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Problems with Utilitarianism
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A Pennsylvania hospital is faced with a non-U.S. born 5-year-old daughter of undocumented immigrants who has a life-threatening need for a 2 million dollar transplant. Using critical analysis and your ethics knowledge render and defend a decision about whether to provide the transplant.
One of the ethical problems present is the fact that the 5-year-old was born in undocumented immigrants parents. She also was a non-United States citizen. Another problem is the child has a life threatening disease that requires a transplant for a substantiate amount of money that is two million dollar to be spending on a non-U.S. citizen. The case that is being presented brings into focus a number of the most currently vital questions that occur in the gap of medicine and…
Dwyer, J. (2004, February). Illegal immigrants, health care, and social responsibility. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 34-41. Retrieved from http://benedictine.learntoday.info/AngelUploads/Content/MPH-603-D3A3/_assoc/site/MM/WK5_Dwyer_Article.pdf
Kershaw, S. (2007). U.S. rule limits emergency care for immigrants. Retrieved from http://benedictine.learntoday.info/AngelUploads/Content/MPH-603-D3A3/_assoc/site/MM/WK5_NYTimes%20_%20No_Healthcare_for_Illegals.doc
Maximiano, J.M.B. (2003). Corporate social responsibility: Basic principles and best practices: Historico-philosophical issues in international business. Manila: DLSU University Press.
Nonetheless, internet breach occurs routinely; further steps need to be taken.
Options for resolving these issues
Part of the issue revolves around ambivalent ways of defining PII as well as the fact that the constructs of identity are still in flux. PII, at one moment, can become non-PII during the next, and the reverse is the case, too. Moreover, computer science has shown that, in many instance, data that is consider non-PII and, therefore, not regulated, has been used to identify a person and that this data should, theorem, be called PII. The definition of PII, accordingly, transcends boundaries, and may be difficult to pin down. Given its malleability, some observers have even suggested altogether rejecting PII as the tool for defining privacy law.
The first issue, therefore (it seems to me) is to start off with a clear definition of PII and here we may adopt the approach of…
Schwartz, PM & Solove, DJ (2011) the PII Problem: Privacy and a New Concept of Personally Identifiable Information New York University Law Review, Vol. 86, p. 1814,
Sweeney, L (n.d.) Standards of Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information. Carnegie Mellon University. http://privacy.cs.cmu.edu/dataprivacy/HIPAA/HIPAAcomments.html
United States Department of Defense. "MEMORANDUM for DOD FOIA OFFICES." http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/withhold.pdf )
' Although for major critics this is not an issue, given that their meals are paid for by their newspaper and they invariably will refuse, for bloggers and part-time critics from smaller newspapers whose meals are not 'comped' by their bosses, this makes the restaurant's behavior even shadier. It is as if the restaurant is paying for a good review that will not specifically be labeled an advertisement.
Of course, it could be argued that it is the critic's responsibility to conceal his or her identity, and the restaurant can do what it likes to receive a good review as part of its on-site advertising campaign. But while providing good service -- like giving a customer on a 'tipping' chair a new seat, or making sure the bread is fresh -- might not cross the ethical line, free food or service above and beyond what the average diner could hope…
Colapinto, John. (2009, November 16) Why restaurant critics need anonymity. The New Yorker
Retrieved March 22, 2010
But "few states with mandatory insurance for IVF still require couples to undergo three cycles of ovulation induction and artificial insemination before IVF" thus encouraging the use of a technology more likely to result in multiple births (Roan, 2007, p.4).
hen contemplating the use of fertility drugs or IVF, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology advocates discussing the possibility of selective reduction and the patient's comfort level with this practice before any procedures are performed. However, its guidelines, are not binding. For example, "the U.S. fertility industry has guidelines on how many embryos doctors can implant, with the number varying by age and other factors. The guidelines call for no more than one or two for a generally healthy woman under 35, and no more than three to five, depending on the embryos' maturity, for women over 40" (atkins & Neergaard 2008). Eight embryos would be "well beyond" these…
Caplan, Arthur. "Ethics and octuplets." The Philadelphia Inquirer. February 6, 2009.
