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Advance directives are a way to help people ensure that their wishes are carried out at the end of their lives, even if they are no longer in a state to communicate these wishes. Indeed, these kinds of directives exist precisely for the purpose of ensuring a person's wishes are established during a time when they are able to state these clearly and without any ambiguity (Mitty, 2012). Importantly, every person has the right to create an advance directive and to have such a directive honored at the end of his or her life. Such a directive therefore also overrides any personal desires among family members, for example, to prolong life by means of intensive or artificial methods. In the case of Mr. E, there are three important factors when considering the validity of his advance directive. First, despite his "mild" developmental delay, Mr. E had the presence…
ANA Board of Directors (2010, Jun. 14). Revised Position Statement. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Ethics-Position-Statements/etpain14426.pdf
Mitty, E.L. (2012, Jul). Advance Directives: Geriatric Nursing Protocol. Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing. Retrieved from: http://consultgerirn.org/topics/advance_directives/want_to_know_more
Pathfinder. (2010). Advance Healthcare Directives HIPAA issues. Retrieved from: http://www.pathfinderfs.com/2010/11/advanced-healthcare-directives-hippa-issues/
e. To find the relationship between employee's performance and corporate ethical values and ethical leadership values. However, I would have also studied what if the successor leadership fails to demonstrate same ethical leadership values.
Type of design and elements of the design: I believe that the questionnaires are normally designed well yet they need to be customized according to the environment of country and the organizations. Thus, I would have first interviewed leaders and corporate managers to find what questions to include in my research. Only after that I would have finalized my questionnaires. The sample size taken by Sabir et. al. is very small in my opinion. I believe when conducting a nationwide study in different sectors, the sample size of 190 is too small that ends up in only 150 valid questionnaires. I would have surveyed at least 1000 individuals 500 from public and 500 form private sector.…
1. Fritz, J.H., O'Neil, N.B., Popp, A.M., Williams, C. And Arnett, R.C., (2013), "The Influence of Supervisory Behavioral Integrity on Intent to Comply with Organizational Ethical Standards and Organizational Commitment," Journal of Business Ethics, 114:251-263
2. Groves, K.S., and LaRocca, M.A., (2011), "An Empirical Study of Leader Ethical Values, Transformational and Transactional Leadership, and Follower Attitudes Toward Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, 103:511 -- 528
3. Kacmar, M., Bachrach, D.G., Kenneth, Harris and Zivnuska, S., (2011), "Fostering Good Citizenship Through Ethical Leadership: Exploring the Moderating Role of Gender and Organizational Politics ," Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(3), 633 -- 642
4. Sabir, M.S., Iqbal, J.J., Rehman, K., Shah, K.A. And Yameen, M., (2012), "Impact of corporate ethical values on ethical leadership and employee performance," International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(2)
Ethical leadership is required to stop the 'Planned Obsolescence' principle in Consumer Product esign and evelopment
This paper attempts to identify and explain the issue of 'Planned Obsolescence' and whether the ethical leadership can help eradicate it from consumer perspective. Ethical decision making model developed by Winter (1992b) and Corporate Social Responsibility model developed by Carroll (1991) will be used as the theoretical foundation for this paper. Survey method will be used to ascertain the response of the subjects and regression was used to assess the gathered data.
Innovation is not always a friend of consumer. The businessmen in the middle have full control over it and do manipulate its introduction and shelving as per their wish. To earn a hefty sixty percent margin and restart the process of innovation and sales and profits through capacity investments (Reinhardt et al., 1997), the manufacturers are forced to continue introducing new products…
Due to scientific advancements, businesses get the opportunity to increase the amount of applications or the advantages of the particular merchandise item or to enhance the execution degree on subsisting benefits. Examples of this could be introducing a touch screen element to a mobile phone or when a notebook manufacturer add more RAM and speed to the system or decreases the heaviness of the laptop. A point that should be observed here is that the in the beginning the latest degree of advancement may not be required by the consumers so if there are some evident profit sectors in a marketplace, then to achieve a sky-scraping cross electricity of demand items should be produced when required. In situations like these former versions should be held back until and unless there is a considerable desire for them and hence the cause of obsolescence will be less. The cause of obsolescence is usually potent when the clients comprehend the previous merchandise to be "obsolete" or once the additive attributes of the latest items are unanimously comprehended as valuable plus advantageous (Saunders and Jobber, 1994).
Facts which maneuver obsolescence and speedy replacement:
Firms that manufacture long-lasting products handle certain exception in sustaining a high value of gross increase. This "durables difficulty" is the major powerful authority behind planned obsolescence in every market system. It normally happens when budding vendors rapidly impregnate their markets. If merchandise is more authentic and enduring, the replacement phase would be more tenacious and the degree of gross revenue would be gradual. The rate of income of a company depends on two factors, if a company decides to let its products to be hired then it would
Given the recent crash on Wall Street and the housing market symbolized by corrupt financiers like Bernard Madoff, ethical and moral leadership of corporations has become a major issue for those who study the American capitalist system. In reality, such concerns about the lack of morality in business, government and society as a while has increased significantly in the last thirty years, which undoubtedly has been an era that glorified money, power, greed and self-interest in ways not seen in the United States since the 1920s -- or the Gilded Age of the late-19th Century. Public opinion surveys in recent decades show a total lack of public confidence in the ethics and morality of leading institutions in both the public and private sectors. This has also been an era of globalization in which many older Fordist mass production industries have been downsized, outsourced and moves to China and…
Ciulla, J.B. (Ed) (2004). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership, 2nd Edition. Praeger Publishers.
Daft, R.L. And D. Maucic. (2009). Understanding Management. Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Erbschloe, M. (2003). Socially Responsible IT Management. Elsevier Science.
Griffin, R.W. (2008). Fundamentals of Management, 5th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co.
This is done so that the foundational elements of an ethical organizational culture are well-defined and have exceptional levels of resiliency and strength to withstand resistance to these changes over time (Mayer, Kuenzi, Greenbaum, Bardes, Salvador, 108).
An ethical leader is also one that concentrates on how best to align their organizations; strengths and insights to the needs of the market, and do it with open, honest processes that mitigate any potential for conflict of interest or corruption. The ability of a leader to create cultures where full disclosure is not only tolerated by promoted is key. When organizational leaders can create a high level of trust in an organization, the adoption of ethical practices gets accelerated at a much faster rate (Mayer, Kuenzi, Greenbaum, Bardes, Salvador, 108). Excellent leaders know trust and transparency can act as performance accelerators if used well.
The most effective foundation to sustain long-term…
Michael E. Brown, and Linda K. Trevino. "Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. " Leadership Quarterly 17.6 (2006): 595.
Mayer, D., M. Kuenzi, R. Greenbaum, M. Bardes, and R. Salvador. "How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model. " Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 108.1 (2009): 1.
Toor, S., and G. Ofori. "Ethical Leadership: Examining the Relationships with Full Range Leadership Model, Employee Outcomes, and Organizational Culture. " Journal of Business Ethics 90.4 (2009): 533.
However, nowadays, more and more people feel they are psychologically persecuted by their employers through constant control and monitoring of their e-mail or personal conversations. Moreover, there are business owners who show little respect for the moral and physical integrity of their employees by exploiting their qualities and services.
