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Complicating matters further is the fact raised by Eriksson et al. (2008) that when doctors, psychiatrists, and other health care workers operate as a team the guidelines established by their individual professional organizations may clash.
Thus, greater multiplicity is not the solution. Greater clarity and specificity trump multiplicity in terms of what the biomedical industries need in order to ensure ethical behaviors within their organizations. If the primary goal of ethical guidelines is to inform ethical behavior, then that goal must in fact be clearly stated at the onset of the guidelines. Likewise, if ethical guidelines form the foundation for legislation, then the law must also point to the philosophical or ideological foundations upon which the regulations are founded.
A barrier between personal and professional values also threatens to undermine the usefulness of ethical guidelines within the biomedical industry. What the authors fail to mention is the fact that nurses…
Eriksson, S., Hoglund, a.T., & Helgesson, G. (2008). Do ethical guidelines give guidance? A critical examination of eight ethics regulations. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17(15-29).
ethical guidelines are especially crucial in mental health facililties, so I was happy to read about the structures in place in the organization where you work. Your example also raises the interesting relationship between ethics, responsibility, and the law, since so many of your ethical guidelines are somewhat pre-determined by legal restrictions. I'm wondering what your thoughts are on this relationship, especially as it relates to responsibility? In making ethical choices, are you more beholden to the patient or to the legal code? I think this points to a difference between responsibility and obligation. One might say that you have a responsibility to the patient, but an obligation to the law. Do these ever conflict?
Second Response: You give detailed information about both your organization and the concepts of ethics and responsibility, which I appreciate. I'm also very impressed with the steps that your organization takes, and would like to…
Operating/ethical guidelines of International Trade. The objective of this paper is to discuss issues associated with the expansion of international trade related to pollution, worker rights, and product safety/standards and issues associated with property rights/trade secrets when operating in multiple countries.
The expansion of international trade has its pros and cons. On one hand it increases communication between countries on the other hands issues like pollution, worker rights, product safety become extremely important and sometimes need immediate attention. There are a number of organizations, which make sure that there is no exploitation of foreign workers at any time but international trade may promote exploitation of foreign workers and they try hard to eliminate all sweatshops and stop child labor.
Humans have harnessed goods and services from Aquatic Ecosystems for millennia. On the other hand, an extraordinary number of human population and, in particular, certain unsustainable practices are putting pressure on…
Author not available, INTERNATIONAL TRADE STRATEGY NEEDED TO BETTER MONITOR AND ENFORCE TRADE AGREEMENTS., Government Accounting Office Report, 03-14-2000.
This is a secondary revolution occurring in many compan9ies today directly as a result of technologies making the initiative of having employees use human resources securely, reliably, anytime they want - all leading to reduced costs and higher levels of customer satisfaction.
American Management Association, 2005- Excerpts from 2005 Electronic Monitoring & Surveillance Survey: Many Companies Monitoring, ecording, Videotaping -- and Firing -- Employees. etrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997) -. "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process eengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available online. etrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1995) - "Why Not One Big Database? Principles for Data Ownership." Decision Support Systems 15.4 (1995): 267-284.
Flynn & Hackett (2005) - Webcast: A Strong Acceptable Use Policy Protects Your Company and Your Employees.…
American Management Association, 2005- Excerpts from 2005 Electronic Monitoring & Surveillance Survey: Many Companies Monitoring, Recording, Videotaping -- and Firing -- Employees. Retrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997) -. "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available online. Retrieved January 12, 2007 from the Internet:
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…
Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.
Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.
Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.
Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
Emphasize the importance of courtesy, organization, and calmness to all staff members. These qualities on the part of the staff can reinforce the importance of generally good and ethical behaviour to the tourists, which may then carry over to their behaviour in the destination country.
Maintain a neutral stance on the culture of the destination country or countries. Making clear that all cultures have equal value and that ethical behaviour must be expected of all visitors. It must also be clear through explicit instructions and by example that tourists often have greater power than the people they are visiting and so must act with respect and restraint.
Obey the laws, regulations, customs, and traditions of both departure and destination countries. This is clearly linked to the above. (Fennell: 2006; Fennell & Malloy: 2007).
Charter airline companies are private corporations, which ensures that those who own them (either directly or indirectly…
Fennell, D.A. (2006). Tourism Ethics. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Fennell, D.A. And Malloy, D.C. (2007). Codes of Ethics in Tourism: Practice, Theory and Synthesis. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Holden, a. (2005). Tourism Studies and the Social Sciences. Oxon, England: Routledge.
Krippendorf, J. (1987) the Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
hen searching for ideas use imagination and stimulate that imagination by brain-storming with others and reading the latest publications on the topic -- remember that approaches for difficult issue are always changing. Ten years ago, antidepressants were prescribed almost automatically for depression, now the use of such medication and their side effects, especially in teens, is under scrutiny.
Step 6: Evaluate the evidence
Sometimes writing things down can be helpful. hen contemplating different strategies of approaching the topic, charting and rating evaluations of the tentative solutions provides clarity. Viewing any data and studies side-by-side can be useful as well. Compare and test these solutions in a series of hypothetical scenarios before trying them out in the real world.
Step 7: Make the educated guess (hypothesis)
After reviewing the evidence, boil down the client's situation into a general statement. Make an educated guess about what is the core problem; choose the…
Decision-making worksheet. (2009). Decisionmaking.org. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.decisionmaking.org/worksheet.pdf
Fourteen decision-making steps
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…
Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.
Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.