June 13, 2009. http://www.philly.com/inquirer/opinion/20090206_Ethics_and_octuplets__Society_is_responsible.html
"Extreme multiple births carry tremendous risks." CNN. January 28, 2009. June 13, 2009.
more tactically satisfactory mothers in the form of cloth giving no food. Other young monkeys were given a choice between wire mothers that did not provide food and cloth mothers who did give food. A second control group was given normal mothers. Unsurprisingly, the monkeys all preferred the cloth surrogates, whether they gave food or not, under most circumstances. They study concluded that if simulated adequately, surrogate motherhood was not harmful, provided it fulfilled the child's basic tactile and nutritional needs, and also that feeling and touching was crucial to early development in children.
Again, one wonders at the value of the study, given that institutionalized children could have been observed from the past, or case studies could be examined of abused children to prove this thesis. Also, given Harlow's generalizations about the value of nursery school and the ability of fathers to prove love from the experiment, one might…
Harlow, Harry. (1958) "The Nature of Love." First Published 1958. Posted at Classics of Psychology on Mar 2000. Retrieved at Classics of Psychology on 18 Jul 2006 http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Harlow/love.htm
Lesson in Depravity." (2006) New Life. Retrieved on http://www.new-life.net/milgram.htm
Zimbardo, Stanley. (2006) "The Stanford Prison Experiment." Official Website. 2006. (http://www.prisonexp.org/)
It would be helpful if my supervisors and the owner could see that Microsoft and other big corporations are not necessarily overcharging for their products, by taking into account all the work that goes into software or music production. They might be able to read about the production process to see how many stages a product goes through before reaching market.
At the same time it would also be helpful if corporations like Microsoft would change their pricing system so that enterprise clients would pay more for the software than small businesses like ours, and especially individuals. Music and movie companies might also come up with a way to market their products more cheaply to consumers so that everyone gets a fair price. This ethical dilemma is not likely to disappear anytime soon because new technology makes it too tempting to pirate copyrighted material. This is not just about right…
Offering tickets and a meal to the selection committee members is similarly questionable. Even if the committee members do not feel that the tickets and meal will influence them, it is better to avoid accusations from rejected vendors that the selection was not undertaken objectively and in compliance with policy.
Yet another vendor in contention has sent a $25 sympathy bouquet of flowers to you on the recent demise of your great uncle.
This is not an ethical violation. The benefit to the recipient was minimal in value. Also, it was clearly given not to curry favor but to express condolences. The intention does not suggest an attempt to exert influence.
Your stock broker is recommending the purchase of a technology mutual fund that contains stock belonging to several of the vendors in contention.
This situation contains a potential ethical violation, given that the member of the committee could benefit…
Additionally, some person in management determined that cutting costs in maintenance and not having a plan was acceptable risk. The company held that the event was unforeseeable, though the contingency of such an event could have likely been conceived as a potential disaster, and hence planned for. In this case, engineering ethics application would have determined at some point that the company had a duty to respect the rights of individuals and to behave in a manner upholding that duty (Fleddermann, 2008, p. 46).
In the Aberdeen Three, three civilian managers were prosecuted for violating the RCRA in allowing the unsafe storage of hazardous chemicals that posed a health risk to workers, civilians, and the natural environment. The managers claimed they were unaware of the companies storage practices. Yet in law, negligence is not an excuse for culpability, and the managers were given jail time and fines. The issue here…
Fleddermann, C. (2008). Engineering Ethics. Ann Arbor: Prentice Hall.
Kligyte, V., Marcy, R., Waples, E., Sevier, S., Godfrey, E., Mumford, M., et al. (2008). Application of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training in the Physical Sciences and Engineering. Science and Engineering Ethics, 251-278.