I consider leadership ethics is an important aspect of business. They represent the core values of the code of conduct of both employers and employees. At the same time, leadership ethics is the reference point for the aspects concerning social responsibility. Most corporations today are well aware of the social pressures coming from both employees and the public opinion and have tried to develop new policies based on the ethical values and norms of leadership. It can be said that the evolution of social responsibility and the importance given to it are some of the achievements the implementation of such ethical…
De George, Richard T. A History of Business Ethics. 2007. 23 Jan. 2008 http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/business-ethics-history.html
Stevens, Judith. Ethics & Responsibility in a Time of Terror: Just (an)Other Face?. 2006. 23 Jan. 2008. http://www.jstevens.com/judithstevens/articles/ethics.html
Taeusch, C.F. Business Ethics. International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 42, No. 3. (Apr., 1932), pp. 273-288.
The situation encountered at the DF Insurance Corporation has a twofold moral: ethics are crucial for the success of the business operations, and, the employees are the core of organizational triumph. Also, as it is already generally accepted, organizations need to constantly change and adapt to the conditions of the micro and macroenvironments. In this order of ideas then, they should not implement change only when a major modification occurred in the environment, but they should promote change as an ongoing process, as the central piece of the corporate culture (Davenport, Harris and Cantrell, 2004).
In terms of business ethics and ethical leadership and decision making, it becomes obvious that the managers must act in accordance with the moral norms. They must, otherwise put, combine their business skills and their people skills in an adequate behavior that promotes and fosters the well-being of all categories of stakeholders.
Bourg, J., 2003, Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil, Ethics and International Affairs, Vol. 17
Davenport, T.H., Harris, J.G., Cantrell, S., 2004, Enterprise Systems and Ongoing Process Change, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 10
Kraut, R., 2007, Aristotle's Ethics, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/lastaccessed on February 17, 2009
Marino, G., 2004, an Ethics Consult with Kierkegaard, Criminal Justice Ethics, Vol. 23
Ethical Leadership in an Organization: Donald Trump -- the man, the mogul, the reality TV series ... The fragrance?
How can an organization behave as an ethical entity when is headed by an individual whom is not only an organizational leader but is himself a prominent figurehead? Can Donald Trump give opinions on ethical behavior to numerous eager apprentices and millions of television viewers, and still be an ethical and profitable leader of his own organization? The issues raised by Donald Trump's prominence from the popular reality TV hit series the "Apprentice" are not only specific to his organization but to the business world at large. hen a brand name such as Martha Stewart, Rosie O'Donnell, or Oprah is synonymous with the President and CEO of the company, when that individual acts in a certain fashion, ethically or otherwise, it impacts the entire organization and thus the fate of all…
Paradiso, T. (April 19, 2004) The Battle for Business Ethics: Sadly "The Apprentice" Mimics Reality. Retrieved on October 11, 2004 at http://www.fool.com/Server/FoolPrint.asp?File=/community/pod/2004/040419.htm
Neuman, William. (October 10, 2004) "BIG DEAL: A 'Sweet Slice of Heaven' for a Lofty Price." The New York Times. Retrieved on October 11, 2004 at http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/10/realestate/10DEAL.html?pagewanted=print& ; position=
"You're Hired! Donald J. Trump Signs Multi-Year Deal with Aramis and Designer Fragrances; Donald Trump, The Fragrance, Available Nationwide in Mid-November." (September 9, 2004) Forbes.com. Business Wire Retrieved on October 11, 2004 at http://www.forbes.com/businesswire/feeds/businesswire/2004/09/23/businesswire20040923005282r1.html
Leadership: Ethical Leadership
Ethical Leadership: Leadership
Leadership is crucial for organizational success. It can be defined simply as the ability to motivate and inspire others to identify with one's vision. In this assignment, I interviewed a selected leader to determine how their actions and behaviour influence the ethical culture of the organization. This text presents the responses given by the leader during the interview.
Leadership and Organizational Performance
In a competitive marketplace, the success of any organization depends in part on the effectiveness of its leaders. Effective leadership is crucial for the smooth running of the organization -- an effective leader guides, inspires and motivates his subordinates to achieve the organization's goals. Depending on how a leader interacts with his employees, resolves conflicts, and delegates responsibility, they can influence employee absenteeism, retention, morale and overall productivity. Thus, leadership is a crucial determinant of organizational performance and success. The dean of…
Fox, E., Crigger, B., Bottrell, M. & Bauck, P. (2012). Ethical Leadership: Fostering an Ethical Environment and Culture. National Centre for Ethics in Healthcare. Retrieved November 30, 2015 from http://www.ethics.va.gov/elprimer.pdf
Trevino, L. K., Hartman, L. P. & Brown, M. (200). Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership. The California Management Review, 42 (4), 128-142.
James Autry: A biographical overview of an effective and ethical leader in business today
If, as the title of his autobiography Confessions of An Accidental Businessman suggests, Jin Autry became a businessman by chance, he didn't walk away from the so-called accident. Rather, James Autry used his success to enrich the visions of everyday Americans of their personal living spaces. His best-known role is as the publisher of the popular middle-class and middle-market lifestyle magazine, Better Homes and Gardens. Autry also continues to enrich the vision of American business leadership. True "empowerment" and ethical leadership, Autry states is not about "I take some of my power and give it to you," rather Autry suggests, "that's the myth. Real empowerment is recognizing that you, by your skill, your knowledge, your commitment, you already have power." Autry states he has tried to use that power within himself in constructive ways. He has…
Autry, James. (2004) "Homepage of James A. Autry." Retrieved on October 13, 2004 at http://members.aol.com/jamesautry/
Autry, James. (October 20, 2000) Larry Spears, CEO of the Robert K. Greenleaf Center in Indianapolis, and John Noble, Director of the Greenleaf Center-U.K., public interview and dialogue with James Autry in Des Moines, Iowa. Part of Robert K. Greenleaf: Lecture Series. Retrieved on October 13, 2004 at http://www.greenleaf.org/leadership/read-about-it/articles/James-Autry-in-Des-Moines-Iowa.htm
Autry, James & Stephen Mitchell. (1998) Real Power: Business Lessons from the Tao Te Ching.
Autry, James. (1999) Confessions of an Accidental Businessman.
Strategic Planning and Performance Measurement
The ethical issues that pertain to the assessment of emotional intelligence (EI) among leadership in the Pakistani banking industry are that while EI is recognized as being important to leadership effectiveness, moral aptitude and virtue are seen as most important in being a great leader (Sivanathan, Fekken, 2002). Possessing moral aptitude and communicating virtue through transparent exchanges with followers are qualities that must be possessed alongside EI to facilitate leadership. As Segon and Booth (2015) show, virtue is the missing ethics element in EI; for instance, “an unethical manger or leader [may] demonstrate EI competence” (p. 789). For this reason, “ethical decision-making behavior” is a major ethical issue that leaders must address as they incorporate EI skills into their daily communication routines (Holian, 2006). This issue applies especially because employment law is a broad area that encompasses various aspects of the employer-employee relationship. The law…
Banking Companies Ordinance. (2011). Retrieved from
Holian, R. (2006). Management decision making, ethical issues and “emotional”
intelligence. Management Decision, 44(8), 1122-1138.
Segon, M., & Booth, C. (2015). Virtue: The missing ethics element in emotional
intelligence. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(4), 789-802.
Sivanathan, N., & Fekken, G. (2002). Emotional intelligence, moral reasoning and
transformational leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(4), 198-204.