Ethical and Legal obligations in financial reporting is extremely important in today's world, fraught as it is with corporate frauds and accounting scams and scandals of every other sort. One Company, the Thornburg Investment Company, has taken a firm stand on financial reporting within its company, wherein all concerned officials are expected to report accurately, any actual, as well as suspected violations and breaches in the laws and rules and regulations of the company, to the appropriate personnel, immediately. (Code of Business Conduct and Ethics) Another Company, the 'Trinity Capital Corporation' stresses the importance of adhering to the rules and regulations created by the Company so that the company's loyalty to its numerous shareholders may be apparent. Where financial reporting is concerned, all the employees of the firm are expected to comply with the generally accepted rules laid down by the accounting principles of the United States of America, so…
"Accounting Concepts, underlying assumptions, principles, and conventions" Retrieved From
http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/concepts / Accessed on 20 June, 2005
"Business Conduct and Ethics Policy" Retrieved From
http://www.lanb.com/tcc/bcecharter.asp Accessed on 19 June, 2005
The letter is addressed to Mr. Gross, founder of the Idealab Corporation and therefore one of the chief parties involved in the scandal being discussed. The writer of the letter is obviously displeased with the way that Mr. Gross handled his previous ventures, namely Jackpot.com. As an employee, I wrote this letter to express my anger and discontent with my personal experience and to point out that I strongly disapprove of Mr. Gross's gross negligence of the rights of his employees. Three main ethical issues are discussed in this letter. First, promises that Mr. Gross and his CEO made were not kept; Gross and the CEO violated trust and took advantage of employee loyalty. Second, Mr. Gross ostensibly embezzled company funds and stole investor's monies for personal use rather than re-investing in the company. As a result, the company folded and employees like me lost everything. Third, I…
Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill.
Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
ethical issues have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a variety of challenges are impacting the way executives and employees are behaving inside the workplace. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tyco. What happened is Dennis Kozlowski was the CEO of the company from the early 1990s until 2002. This is when a wide scale fraud was reported, as he used the company's funds to live a lavish lifestyle. (Hitt, 2009)
To help support the fraud he encouraged some of his closet executives to participate in covering up these issues. At the same time, he had a seat on the board of directors and was effective at preventing them from independently investigating these events. This helped him to live a celebrity lifestyle by showing to the world how he was new generation of CEOs. They were focused on creating large…
Wall Street's Role. (2008). PBS News Hour. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec08/econtrouble_08-20.html
Barr, A. (2007). Subprime Crisis. Market Watch. Retrieved from: http://articles.marketwatch.com/2007-04-10/finance/30757552_1_mortgage-brokers-broker-home-loans-harry-dinham
Bryce, R. (2004). Pipe Dreams. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Goodwin, W. (2010). Previous BP Accidents. NPR. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126564739&ft=1&f=2&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+NprProgramsATC+%28NPR+Programs%3A+All+Things+Considered%29
ethical issues that may arise in conducting primary research in human services. Then explain how you might apply one professional ethical guideline/code and one IRB guideline to prevent and/or address these ethical issues. Be specific, and reference the guidelines or codes.
Ethical issues that might arise when conducting social work
Different cultures have different standards about the appropriate gender roles of men and women. According to the National Association of Social Workers: "(c) Social workers should obtain education about and seek to understand the nature of social diversity and oppression with respect to race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, and mental or physical disability" (1.05). This may place a social worker in a difficult position when he or she perceives a client is in an exploitative relationship, such as a wife who is likely being physically…
Very often, women from all cultures who are in abusive situations have an ambivalent relationship with their abusive husband or boyfriend and may be unwilling to come forward to speak about their abuse to a third party. Even when they do, they may be quick to retract the evidence. Immigrants who come from a culture where patriarchal standards are the norm and who have had bad experiences with the authorities in their home country may be even more reluctant to be forthcoming. But while the social worker must be cognizant of these factors, culture cannot be used as an 'excuse' for abuse.
Language barriers may often present problems for women who are abused, as they may feel particularly vulnerable, and worry that if they come forward they will not have any economic opportunities, if they separate from their male partner. The most extreme example of this is women who are in enslaved relationships to a male. For example, it is estimated that 28% of trafficked women saw a health care professional while they were still in captivity. Despite being in contact with a person who could potentially come to their aid, women were afraid to come forward. Also, women may have difficulty communicating their distress in explicit terms, and the observer must be able to 'read' the nonverbal signs that a woman who is being abused, enslaved, or otherwise exploited by a male may show. These women often have symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, reports of chronic pain (including sexually-related pain like STDs and pelvic pain), or are not treated with standard medical care because of their partner's attempt to keep them out of the medical system (Dovydaitis 2011). Women may be brought into the country illegally and have no health insurance, which can also limit their ability to be 'found' by a healthcare or social worker, until it is too late, making it all the more important that the opportunity is seized when it arises.
Another ethical code of the National Association of Social Workers reads: "(d) Social workers should act to
International medical Laboratories, acronymed as IML, is one of the largest manufacturers of biomedical equipments. The unique selling point of IML is completing heart surgeries using high class equipments. John Cannon is the man behind the structure of the German section of the company (Morris, 1997). John now aims to increase his market reach by approaching surgeons based in Germany. He targets all the clinics and hospitals of this area. John is also the marketing manager of this line of product so it is his responsibility to increase yhe company's reach in international lands. As John plans to expand the company's reach, he will need to address issues of quality, reliability and economic nationalism (Morris, 1997).
In order to establish the credibility of IML, John sets up a meeting with the known cardiovascular surgeon of the region, Dr. Hans ombach. John is sure that if Mr. ombach agrees to go…
1) Morris, T. (1997). The Prominent Dr. Rombach. Case Research Journal, 117-121. (Case Study File Provided By Customer)
2) Dyck, B., & Neubert, M. (2008). Management: Current Practices and New Directions. Cengage Learning.