Palmer, J., Smith, T., Willetts, J., & Mitchell, C. (2007). Creativity, Ethics, and Transformation. Systemic Development: Local Solutions in a Global Environment (p. 10). Auckland: ANZYS.
company through ethical problem years. ead article summarize key points: company involved; problem hand; steps company; outcry public/government; final outcome. Then analyze issue involved: How event avoided; what company; what charge; long -term effects issue.
Goldman Sachs' Greek tragedy
Companies' misbehavior usually has a deleterious effect upon their customers, employees, and shareholders. However, in the case of the investment banking firm Goldman Sachs, the unethical behavior of Goldman caused the downfall of an entire country and has impeded the economic growth of the European Union. "One deal created by Goldman Sachs helped obscure billions in debt from the budget overseers in Brussels," enabling the nation of Greece to conceal its debt from the EU when it first made a bid for membership, and to continue to "skirt European debt limits" mandatory for continued membership in the EU (Story, Thomas & Schwartz 2010: 1).
In 2001, Greece was admitted to the…
Story, Louise, Landon Thomas & Nelson Schwartz. (2010). Wall Street helped to mask debt fueling Europe's crisis. The New York Times. Retrieved: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/14/business/global/14debt.html?_r=1&pagewanted=1&th&emc=th
Surowiecki, James. (2011). Dodger mania. The New Yorker. Retrieved:
That particular ethical concern may be harder to define precisely, simply because it may be too restrictive and no different from the types of decisions considered appropriate in the U.S. In that regard, provided it violates no domestic or foreign laws and that it is not undertaken for the purpose of shifting the environmental risk (osenstand, 2008), the relocation is no different from situating a similar plant in any local community that does not benefit from the existence of the plant.
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics.…
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
Ethical Issues in Nursing
The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.
The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…
Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from: http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm
Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.
Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.
Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice: Police Brutality
In the field of criminal justice, it is important to be mindful of the moral or ethical problems which might arise. In a perfect world, police officers, prosecuting attorneys, judges, and juries would always act above board and with the singular interest of seeking out justice. However, this is a highly imperfect world and every society has had an incidence at some point in their history wherein someone abused their position in the process of criminal justice for their own ends. Those involved in criminal justice must be ever mindful of these past abuses and keep a watchful eye on their cohorts to ensure that the occurrence of similar unethical behaviors is kept to a minimum in the future. One of the most controversial aspects of criminal justice in recent years has been the question of police brutality and the consequences of officer's…
Byers, B. (2002). Ethics and criminal justice: some observations on police misconduct. Crime and Justice International. Sam Houston University, Texas. (18:68).
Krupanski, M. (2012). Policing the police: civilian video monitoring of police activity. Global Minds.
Locke, H. (1966). Police brutality and civilian review board: a second look. 625.
Skolnick, J. (1995). Community-oriented policing would prevent police brutality. Policing the Police. Greenhaven: San Diego, CA. 45-55.
In the article Ethical Issues in Information Technology, author Richard T. DeGeorge points out the existence of five interrelated ethical issues: issues in the usage of technology in business, issues in the it business, issues related to the Internet, issues in e-business and issues affecting the social background. Each of the five categories presents several ramifications. The article has a general coverage, an informal writing and throughout its 24 pages presents reduced details. The article merely highlights the existence of ethical problems and concerns in the information technology sector and poses questions as to how could these problems be best resolved. The academician also gives short but relevant examples as to how it procedures are being improperly used to deceive and cause harm. Among these examples, DeGeorge includes shortcoming of the medical systems, within organizations and individual usage of the Internet, mentioning at all times the inappropriate legislature.…
Anderson, James G., Goodman, Kenneth, 2002, Ethics and Information Technology: A Case-Based Approach to Health Care System in Transition (Health Informatics), 1st Edition, Springer
DeGeorge, Richard T., 2002, Ethical Issues in Information Technology, Blackwell Publishers
Hongladaram, Soraj, Ess, Charles, 2006, Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives, IGI Global
Johnson, Doug, 2007, Information Technology Ethics, Doug Johnson Website, Creative Commons License, http://www.doug-johnson.com/ethics/,last accessed on December 7, 2007
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
Ethical Challenge Scenaios in Healthcae Administation
Scenaio 1: You have withdawn an offe at the last minute (due to poo efeences) to an ICU nuse manage candidate who has moved acoss the county to accept the job. The only way you will avoid a lawsuit is if she is hied somewhee else soon. A close colleague calls to ask you fankly why you withdew the offe. What do you say?