In “Ethical Leadership, Religion, and Personal Development in the Context of Global Crisis,” Sandu Frunza considers the role of religious communities in mitigating the type of extremism that leads to violence and global crises. According to the author, religious leaders need to play a stronger role and have a stronger voice in outlining to their communities why extremism is incompatible with faith. Frunza also claims that the motif of the martyr plays into both pessimism and extremism. Spirituality has a role to play in ethical leadership, and can co-exist within a pluralistic society. In fact, Frunza claims that personal development and leadership programs have spiritual ethics and structures at their foundations already. It is possible to capitalize on these spiritual foundations in leadership models for the secular sector as well. Ultimately, Frunza concludes that character ethics provides a straightforward and evidence-based model for leadership success.
Strength and Validity
Frunza, S. (2017). Ethical leadership, religion, and personal development in the context of global crisis. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 16(46): 3-16.
All these values are aimed to help the military men make a better difference between the ethical and unethical actions. "The complex ethical pressures upon the military professional are the rules, goals and situations that provide the context for determining what is right and what is wrong, good and bad" (Maloney).
Doty, J., Tenace, S., January 1, 2009, What Goes on in Theater Stays in Theater?, Association of the United States Army, http://www.ausa.org/publications/armymagazine/armyarchive/January2009/Pages/What%20Goes%20on%20in%20Theater%20Stays%20in%20Theater.aspxlastaccessed on February 16, 2009
Maloney, S.D., Ethics Theory for the Military Professional, Maxwell-Gunter AFB, etrieved at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/au-24/maloney.pdfonFebruary 16, 2009
Powers, ., 2009, Military Ethics and Conflicts of Interest, About.com, http://usmilitary.about.com/cs/generalinfo/a/stanconduct.html. astaccessed on February 16, 2009
Doty, J., Tenace, S., January 1, 2009, What Goes on in Theater Stays in Theater?, Association of the United States Army, http://www.ausa.org/publications/armymagazine/armyarchive/January2009/Pages/What%20Goes%20on%20in%20Theater%20Stays%20in%20Theater.aspxlastaccessed on February 16, 2009
Maloney, S.D., Ethics Theory for the Military Professional, Maxwell-Gunter AFB, Retrieved at http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/au-24/maloney.pdfonFebruary 16, 2009
Powers, R., 2009, Military Ethics and Conflicts of Interest, About.com, http://usmilitary.about.com/cs/generalinfo/a/stanconduct.html. astaccessed on February 16, 2009
ethical leadership course; it compares and contrasts the pseudo transformational leaders from authentic transformational leaders. Authentic transformational has four constituent; influence idealized, inspirational motivation, individualized considerations and intellectual stimulation which are contrasted in the imitation in their pseudotransformational leadership dissembling derived from ethical values existing in their leaders' program, vision and articulation which can be rejected or embraced by the followers.
Manipulative, deceptive and more relevant behaviors which are devious are being attributed by critics to leaders who are transformational, pseudo transformational or authentic. According to Bailey (1988) and Martin and Sims (1956) they take their stand that in order to succeed the entire leaders must be manipulative. However it is the leaders of pseudo transformational who are manipulative and deceptive. Authentic transformational leaders sometimes are manipulative for what they criticize to be the common good, while manipulative is a practice of regular pseudo transformation leaders and infrequent practice of…
Bass, B.M. (1989) The two faces of charisma. LEADERS, 12(4), 44-45.
Howell, J.M. & Avolio, B.J. ( 1992) The ethics of charismatic leadership: Submission or liberation? Academy of Management
Executive, 6(2), 43-54.
Martin, N.H. & Sims, J.H. (1956) Thinking ahead: Power tactics. Harvard Business Review, 36(6), 25-36, 140
The program focuses on building an ethical culture, but does not appear to specifically address fraud risk assessments, controls over fraud prevention or other SOX provisions.
3) the company currently focuses on training and enculturation to sensitize its employees to ethical issues. One suggestion would be to align executive compensation with the objectives of the shareholders. Options only bring about temporary alignment, so shares or other long-term strategies should be used instead. This will help management to focus on both ethics and profitability. Another suggestion would be to build upon their existing program by creating job-specific training as well as corporate-wide training. This way the scenarios that the workers are exposed to are specific to situations they might see, which will bring the message closer to home.
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing…
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing Guidelines. Ethics Resource Center. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.ethics.org/erc-publications/federal-sentencing-guidelines.asp
Leadership and Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies
According to Wright (1999), leadership is an essential part of a criminal justice agency, and the key to that leadership is ethics. Without proper ethical standards on a personal level, an individual would not be a good choice for criminal justice. When that person is put into a leadership role, he or she then has to focus on not only personal ethical standards, but standards of ethics that are fitting to the entire department or agency. These standards may not be identical to what would be seen personally, but they must be adhered to regardless. Additionally, when a person is focused on being an ethical leader, he or she holds others to that same ethical standard, and that can keep employees on the right path in any organization. This is especially vital for criminal justice agencies, because they are expected to be…
Bottoms, A. & Tankebe, J. (2012). Beyond procedural justice: A dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(1): 119-170.
Wright, K.N. (1999). Leadership is the key to ethical practice in criminal justice agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics, 18(2): 2-69.
Personal Model of Ethical Leadership
Leadership has been defined as the "procedure of social influence where a person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the achievement of a common task" (Jam, 2012). Leadership is something that remains as one of the most appropriate features of the organizational context. A leader is an individual who influences a group of people in the direction of a specific result. It is not really dependent on title or official authority. Leaders are normally recognized by their volume for caring for others, clear communication, and a commitment to persevere. Some experts believe that good leaders are made not born and others say the opposite. Some leaders have the belief that when people have the willpower and desire, then they can become an effective leader. Some managers even mention that a good leader develops through a never ending procedure of self-study,…
Jam, J.I. (2012). IMPACT OF CORPORATE ETHICAL VAULUES ON ETHICAL LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE. International Journal of Business and Social Science,, 23(9), 23-56.
Kacmar, K.M. (2013). Ethical leadership and subordinate outcomes: The mediating role of organizational politics and the moderating role of political skill. Journal of Business Ethics,, 23(11), 33-44.
Mayer, D.M. (2012). Examining the link between ethical leadership and employee misconduct: The mediating role of ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(6), 7-16.
Miao, Q.N. (2013). The relationship between ethical leadership and unethical pro-organizational behavior: Linear or curvilinear effects? Journal of Business Ethics, 22(5), 67-70.
personal ethical leadership profile describing your own MOAL COMPASS, which guides your behavior and actions and decision-making. Describe the fundamental ethical theories and concepts that inform your MOAL COMPASS. I am a manager in a United Health Care position. A manager in the public or not-for-profit sectors can be considered as a person with vision. A good manager is driven and is committed to achieving her goals and vision. Managers are the catalyst within the organization responsible for focusing their attention on problems that need to be fixed, and for tackling the situation at hand. This reminds me of Cooper's treatment of managerial responsibility where he writes that there are three levels of responsibility: objective responsibility -where clear expectations and accounts of accountability are existent at each level of the organization; subjective responsibility -- teammates in organization are involved in organizational decision and policy making; heightening the objective and subjective…
Cooper, T.L. (2006). The Responsible Administrator: An Approach to Ethics for the Administrative Role, 5th edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sharp, B.S., Aguirre, G.,and Kickham, K. Managing in the Public Sector: A Casebook in Ethics and Leadership. Pearson Education, Inc. 2011.