3) Writer Thoughts
4) Williams, J. (n.d.). Business Ethics Policies & Procedures. Retrieved February 18, 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/business-ethics-policies-procedures-2728.html
Ethical Dilemma- A Framework
Taking into account ethical concerns is one of the key components in providing healthcare in the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship (osenbaum, 1982). Nurses face ethical uncertainty, distress and conflict in their day-to-day work. When more than one ethical value applies to a particular case, and all of them recommend following a different course of action, then an ethical dilemma exists in such a case a nurse would be not be sure of which value takes precedence (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2009). This specific case involves a 6-year-old who is by law a minor and thus a physician must obtain informed consent from their legal guardian. However, the child's primary guardian is his non-biological mother who is citing her religious reason to refuse medical treatment, while the biological father who resides in another state wants the kid to be treated, a situation that leaves the…
American Counseling Association (2005). Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. College of Nurses of Ontario (2009). PRACTICE Standard: ethics. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from https://www.cno.org/Global/docs/prac/41034_Ethics.pdf
Forester-Miller H. & Davis T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from http://www.alabamacounseling.org/pdf/acaguide.pdf
Forester-Miller, H. & Rubenstein, R.L. (1992). Group Counseling: Ethics and Professional Issues. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds.) Introduction to Group Counseling (307-323). Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.
Haas, L.J. & Malouf, J.L. (1989). Keeping up the good work: A practitioner's guide to mental health ethics. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…
Encyclopedia of Unethical Failure. (2007). Department of Defense.
Bruce, A. (1998). Motivating Employees. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Nemeth, C. (2011). Private Security and the Law. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…
Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
Harvey, William. Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy: An Annotated Translation of Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis. Trans C.D. O'Malley, F.N.L. Poynter, and K.F. Russell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961.
Jecker, Nancy S. "Knowing When to Stop: The Limits of Medicine." The Hastings Center Report 21.3 (1991): 5.
Marble, Annie Russell. The Nobel Prize Winners in Literature. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Ethical Scenarios in Nursing Education
The scenario chosen for this analysis is one in which a colleague failed to conduct a class as was planned allowing students to leave early and not following instructions for the class. The problem that resulted is that only two groups presented in person and the other two groups posted their presentations on the Web. This content is scheduled on the next exam and no time is left for the student presentations.
This problem is one that should be handled in a manner that retains due respect for the colleague who instructed the class during the absence of the individual who was the instructor for this class. One of the principles in the statement of ethics for nursing education states as follows:
"As colleagues, professors have obligations that derive from common membership in the community of scholars. Professors do not discriminate against or harass colleagues.…
Statement on Professional Ethics (2012) American Association of University Professors. Retrieved from: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/statementonprofessionalethics.htm
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
For example, and employee might decide they will never be late for a meeting, which will appear to be a noble duty, but there might be a hidden reason towards this action. Maybe the employee prefers to sit in a particular place or sit. Another negative attribute of the deontology theory is the fact that it is mostly concerned with the individual's welfare and not others.
This theory deals with the individual's ability to foresee the consequences of their actions. A person will have to analyze the choice they make to ensure that they benefit more people Weymark, 2005.
Using this theory a person can compare similar past solutions, and develop a system that determines which choice will be most beneficial for a majority of people.
For a large corporation, this theory would be beneficial because employees will endeavor to perform their duties while analyzing the consequences of…
Ronzoni, M. (2010). Teleology, Deontology, and the Priority of the Right: On Some Unappreciated Distinctions. [Article]. Ethical Theory & Moral Practice, 13(4), 453-472. doi: 10.1007/s10677-009-9209-z
Weymark, J.A. (2005). Measurement theory and the foundations of utilitarianism. [Article]. Social Choice & Welfare, 25(2/3), 527-555. doi: 10.1007/s00355-005-0017-7
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
Officer response: Ethics
Police officers are given additional powers to enforce the law that ordinary citizens do not possess, such as the right to stop and frisk suspects and if necessary to use proportional force against a suspect. However, with additional powers comes additional responsibility. On a human level, it is easy to understand why it might be tempting to act violently against someone committing child molestation. But an officer cannot appoint him or herself judge and jury, and must ensure that justice is done through the legal system. He or she is a representative of that system, not a lone avenger.
First of all, the violent officer's actions could have severely compromised the prosecution's case. The defendant could have used the evidence of his beating and the fact that the officer was violent against him to support his claim that he was innocent and wrongly accused.…
Model policy on standards of conduct. (2012). International Association of Chiefs of Police.
Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks
DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).
Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…
DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)
Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.dcjs.org/forensic/information/dna.cfm?menuLevel=1
Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html
Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
From the utilitarian perspective, it can be assumed that the use of spyware will reduce the private use of computers and restore the lost work hours, which is a benefit for the company. Employee relationships with the company will be damaged, however, perhaps irrevocably, and this could also affect productivity. Managing the data from the spyware will also require company resources, which can be seen as a detriment. Deontologically speaking, it is generally considered wrong to spy, but it is also wrong to waste company time when an employee is accepting money in an agreement to work, not take care of private business. The two wrongs do not cancel each other out, but either decision leaves one side wronged, so neither system provides a direct answer to the problem.
A combination of the two approaches is not impossible, and in fact makes a great deal of sense in this scenario.…
Ethical behavior of a person or a corporation greatly affects the stakeholders with which that person is involved. Often, people and companies take serious consideration when it comes to those stakeholders, and they work to take good care of the people who are involved with them (Keller, 2002). There have been cases, though, where ethical behavior has been ignored in the name of profit. Eventually, most companies and people who ignore their ethics are caught and punished, but not before they end up harming the financial and emotional lives of many of their stakeholders. Plato once said that the nature and the origin of justice was that men who were capable of doing wrong to other people would often do so. He also said that men who did not have enough strength to keep themselves from being harmed by others would not do harm to other people.
In other words,…
Anderson, A.A. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program.
Keller, K.W. (2002). What does a business owe the community? The Signal.
Ethical Lessons Learned From Films
For the purposes of this paper, the subject is the esponsibility Project and ethical issues found in films on the website. The short film chosen for this paper is called "The Entrepreneurial Spirit: Birds Barbershop. Birds Barbershop is a chain of barbershops that were started by two childhood friends in Texas. They describe their barbershop as a throwback to a classic era with a modern twist on getting one's haircut. Above all, they value the input of their employees & customers, wishing to keep the barbershop experience simple and to provide utility to the public.
