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The more experience a facilitator has with a minority group, the greater the likelihood the facilitator will be able to help those members feel included, rather than excluded from the group process. This is critical, because inclusion is an important social phenomenon. "Communities who are strong and inclusive lead to better quality of life, stronger sense of identity and belonging, sharing mutual respect and equality. It is further recognised that a cohesive and inclusive community is one where there is a common vision and sense of belonging for all communities; the diversity of people's different backgrounds and circumstances are appreciated and positively valued; those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities and strong and positive relationships are being developed between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and within neighbourhoods" (Holland & Ousey, 2011). Inclusiveness would seem particularly critical in a therapeutic environment, because group members who feel…
Cohen, C. And Olshever, a. (2013). IASWG standards for social work practice with groups:
Development, application, and evolution. Social Work with Groups, 36(2-3), 111-129.
Gumpert, J. And Black, P. (2006). Ethical Issues in Group Work: What Are They? How Are
They Managed? Social Work with Groups, 29 (4), 61-74.
Ethical Issues Involved in Psychological Assessments
It is important to note from the onset that those who seek the intervention of a psychologist either do so at their own behest or are sent by other people, i.e. attorneys, relatives, or employers. Over time, numerous challenges psychologists contend with in the course of conducting assessments have been identified and widely discussed. For this reason, the relevance of conducting an evaluation of the various ethical issues involved in psychological assessments cannot be overstated.
To be regarded true professionals, psychologists must be aware of the various ethical challenges they are likely to face in their day-to-day interactions with clients and/or their sponsors. While in some cases they could find solutions to the ethical challenges they face by relying on mere personal intuition or via consultations with other professionals in the same field, psychologists must not forget that there are several ethical principles and…
American Psychological Association -- APA. (2013). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Including 2010 Amendments. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=1
Graham, J.R. (Ed.). (2003). Handbook of Psychology: Assessment Psychology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Hersen, M. (Ed.). (2011). Clinician's Handbook of Adult Behavioral Assessment. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.
Ethical Issues in Family and Marital Therapy
It has been mentioned that insufficiencies of the APA ethical standards for marriage and family therapy have not been appreciated fully. Guidelines that are in regards to the therapist accountability, confidentiality, and informed consent can really just sometimes turn out to be unclear with individual clients, nevertheless they are even more complex when multiple family associates are observed together when they are in therapy. Question come up such as who are the clients? How is confidential material being used? Do all the family members have an equivalent right to not want the treatment? What is the function of the therapist's standards vies-a-vis inconsistent morals of family members? Deliberation of these questions in relations of their ethical insinuations is multifaceted and contentious. Nevertheless the answers to these queries must also take into consideration legal and clinical considerations, which can sometimes run an impact course…
American Psychological Association. (2010, March 3). Retrieved August 3, 2012, from Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.: http://apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx#
Bass, B. & . (2006). Addressing Secrets in Couples Counseling: An Alternative Approach to Informed Consent. The Family Journal,, 77(80), 14.
Butler, H.M.-K. (201). Infidelity Secrets in Couple Therapy: Therapists' Views on the Collision of Competing Ethics Around. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 17(6), 82-105.
Callan, E.J. (2005). An Historical Overview of basic Approaches and Issues in Ethical and Moral Philosophy and Principles: A Foundation for Understanding Ethics in Psychology. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma,, 11(1/2), 11-26.
South Africa consequently had to arrange for a down payment of $600 million at a rate perceived to be extraordinarily high. It was too late for the country to induce any negotiations of the deal. Serious agreements ensued thus maneuvering South Africa to pay back much of the nation's hard currency debt in a short period. This led to the emergence of a new democratic regime stemming from an intense decade of internal turmoil. This placed a strong constraint on balancing the payments. In the period of 1993 and 1999, a formidable movement of labor groups, NGOs, and churches led protests against the repayment of the apartheid debts. Instead, they lobbied for rapid reparations for those who had previously been discriminated (Mercer 44).
The South African government economic policy of the previous years of 2000s was characterized by fiscal discipline and epitomized by GEAR. This policy did not…
Bearden, Milt, and James Risen. The Main Enemy: The Inside Story of the CIA's Final Showdown with the KGB. New York: Random House, 2003. Internet resource.
Brookes, Edgar H. Apartheid: A Documentary Study of Modern South Africa. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2009. Print.
Giddens, Anthony. Introduction to Sociology. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012. Print.
Karolides, Nicholas J. Literature Suppressed on Political Grounds. New York: Infobase Pub, 2006. Internet resource.
Depending on the specific context, ethical analysis of ICT applications in medicine therefore will increasingly have to combine insights and approaches from several different disciplines." (p.5)
The truth is that while some issues have been addressed in regards to ethical considerations in the health care practice that in reality the issues are still presently being identified for the largest part and as reported in this work legislation has addressed some issues relating to information privacy and discrimination yet in many areas of the medical practice and the use of information technology, the ethical considerations are still being examined and disseminated.
It will require some hands-on use of many of these technologies and some time as well in order that health care professions understand what the ethical considerations really entail and before they are able to formulate solutions addressing these ethical concerns. Likely to be a factor of primary importance is…
Marckmann, G. And Goodman, K.W. (2006) Introduction: Ethics of Information Technology in Health Care. Vol. 5. Sept. 2006. Online available at: http://www.i-r-i-e.net/inhalt/005/Marckmann-Goodman.pdf
Gould, G.R. And Younkins, E.W. (1992) Guidelines help managers deal with ethical issues - healthcare financial managers. Health Care Financial Management, 1992, June.
Genetics Privacy and Legislation (2008) Breaking News: GINA Becomes Law May 2008. The Genome Project. Online available at: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/legislat.shtml
Wagner, I. (1999) Ethical Issues of Healthcare In the Information Society. Opinion of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies to the European Commission. No. 13-30 July 1999. Online available at: http://ec.europa.eu/european_group_ethics/docs/avis13_en.pdf
Now that people interact with social media on their wireless phones, that opens up a whole new series of issues, hence those involved in the law and with the ethical issues will "need to abandon some of the presumptions we once made in e-contracting in light of peoples' changing behavior" (Moringiello).
Meanwhile, what exactly constitutes Internet abuse in the workplace and what role does ethics play? There are some working definitions, such as "cyberloafing," "Internet recreation," "cyberslacking" for leisure or simply "Internet abuse" (Lee, et al., 2008, p. 39). For some researchers Internet abuse is the "personal or unauthorized use of the company's network for an individual pleasure or non-work purposes" (Lee, 39). No matter how it is defined, it is clear that workers who surf the eb during work hours cause "productivity loss" and they open the door for the "vulnerability of information systems security from insiders as well…
Berti, John. (2009). Copyright Infringement and Protection in the Internet Age. IT Pro.
Retrieved October 4, 2011, from http://www.computer.org .
Botterbusch, Hope R., and Talab, R.S. (2009). Copyright and You: Ethical Issues in Second
Life. TechTrends, 53(1), 9-12.
