on the basis of the magnitude of viability. (Killion; Dempski, 2000)
The decision in Roe v. Wade which accorded constitutional protection to abortion, which voided the state laws which banned it, was a decision which had several legal and ethical concerns. This verdict in Roe v. Wade damaged the cornerstone of the ethical principles against the issue of killing. The…
An ultrasound neither informs legally nor medically -- irrespective of that, it notifies them aesthetically. Women are compelled to view at an image of a fetus; however, the woman who desire to abort already has prior knowledge of the ultrasound image of fetus. Additionally, there is the concern for ultrasound prices. As per the law the patient is expected to take the burden of the compelling procedure. The law entails a fine of $2,500 for not complying with the legal necessities. Such incorporation of ultrasound is visualized as a method to financially dissuade women for resorting to a legal medical procedure. Irrespective of the ethical issues of the abortion the government is not expected to emphasize moral issues on its citizen legally. This law on this ground is regarded as appalling & the offensive government encroachment that is framed to embarrass women desiring to avail legal healthcare. (Fox, 2012)
Such laws pertaining to necessities of ultrasound for abortion is lacking in significant arenas and is not the most successful methods to insure that an abortion thinking mother gets advantages from the powerful influence of ultrasound. Particularly, all of these laws need that some ultrasound information be accorded to the woman from the doctor who is attending the woman. The attending doctor definitely desires that the women must select the option for abortion since the doctor will be paid for abortion. It is pertinent that any need that this person offer ultrasound information would be distorted and skewed by the attending doctor to persuade the mother to abort her baby. Secondly the limitation of the law is that it compels a mother to attain information that she does not require. This imposes problematic public relations. (Glessner, 2012)
An analysis of several laws enacted reveal that they are insufficient in assuring that a woman desirous of undergoing abortion will really view an ultrasound image of her child. Some of these laws simply necessitate that woman be told of