This short film is important for a number of reasons. The barbershops were started by two friends. This is a nice example for people who want to start their own businesses; Birds is an example of when working with friends works out for the better. The two men were…
Liberty Mutual Insurance Company. (2012). The Entrepreneurial Spirit: Birds Barbershop. The Responsibility Project, Available from: http://responsibility-project.libertymutual.com/films/the-entrepreneurial-spirit-birds-barbershop#fbid=0RHJ37MyojN . 2012 July 30.
Without seeing the wording of the consent form, there is little evidence to support the rejection of the study. The British Psychological Society's guidelines on informed consent can be found on page 12 of the Code of Ethics and Conduct. They are attached in Appendix A. There is no evidence in the one-paragraph case write-up that the proposed study does not give ample opportunity for participations to understand the nature of the study (i). The consent form should explain this and the researchers also have the opportunity on multiple occasions to explain the nature and consequences of the study.
Line (ii) is adhered to, as all volunteers will be required to sign the consent form. The wording of the paragraph is "asked to sign," and this should be amended to clarify: volunteers will be required to sign, and they will sign immediately prior to the interview.
Ethical Issues in AIS
Ethical Issues in Accounting Information Systems
This essay examines ethical issues in accounting information systems as presented in the case of DHB Industries. Now known as Point Blank Solutions, the company, which supplied body armor to the U.S. military and law enforcement agencies, was charged by the SEC on March 1, 2011 for engaging in "massive accounting fraud" (SEC, 2011). The agency filed separate charges against three of the company's former outside directors and audit committee members for their complicity in the fraud.
According to the SEC, DHB Industries engaged in "pervasive accounting and disclosure fraud through its senior officers" (2011), along with misappropriating company assets to the personal benefit of the company's former CEO. Their accounting and disclosure fraud resulted in the company's filing "materially false and misleading periodic reports to investors" (2011). The SEC charged that the company's senior management manipulated the company's reported…
Cohn, M. (2011, November 10). Body armor execs settle accounting fraud charges. Accounting Today for the Web CPA. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Body-Armor-Execs-DHB-Point-Blank-Settle-Accounting-Fraud-Charges-60767-1.html
Gantt, K., Generas, G., & Lamberton, B. (2007, September). Sarbanes-Oxley, accounting scandals, and state accountancy boards. The CPA Journal online. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2007/907/essentials/p18.htm
Norris, F. (2011, March 3). For boards, S.E.C. keeps the bar low. New York Times website. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/04/business/04norris.html?pagewanted=all
Securities and Exchange Commission. (2011, February 28). SEC charges military body armor supplier and former outside directors with accounting fraud. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://sec.gov/news/press/2011/2011-52.htm
Can both sides be right? Hardly, and when the initiative is analyzed with a critical eye, one sees that it looks like the initiative is a tactic for large corporations to appear to be following the letter of the law, but saving money by making Clean Air Act and EPA required equipment to reduce certain emissions by delaying capital expenditures and pushing out previous goals, thus saving millions if not billions of technological investment dollars. Likely these companies lobbied the Bush Administration, citing the need to reinvest in their businesses to become more competitive and thus, unable to divert funds into pollution control.
From the simplest ethnical standard, for instance utilitarianism, the initiative on its own might be ethical if not for the fact that it significantly alters previous legislation, and lessens the impact of EPS regulations on big-business. Certainly, stakeholders in those offending companies would benefit; stockholders, employees, management;…
President Announces Clear Skies and Global Climate Change Initiatives. (2002, February 14). Retrieved Nocember 2010, from the White House: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/02/20020214-5.html
Utilitarianism Resources. (2007, March). Retrieved November 2010, from Utilitarianism.com: http://www.utilitarianism.com/
Adams, J. (2003, Winter). Illogical Extremes. Retrieved November 2010, from NRDC-on Earth: http://www.nrdc.org/onearth/04win/view.asp
Bluhm and Heineman. (2006). Ethics and Public Policy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Ethical esponse to Diversity
The rapid growth of business sectors has posed various challenges like workforce diversity: a natural phenomenon with both positive and negative impacts on employee performance depending on how effective it is managed. This has affected both for-profit and non-profit sectors. In this context, this paper will investigate the impacts of workforce diversity on employee performance. The paper will use descriptive research design. This study will reveal that companies have strategies like support to minority groups, balanced recruitment and training, equal employment opportunities and diversity training. Besides employee's performance ability and level of education, no other workforce diversity variable can determine an employee's compensation. This paper has found that workforce diversity affects employee performance at varying levels considering both non-managerial and managerial employees of companies. It shows a significant degree of relationship between productivity levels and employee performance when the workforce is categorized by level of education,…
Boyle, P.J. & Ellingson, S.J. (2011). Organizational Ethics in Health Care: Principles, Cases, and Practical Solutions. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Cornelius, N. (2011). Human resource management: A managerial perspective. London [u.a.: Internat. Thomson Business.
Davila, G.A.M., & Crowther, D. (2011). Human dignity and managerial responsibility: Diversity, rights, and sustainability. Farnham: Gower.