Ethical Issues in Nursing
Over the last ten years, the demand for long-term care services has been facing increasing amounts of pressure. Part of the reason for this is because of the large portion of the population that is becoming older (the aby oomers). As they have the potential to cause the overall amounts of demand to increase dramatically. Evidence of this can be seen with information compiled by the Government Accounting Office. Where, they found that the total number of people requiring long-term care services will double by the year 2050. As the costs for this care will increase to $379 billion, this is above the total amount spent in 2000 of $179 billion. (Walker, 2002) This is significant, because it shows how long-term care is going become a major part of all health care expenditures in the future. As a result, there are number of unique ethical challenges…
Ethical and Legal Issues of Long-Term Care. (2008). Avanza Education. Retrieved from: http://www.avanzaedu.org/legal-ethical-issues.asp
Long-Term Care Ethics. (2011). JRank. Retrieved from: http://medicine.jrank.org/pages/1063/Long-Term-Care-Ethics.html
Bono, J. (2000). Ethical Issues in Health Care on the Frontiers of the 21st Century. Norwell, MA: Kluwer.
Kane, R. (2000). Long-Term Care and a Good Quality of Life. The Gerontologist, 41 (3), 293 -- 304.
Ethical Issues in Criminal Justice esearch
Ethical issues in terms of research are sometimes difficult to pinpoint, but all are made in order to ensure defendant's constitutional rights and to protect any other research participants from potential harm. Many researchers note that the basis for ethical research in criminal justice is the focus on upholding accurate data reporting and the placement of strong ethical leadership within the workplace. Both of which are detailed in Gail hineberger's 2006 article from the Journal of Criminal Justice Education entitled "esearch methods and research ethics coverage in criminal," and in Kevin Wright's 1999 article from the Journal of Criminal Justice Ethics entitled, "Leadership is the key to ethical practice in criminal justice agencies."
Ethical Issues in Criminal Justice esearch
Ethical issues in terms of research are sometimes difficult to pinpoint, and this dilemma is no different when dealing within the field of criminal justice.…
Akiyama, Y. And Propheter, S. (2005). Methods of data quality control:
for uniform crime reporting programs. FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division Newsletter. 22, 1-15.
Maxfield, M. (1995) Research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Los Angeles, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Rhineberger, G. (2006). Research methods and research ethics coverage in criminal justice and criminology. Journal of Criminal Justice Education. 17, 2, 279-296.
Ethical Issues involved with "On Being Sane in Insane Places"
L Rosenhan's On Being Sane in Insane Places was both a historic and ground-breaking research study which provided invaluable information on the views of mental health professionals toward their patients. (Rosenhan, 1973) In this revealing study, several researchers, who had never displayed any abnormal behavior in their pasts, admitted themselves into a variety of mental health facilities and studied the behavior of the staffs of these institutions toward their patients. hat these pseudo-patient researchers discovered rocked the scientific community by exposing those who treat mentally ill patients often have preconceived notions toward their patients and their behavior. The stigma of being labeled as "mentally ill" often clouded the staff's evaluation of the behavior of the pseudo-patients. And once labeled as "mentally ill" it was almost impossible to reverse that finding. (Rosenhan, 1973) This was an important, study which revealed vital…
McBurney, DH, & White, T.L.,(2007). Research Methods (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Rosenhan, D.L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179 (4070), 250-58.
Artists and music companies are now able to provide online samples of their work to the public. They can bring this to the consumer online, where the latter can decide to buy or not to buy from the comfort of his or her home. Businesses are able to reach vastly more consumers, while the iPod enables consumers to listen to and buy more music than would otherwise be possible. An iPod can fit hundreds of files into a very small physical space, enabling the consumer to take music everywhere. This is an advantage for the industry, as more music can be sold to more consumers.
4) Ethical obligations a) in terms of ethics, the artist is obliged to provide the consumer with his or her best possible effort in music. The artist should honor business contracts, and be a responsible social citizen by supporting charities. The artist should also take…
Lipps, Jonathan. (2006, Jan 16) iPod Culture and the Weight of Consumerism. Recreation. http://www.teleios.us/weblogs/jlipps/186
Millard, Elizabeth. (2006, Sept. 29). Is it ethical to own an iPod? NewsFactor Network. http://www.newsfactor.com/news/Is-it-Ethical-to-Own-an-iPod-/story.xhtml-story_id=13100EV85O19
Ethical Issues Involved
Based on the problem that the members of our team are involved, about having a team member who does not render the necessary cooperation, and who have tendencies of lying about team reports, the ethical issues that surround this situation is Team Building Etiquette and Team Honesty.
The main principle behind any creation of a team is to have each member participate on every task, or perform a division of a large task, in which the summation of all the tasks each member has completed is an entirety of one common goal. In every team, cooperation and unity are essential factors to successfully achieve common objectives. Team building, which can undergo processes such as team meetings or workshops, allows presentation and collection of ideas that can soon provide accurate set-up and focus towards common goals. It is only ethical that each team member bear a responsibility of…
Ethical Issues in Madoff Case
Ethical Issues in Madoff Fraud Case
The objective of this study is to identify the ethical issues and questions in the Madoff fraud case. This work will identify the people harmed and answer as to whether the scandal resulted from unethical individuals or if there are organizational issues that allowed, encouraged or were responsible for the harms. In addition, this study will answer as to what degree, the case was mostly a failure of individuals or organizational structure and of government. This study examines what might have prevented the Madoff fraud case.
Who Was Affected?
It is reported that ernie Madoff "worked under the company called ernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC. He would ask people to invest their money, and it actually seemed like the people were making returns. As all of their life savings would go into this business, Madoff would pay people…
Ethical Issues in Industries (2011) The Enron Scandals. Retrieved from: http://ethicalissuesinindustries.wordpress.com/2011/03/09/the-man-who-madoff-with-billions-of-dollars/
Parsons, Claudia (2009) From Madoff to Merrill Lynch, 'Where was ethics officer?' The New York Times. 9 Feb 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/29/business/worldbusiness/29iht-ethics.4.19786426.html
Saad, Gad (2009) Would a Business Ethics Class Have Prevented Bernard Madoff from setting up his Ponzi Scheme? Ethical fortitude: Born or Made? Psychology Today. 1 Apr 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/homo-consumericus/200904/would-business-ethics-class-have-prevented-bernard-madoff-setting-his -
Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is research performed on relatively small sample groups. The research tends to be very specialized and does not require large amounts of numerical information for its conclusion to be drawn. hile qualitative research is for the most part accepted into academia, there are still some concerns that arise with qualitative research that are not present in quantitative research. These concerns include conflicts of interest, research with vulnerable and protected populations, and using self as the subject or heuristic research.
The first concern that can happen in qualitative research is conflicts of interest. The primary purpose of qualitative research is to describe a phenomenon through the eyes of the research subjects. Most qualitative research depends on interviews and observations of people in various scenarios. hile the researcher conducts their observations they are structuring the questions and observations to meet the needs of their study.…
When conducted by a professional who is able to keep bias out of the equation, quantitative research can produce useful results; however given the great ethical concerns, it only makes sense that this form of research be limited to those with years of research experience.
Orb, Angelica; et al. (2001). Ethics in Qualitative Research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. Vol 33:1, 93-96.
Marshall, Catherine; Rossman, Gretchen (2011). Designing Qualitative Research. Sage Publications.