This paticula scenaio seems like moe of a legal issue than an ethical question. An ethical dilemma would be about whethe to talk to the fiend o not. It seems that thee ae a few sepaate issues with egad to the oveall scenaio. Fist, of couse is the legality of talking to the fiend at all. Why does she want to know? Did she ecommend the employee? Next, what does an offe of employment mean? Anothe point to expound upon…
references: A survey of recently enacted state legislation. William and Mary Law Review, 39(1). 177-228.
Meier, K.J., & Hicklin, A. (2008). Employee turnover and organizational performance: testing a hypothesis from classical public administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4). 573-582.
Robinson, R.K., Jackson, W.T., Franklin, G.M., & Clayton, R.W. (2010). The changing legal environment for employers: Implications for small businesses. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 22(1). 91-99.
Yoder, B. (2008). How reasonable Is "Reasonable"? The search for a satisfactory approach to employment handbooks. Duke Law Journal, 57(5). 1517-1529.
In that regard, NatHealth Inc. managers and supervisors are trained to recognize potential ethical conflicts as early as possible, to analyze possible course of action, and to take decisive action by implementing the best possible ethical decisions and corresponding solutions that are the most consistent with organizational ethical values and principles.
In addition, all NatHealth Inc. managers attend a week-long mandatory training retreat every September at which they attend strategic meetings and receive training in several different aspects of their operational responsibilities. Two days are reserved for ethics-specific discussions, policy reviews, and updated training in the full range of ethical issues in the workplace. Subsequent to their return, individual managers conduct an ethics policy review session with their direct reports at which time they provide supplemental ethical instructions to update all employees with respect to any changes in organizational ethics policies and expectations.
While the organization does maintain scrupulous…
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
Locker, K. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication 2nd Edition. Boston,
Ethical and Socially esponsive Business
Ethics in business has a human aspect and is directly related to the success of any business. This therefore means that corporate leaders in organizations have to be very careful about the ethical conduct of their business and how they address any ethical problem that comes up. This paper will look at the code of ethical conduct for a selected company.it will give a description of key areas of the selected company's code of conduct that have a significant importance to the business.it will also give an explanation of the key steps the company should take in order to ensure that its employees follow this code of conduct. Finally suggestions will be given on ways through which the company can take part in socially responsive activities within he community where it carries out its operations.
Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. is a restaurant that is committed…
Davis, S.(2010).Examples of Social Responsibility Strategies. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-social-responsibility-strategies-10633.html
Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc.(2010). Code of Conduct. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://ir.chipotle.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=194775&p=irol-govConduct
Ethical Resource Centre.(2010).Ten Things You Can Do to Avoid Being the Next Enron. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://www.ethics.org/resource/ten-things-you-can-do-avoid-being-next-enron
Ethical Situations in Asset Management Service
Ethical situations that arise with asset management services
Ethical issues in business (or corporate ethics) are ethics in the form of application or professional ethics that usually evaluate the principles of ethics and the troubles associated with ethics and morals that develop in the environment of a business. This is applicable to all the components of a business and its conduct and it is very essential for all the entire staff in an organization. Ethics of business include both descriptive and normative dimensions. This specific area is normative. Academicians that seek to gain knowledge on the behavior by implementing descriptive methods in their course. The amount and range of issues in business ethics describe the link between non-economic issues and profit maximizing. Many started gaining interest in the ethics of business rapidly from 1980 to 1990. This was true in academia and corporations. For…
Buckman, J.M., & International Association of Fire Chiefs. (2006). Chief Fire officer's desk reference. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Hoffman, W.M. (2007). The ethics of accounting and finance: Trust, responsibility, and control: from the Tenth National Conference on Business Ethics. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Quorum Books.