Knapp, J.C. (2007). Leaders on ethics: Real-world perspectives on today's business challenges. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Ethical Analysis -- Strategy for Palliative Care
The sector for healthcare has, in the last 50 years, improved in its efforts towards cost minimization and service delivery enhancement. Some elements of improvement (such as automation) ensued from technological advances. However, other elements (such as strategy application) owe their establishment in the health sector to endeavors on the part of intelligent, like-minded people who understand life's worth, and that of minimal suffering when it comes to illness. Palliative care represents one such effort. It denotes a system targeted at delivering respite from painful, disturbing symptoms through the affirmation of life and considering death to be a process. Palliative care, as defined by the World Health Organization, is an approach, which enhances quality of life (QOL) of patients, suffering from life-threatening ailments, and their family via prevention and symptom relief. This, they achieve through early diagnosis, and proper assessment and pain treatment,…
Chambers, M. (2015) The Strategic Importance of Palliative Care Within the Irish Heath Service, The Irish Hospice Foundation, http://hospicefoundation.ie/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/The-strategic-importance-of-palliative-care-within-the-Irish-health-service-Perspectives-on-future-service-delivery.pdf (Retrieved;13,12,2015)
Fromme, E., Smith, M. (2015) Ethical Issues in Palliative Care, UptoDate, http://www.uptodate.com/contents/ethical-issues-in-palliative-care (Retrieved;13/11/2015)
Gabel, S. (2010) Ethics and values in Clinical practice: Whom do they help?, Mayo Foundation and Licence Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084645 / (Retrieved, 13/11/2015)
Policy Directive, (2010) Palliative Care Strategic Framework 2010-2013, Ministry of Health, NSW, http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2010/pdf/PD2010_003.pdf (Retyrieved:13/11/2015)
hat produces value in managed care is a good health outcome rather than medical intervention. Not every visit to a doctor is necessary; nor is every test conducted, every medication prescribed, or every placement in an intensive care unit going to produce an effective outcome. Ideally, medicine should be ruled by rationality and efficiency in the choice and implementation of evaluations and treatments. This means that the variability between providers not only should be but can be eliminated, and the only factors that should make a difference in deciding who to treat and what treatment to undertake is the nature of the patient's disease or injury (Birenbaum, 14)."
hat these opposing views tell the insured, the uninsured, and those of us who rely on the expertise and ethical practices in an industry that has our very lives in their hands, is that they're not making decisions in our best interest…
Beck, Christina S., Sandra L. Ragan, and Athena DuPrae. Partnership for Health: Building Relationships between Women and Health Caregivers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997. Questia. 23 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78592347 .
Birenbaum, Arnold. Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997. Questia. 23 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27467039 .
The concentration on action and violence draws larger audiences, yet is not effective in selling products Pechmann, Levine, Loughlin, Leslie, 2005).
esearchers have also found that the brains of pre-adolescents and adolescents have low levels of inhibitory control and therefore pursue reckless and risky activities due to their judgment not being fully developed (Cauffman, Steinberg, 2000). Adolescents who have seen reckless and risky behavior online or on television advertising are 80% more likely to engage in the behavior (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999). The lack of inhibitory controls when combined with the an abundance of violent content leads quickly to replication of viewed acts of violence, especially in pre-adolescents, as verified through research completed (Trimpop, udiger, Kerr, Kirkcaldy, 1999).
Ethically this raises the question of whether the advertisers are more adept at the selling of violent acts than products, as the brains of the audience members they are selling products…
Charlie Cray (2001). Booze for kids. Multinational Monitor, 22(6), 4. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 74131265).
Cauffman, Elizabeth and Laurence Steinberg (2000), "(Im)maturity of Judgment in Adolescence: Why Adolescents May Be Less Culpable Than Adults," Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18 (6), 741-60.
Glenn Cummins (2007). Selling Music with Sex: The Content and Effects of Sex in Music Videos on Viewer Enjoyment. Journal of Promotion Management, 13(1/2), 95. Retrieved February 23, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1398611091).
Matthew C. Farrelly, Kevin C. Davis, M Lyndon Haviland, Peter Messeri, Cheryl G. Healton. (2005). Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship Between "truth" Antismoking Ads and Youth Smoking Prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 425-31. Retrieved February 26, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 820162831).
Ethical Business Behavior at CVS
CVS is a pharmaceutical health care company that engages in the provision of mail order pharmacy, specialty pharmacy, retail pharmacy and retail clinic care. The company has a wide range of network outlets and a customer base that requires strict adherence to the industry's laws and regulations. The company has a set of guidelines to facilitate ethical business practice in operation across all its branches.
The corporation has in place a program on compliance and integrity owing to the vastness of its operations. The integrity and compliance program seek to ensure that the company's operations are responsive to the dynamics of the environment. The integrity and compliance program provide a code of conduct, procedures, policies and training regarding ethical behaviors. The company requires all its employees and branches to cooperate with investigations relating to compliance and regulations. The integrity and compliance program also provide incentives…
This is dangerous for both clients and workers. When this becomes an issue in the human service field is when an organization is charged with a client that cannot be left alone. At this point in time, certain managers may desire to force employees to stay on the clock or to work while off the clock, but making such workplace violations can lead to an unsafe environment in which both client and worker are at risk. In addition, safety and OSHA workplace violation are an ethical problem that put many at risk, especially when one is working in a dangerous or medical field. Thus, workplace violations on the part of both workers and managers can be dangerous for all involved.
In conclusion, the field of human services is reserved for those who wish to provide care to others. Although this field is the perfect fit for those who genuinely have…
Department of Transportation. (2001). Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Fact Sheet For
Employees. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/complaint/Preventing_Sexual_Harassment.htm
National Organization for Human Services (1996). Ethical Standards of Human Services
Professionals. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/%5Btitle%5D-22
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
Ethical Issues in Marketing Field
Ethics can be defined as standards employed by people to choose the right course of action amongst diverse, often conflicting possibilities. Ethics are reliant on a logical and rational set of principles to arrive at a decision, which in essence, is a cognitive procedure or practice. Ethical standards are an imperative element for any company or organization, especially in contemporary times, where a progression of the internet and information is accessible to any individual and as such individuals are prone to being online for extended periods (Sandilands, 2016). Ethics impact a business in various ways. One of the ways is the manner in which organizations carry out their advertising. Majority of the businesses will need to advertise their products or services with the principal aim of increasing their customer base, and thereby, their revenues. Businesses are obligated to undertake such activities ethically. Ethical advertising is…
Anastasia. (2015). Social Responsibility & Ethics in Marketing. Retrieved from: https://www.cleverism.com/social-responsibility-ethics-marketing/
Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2012). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. Cengage Learning.