Ethical Issues Necessitating the Creation of 1996 HIPAA Act:
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 was enacted to bring necessary changes to the procedures and practices within the healthcare industry. The development of this legislation was to enforce the need of healthcare organizations to have the necessary regulations and procedures that safeguard the privacy of patient information. The Act was also developed to address the challenges of increased network connectivity and promote access to vital patient information as a result of newer information technologies in this sector. Notably, the access to vital patient information should be achieved without violation of integrity, availability, and confidentiality.
The development of networking technologies has contributed to improved services, increased access to information, and higher levels of information availability across businesses. These networking technologies have been adopted across many industries and businesses though other sectors like the healthcare industry have been slow…
"Health Information Confidentiality." (2009, November 16). American College of Health
Executives Retrieved April 24, 2012, from http://www.ache.org/policy/hiconf.cfm
"HIPAA: Privacy and Security in Health Care Networks." (n.d.). What-when-how: In Depth
Tutorials and Information. Retrieved April 24, 2012, from http://what-when-how.com/medical-informatics/hipaa-privacy-and-security-in-health-care-networks/
Ethical Issues in International Business
In the present scenario, due to the international nature and exposure of every business concerned, companies are nowadays deputing a lot of employees for the purpose of performing overseas assignments. Due to diversity in relation to beliefs, traditions and cultural values and practices from the country of their origin, sometimes the employees may have to experience culture shock and have problems of coping in the country where they are sent for fulfilling foreign assignments. And at times, the attitudes with regard to the professionals in the particular country are such to the extent that it tends to harm the employee to a considerable amount.
Career advancement of employees is affected in such a situation and the employee's morale goes down. The Bank has the responsibility to make sure that its personnel are not harmed limiting their career advancement chances by the social customs of the…
"Chapter by Rajesh B. Iyer" (12 August, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.humanlinks.com/manres/articles/shrm.htm Accessed on 12 August, 2005
Leisinger, Klaus. M. (2 June, 1994) "Corporate Ethics & International Business: Some Basic
Issues -Moral Common Sense" Retrieved from http://www.novartisfoundation.com/en/articles/business/business_corporate_ethics.htm Accessed on 12 August, 2005
Murphy, Robert. "Is Unitarianism Viable" Retrieved from http://www.mises.org/story/698
Ethical Issues in HM Strategy
Human esource management is a key factor in any organizations success. For any company, institution, industry or group to attain its goals, there has to be a clear concise and hard working force behind. Thus, any company that does not have a human resource management department or a strategy to maintain and run its working personnel is simply planning to fail (Snell & Bohlander, 2013).
The role of the human resource management department has to be clear in any organization. These roles include collaboration of the employees and allocation of duties in the working field. They also are responsible for building commitment to work by evaluating the skills of each employee, and allocating them the right positions so as to make them comfortable as they tackle the tasks at hand. Another key role is building capacity of the business by developing a competitive advantage so…
Billsberry, J., Salaman, G., & Storey, J. (2005). Strategic human resource management: Theory and practice. London [u.a.: SAGE.
Mathis, R.L., & Jackson, J.H. (2008). Human resource management. Mason, OH:
Snell, S., & Bohlander, G.W. (2013). Managing human resources. Mason, Ohio: South-
To the best of his or her ability, the forensic psychologist must communicate the details of his or her relationship to the client, in ways that respect the client's mental capacity and level of education. The value of respect is founded upon the free exchange of ideas, and the client in a therapeutic relationship must be able to speak to the therapist in an open fashion. Yet the therapist must strike a balance between the rights of the individual and his or her professional obligation to respect those rights, and the needs of the community and society for safety and stability. In the case of a therapist advising an incarcerated individual, even if he or she cannot grant full confidentiality it is especially important that the individual is not regarded as morally disposal, and is still granted the ability to speak about his or her issues in an open fashion,…
Therefore, government purchasing agents may not negotiate arrangements on behalf of the government that directly benefit the interests of close family (and other intimate) personal relations (Edwards, Wallenberg, & Lineberry, 2008).
Conflict of Interest -- Financial Stakeholders (Business Interests/Stock Ownership)
Similarly, ethical principles prohibits government purchasing agents from making decisions in their professional capacity that benefit specific companies or privately held stock in those companies (Edwards, Wallenberg, & Lineberry, 2008; Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).
Conflict of Interest -- Former and Future Employers
Where decisions made by government purchasing agents could potentially benefit the interests of former employers or future employers, an ethical problem exists unless that potential benefit is fully disclosed (Edwards, Wallenberg, & Lineberry, 2008).
Conflict of Interest -- Improper Competitive Information Disclosure
Government purchasing agents are strictly prohibited from disclosing confidential competitive bid information to enable any potential supplier to secure a government contract during a competitive bidding…
Edwards, G.C., Wallenberg, M.P., Lineberry, R.B. (2008). Government in America:
People, Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
It communicates a negative message to the tolerance of the society and in a way indicates that those who are living with such complications should not have lived through the sonography in the first place.
On the other side of the picture is the ethical standing of the doctors. Since the provision of information to the patients and keeping it confidential is a crucial ethical issue among the medical practitioners, it would be unethical for the doctor not to provide the right medical information to the patient regardless of the action that the patient may choose to take with that piece of information. The use of sonography is one of the medical attentions that almost every pregnant woman passes through. The results are bound to be released to the individual patient and then kept confidential hence it would be unethical for the doctors and medical practitioners to refuse to relay…
Alexander J.M. et.al., (2011). Legal Aspects of Obstetric Sonography. Retrieved October 24, 2011 from http://www.ajronline.org/content/153/6/1251.full.pdf
Ethics in the Workplace
The workplace is considered the professional environment which should be characterized, at least in theory, by a high degree of professionalism and a clear distinction between the work environment and mindset and the personal one. In cases of issues related to ethics in the workspace, the line between professional and personal can be breached and in some cases even broken.
There are numerous situations in which ethics is put under a question mark at the workplace. Some examples vary from private use of company resources for personal purposes to obtaining financial gains as a result of professional position inside a company.
The first example relates to simple and apparently non-offensive acts that most of the employees tend to make use of during working hours. These include using the company email for personal use such as online shopping to using company resources such as the printer, the…
Bush, Cathy. "Work-Place Ethics." N.d. Available at http://www.chsbs.cmich.edu/leader_model/development/media/Targeted%20Lessons/workplace_ethics.htm
Hamilton, Diane. "Top 10 Companies' Code of Ethics and Conduct" 2011. Available at http://drdianehamilton.wordpress.com/2011/09/13/top-10-companies%E2%80%99-code-of-ethics-and-conduct-2011/
Putman, Mark. "Company Assets and Occasional Use.."Global Ethics University. 2005 Available at http://www.character-ethics.org/articles/assetsandoccasionaluse.htm
Ethics in Mental HealthCare (Anorexia)
Eating disorders consist of a variety of symptoms with psychological, social, and physical characteristics. hile the physical complications associated with these disorders may cause significant concern to the family members and the health care team, bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are two of the common eating disorders having substantial long-term social and physical sequelae that make recovery difficult. The long-term disabilities associated with these eating disorders include fertility, poor relationships, poor parenting, and negative influence on the employment. The impacts of one's eating disorder are significant at the family level as they carry the burden of the effects for a long period. In most cases, family members and the health care providers find difficulties in identifying the support needed by the affected. This essay analyzes the ethical issues surrounding the provision of health care to the anorexic patients and analyzes the ways, which the health…
Dare, C. Psychological Therapies for Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: Randomised Controlled Trial of out-Patient Treatments. Vol. 178. (2001): 12-25
Fairburn, Christopher. "Evidence-Based Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa." The International Journal of Eating Disorders 37 (2005): 26 -- 30.