Nash, L.L. (2008). Good intentions aside: A manager's guide to resolving ethical problems. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Preston, N. (2009). Ethics for the public sector: Education and training. Annandale, N.S.W: Federation Press.
Ethical Analysis -- Strategy for Palliative Care
The sector for healthcare has, in the last 50 years, improved in its efforts towards cost minimization and service delivery enhancement. Some elements of improvement (such as automation) ensued from technological advances. However, other elements (such as strategy application) owe their establishment in the health sector to endeavors on the part of intelligent, like-minded people who understand life's worth, and that of minimal suffering when it comes to illness. Palliative care represents one such effort. It denotes a system targeted at delivering respite from painful, disturbing symptoms through the affirmation of life and considering death to be a process. Palliative care, as defined by the World Health Organization, is an approach, which enhances quality of life (QOL) of patients, suffering from life-threatening ailments, and their family via prevention and symptom relief. This, they achieve through early diagnosis, and proper assessment and pain treatment,…
Chambers, M. (2015) The Strategic Importance of Palliative Care Within the Irish Heath Service, The Irish Hospice Foundation, http://hospicefoundation.ie/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/The-strategic-importance-of-palliative-care-within-the-Irish-health-service-Perspectives-on-future-service-delivery.pdf (Retrieved;13,12,2015)
Fromme, E., Smith, M. (2015) Ethical Issues in Palliative Care, UptoDate, http://www.uptodate.com/contents/ethical-issues-in-palliative-care (Retrieved;13/11/2015)
Gabel, S. (2010) Ethics and values in Clinical practice: Whom do they help?, Mayo Foundation and Licence Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084645 / (Retrieved, 13/11/2015)
Policy Directive, (2010) Palliative Care Strategic Framework 2010-2013, Ministry of Health, NSW, http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2010/pdf/PD2010_003.pdf (Retyrieved:13/11/2015)
This is dangerous for both clients and workers. When this becomes an issue in the human service field is when an organization is charged with a client that cannot be left alone. At this point in time, certain managers may desire to force employees to stay on the clock or to work while off the clock, but making such workplace violations can lead to an unsafe environment in which both client and worker are at risk. In addition, safety and OSHA workplace violation are an ethical problem that put many at risk, especially when one is working in a dangerous or medical field. Thus, workplace violations on the part of both workers and managers can be dangerous for all involved.
In conclusion, the field of human services is reserved for those who wish to provide care to others. Although this field is the perfect fit for those who genuinely have…
Department of Transportation. (2001). Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Fact Sheet For
Employees. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/complaint/Preventing_Sexual_Harassment.htm
National Organization for Human Services (1996). Ethical Standards of Human Services
Professionals. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/%5Btitle%5D-22
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…
An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has
Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2¬Found=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?
Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.
Autonomy -- .
Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg…
International Journal of Health Services, 20, 373 -- 392
What Are the Ethical Concerns Regarding Egg Donation? http://www.stanford.edu/class/siw198q/websites/reprotech/New%20Ways%20of%20Making%20Babies/eggethic.htm
Perloe, M. (nd) Eight is Enough: Balancing the risks of advanced fertility treatment. Georgia Reproductive Specialists. http://www.ivf.com/eightenough.html )
Business operations are deemed viable of they succeed in establishing conditions that guarantee safety for its product consumers. Specified standards are applied by business entities to attain such viability. These considerations are critical in product safety, intellectual property, and marketing in general. If a company or business entity violates any of the aspects mentioned, it stands a high risk being caught in a web of ethical and legal complications that might destroy it. PhamaCARE finds itself in such a precarious predicament owing to its blatant violation of a number of legal and ethical standards. There were both ethical and legal problems that impacted on its clients and businesses. Investigating behavior is paramount in uncovering issues related to legal and ethical problems of any business entity.