McKenzie, N., Baker, R. (2016). Surf clothing label Rip Curl using 'slave labour' to manufacture clothes in North Korea. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 June 2016 from: http://www.smh.com.au/business/surf-clothing-label-rip-curl-using-slave-labour-to-manufacture-clothes-in-north-korea-20160219-gmz375.html
Sandilands, T. (2016). Marketing Issues That Have Ethical Implications. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/marketing-issues-ethical-implications-24089.html
In fairness, Milgram did not anticipate that the research subjects would experience as much stress as they did during the experiment.
Second, the experiment raises a serious ethical issue in that it held the potential for causing long-term harmful changes to the psychological well-being of the research subjects. On one hand, Milgram did carefully and conscientiously debrief his subjects in connection with which he also reassured them that their behavior was perfectly normal. Likewise, he made sure that each subject met the sham memory research subject and that there was no doubt that the latter had not actually been harmed at all and that they were not angry at the research subjects. Finally, Milgram conducted long-term follow-up interviews in which the research subjects indicated that they suffered no long-term harm and that they supported the experiment.
However, it is also conceivable that some of the research subjects experienced profound (even…
Defining an Ethical Leader
Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric
The nature of leadership is multifaceted and often requires the continual mastery of new skills, insights, intelligence and perspectives to stay effective over the long-term. Such is the nature of ethical leadership, which requires a steadfast focus on a core set of ethical principles and values that guide a leader's judgment, ensuring consistency over the long-term. These are also the fundamental aspects of any leader's long-term credibility as well, and their ability to transform their enterprises over the long-term as well (John, 2005). Ethical leaders often resonate with credibility and the willingness to also change quickly in response to the needs of their organizations, employees, stakeholders and customers.
The purpose of this analysis is to define what an ethical leader is, how managers can progress to being more ethical in their leadership style, and how Jeff Immelt, CEO of general Electric,…
Crainer, S. (2009). From Edison to Immelt: The GE Way. Business Strategy Review, 20(3), 18-22.
Gonzalez, T.F., & Guillen, M. (2002). Leadership ethical dimension: A requirement in TQM implementation. The TQM Magazine, 14(3), 150-164.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Immelt, J. (2010). Renewing American Leadership. Vital Speeches of the Day, 76(2), 53.
Corporations to be Ethical and Responsible
Over the last several years, the issue of corporate ethics has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a transformation in how firms are interacting with various stakeholders. In most cases, there has been a shift in which parties will receive the greatest benefits from particular activities (i.e. The shareholders, board of directors, managers and analysts). This has increased the underlying amounts of mistrust that the public will have in the actions of firms.
To address these challenges, the majority of organizations have been adopting a code of ethics. This is a part of larger effort, to create a series of guidelines that will help everyone to determine the best course of action in a variety of situations. The results are that most people believe this has helped to create a standard which is transforming the work environment. Evidence…
Crosson, S, 2008, Principles of Accounting, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Fernando, M, 2008, 'Ethical Ideologies,' Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 82, 145 -- 155.
Ferrell, O, 2012, Business Ethics, South Western, Mason.
Garber, P, 2008, The Ethical Dilemma, HRD, Amherst.
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
CEC Professional Ethical Principles
In the United States, education has become a highly involved and complicated process, not least because of the diverse nature and needs that teachers are faced with every day. Not only are there highly diverse students in terms of ethnicity and language in each classroom, there are also different cognitive abilities and needs. This is so not only in each grade, but also in each classroom. This means that ethical guidelines and standards have emerged to help teachers understand how to handle these differences. At the core of these principles is that each teacher should be focused upon helping children achieve the best they can, and that each student should be challenged to develop his or her abilities to the highest possible level. For the exceptional learner category, the Council for Exceptional Children has provided 12 ethical principles that teachers need to adhere to in order…
CEC Board of Directors (2004, April). The Council for Exceptional Children Definition of a Well-Prepared Special Education Teacher. Retrieved from: http://www.cec.sped.org/Content/NavigationMenu/ProfessionalDevelopment/ProfessionalStandards/well-prepared-final.pdf
CEC (2010). Special Education Professional Ethical Principles.
Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…
Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115
Legal guidelines, ethics codes, and specialty guidelines play a tremendous part in the way that practitioners conduct diagnoses and assessments in general. In addition to formal training, the aforementioned legal and ethical guidelines help to constitute the general procedures and practices that professionals must adhere to while performing their jobs. It is especially important for psychologists, not to mention forensic psychologists, to follow these mandated codes. These professionals play critical roles in interacting with the public. As such, they must be accountable to standards that play a positive or assistive role in aiding the public to deal with a number of substantial issues that can seriously impact their lives.
The main way that legal guidelines, ethics codes and specialty guidelines influence the daily operations of psychologists in terms of diagnosis and assessment is by keeping them honest. These professionals can best achieve the desired outcomes of their jobs -- assisting…
American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS): "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists' "
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards
This social impetus is directly observable behind the Freedom of Information Act, and encouraging or validating the client company's desires by engaging in the purposeful degradation of an efficiently functioning information system would denigrate this social value, diminishing the quality and degree of trust that exists within society as a whole and denying the intellectual freedoms upon which our society is based.
In no way should the chief development officer of any other member of the design company assist in the destruction of their product. A contract is presumably in place, which the company can clearly demonstrate was fulfilled. If the client company does not wish to use the information system they purchased, that is their decision, but the startup design firm should not begin its business operations with a legally, ethically, and socially maladaptive project.
Arquilla, J. (2006). "Traces of ourselves: The ethics and politics of databases."…
Arquilla, J. (2006). "Traces of ourselves: The ethics and politics of databases." Markula center for applied ethics. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/technology/databases.html
Amoroso, D. (2003). "Social issues in information systems." American conference on information systems. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://galletta.business.pitt.edu/amcis2003/05ITMGT8_SocialIssues.htm
FOIA Update. (1996). Freedom of information act. Accessed 22 April 2010. http://www.justice.gov/oip/foia_updates/Vol_XVII_4/page2.htm
Garson, D. & Garson, G. (1995). Computer technology and social issues. Hershey, PA: IGI Publishing.