Isserlin, Leanna, and Jennifer Couturier. "Therapeutic Alliance and Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa." Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.) 49 (2012): 46 -- 51.
Keel, Pamela, and Kelly L. Klump. "Are Eating Disorders Culture-Bound Syndromes? Implications for Conceptualizing Their Etiology." Psychological bulletin 129 (2003): 747 -- 769.
The Tuskegee Experiment was conducted between the year 1932 and 1972 and intended to study the course of untreated syphilis. It was a federally funded experiment, and none of the African American men with syphilis in Macon County suspected that the medical providers and researchers were withholding the treatment. Instead, they were giving them placebos like mineral supplements and aspirin. The researchers did not accord any effective care even when some men died while others became blind or insane. The researchers and medical providers exploited the African American men because the majority of them were sharecroppers who had not visited doctors before for medical diagnosis. It is depressing that doctors from the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) experimented because they had taken an oath to care for the sick (Katz et al., 2008).
The experiment continued until the mid-1960s when an investigator, Peter Buxton, from the PHS Venereal Disease Department…
Katz, R.V. et al. (2008). The legacy of the Tuskegee syphilis study: Assessing its impact on willingness to participate in biomedical studies. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 19(4): 1168–1180.
Kim, W. O. (2012). Institutional review board (IRB) and ethical issues in clinical research. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 62(1), 3-12.
Her condition was not beyond my ability, but just because the client needed more attention and supervision, which I was not able to provide at my facility. However, the ethical code requires that the correct procedure be followed. For instance, I have to identify myself and give proof of my claim. In other words, I was required to fax the release form to verify my claim. In addition, I should also state my intentions clearly for seeking the information.
It will also be logical and legitimate if I gave the client a referral letter to the client to be used by the other facility. This would act as evidence that I am the one who referred her to the respective facility. Having the release form alone does not make much sense and gives no evidence that the patient was released on the referral terms. As such, the other facility is…
Brady, F.N., & Hatch M.J. (2007). General Causal Models in Business Ethics: An Essay on Colliding Research Traditions. Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 11: 307 -- 315.
Carroll, S.J., & Gannon, M.J. (2007). Ethical Dimensions of International Management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Mappes, D.C., Robb, G.P., & Engels, D.W. (2007). Conflicts between Ethics and Law in Counseling and Psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 64(4), 246-252
Margolin, G. (2008). Ethical and Legal Considerations in Marital and Family Therapy. American Psychologist, vol. 37(7): 788-801
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
Ethical Issues in Nursing
The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.
The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…
Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from: http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm
Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.
Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.
Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
" The code also states when communicating investment information care must be taken to ensure that it is fair, accurate and complete as well as make full and fair disclosure of all matters that could reasonably be expected to impair their independence and objectivity or interfere with respective duties to their clients, prospective clients, and employer.
Evidence indicates Lehman's senior financial executives knew of the Repo 105 transactions and certified the accuracy of Lehman's financial statements and disclosures despite having full knowledge that the company had engaged in the use of these transactions to hide their toxic assets and make their financial statements appear to be in good health when, in reality, they were not. These executives were fully aware that the financial statements were misleading and did not fairly present the true position of the company.
Hiding toxic assets and releasing favorable financial statements to investors each quarter clearly…
Ahrens, Frank. "Lehmann Brothers, the Evil Repo 105s and the Danger of Off-
Balance-Sheet Deals." Washingtonpost.com, 20 April 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
"Code of Ethics and Professional Standards" CFA Institute, Vol. 2010, No. 14, June 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
Jeffers, Agatha E. "Lehman Brother -- the Thin Line between Aggressive Accounting and Unethical Behavior." European Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Issue 4, Winter 2011. Web. 18 March 2013.
In the article Ethical Issues in Information Technology, author Richard T. DeGeorge points out the existence of five interrelated ethical issues: issues in the usage of technology in business, issues in the it business, issues related to the Internet, issues in e-business and issues affecting the social background. Each of the five categories presents several ramifications. The article has a general coverage, an informal writing and throughout its 24 pages presents reduced details. The article merely highlights the existence of ethical problems and concerns in the information technology sector and poses questions as to how could these problems be best resolved. The academician also gives short but relevant examples as to how it procedures are being improperly used to deceive and cause harm. Among these examples, DeGeorge includes shortcoming of the medical systems, within organizations and individual usage of the Internet, mentioning at all times the inappropriate legislature.…
Anderson, James G., Goodman, Kenneth, 2002, Ethics and Information Technology: A Case-Based Approach to Health Care System in Transition (Health Informatics), 1st Edition, Springer
DeGeorge, Richard T., 2002, Ethical Issues in Information Technology, Blackwell Publishers
Hongladaram, Soraj, Ess, Charles, 2006, Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives, IGI Global
Johnson, Doug, 2007, Information Technology Ethics, Doug Johnson Website, Creative Commons License, http://www.doug-johnson.com/ethics/,last accessed on December 7, 2007
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…
Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_g/Bhuiya_2012_G60-65.pdf>.
Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/What's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf
Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from http://cf.ac.uk/jomec/resources/GMREPFIN.pdf
Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from http://www.tufts.edu/~skrimsky/PDF/GMOethics.PDF
Various objections to capital punishment hinge on religious beliefs. On the other hand, the American justice system does not recognize religious principles.
Capital punishment also raises numerous ethical issues pertaining to the likelihood of errors in its administration. Lethal injection, for example, causes excruciating pain and a slow death from prolonged suffocation instead of instantaneous death if it is performed incorrectly. If suffering of this nature were considered torture when inflicted purposely, what incidence of error would be enough to prohibit lethal injection altogether on ethical grounds? Finally, does the prospect of erroneous conviction or disproportionate application to the poor or to racial minorities undermine all the other ethical justifications for capital punishment?
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:…
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill
Ethical Issues in AIS
Ethical Issues in Accounting Information Systems
This essay examines ethical issues in accounting information systems as presented in the case of DHB Industries. Now known as Point Blank Solutions, the company, which supplied body armor to the U.S. military and law enforcement agencies, was charged by the SEC on March 1, 2011 for engaging in "massive accounting fraud" (SEC, 2011). The agency filed separate charges against three of the company's former outside directors and audit committee members for their complicity in the fraud.