Un) Ethical Leadership and Identity:
The main topic of the article is to identify and comment on the major findings originating from the collective initiatives on the issue of leadership, ethics, and identity. In order to explore this special issue, the article highlights various aspects including definitional advancements, processes in ethical leadership, and the results and moderating factors of ethical leadership. As part of the author's initiatives to explore the topic in detail, he has started by a comprehensive definition of ethical and unethical leadership. Based on an analysis of the article and the author's writing style, he is writing to both academic and professional audience. The author communicates what has been learned and need for future considerations with regard to ethical and unethical leadership and identity.
Notably, Hunter (2012) has solicited various manuscripts focusing on leadership, ethics, and identity in order to develop his special issue (p. 79). As…
Hunter, S.T. (2012, April 4). (Un)Ethical Leadership and Identity: What Did We Learn and Where Do We Go from Here? Journal of Business Ethics, 107, 79-87.
Dimensions of Ethical Leadership
Corporate reputation is a concept that can be termed as soft. This involves the overall estimation of how an organization is viewed by both internal and external stakeholders on the basis of its actions in the past and the probability of its behavior in the future.an organization might have a different reputation wit its different stakeholders according to the experience they have when it comes to dealing with the organization. Corporate reputation therefore plays an important role when it comes to the performance of the organization and its social responsibility. The overall success or failure of any organization depends on its reputation. Corporate reputation is termed as a great intangible asset that ahs a tangible value. This means that the company's reputation is sometimes unwritten its value is quite obvious. Corporate reputation has been the focus of many organizations since this can bring reimbursement…
Benson, D. (2004) .The Coca-Cola Company struggles with Ethical crises.
Harrison, K. (2005). Why a good corporate reputation is important to your organization. Retrieved September 9, 2013 from http://www.cuttingedgepr.com/articles/corprep_important.asp
King Jewels: Ethical Leadership Case
Leadership style may have contributed to unethical behavior because:
a) There was no leader providing guidance and keeping a watchful eye on employees for last three years.
b) Andy Wong had been busy travelling and expanding business and hence failing to provide the much-needed guidance and supervision
c) Company had become overly ambitious and leadership was more interested in excessive expansion and big plans than in checking quality,
d) Ho like most other Chinese and Hong Kong leaders mainly had a dictatorial style of leadership. He would dictate terms without engaging in meaningful dialogue with his key personnel
e) Setting huge sale targets without consulting employees had led to this unethical behavior by Clement Tam
Excessive meshing of duties and responsibilities was one of the key reasons for generating such wrongful behavior. Proper segregation of duties could have prevented this problem. This is because division…
Defining an Ethical Leader
Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric
The nature of leadership is multifaceted and often requires the continual mastery of new skills, insights, intelligence and perspectives to stay effective over the long-term. Such is the nature of ethical leadership, which requires a steadfast focus on a core set of ethical principles and values that guide a leader's judgment, ensuring consistency over the long-term. These are also the fundamental aspects of any leader's long-term credibility as well, and their ability to transform their enterprises over the long-term as well (John, 2005). Ethical leaders often resonate with credibility and the willingness to also change quickly in response to the needs of their organizations, employees, stakeholders and customers.
The purpose of this analysis is to define what an ethical leader is, how managers can progress to being more ethical in their leadership style, and how Jeff Immelt, CEO of general Electric,…
Crainer, S. (2009). From Edison to Immelt: The GE Way. Business Strategy Review, 20(3), 18-22.
Gonzalez, T.F., & Guillen, M. (2002). Leadership ethical dimension: A requirement in TQM implementation. The TQM Magazine, 14(3), 150-164.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Immelt, J. (2010). Renewing American Leadership. Vital Speeches of the Day, 76(2), 53.
My organization is Miami-Dade Transit, for which I am a bus operator. The Transit system is an independent operating entity within the government of Miami-Dade County. Leadership of this company is typically appointed, and this was the case of the current Director, Ysela Llort. She was posted to the position at Transit in February 2012, after a career spanning many different units within the county, including Public Works, Aviation and Seaport, as well as an earlier role at Transit. Her background is diverse enough that she not only can effectively manage the transit system for one of the most highly-populated counties in the country but also that she can perform a role as liaison with the county, the government entity that funds and provides oversight for the Transit division. This paper will examine the leadership style of Ms. Llort, in the context of my experiences working there.
CBS (2010). Miami-Dade Commissioners livid over transit scandal. CBS News. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://miami.cbslocal.com/2010/12/07/miami-dade-commissioners-livid-over-transit-scandal/
LeMay, N. (2008). Leadership can be learned, but how is it measured? U.S. Aid. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www1.msh.org/Documents/OccasionalPapers/upload/How_Can_Leadership_Be_MeasuredOP.pdf
Miami-Dade (2013). Ysela Llort -- Director. Miami Dade County Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.miamidade.gov/biographies/transit.asp
Miami Today. (2012). Ysela Llort puts transit on track to open airport link station while trying to restore federal faith in the systems controls Miami Today. Retrieved December 7, 2013 from http://www.miamitodaynews.com/news/120308/story-profile.shtml
Two of the most pressing issues in corporate leadership today include gender equality and labor rights. In "Women See Slow Progress in Leadership," Gay (2013) cites numerous empirical studies showing that the glass ceiling remains nearly impenetrable at the highest levels of management. The report cites the work-life balance ideal as the most common reason offered for why many women are either opting out of the CEO lifestyle, or are not considered ready or willing to handle the challenges and pressures of senior leadership.
In "The Best etail Companies to Work for ight Now," Smith (2013) describes Costco's approach toward human resources management. The company has recently been named one of the best companies to work for in the United States because of their relatively high salaries, supportive work environment, opportunity for growth, and job security. Its ethical labor rights practices are helping gain positive publicity for Costco, showing…
Gay, M. (2013). Women see slow progress in leadership. The Wall Street Journal. 14 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303289904579196123043065800
Greenleaf, R. (2013). Ten principles of servant leadership. Butler University. Retrieved online: http://www.butler.edu/volunteer/resources/principles-of-servant-leadership/
Lavinsky, D. (2013). Are you a visionary business leader? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/davelavinsky/2013/04/26/are-you-a-visionary-business-leader/
Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership (2013). What is servant leadership? Retrieved online: https://greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Also, virtue ethics must ensure that the leader acts in the best interest of those who he represents, works with, and works for. However, this does not suffice in order to implement an effective leadership style.
In addition to this, the leader must be surrounded by individuals with similar ethical behavior. This would help the leader to achieve ethical responsibilities. Also, it would make it easier to observe any unethical conduct from the leader.
As mentioned above, there are also different levels of ethics, like mandatory and aspirational ethics. The lowest level of ethics, but not the least important, is represented by mandatory ethics. This type of ethics refers to compliance with the law. In this case, things are clear. All individuals, especially leaders, must respect the law.
Aspirational ethics refer to the effects and influence that leaders' actions have on others. The first people leaders influence are represented by…
1. Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in Top Management Teams: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation. Academy of Management Journal. No. 8. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
2. Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W. (1992). Integrated Manufacturing Resources Management, A Human Capital Perspective. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 35, No. 2. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
3. Kings, Queens, and Dictators (2000). Forbes.com, Inc. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/0703/6515256a.html?partner=whiteglove_google .