Our society values tolerance, diversity, and the American Dream. Illegal immigration is not immoral, nor even unethical except for the fact that working illegally breaks the law. Following the law is usually considered a moral and ethical act. Firms that hire illegal immigrants may do so in spite of how the general culture feels about the behavior. A firm that values profit, for example, might hire illegal immigrants in order to pay them less than minimum wage and save labor costs. or, a firm that values human rights might help their illegal immigrant employees apply for residency. In either case, the firm's values do not necessarily correspond with those of the dominant culture. Basically, individuals and firms often act with self-interest in mind rather than obey the moral and ethical codes of the society.
ieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. etrieved July 4, 2007 at http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm…
Rieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm
Values, Morals, and Ethics." Changing Minds. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm
Ethics in the Practice of Psychology
Identify the problem.
The therapist must decide how to respond to several potential ethics issues that the client has brought to the client-therapist relationship. The therapist is considering options for responding that will preserve the integrity of the client-therapist relationship and that will avoid communicating any disregard for the ethnic traditions that are most likely influencing the client's actions.
Identify the potential issues involved.
While it is probable that the psychologist has reviewed the ethical guidelines that govern her work, the client has stepped outside of those bounds in several ways. Most notably, the client has not complied with the processes and constraints associated with fee payment, and the client has introduced complexity into the client-therapist relationship by making arrangements for the provision of therapy services to another family member without first discussing the matter with the therapist. In addition, the client…
Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping profession (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks / Cole.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (1992, December 1).
American Psychological Association. Author. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/code-1992.aspx [Type text]
organization you selected. Describe the ethical issue or violation you identified as it relates to finance or budgeting. Explain why it is/was an ethical issue or violation. Then, briefly explain how the organization is addressing or has addressed it, and what you think about that response. Or, if the violation has not yet occurred, consider what the organization could do to prevent it.
Ethics in local government: The New Jersey ethics scandal
New Jersey has long had a reputation as one of the most corrupt state in the U.S., and the 2009 bribery scandal which resulted in the indictment of 44 people, including three New Jersey mayors, two state assemblymen and five rabbis, perpetuated this stereotype. Over the course of the case an informant working for the government named Solomon Dwek told "three rabbis in rooklyn and two in New Jersey that he was bankrupt and trying to conceal his…
But the New Jersey politicians' desires to profit from their position did not end there. One of the men involved in the money-laundering scheme introduced Dwek to other officials. "Mr. Dwek -- now operating under an assumed identity, according to people involved in the case -- honed an approach: introduced to a local influence-peddler, he would say he was looking to build high-rises or other projects in their city or county. He would offer $5,000 in cash for an upcoming campaign, or as a straight-up bribe, with the promise of more to come, and with earnest pleas that his official requests be 'taken care of.' And he would pull the money out of the trunk of his car" (Halbfinger 2009).
This was fundamentally in violation of one of the most important cornerstones of the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Public Administrators: "[To] maintain truthfulness and honesty and to not compromise them for advancement, honor, or personal gain" (III.1). In this instance, the New Jersey state officials were using their positions purely for personal gain, not to serve the needs of the public. They made decisions regarding projects that would affect the community with an eye upon how much they could gain with their deal with Dwek, not based upon the needs of their constituency. Ethical guidelines are vitally necessary for public administrators to follow, given the heavy responsibility they shoulder. "At any phase in the budgetary process, there are many dilemmas present. Decisions are made that favor some values such as efficiency, political responsiveness, preserving the public interest over others. It is not a simple matter of determining what constitutes a right vs. A wrong allocation decision; instead choices must be made between competing 'right' choices" (Franklin & Raadschelders 2004: 457).
When these suppositions are violated, then the overall trust of the public in public officials and public institutions is impinged upon. Unethical behavior by members invested with the public's trust does not merely damage the politician's own reputations, but also the reputation of government as a whole. New Jersey's bad reputation as a particularly unethical place for government creates a self-perpetuating cycle. Because higher officials take ethical violations for granted, public officials are more inclined take a lax attitude towards their obligations, rationalizing that there is no incentive to do
The program focuses on building an ethical culture, but does not appear to specifically address fraud risk assessments, controls over fraud prevention or other SOX provisions.
3) the company currently focuses on training and enculturation to sensitize its employees to ethical issues. One suggestion would be to align executive compensation with the objectives of the shareholders. Options only bring about temporary alignment, so shares or other long-term strategies should be used instead. This will help management to focus on both ethics and profitability. Another suggestion would be to build upon their existing program by creating job-specific training as well as corporate-wide training. This way the scenarios that the workers are exposed to are specific to situations they might see, which will bring the message closer to home.
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing…
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing Guidelines. Ethics Resource Center. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.ethics.org/erc-publications/federal-sentencing-guidelines.asp
However the only aspect that I disagree with is that in some parts of the writing it often feels as if diversity is seen like an overwhelming task to surmount. Diversity should not be viewed in this manner. We are all different and there should be a global respect for those differences. These differences should not be viewed as an obstacle yet just as a state of being.