According to the SEC, DHB Industries engaged in "pervasive accounting and disclosure fraud through its senior officers" (2011), along with misappropriating company assets to the personal benefit of the company's former CEO. Their accounting and disclosure fraud resulted in the company's filing "materially false and misleading periodic reports to investors" (2011). The SEC charged that the company's senior management manipulated the company's reported…
Cohn, M. (2011, November 10). Body armor execs settle accounting fraud charges. Accounting Today for the Web CPA. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Body-Armor-Execs-DHB-Point-Blank-Settle-Accounting-Fraud-Charges-60767-1.html
Gantt, K., Generas, G., & Lamberton, B. (2007, September). Sarbanes-Oxley, accounting scandals, and state accountancy boards. The CPA Journal online. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2007/907/essentials/p18.htm
Norris, F. (2011, March 3). For boards, S.E.C. keeps the bar low. New York Times website. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/04/business/04norris.html?pagewanted=all
Securities and Exchange Commission. (2011, February 28). SEC charges military body armor supplier and former outside directors with accounting fraud. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://sec.gov/news/press/2011/2011-52.htm
1). This is a problem that needs to be addressed by adding more training to the budget. The problem is, most hospitals' budgets are already spread too thin. Therefore, hospital administrators need to work harder to find sources to help fund their activities.
Nurses have more power and responsibility than ever before to ensure that they are making honest reports about their patients. They may be in a rush to get home and not feel like entering all of the proper data into the computer. Or, they may take shortcuts in the use of other technologies. It is a nurse's ethical responsibility, however, to ensure honesty in all that she does. This includes 'blowing the whistle' when she sees that other nurses are not being honest or are misusing technology.
This can be extremely difficult, however, considering that nurses often suffer negative repercussions for 'whistleblowing'. A study conducted…
Birdi, K., Clegg, C.W., Patterson, M.A., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61, 467-501.
Bodenheimer, T., MacGregor, K., and Stothart, N. (2005). Nurses as leaders in chronic care. British Medical Journal, 330(7492), 612-613.
Carver, L. & Candela, L. (2008) Attaining organizational commitment across different generations of nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 16 (8), 984-991.
Charette, R. (2006, June) EHRs: Electronic Health Records or Exceptional Hidden Risks? Communications of the ACM, 49(6),120.
Ethical Issues in Medicine
Ethical Dimensions of esearch Studies
Ethical issues in medicine: Clinical trials and cancer patients.
Clinical trials, in which a treatment or a drug is tested upon human beings, are a vital part of bringing a drug to market. It is essential that the treatment be shown to be safe, effective, and better than existing treatments of similar cost and safety levels. However, when developing a drug for patients who are facing a potentially terminal diagnosis such as cancer patients, the ethics of using clinical trials becomes extremely murky. "To advance the science of medicine and improve the care of patients, we need the objective data that can only be gained from clinical trials, in which outcomes are dispassionately analyzed. But the patients in cancer trials are not data points; they are vulnerable people who often view a clinical trial as perhaps their last hope" (Markman 2003:…
Markman, Maurie. (2003). The needs of science vs. The needs of patients. Cleveland Clinic
Journal Of Medicine, 70. 12. Retrieved: http://ccjm.org/content/70/12/1008.full.pdf
hat produces value in managed care is a good health outcome rather than medical intervention. Not every visit to a doctor is necessary; nor is every test conducted, every medication prescribed, or every placement in an intensive care unit going to produce an effective outcome. Ideally, medicine should be ruled by rationality and efficiency in the choice and implementation of evaluations and treatments. This means that the variability between providers not only should be but can be eliminated, and the only factors that should make a difference in deciding who to treat and what treatment to undertake is the nature of the patient's disease or injury (Birenbaum, 14)."
hat these opposing views tell the insured, the uninsured, and those of us who rely on the expertise and ethical practices in an industry that has our very lives in their hands, is that they're not making decisions in our best interest…
Beck, Christina S., Sandra L. Ragan, and Athena DuPrae. Partnership for Health: Building Relationships between Women and Health Caregivers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997. Questia. 23 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78592347 .
Birenbaum, Arnold. Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997. Questia. 23 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27467039 .
As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.
Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The
Debate over Physician-Assisted…
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Ethical Issues in Marketing Field
Ethics can be defined as standards employed by people to choose the right course of action amongst diverse, often conflicting possibilities. Ethics are reliant on a logical and rational set of principles to arrive at a decision, which in essence, is a cognitive procedure or practice. Ethical standards are an imperative element for any company or organization, especially in contemporary times, where a progression of the internet and information is accessible to any individual and as such individuals are prone to being online for extended periods (Sandilands, 2016). Ethics impact a business in various ways. One of the ways is the manner in which organizations carry out their advertising. Majority of the businesses will need to advertise their products or services with the principal aim of increasing their customer base, and thereby, their revenues. Businesses are obligated to undertake such activities ethically. Ethical advertising is…
Anastasia. (2015). Social Responsibility & Ethics in Marketing. Retrieved from: https://www.cleverism.com/social-responsibility-ethics-marketing/
Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2012). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. Cengage Learning.
McKenzie, N., Baker, R. (2016). Surf clothing label Rip Curl using 'slave labour' to manufacture clothes in North Korea. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 June 2016 from: http://www.smh.com.au/business/surf-clothing-label-rip-curl-using-slave-labour-to-manufacture-clothes-in-north-korea-20160219-gmz375.html
Sandilands, T. (2016). Marketing Issues That Have Ethical Implications. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/marketing-issues-ethical-implications-24089.html
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill.
Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
ethical issues have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a variety of challenges are impacting the way executives and employees are behaving inside the workplace. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tyco. What happened is Dennis Kozlowski was the CEO of the company from the early 1990s until 2002. This is when a wide scale fraud was reported, as he used the company's funds to live a lavish lifestyle. (Hitt, 2009)
To help support the fraud he encouraged some of his closet executives to participate in covering up these issues. At the same time, he had a seat on the board of directors and was effective at preventing them from independently investigating these events. This helped him to live a celebrity lifestyle by showing to the world how he was new generation of CEOs. They were focused on creating large…
Wall Street's Role. (2008). PBS News Hour. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec08/econtrouble_08-20.html
Barr, A. (2007). Subprime Crisis. Market Watch. Retrieved from: http://articles.marketwatch.com/2007-04-10/finance/30757552_1_mortgage-brokers-broker-home-loans-harry-dinham
Bryce, R. (2004). Pipe Dreams. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Goodwin, W. (2010). Previous BP Accidents. NPR. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126564739&ft=1&f=2&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+NprProgramsATC+%28NPR+Programs%3A+All+Things+Considered%29
ethical issues that need to be taken into consideration when using human subjects in research. The biggest thing is informed consent. The subjects need to fully understand what the nature of the research is. Where there are risk to the subject -- unlikely in an interview setting -- these need to be fully explained. In observation research, there is much more risk because the subjects are actually doing things, and this risk should be identified to the subject. It is the job of the researcher to anticipate the risks to the subject.
The biggest thing with respect to minimizing risks is to understand ahead of time what those risks are. For me, I do not foresee too much risk. This means that aside from providing some opportunity for informed consent there are no real issues. If there are situations where risk is involved with human subjects, then there is often…
Mannix, E. & Neale (2005). What differences make a difference? Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved November 27, 2013 from http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic143730.files/MannixNeale_2005.pdf
Ritchie, J. & Lewis, J. (2003) Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students. London: Sage Publications.
ethical issues for business organizations in the twenty-first century. The forces of globalization have increased the degree to which diverse groups in society have grown dependent on one another. Hence, their expectations influence the freedoms and responsibilities of other groups. The expectations of various stakeholders have placed greater responsibilities on business organizations to be ethical in their communication with their stakeholders. Business organizations are under growing pressure to be ethical in their employment practices and in the sourcing of raw materials and labour for their operations. In addition, they are expected to recognize their responsibility towards the economic and social development of the communities where they operate and those that they influence through their operations. Hence, business organizations are also responsible to act ethically in relation to their use of the resources of the environment and to the extent that they influence it in adverse ways, such as by polluting…
Alder, C.S., & Gilbert, J. (2006). Achievign ethics and fairness in hiring: Going beyond the law. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 68, pp. 449-464. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9039-z.