4. Saddam Hussein (2005). Global Security Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/saddam.htm .
Attila the Hun; Collaborative, Driven and Leadership Qualities
Leaders have followers, but the way in which this is achieved may vary. esearch may not have identified a singular set of characteristics or qualities which are always present, but there is general agreement on some qualities and styles that leaders may utilize, these include the collaborative, driven and ethical leadership styles. These are often applied in the modern context of leaders within the commercial context. However, if qualities of leader that are advocated today are valid, they will also be seen in the leaders of the past, as seen with the examining of Alexander the Great by Mintzberg (et al., 2008). Another leader who may be considered is that of Attila the Hun; a man that is portrayed as a barbarian in many texts, but must have had some leadership qualities to gain such a strong and long-term following. As…
Chrislip, D; Larson, C, (1994), Collaborative leadership, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B, (2008), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall
Roberts, W, (1990), Leadership Secrets of Attila the Hun, Business Plus
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
It is like a double-edged sword, one must understand the pros and cons to every option. Yes with option one, it appears that by having the bank take over that this offers the best case scenario for everyone but Joe must weigh the possible repercussions and how they will affect business. In other words, this may be saving everyone's job and the company but at what cost to quality of the job and the company? This bank intervention may not be worth the hassle if the culture of the company changes for the negative. This can have a direct influence on productivity and morale. Joe needs to keep all the details in mind before deciding.
Question 4: hat pressures does Joe face regarding honesty and telling the truth about his situation?
In this situation, Joe faces many pressures as most business owners would when faced with such challenges. He has…
Leadership Ethics? I did not have the information about the chapter. Citation style below.
Last name, first name. Book title. City of Publisher: Publisher name, year of publication.
This requires non-computer specialists to understand what the company's products do, to make its advertising clear and effective. In short, harnessing the diverse talents of many different types of people in service of the organization's mission requires a clear, concise organizational value statement that is inclusive in its embrace of the talents and unique perspectives of all of the workers laboring for the organization.
Having a clear vision for the organization also means that employees are aware of what is expected of them in terms of their work ethic, but also in terms of their ethical performance and standards. The recent accounting scandals have made government regulators hypersensitive to any potential impropriety in a variety of areas. It is crucial that the climate of the organization does not condone unethical behavior that could damage its name and reputation. It is not enough that ethics be affirmed in words, but ethical…
The Importance of Vision." Manning, G & Curtis, K. (2007). The Art of Leadership.
Second Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, pages 59-71.
The Motive to Lead." Manning, G & Curtis, K. (2007). The Art of Leadership. Second Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, pages 72-75.
Organizational Climate." Manning, G & Curtis, K. (2007). The Art of Leadership.
Leadership ethics by Lamar Odom that basically examines whether doing the right thing is enough in leadership. The author examines this issue given that the behavior of leaders has been one of the most intriguing issues in today's society and in order to provide insights on ethics in leadership. The title of the book provokes deeper thoughts in the minds of leaders even before they open the book to commence reading. The author of this book is a leadership and ethic consultant who has not only taught numerous courses but also carried out several trainings on this intriguing topic. Professor Odom developed interest in examining this issue following the cliche answers he received from time to time on the question of what ethics is. Actually, Odom's work in examining ethics in leadership was fueled by the concerns he had regarding the cliche answers he received from students and corporate executives.…
Odom, L. (2010). Leadership ethics: is doing the right thing enough? Bloomington, IN: Xlibris
"Professor Odom's Book Examines Ethics in Leadership." (n.d.). Catholic Higher Education
and Service Since 1895. Retrieved from Our Lady of the Lake University website: http://admissions.ollusa.edu/s/1190/ollu-form.aspx?sid=1190&gid=1&pgid=277&cid=8511&ecid=8511&ciid=61456&crid=0
The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…
Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.
Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.
Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.
Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
Ethical Awareness Inventory esults and Analysis
esults of my Ethical Awareness Inventory described my ethical perspective to be character-based, wherein I evaluate people more on their ethical character than their present actions. Basically, the results determined me as an individual who can see past ethical or unethical actions, and identify an ethical or unethical person based on his/her overall character. Since my ethical perspective is character-based, I value in people the qualities of integrity, honesty, and wisdom. For me, a person with a strong ethical character is one who would be capable of discernment and would not have difficulties knowing what is right and what is wrong. It goes without saying then, that I myself is an individual who has developed an ethical character over time. I consider myself to be an individual with integrity, and I expect other people to develop this integrity as well.
The results are indeed…
Abbott, A. (1983). "Professional Ethics." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 88, No. 5.
Brown, M. (2006). "Ethical leadership: a review and future directions." The Leadership Quarterly, No. 17.
log 1: Theories and Models of Leadership and Management
An organization is a collection of multidimensional components and there are complex equations between all of these components. It encompasses various individuals, business practices, visions, missions, goals, performance standards, an organizational culture, ethical frameworks, hierarchies based on command and control, working methods, management styles along with relevant theories and models and a considerable number of other factors. Different organizations perform their operations under the influence of distinguished and diverse rules, conditions, circumstances, goals and factors (Cherry n.d.). Since the modus operandi and culture associated with every organization are tailored to its requirements, therefore, the models and theories allied with management style of an organization can also be also distinctive, unique and different from what accomplishes favorable outcomes for another organization.
Ibarra and Hansen (2011, p.p.71) reveals a research-based fact that has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better…
1. Kotter, JP (2007), Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail, Harvard Business Review.
2. Studzinski, J (2010), BVO - World class CEOs master the art of listening. Available from < http://bvo.com/topics/communication-skills-for-leaders/programmes/john-studzinskiworld-class-ceos-master-the-art-of-listening. > [16 July 2012]
3. Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011), 'Are You a Collaborative Leader?' Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74.
4. Kent, S (2005, November), Better behavior, PM Network, 19(11), 4+.
One author notes, "Leaders must champion the processes of quality throughout the organization, benchmarking successful organizations, incorporating innovations in quality, and setting standards and measurements in every department" (Haughey, 2003). In addition, some leaders may rely on a small, select set of advisors and associates, instead of a larger, more open and accessible group. These small groups may advise according to their own best interests and motivations, instead of those that are best for the company. In these cases, the leader is simply not taking advantage of all the talent and innovation within the organization, and in the process, they may make unethical or unsound decisions because poor advice. Ethical leaders inspire others around them to create the same ethical relationships throughout the organization, and ethical leadership is paramount to organizational success in the 21st century.
Haughey, L. (2003). Five standards of excellence practiced by ethical leaders. etrieved from…
Haughey, L. (2003). Five standards of excellence practiced by ethical leaders. Retrieved from the Workforce.com Web site: http://www.workforce.com/section/09/article/23/55/60.html28 Sept. 2007.
The process of determining benefits is defined by measures that are associated with patient safety and explanations of the process of care. Patient-focused care is the primary means with which the value of health care is achieved because the approach not only benefits the patient but it also benefits the organization and its staff. This approach has been adopted as an alternative to the traditional task- or treatment-focused approach. The approach involves the incorporation of the patient and his/her family into the treatment process and tools, enhanced communication, explanations, and information for intelligent decision making.