The next cite discusses the responsibilities of the therapist. I actually agree completely with all the writings on this particular cite. I s is important that therapists be held to a higher level of responsibility than most other positions. The site states that the group psychotherapist must provide services with respect for the dignity and uniqueness of each patient/client as well as the rights and autonomy of the individual patient/client. The group psychotherapist safeguards the patient/client's right to privacy by judiciously protecting…
AGPA (2002, February). Responsibilities to patients/clients. AGPA and NRCGP Guidelines for Ethics,. Retrieved 09/17/06, at http://www.agpa.org/group/ethicalguide.html
Boutelle, C. (2006). SIOP Member to make Capitol Hill Presentation. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Inc.,. Retrieved 09/17/06, at http://www.siop.org/
Haley-Banez, L., Brown, S., & Molina, B. (1998, August 1). Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers. Association for specialists in Group Work,. Retrieved 09/17/06, at
Rupert Murdoch gave a speech in 2011 that defines ethics in a manner that many individuals would likely find quite enlightening. In that speech, Murdoch states "There is simply no excuse for unethical behavior. There are real issues that we must confront and are confronting. e could not be taking this more seriously or listening as intently to criticisms" (Murdoch, 2011, p. 436). The violation of ethical conduct that Rupert was referring to were the actions taken by a number of journalists in his employment. The journalists were accused of hacking into personal telephone voicemails.
Having harboured a secret desire to be a professional journalist at sometime in my life, I followed closely the allegations, as well as Mr. Murdoch's response to those allegations. In his speech to shareholders of the company that he runs, Murdoch states "if we hold others to account, then we must hold ourselves to account"…
Liveris, A.N.; (2011) Ethics as a business strategy, Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 77, Issue 1, pp. 35 -- 39
Murdoch, R.; (2011) We must put things right, Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 77, Issue 12, pp. 435 -- 437
Dragojlovic, N.I.; (2011) Priming and the Obama effect on public evaluations of the United States, Political Psychology, Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp. 989 -1006
The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:
Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008
This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).
Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…
Creating an ethical foundation is crucial for success within a changing consumer environment (Driscoll & Hoffman 2000). As more and more consumers become concerned with organization's social and environmental responsibilities, organizations with clear unethical or deviant behaviors are seeing sharp declines in terms of consumer reputations. The modern market place is dictating higher standards for corporate responsibility and organizational ethics weaved within the framework of businesses. This is the reasons why Trudel & Cotte describe companies with greater ethical foundations as being more productive in terms of charging higher premiums. Essentially, consumers are willing to pay more for ethical products; "It seems that once companies hit a certain ethical threshold, consumers will reward them by paying higher process for their products" (Trudel & Cotte 2008). Consumers clearly notice the effort of creating an ethical foundation within production efforts (Lecture 1). Yet, the levels of ethical responsibility placed into…
Driscoll, Dawn-Marie & Hoffman, W. Michael. (2000). Ethics Matters: How to Implement Values-Driven Management. Brentley College Center for Business Ethics.
Lecture 1. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
Lecture 2. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
Lecture 3. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
From an egalitarian perspective, which holds that all stakeholders are given roughly equal treatment (Arneson, 2002) bribery is wrong, on two levels. The first is that it creates an unequal playing field within the oil industry between firms that adhere to the law and firms that do not. The second is that it favors some foreign employees for unlawful financial gain while others do not receive the same treatment.
The liner situation is egalitarian in that all customers are being put at risk equally. The family situation has some egalitarian issues, since the location has been framed by the couple as a choice between mutually exclusive options.
The three perspectives all point to Jacob leaving Richardson. The company's lack of ethics has corrupted Jacob already, but he can set the situation right by moving onwards. If Jacob feels that he has an implicit contract with his wife not to leave…
Bailes, R. (2006). Facilitation payments: Culturally acceptable or unacceptably corrupt? Business Ethics: A European Review. Vol. 15, 3, 293-298.
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 22, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Arneson, R. (2002). Egalitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/egalitarianism/
Ethical Dilemma in a Department of Veterans Affairs Tertiary Healthcare Facility
Selection of the environment.
Selected environment. The environment for the proposed study will be a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (hereinafter alternatively "VAMC") that provides the full complement of tertiary healthcare services. The pseudonym for the selected facility will be "Lincolnville VAMC" (because the VA's motto is derived from Lincoln's second inaugural address).
Description of environment and rationale for selection. The Lincolnville VAMC provides tertiary healthcare services for veterans living in a 25-county area in a midwestern state. Besides its operations in the main facility, the Lincolnville VAMC also operates two community-based outpatient clinics. Some of the primary services offered by the Lincolnville VAMC include:
Behavioral Health Service: This service provides consultation, evaluation, and treatment for a variety of issues that can impact emotional well-being.
2) Pharmacy: This service processes more than 80,000 prescriptions each month.
Gomulka, G.T. (2010). Saving military families. Military Review, 90(1), 111-112.
Hendin, H. & Foley, K. (2008). Physician-assisted suicide in Oregon: a medical perspective.
Issues in Law & Medicine, 24(2), 121-122.
Lighthall, A. (2010, November/December). The rules of engagement. Psychotherapy Networker,
ethical or unethical ground rules manifested in the situation (ethical theory that is broken) as well as which ethics theories should be applied to remedy the situation.
The Murdoch incident involved various leading British newspapers, specifically the 'News of the World' but also other tabloids all published by News International, all of which were a subsidiary of News corporation .The owner of News corporation was upert Murdoch hence the alias The Murdoch phone hacking scandal. Essentially, employees of the corporation were accused of employing improper means in their endeavor to gain new stories such as telephone hacking and bribing police officers during the years 2005-2007, and their targets for these stories almost always involved celebrities, members of the oyal family, and politicians. On 6 July, British prime minister David Cameron announced that a special investigation commission would investigate the incident. Lord Justice Levesonas named chairman of the inquiry on 13…
Davies, N. (8 July 2009). Trail of hacking and deceit under nose of Tory PR chief. The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/jul/08/murdoch-newspapers-phone-hacking . Retrieved 8/23/2011
O'Carroll, L. (20 July 2011). Phone-hacking inquiry extended to include broadcasters and social media. The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jul/20/phone-hacking-inquiry-broadcasters-social-media .
Straubhaar, Joseph, LaRose, R., & Davenpor, Lt. (2010). Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth
Heawood, J. (13 July 2011). A new manifesto for media ethics.. The Guardian. UK. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/13/media-ethics-investigation-david-cameron .