Dresp-Langley, B. (2008). The communication contract and its ten ground clauses. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 87, pp. 415-436. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9929-3.
Duska, R.F. (2006). Contemporary reflections on business ethics. Springer Publications.
Low, W., & Davenport, E. (2009). Organizational leadership, ethicsand the challenges of marketing fair and fair trade. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 86, pp. 97-108. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9763-7.
Ethical Issues Surrounding the Adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) by Health Care Organizations and Meaningful Use
The objective of this work in writing is to examine why health care organizations are hesitant to adopt electronic health records (HER) in light of the potential of HER to improve quality, increase access, and reduce costs. This issue will be examined from a legal, financial, and ethical standpoint and in relation to 'meaningful use'.
The use of information technology in the health care field shows a great deal of potential toward improving quality, efficiency, and safety in medical care. (DeRoches, Campbell, and Rao, 2008, paraphrased; Frisse & Holmes, 2007, paraphrased; and Walker, et al., 2005, paraphrased) The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 is reflective of the unprecedented interest of the Federal government in the area of bringing about increases in the use of IT in health care for system…
A New Hospital EMR Adoption assessment Tool (2012) HIMSS Analytics. Retrieved from: http://www.himss.org/content/files/EMR053007.pdf
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Available athttp://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_bills&docid=f:h1enr.pdf. Accessed 5 August2010.
Daniel, J. And Goldstein, MM (2010) Consumer Consent Options for Electronic Health Information Exchange: Policy Considerations and analysis. 23 Mar 2010.
DesRoches CM, Campbell EG, Rao SR, et al. Electronic health records in ambulatory care -- a national survey of physicians. N Engl J. Med 2008; 359:50 -- 60.
However the only aspect that I disagree with is that in some parts of the writing it often feels as if diversity is seen like an overwhelming task to surmount. Diversity should not be viewed in this manner. We are all different and there should be a global respect for those differences. These differences should not be viewed as an obstacle yet just as a state of being.
The next cite discusses the responsibilities of the therapist. I actually agree completely with all the writings on this particular cite. I s is important that therapists be held to a higher level of responsibility than most other positions. The site states that the group psychotherapist must provide services with respect for the dignity and uniqueness of each patient/client as well as the rights and autonomy of the individual patient/client. The group psychotherapist safeguards the patient/client's right to privacy by judiciously protecting…
AGPA (2002, February). Responsibilities to patients/clients. AGPA and NRCGP Guidelines for Ethics,. Retrieved 09/17/06, at http://www.agpa.org/group/ethicalguide.html
Boutelle, C. (2006). SIOP Member to make Capitol Hill Presentation. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Inc.,. Retrieved 09/17/06, at http://www.siop.org/
Haley-Banez, L., Brown, S., & Molina, B. (1998, August 1). Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers. Association for specialists in Group Work,. Retrieved 09/17/06, at
From an egalitarian perspective, which holds that all stakeholders are given roughly equal treatment (Arneson, 2002) bribery is wrong, on two levels. The first is that it creates an unequal playing field within the oil industry between firms that adhere to the law and firms that do not. The second is that it favors some foreign employees for unlawful financial gain while others do not receive the same treatment.
The liner situation is egalitarian in that all customers are being put at risk equally. The family situation has some egalitarian issues, since the location has been framed by the couple as a choice between mutually exclusive options.
The three perspectives all point to Jacob leaving Richardson. The company's lack of ethics has corrupted Jacob already, but he can set the situation right by moving onwards. If Jacob feels that he has an implicit contract with his wife not to leave…
Bailes, R. (2006). Facilitation payments: Culturally acceptable or unacceptably corrupt? Business Ethics: A European Review. Vol. 15, 3, 293-298.
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 22, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Arneson, R. (2002). Egalitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/egalitarianism/
Therefore, total emissions are reduced over time, which is seen in the EU. A period of emissions was to be reduced by 5% with 199- levels while the next set of years were to reduce emissions by 20%. As a result, the cap-and-trade system offers the policymakers and those concerned with the environment a definite emissions target.
A cap-and-trade strategy makes sure that the short-run resources of abatement are assumed first since firms have the incentive and motivation to reduce their emissions levels when they can accomplish this at a price lower than the market. The market price rewards firms should they make the reductions but are punished if they don't. The cap is to ensure environmental sanctity and the trade advocates minimum cost. Therefore, this method minimizes waste, and it is individual firms that offer a cheap source of abatement to reduce gas emissions. Cap-and-trade method also maintains liberty…
..the resident had just been wined and dined by the drug representative whose company made the new antibiotic" (Morreim 2011).
Q2. How would you address these issues as the manager of your division?
To address some of these ethical questions, the information about the disease should focus on basic information, as well as showcase the new drug in a specific manner. Hard data should back up claims about the drug's efficacy. Drug promotions such as stuffed toys, pens, and other paraphernalia should be minimized. There should be clearly-worded disclaimers denoting the relationship between the doctors and the pharmaceutical company that trained them.
Most of the existing evidence suggests that drug advertising can be powerfully persuasive. A study comparing two groups of physicians who had been treated to a vacation at a luxury resort by different pharmaceutical companies found that "the prescriptions for Drug a increased from 81 units before the…
Morreim, E. Haavi. Prescribing under the influence. Markula Center for Applied Ethics.
Retrieved March 3, 2011 at http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/morreim/prescribing.html
Ethical Issue Business discusses questions Mayor Bob Filner San Diego sexually harassing staff. • hat basis issue? • Identify ground rules manifested situation. He mayor San Diego sexually harassing staff, terminated city council .
Ethical behavior in the context of Bob Filner's sexual harassment charges
There is much controversy concerning San Diego Mayor Bob Filner on account of the public official being accused of having sexually harassed several of his employees. hile Filner claims to be innocent and believes that his current condition resulted from a series of rumors involving unspecified individuals. In spite of the fact that several female staff initially preferred to remain anonymous, evidence seemed credible and Filner was called out to respond to these allegations. Filner apparently abused his position and attempted to exploit female employees he was in charge of thinking that he would escape without being penalized as a result of this act.
Montoya, K. Bob Filner Apologizes, Resigns as Mayor of San Diego -- Kacey Montoya Reports. Retrieved August 30, 2013, from http://ktla.com/local-news/stories/san-diego-mayor-bob-filner-admits-sexual-harassment/#ixzz2dUWl5U7P .