It has proven to be the most efficient and cost-effective approach since the patient's environment and health conditions are evaluated on a continual basis (Dlugacz, 2010, p. 42). Therefore, the health care provider usually addresses issues beyond the patient's medical condition that may have an impact on the patient's well-being. The most important element in…
Dlugacz, Y.D. (2010). Focus on the patient. In Value-based health care: linking finance and quality (pp. 41-86). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Gilbert. (2007). Leadership, Governance, and Noble Purpose (pp. 61-89).
Going on vacation or taking a day off resulted in coming back to a flood of emails about "mistakes" she had uncovered while you were away, so time off was not even seen as an incentive any more.
As shown, there was really very little in comparison between my classroom and this department. One was a toxic environment due to poor leadership, while the other was a positive and nurturing environment due to leadership. Another writer states, "Successful leadership -- and the trust of those led -- demands a true partnership between leader and followers to create a team that advances our society toward the common good" (Erickson, 2006). In my experience, there was no team with the unethical leader, the staff was divided into "us" against "them," and the leader had no clue that her actions were causing such dissension in the staff.
In conclusion, comparing these two leaders…
Ciulla, J.B. (Ed.). (2004). Ethics, the heart of leadership (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Erickson, a.L. (2006). Ethical leadership and the public trust: The winner of the 2006 ASPA Wallace O. Keene Conference Scholarship shares her thoughts on four important characteristics of leaders. The Public Manager, 35(1), 62+.
Reilly, E.C. (2006). The future entering: reflections on and challenges to ethical leadership. 163+..
controversial tenure of Carly Fiorina, the former Chief Executive Officer of Hewlett-Packard (HP), using the ethical leadership construct. In the article, Johnson generates several questions that relate to leadership and management practices. The evaluation of HP's former Chief Executive Officer is influenced by the fact that the company experienced a decline in productivity within a short period after the CEO entered the organization. Actually, Fiorina entered a largely successful firm and introduced significant changes within a short time duration, which had considerable impacts on the firm's operations. The dramatic changes that were introduced within a short time culminated in the decline of the value of the company's stock within five years and the eventual unceremonious removal of the CEO. This paper provides a response to the article through examining how it demonstrates leadership.
Analysis and Discussion
As previously mentioned, the article by Craig Johnson examines the rise and fall of…
Bishop, W.H 2013, "The Elements of Leadership in a Global Environment," Global Business
and Organizational Excellence, pp.78-85.
Fehr, R., Yam, K.C. & Dang, C 2015, "Moralized Leadership: The Construction and Consequences of Ethical Leader Perceptions," Academy of Management Review, vol. 40, no. 2, pp.182-209.
Johnson, C 2008, "The Rise and Fall of Carly Fiorina -- An Ethical Case Study," Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp.188-196.
He let them know truthfully and honestly what was expected of them, that the journey would be difficult, and that they would all be in the situation together. He was honest about the impending Civil War when he first took office, and he was honest with his cabinet about the difficulties they would face. This path-goal theory of management helped create a very supportive environment that is necessary when people are facing extremely difficult problems, such as Civil War. The leader must be strong and mature, but he must also be extremely supportive and nurturing, and Lincoln was, which commanded respect among just about everyone he dealt with. He worked very closely with his generals during the war, and he set specific goals for them, another aspect of the path-goal theory -- offering specific leadership advice and goals, and expecting the followers to take the appropriate action. He was supportive,…
Elshtain, J.B. (1999, November). Abraham Lincoln & the last best hope. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 43.
Gienapp, W.E. (2002). Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kumuyi, W.F. (2007, August/September). Seven communication tips an effective leader must have. New African 22+.
Rawley, J.A. (2003). Abraham Lincoln and a nation worth fighting for. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
The role of any manager is to help the company achieve its objectives. A firm with dozens of "leaders" doing their own thing will no achieve its objectives. Rather, firms need their leaders to work together, in traditional leader-follower relationships, in order to achieve their objectives.
The author, however, places too much emphasis on following. One of the key tenets of leadership is to be creative, to add value to the organization. A manager cannot add value if they are merely acting as a robot, dutifully executing orders from above. Indeed, this is not true leadership at all. At each level, the manager must carefully balance the degree to which they should follow with the degree to which they should lead. The organizational structure should permit this. Autocratic firms develop poor leaders because they stifle initiative. Leaders should be free to lead, and to choose the best balance of leading…
Among the best ways to shape organizational culture and still be sure that the employees and their socially diverse cultures are being represented and honored is through ethical leadership models. Three of these models are: P4, Complexity, and 4-V. Each of these models will be discussed here. The P4 model stands for Purpose, People, Planet, Probity (or Purity or Principles) (Ethical, 2014). These four things are the cornerstones of sustaining success when it comes to any organization or business in the modern day, and require those who are in leadership positions to really think about what they are offering to their company, their employees, and their customers and stakeholders (Ethical, 2014). The goal is to show that the organizational purpose is strong, and that it is reconciled with proper care of others in order to keep the company moving forward without causing any harm to the people who…
Ethical leadership, decision-making, and organizations. (2014). Businessballs. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/ethical_management_leadership.htm .
Macaluso, T. (n.d.). A model for ethical leadership. Complexity model and ethics. New Thinker. Retrieved from http://www.newthinker.com/NewThinking%20about%20ETHICAL%20LEADERSHIP.pdf .
McQueeny, E. (2006). Making ethics come alive. Business Communication Quarterly, 69(2), 158-170.
Reilly, E.C. (2006). The future entering: Reflections on and challenges to ethical leadership. Educational Leadership and Administration, 18, 163-173.
This paper focuses on questions of ethics and unethical behavior in the workplace. It discusses what leaders can do to better create an ethical environment in which people are respected and ethical values are promoted. It provides some examples from the real world of what happens when organizations fail to act ethically, and it also examines some of the problems that led to the disaster that was the 2007-2008 economic collapse. Ethical principles such as utilitarianism and virtue ethics are explained in connection with these discussions. The issues of diversity and discrimination are evaluated at length, and the issue of corporate sponsored volunteer programs is discussed as well.
Keywords: ethics, workplace ethics, leadership ethics, organizational ethics
Some of the most common forms of unethical behavior in our workforce today consist of misuse of company funds, misuse of company time, fraudulent activity, and lying. There are many different examples…
esolving Ethical Business Challenges: Elaine
Business managers and executives usually face several ethical challenges that require them to demonstrate ethical leadership in resolving. Elaine's situation is an example of some of ethical business challenges that these leaders experience with regards to the advantage and disadvantage of each decision. The first decision relates to Graphic, Inc. loan, which was engaged in litigation about promotion of its products to children (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2012, p.177). The advantage of Elaine's decision in this case is that she did what was morally acceptable while the disadvantage is that she lost a money-making opportunity and had no reason to doubt the firm's ability to repay the loan.
In the second situation involving the Canadian firm that was importing cigars from Cuba, the advantage of her decision is that it was based on clear policy guidance i.e. The 1996 Helms-Burton Act. The disadvantage is that…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. In Theories of development
(Prentice-Hall, Chapter 7, pp.118-136). Retrieved from http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J. & Farrell, L. (2012). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases (9th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning
ethical guidelines are especially crucial in mental health facililties, so I was happy to read about the structures in place in the organization where you work. Your example also raises the interesting relationship between ethics, responsibility, and the law, since so many of your ethical guidelines are somewhat pre-determined by legal restrictions. I'm wondering what your thoughts are on this relationship, especially as it relates to responsibility? In making ethical choices, are you more beholden to the patient or to the legal code? I think this points to a difference between responsibility and obligation. One might say that you have a responsibility to the patient, but an obligation to the law. Do these ever conflict?