Wicks, D. Small Business > Business & Workplace Regulations > Workplace Harassment Ethical Implications of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Retrieved August 30, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/ethical-implications-sexual-harassment-workplace-15391.html
ethical issues is the only way to devise a personal moral code that can carry into one's professional life. It is helpful to imagine hypothetical moral dilemmas or reflect on known dilemmas prior to being placed in a position of having to make moral decisions. We need to "face up to the hard questions," and risk the "intellectual, psychological, and emotional discomfort" of doing so (Jones & Carlson, 2004, p. 6). Doing the right thing depends largely on experience, though, which is why it can be of great help to think clearly about all potential problems, situations, and outcomes and put those thoughts into action. Unless we have thought something through in our head first, we may never have a blueprint of ethical behavior.
Compromising personal values and interests is never easy. However, I do understand where Jones & Carlson (2004) are coming from. The authors note that students are…
Jones, J.R. & Carlson, D.P. (2004). Reputable Conduct. 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Martin, K. (2001). The powerful role of ethics in corrections. Retrieved online: http://www.corrections.com/articles/7890-the-powerful-role-of-ethics-in-corrections
ethical issues, challenges, and dilemmas that have arisen due to technological advances of law enforcement on personal privacy. Addressed are the major pro and con viewpoints of economically, politically, individually, and socially.
Eight sources. APA.
Privacy and Technology
Big Brother is definitely here. Just the other day the news reported that the average American is photographed nine to twelve times per day. Cameras are everywhere. People are photographed while they are driving to and from work, while they are parking their cars, entering their place of employment, and if the company is any size other than a mom and pop shop, they are watched at work. hether one is making a deposit at the bank, buying groceries at the local grocery chain, gas at the 7-11 store, or browsing books at the library, they are being not only watched, but photographed. From the smallest market to the largest mall, every…
Branom, Mike. "Orlando Gets New Air Security Devices." AP Online. March 5, 2002.
Digital Big Brother." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. February 05, 2001.
EU/U.S.: EURO-MPS 'CONFIRM' ECHELON SPY NETWORK." European Report.
Hamilton, Tyler. "Surveillance technologies nibble at offline privacy." The Toronto Star.
Did he have the right to make such promises knowing that the company may be moving to Mexico? The simple answer is no. It was unethical to make such promises knowing full well that the company may be moving to Mexico. However, it is not always simple. He made the promises knowing that the company MIGHT move to Mexico. The negotiations are still ongoing so at the time the promises were made he had no concrete knowledge that a move would be taking place. Because he had no knowledge of an actual move being planned, and only knew it was being negotiated he was under no legal obligation to not make those promises. Luckily ethical obligations and legal obligations are often two different things. Ethical obligations are not as concrete nor do they require proof beyond the shadow of a doubt. It is without question that the promises this company…
ERWIN, WESLEY J. Supervisor Moral Sensitivity. Counselor Education and Supervision; 12/1/2000;
Kensicki, Peter R. 'Utmost Good Faith' Implies Good Ethics. National Underwriter Property & Casualty-Risk & Benefits Management; 7/31/2000;
Reamer, Frederic G.,the Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.
Social Work; 7/1/2000;
ethical issues that may occur in your area of human services. Then explain the tools you might use to identify and address ethical issues and issues related to cultural competence. Finally, explain how your leadership style might influence the tools you select to use.
The ethical issues that human services administrators face can be highly complex: This is, in fact, the nature of ethical dilemmas. For issues that are relatively simple, there are legal restraints and for issues that fall between the legal and the purely ethical, codes of conduct for the profession. When there are these types of written guidelines, the ethical choices for a professional come down to a very simple choice: Either follow the rules or break them.
However, in many cases the proper path to follow is far from clear, and one of the reasons for this is that those working in the human…
ethical issues that should be addressed by researchers in the field of psychology who use human subjects: the protection of the human participants and the protection and maintenance of the integrity of the research findings (Punch, 2013). This paper will discuss several important ethical considerations regarding the use of statistics in the integrity of research findings.
Perhaps the topic that is addressed most frequently regarding the ethical use of statistics and certainly is a current concern is the overreliance of statistical significance testing (Verdam, Oort, & Sprangers, 2014). The surprising to find that many researchers still believe that significant P. values indicate that the research results will replicate, smaller team P. values indicate a larger magnitudes and results, or that smaller P. values mean that the results are more important (Gorard, 2014; Punch, 2013). None of these are true. In fact, the American Psychological Association [APA] has suggested since the…
Asendorpf, J.B., Conner, M., De Fruyt, F., De Houwer, J., Denissen, J.J., Fiedler, K., ... & Wicherts, J.M. (2013). Recommendations for increasing replicability in psychology. European Journal of Personality, 27(2), 108-119.
Gorard, S. (2014). The widespread abuse of statistics by researchers: What is the problem and what is the ethical way forward?. Psychology of education review., 38(1), 3-10.
Punch, K.F. (2013). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches.
New York: Sage.
ethical issues that may arise in conducting primary research in human services. Then explain how you might apply one professional ethical guideline/code and one IRB guideline to prevent and/or address these ethical issues. Be specific, and reference the guidelines or codes.
Ethical issues that might arise when conducting social work
Different cultures have different standards about the appropriate gender roles of men and women. According to the National Association of Social Workers: "(c) Social workers should obtain education about and seek to understand the nature of social diversity and oppression with respect to race, ethnicity, national origin, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, marital status, political belief, religion, immigration status, and mental or physical disability" (1.05). This may place a social worker in a difficult position when he or she perceives a client is in an exploitative relationship, such as a wife who is likely being physically…
Very often, women from all cultures who are in abusive situations have an ambivalent relationship with their abusive husband or boyfriend and may be unwilling to come forward to speak about their abuse to a third party. Even when they do, they may be quick to retract the evidence. Immigrants who come from a culture where patriarchal standards are the norm and who have had bad experiences with the authorities in their home country may be even more reluctant to be forthcoming. But while the social worker must be cognizant of these factors, culture cannot be used as an 'excuse' for abuse.
Language barriers may often present problems for women who are abused, as they may feel particularly vulnerable, and worry that if they come forward they will not have any economic opportunities, if they separate from their male partner. The most extreme example of this is women who are in enslaved relationships to a male. For example, it is estimated that 28% of trafficked women saw a health care professional while they were still in captivity. Despite being in contact with a person who could potentially come to their aid, women were afraid to come forward. Also, women may have difficulty communicating their distress in explicit terms, and the observer must be able to 'read' the nonverbal signs that a woman who is being abused, enslaved, or otherwise exploited by a male may show. These women often have symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, reports of chronic pain (including sexually-related pain like STDs and pelvic pain), or are not treated with standard medical care because of their partner's attempt to keep them out of the medical system (Dovydaitis 2011). Women may be brought into the country illegally and have no health insurance, which can also limit their ability to be 'found' by a healthcare or social worker, until it is too late, making it all the more important that the opportunity is seized when it arises.
Another ethical code of the National Association of Social Workers reads: "(d) Social workers should act to
While the "quality and the craftsmanship [of Tiffany & Co.'s products] must stand the test of time," the conscience of a socially responsible attitude towards its products becomes an even more important element in order to make the customers appreciate the true value of its offer.
The added value of an "industry leader" approach concerning the social responsibility issues involved by the industry is also a desired course of action, as it brings positive effects on the environment and the fulfillment of ethical promises by the company, its ambassadorship within the industry brings even greater environmental benefits, through a stronger alliance to lobby and fight for the environment.