Second Response: You give detailed information about both your organization and the concepts of ethics and responsibility, which I appreciate. I'm also very impressed with the steps that your organization takes, and would like to…
Kathleen Blanco, the first woman governor of Louisiana; she is known for her policies in making education better throughout the south and is also responsible for passage of the nation's largest investment in education ("Governor's Information," 2004). Along with this, she has made investments in technology infrastructures which have led to the forward push of economic development and increased Louisiana's ability to compete for new jobs. This attracted almost $24 billion new investments and 35,000 new jobs in the span of only three years. Her commitment towards children also helped the expansion and access to health insurance for children throughout Louisiana ("Governor's Information," 2004). Additionally, she successfully overhauled Louisiana's state correctional system and designed a nationally-recognized model of excellence in juvenile justice. Blanco has succeeded in a number of her endeavors towards making Louisiana a better place; however, like every other political leader, she did not always have…
Governor's Information: Louisiana Governor Kathleen Babineaux Blanco. (2004). National Governor's Association. Retrieved from http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgn extoid=55bc224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD
Hornett, A., & Fredricks, S. (2005). An empirical and theoretical exploration of disconnections between leadership and ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 59(3), Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25123556
Roig-Franzia, M. & Hsu, S. (2005) Many evacuated, but thousands still waiting. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2005/09/03/AR2005090301680.html
Resick, C.J., Hanges, P.J., Dickson, M.W., & Mitchelson, J.K. (2006). A cross-cultural examination of the endorsement of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(4), Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25123717
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
Over the last several years, a wide variety of organizations have been addressing challenges associated with effective leadership. This is because most firms have traditionally created strategies behind closed doors and then introduced these ideas to everyone. The problem with this kind of approach is that no one is able to share the same kind of vision as the individuals in the planning group. The reason why is, most people were left out of the process (which makes it difficult to become excited about the new strategy). Once this takes place, is when a firm will waste time, money and resources in trying to implement an approach that has very little support.
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Lussier (2009) he determined that vision and sharing is essential for any kind of organization to be successful. Commenting about these ideas Lussier observed, "Organizational leaders too…
Baker, T. (2010). Effective Leadership. Flushing, NY: Loose Leaf Law.
Chait, J. (2007). The Big Con. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.
Goldsmith, M. (2012). Coaching for Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
Kantabutra, S. (2010). The Power of Vision. Journal of Business Strategy, 31 (1), 37 -- 45.
Leadership Style: What Do People Do When they are Leading?
Hewlett Packard (HP) remains one of the most successful computer and related services company in the Diversified Computer Systems industry. In this text, I concern myself with the leadership style of Meg Whitman -- the CEO of HP. In so doing, I will amongst other things analyze how her leadership style aligns with the company's culture. I will also examine Whitman's strengths, weaknesses as well as personal and organizational values.
Born in 1956, Whitman has over the years earned herself an enviable reputation as an efficient and brilliant corporate executive keen on making a mark in a corporate environment dominated by men. Having cut her teeth at Hasbro, Stride ite, Disney, and most notably eBay where served as CEO for a decade, Whitman rose to become the head of HP. She has also in the past tried her hand in…
Ferris, G.R. & Treadway, D.C. (Eds.). (2012). Politics in Organizations: Theory and Research Considerations. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.
Forsyth, D.R. (2010). Group Dynamics (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Fox, W. (2007). Managing Organizational Behavior. Cape Town: Juta and Company.
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2009). Organizational Behavior (12th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…
House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf
Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf
Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-
78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
Leadership is a process that helps in directing and mobilizing people. It has for the past 100 years been a subject of many studies. These studies have come up with theories of the nature and exercise of leadership. Some of these theories include trait theories of leadership, theories of emergent leadership, leadership style theories, psychodynamic theories, and the path goal theories among others. The second section of this paper focuses on evaluation of behavior of selected leaders. Leaders of different organizations exhibit specific behaviors that are in line with models and theories of leadership. Their behaviors can guide the behavior of individual followers, groups, or even teams. The analysis section touches on how leaders perceive their roles and what makes them develop as leaders. The summary wraps up all that the paper is about and what I have learnt.
Management and leadership are interchangeably used in our everyday…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O. & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-429.
Bass, B. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Application. New York: Free Press.
Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Change 2nd Edition. New York:
Collins Business Essentials.
Sustainability in Leadership
Current global occurrences have posed a great challenge to the continued existence of living things on earth. At this stage in the history of man, humanity is struggling with a lot of challenges; and these challenges are not restricted to region or race. Problems associated with climate change, increased rate of poverty, inconsistent democracy, and lack of justice and fairness in society are common to all nations. At this critical moment, there becomes a vacuum to be filled with urgency by leaders whose sole desire and purpose is to salvage the earth from total destruction. The world needs leaders who possess strategies to effectively combat these challenges and lead their followers into lifestyles that are self-sustaining. Leaders who could bring about this much needed sustainability to our environments are regarded as Sustainability Leaders.
Purpose of Sustainable Development in Modern Leadership
Leadership in the traditional setting is,…
Banuri, T. & Najam, A. (2002). Civic Entrepreneurship: A Civil Society Perspective on Sustainable Development (Vol. 1: Global Synthesis). Boston, MA: Stockholm Environment Institute -- Boston Center.
Bennis, W. & Goldsmith, J. (2003). Learning to Lead: A Workbook On Becoming a Leader. 3rd ed. New York: Basic Books.
Brown, D. (2000). What Practical Difference Would the Adoption of the Earth Charter Mean to the Resolution of Global Warming Issues? P. Miller & L. Westra (Eds.), Just Ecological Integrity: The Ethics of Maintaining Planetary Life (pp. 205-214). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Boutros-Ghali, B. (1998). Leadership and Conflict. In Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict (Ed.), Essays on Leadership (pp. 1-6). New York: Carnegie Corporation.
The first leadership scenario is when a co-worker was calling in sick constantly, and it was clear from their attitude that they were not engaged. In this case, the supervisor did nothing, and it ended up affecting the morale of the group. As leader, I would have begun to build a case with this employee for termination, documenting the absences and the fact that they were clearly bogus. The second leadership scenario recently witnessed is a situation where a new restaurant opened up. The service standards seem very high -- the people are all obviously well-trained. This type of thing means that there is a lot of leadership, so I would be sure to reinforce these positive behaviors. This can be done by offering praise, and highlighting the actions for which the praise is being given. So not "good job," but "good job dealing with that difficult…
Leadership and Realtors
I have many aspirations and many things I would like to accomplish in my lifetime. That said, one of my strongest vocations is establishing myself in my community as a successful real estate agent.