From a business point-of-view, it brings Tiffany's a differentiation point, giving it a competitive advantage in front of its competitors, something that just working with price, placement, promotion and products (marketing mix elements) can not entirely achieve.
This brings us to the…
Business dictionary, Ethical Issue definition, retrieved online November 6, 2009 at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ethical-issue.html
Business dictionary, Fiduciary Duty definition, retrieved online November 6, 2009 at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/fiduciary-duty.html
Gagnon, Geoffrey, Moving Mountains, Legal Affairs, Sept-Oct 2004, retrieved online November 6, 2009 at http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/September-October-2004/story_gagnon_sepoct04.msp
Kosich, Dorothy, And, now, a few words from Tiffany & Co, Mineweb, South Africa, November 11, 2004, retrieved online November 5, 2009 at http://www.mineweb.com/mineweb/view/mineweb/en/page15831?oid=3232&sn=Detail
Accounting: Ethical Issues in Budgeting
What should an employee do when he or she discovers that there is an error in a projection?
Accounting professionals have a duty to observe high standards of conduct and integrity in order to uphold the reputation of the accounting profession. For instance, if an error occurs in sales projections, the accountant has a duty to correct the error immediately and inform the head of the department or manager of the company. Sales projections are crucial to a company's budget because they give an idea of the amount of revenue the company intends to generate in future. Since they help determine the health of the company, majority of the decisions the company makes will based on the projected figures. If an accountant chooses to conceal errors in the projections, therefore, wrong decisions will be made and the overall performance of the company will be affected…
Volkswagen Emission Scandal
Volkswagen is a company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany and is the original marquee within the Volkswagen Group. The Volkswagen Group includes different car marquees like Bentley Motors, Audi, Automobile Lamborghini, Bugatti Automobiles, and Scania, which manufactures heavy goods vehicles. Since its inception, Volkswagen has developed to become the third largest manufacturer of automobiles after Toyota and General Motors respectively. However, the company was recently involved in an emission scandal that has generated significant concerns in this industry and among the public. The emission scandal is attributed to the company's corporate misbehavior, which is largely unacceptable from any perspective. The unacceptability of this misbehavior is attributable to its impact on the world and violation of business ethics.
Emission Issue at Volkswagen
Volkswagen is renowned across the globe as one of the leading and successful car manufacturers that have experienced tremendous growth and profitability since inception. Despite…
Argenti, P. (2015, October 13). The Biggest Culprit in VW's Emissions Scandal. Fortune. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://fortune.com/2015/10/13/biggest-culprit-in-volkswagen-emissions-scandal/
Hotten, R. (2015, November 4). Volkswagen: The Scandal Explained. BBC. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-34324772
Queen, E.L. (2015, September 26). How Could VW Be So Dumb? Blame the Unethical Culture Endemic in Business. The Conversation. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://theconversation.com/how-could-vw-be-so-dumb-blame-the-unethical-culture-endemic-in-business-48137
James Du Bois brings up a point that is pertinent to each and every one of us who has to pay taxes knowing that a good part of these taxes will go to paying for the health care of the less-fortunate others. More than one of us has asked "Am I morally obliged to make sacrifices to ensure that all who live in the U.. have access to health care?" And "If so, why?" And politicians, thinkers, activists, social workers and so forth have frequently relied on the notion of social justice to support their reasoning that we are morally obliged to work for the welfare of others. Du Bois shows the emptiness of this argument.
Aristotle recommends that "equals be treated equally." Few argue with this. The problem comes about when defining what "being treated equally" means and how to set into effect the implications.
The welfare theory of…
DuBois, J. Ethical Issues in Health Care:
How Should We Justify Universal Access to Health Care -- Freedom or Determinism, Justice or Charity? lifeissues.net http://lifeissues.net/writers/dub/dub_03healthcareandethics.html
Ethics and Specialized Knowledge
Enron's case summary
Enron is an interstate pipeline company that was founded in 1985 as a supplier of power utilities. In the 20th century, Enron had grown quickly, and due to increased competition in the global market, the company decided to diversify and use international investments that would help in keeping their market position. Enron's rapid expansion exceeded their funding abilities, and this resulted in the creation of a complex web of off-balance-sheet financing (Silverstein, 2013). It is clear that they ignored the dangers associated with their activities in bringing serious losses. Moreover, in 2001 is when the company overstated on its revenues and its liabilities became hidden from the public.
Additionally, their driving culture became reinforced by incentive schemes that promised and delivered rewards that were huge concerning their compensation packages (Silverstein, 2013). As such, their outstanding performance required them to portray the company as…
Marianne M. J. (2009). Business Ethic Case Study and Selected Readings (sixth Ed.). Salt Lake City, UT, U.S.A.: Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Silverstein, K. (2013, May 14). Enron, Ethics and Today's Corporate Values. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kensilverstein/2013/05/14/enron-ethics-and-todays-corporate-values/#7a4cfc557688
Ethical Issues at Apple
Apple Inc. is one of the leading global companies, but in spite of its success, it is also faced with some legal and ethical issues, such as the employment of under-aged workers in ten of its plants in China. The company is striving to address these issues as apart of a wider commitment to transparency and sustainability, but more dramatic measures might be necessary.
Apple Inc. is one of the largest companies of the globe, having in fact the largest capitalization of al companies -- 563 billion (Y Charts, 2012) -- and also being the largest company in the IT field, generating more revenues that Microsoft and Google combined (Goldman, 2012). Apple is mostly popular due to the high level of technologic innovation it has made fun and easily available to the larger market. But aside from its success, the company has also been blamed for…
Goldman, D., 2012, Apple's $46 billion sales set new tech record, CNN Money, http://money.cnn.com/2012/01/24/technology/apple_earnings/index.htmlast accessed on July 23, 2012
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Ethical Analysis #2
Nurses face dilemmas of an ethical nature on a regular basis. This effectively means that from time to time, nurses are called upon make ethical decisions -- decisions that could have a huge impact on the well-being of patients. One of the current ethical issues being faced by nurses is whether or not to lie to patients. ecently, it was revealed that psychiatrists and nurses caring for dementia patients were actively practicing what Williams (2013) refers to as "therapeutic lying" in an attempt to keep the said patients happy. As a matter of fact 98% of nurses, as William further points out, admitted to lying to dementia patients. The question that ought to be answered in this case is; should nurses withhold some potentially upsetting information about diseases that happen to be life-threatening?
B. Ethical Principles and Theories at Issue
The ethical principles at work…
American Medical Association -- ANA (2014). Short Definitions of Ethical Principles and Theories: Familiar Words, What do they Mean? http://www.nursingworld.org/mainmenucategories/ethicsstandards/resources/ethics-definitions.pdf
Corner, J. & Bailey, C.D. (eds.) (2009). Cancer Nursing: Care in Context (2nd Ed.). Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Williams, A. (2013). Dementia sufferers told white lies to keep them happy: Nurses and psychiatrists admit 'therapeutic lying' to confused patients. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2410811/Dementia-sufferers-told-white-lies-happy-Nurses-psychiatrists-admit-therapeutic-lying-confused-patients.html