I've always had a knack for sales and I love architecture and residential construction. But my affinity for real estate probably dates back to my childhood, when my uncle Herbie used to drive me around in his big tan Buick Skylark, taking me to all his listings so I could see how he showcased his properties. My uncle Herbie used to make me guess how much he had listed each property for, if I was wrong, he would wonk me on the head with this old leather scabbard he had in the back seat, if I was right, he would give me a piece of salt-water taffy. Long story short, I've wanted to…
Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics
Helping Leaders Deal With Change and Ambiguity. (2009) Human Capital
Online. Retrieved from http://www.hcamag.com/business-review/Executive -
Personal and organizational responsibility
As the vision and mission statement of Global Homage is clearly stated, anybody who would aspire to become a member must have the innate desire to serve the people. he/she will then consider it as his/her own personal responsibility, as it is the organizational responsibility to uphold the vision and the mission of the organization.
Everyone is expected to act professionally in adhering with all of the above stated code of ethics of the organization.
Global Homage is an organization whose leaders and members are committed to changing and helping the people to live a cleaner and healthier way of life. This is an organization whose members are capable of dealing and interacting with people from varied facets of life - from the people of the government and private sectors to the people from poverty and/or underdeveloped areas. This is an organization whose…
Anthony, John H. 1989 "Therapeutic Leadership." Leadership Abstracts, Vol. 2, No. 13, August.
Association Management. 2002. "Mastering Mission and Vision Statements." American Society of Association Executives
Keough, Jack. 2003. "Improving your vision (business vision, mission statement)." Reed Business Information
Manage. 1990. "NMA vision-mission program." National Management Association.
Leadership -- Al Gini
Leadership is more than management; hence not all managers are leaders. Leadership involves the capacity to motivate workers and employee to work towards a common goal. Leaders also influence the employees towards certain behaviors they want. The modern organization should therefore acquire the best team of managers, who should have leadership traits and accept changes in the organization when necessary, including technological change. Management and leadership are most certainly not the same, despite the fact that many, even in business, use the terms in the same manner. In general, managers are more concerned with organizing people, plans, and projects. Managing gleans authority by a particular organization and must, in turn, utilize followers (subordinates). They may be in charge of a group or a project, but that definition does not make them leaders. Managers tend to operate in a manner in which they receive and depend upon…
Gini, Al. (1997). Leadership: An Overview. Journal of Business Ethics. 16 (2).
But the main question being asked by the people interested in this issue is if the fortunes play any significant role to the employees in Wuhan. This is quite unfair and unethical since the employees are the ones who make it possible for the products to be available in the market for Apples customers so they should enjoy the benefits the company gets.
The financial strength of Apple is not in question but the position that apple takes in ethical issues such as workers welfare at its suppliers is what many people have growing interest in. The continued highlighting and emphasis by media houses on the working conditions at some of Apples suppliers may start to influence and alter how customers perceive the brands fro Apple Inc. This might in the long run have an impact of the economic success that Apple has been boosting of in the recent years.…
Hinks, P. (2012). Leaders we Deserve. Apple's new leader faces ethical dilemmas at Foxconn. Retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://leaderswedeserve.wordpress.com/2012/01/31/apples-new-leader-faces-ethical-dilemmas-at-foxconn/
According to the Ohio State University (2004), both could be equally appropriate in terms of overall company outcomes, as they are very similar in terms of valuing and inspiring follower excellence.
When considering the motivation towards leadership for each type of leader, the contrast is sharper. The servant leader, for example, leads from a motivations basis of egalitarianism. The leader's fundamental belief is that he or she is no better than followers. The company's collective goals are then reached by means of an egalitarian team effort, where both leader and followers learn from the experience. Servant leaders are therefore much more focused upon the non-traditional form of leadership, which exists in beign servants themselves (Patterson, edmer and Stone, 2003, p. 6). Followers are provided with a large amount of freedom to exercise the abilities they can bring to the promotion of the business goals. This means that a very high…
Bugenhage, M.J. (2006, Dec). Antecedents of Transactional Transformational, and Servant Leadership: A constructive-Development Theory Approach. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=aglecdiss
Changing Minds (2011). Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory. Retrieved from: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/theories/bass_transformational.htm
The Ohio State University. (2004, Dec. 22). Transformational and Servant Leadership: Content and Contextual Comparisons. Leadership Center. Retrieved from: http://leadershipcenter.osu.edu/library/publications/leadership-discoveries/2004/december-2004-transformational-and-servant-leadership-content-and-contextual-comparisons
Patterson, K., Redmer, T.A.O., and Stone, a.G. (2003, Oct.) Transformational Leaders to Servant Leaders vs. Level 4 Leaders to Level 5 Leaders -- the Move from Good to Great. Regent University. Retrieved from: http://www.cbfa.org/Patterson.pdf
"An older, more experienced teacher questions whether 15- to 17-year-old kids are really ready yet to handle Keating's brand of freedom. 'Gee, I never pegged you for a cynic,' says Keating. 'I'm not,' says the other teacher. 'I'm a realist.'… Although there's a carefully placed scene in which Keating tries to make the distinction between unfettered self-expression and self-destructive behavior, the principles behind the re-formation of the Dead Poets Society eventually lead to catastrophe. It becomes clear that at least some of the boys really aren't emotionally equipped to incorporate into their own lives the kind of freedom and nonconformism that Keating is selling" (Emerson 2010). The extremity of Neil's reaction shows the vulnerability of his unformed adolescent emotions and his inability to deal with his resistance to his father in a rational fashion.
However, for all of his faults, by the end of the film, Keating's students have clearly…
Dead Poet's Society. (1989). Directed by Peter Weir.
Emerson, Jim. (2010). Dead Poets Society. Retrieved February 13, 2010 at Screening room. http://cinepad.com/reviews/deadpoets.htm
Straker, David. (2010). Charismatic leadership. Changing Minds. Retrieved February 13, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/charismatic_leadership.htm
The passive style is described as management by exception where employees do not receive notice for their positive contributions to the organization, but instead are paid attention by their manager only when an error or problem arises. Punishment or disciplinary action is often the medium used in this approach. Active transactional leadership uses contingent rewards. With this approach, employees are praised for their performance and may be eligible for pay increases or other incentives (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 419). The type of leadership exhibited clearly determines the type of motivation used and often its success or failure.
The situational leadership theory of Hersey and Blanchard proposes that the optimal amount of task and relations behavior depends upon subordinate maturity. As the authors note, what the manager needs is a simple and logical framework for making decisions that will be successful (Hersey & Blanchard, 1990, p. 412). This theory prescribes…
Bolman, L. & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bossidy, Larry; Charan, Ram; Execution, the Discipline of Getting Things
Done; Crown Business, New York, NY. 2002.
DuBrin, a.J., R.D. Ireland, & J.C. Williams. Management & Organization. Cincinnati: South-Western, 1989.
Indeed, without these legitimacy criteria, a leader would not be able to influence followers to either change or progress towards organizational goals: "The acceptance of leadership from another person involves an implicit contract in which followers sacrifice some level of personal autonomy and pledge loyalty and effort to the leader.... The followers must be sure that the leader has the competency to lead effectively and the trustworthiness and loyalty to the group and its goals to lead in the direction promised." (Chemers, 1997, p. 153) Since the focus of management is to build power, the nature of the image that ensues will perforce differ from that of leadership.
It is evident, by the discussion so far, that relationship building, image management, and inspiring confidence are essential parts of the leadership phenomenon. However, it must be noted that ultimately performance and productivity are the goals of effective leadership. Therefore, it is…
Chemers, M.M. (1997). An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Harris, T.E. (1993). Applied Organizational Communication: Perspectives, Principles, and Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.