Pursuant to the scenario above, identify three (3) legal issues and problems PharmaCARE has in relation to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of…
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Ethical Dilemmas in Police ork
For ethical training to be effective in a police profession then there must be continuous education and practice. Officers work in a rapidly evolving field that is in a dynamic environment and therefore will most likely encounter new challenges frequently. These challenges can be further complicated by the fact that officers must often make quick decisions in situations in which their physical safety is on the line. ithout proper training there is an increased likelihood that an officer will chose their own self-interest or preservation without regard for the ethical dilemmas that are present in their choices. This analysis will provide some ethical dilemmas that officers might encounter. Such dilemmas can also be used for learning or training purposes so that officers can practice beforehand some of the situations they may face on the job so that they are better prepared.
Gilmartin, K. And J. Harris. "Law Enforcement Ethics." 2006. E-S Press. Online. 2 April 2013.
Lieberman, B. "Ethical Issues in the Use of Confidential Informants for Narcotic Operations." 2007. The Police Chief. Online. 2 April 2013.
Pollock, J. Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
ability to make good choices between two or more competing options is the primary requirement of being ethical. Over the years, academicians and researchers have identified six traits or pillars of character that help in ethical and fair decision making which are within the limits of legality. These six traits include trustworthiness, responsibility, respect, caring, fairness and good citizenship. While being ethical is applicable at almost every step in life, in business e=being ethical or taking ethically correct and legally binding decisions are influenced by economic, professional and the social pressures.
Ethical and fair decision making also come along with a number of excuses that not being able to do so. These excuses often are put forward to cover up for a decision that could be considered as unethical or unfair and claim to be influenced by environmental factors including economic, social or regulatory and legal.
esearchers like B. McDowell,…
Ferrell, O. & Ferrell, L. (2009). Ethical business. New York: DK Pub.
McDowell, B. (2000). Ethics and excuses. Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books.
Tsalikis, J. & Peralta, A. (2114). Priming effects on business ethical decision making. IJSIM, 01(01). http://dx.doi.org/10.15556/ijsim.01.01.001
Counseling -- Ethical Dilemma -- Case Study
A 17-year-old Jewish female student advises a counselor that she went to a party last weekend with an African-American 17-year-old boy, and ended up passed out in an upstairs bedroom. She was awakened by the boy forcing himself on her. She protested loudly, but said that no one came to help her. The client claims the counselor is the only person she has told that she was raped. For the past five days, she has endured the snickering and sneering of Derrick and his friends in the hallways "as they smugly march around with their worlds intact" while she "dies a little more inside each day." She says she has been having trouble focusing on school, and she blames herself for the incident, saying she drank way too much even though she doesn't think she had very much to drink that night. She…
American Counseling Association. (2014). American Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Retrieved from www.counseling.org: http://www.counseling.org/docs/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=4
American Counseling Association. (2016). About us. Retrieved from www.counseling.org: https://www.counseling.org/about-us/about-aca
Corey, G., Corey, M. S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition . Independence, KY: Brooks/Cole CENGAGE Learning.
Cottone, R. R., & Claus, R. E. (2000). Ethical decision-making models: A review of the literature. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 275-283.
Ethical Dilemma- A Framework
Taking into account ethical concerns is one of the key components in providing healthcare in the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship (osenbaum, 1982). Nurses face ethical uncertainty, distress and conflict in their day-to-day work. When more than one ethical value applies to a particular case, and all of them recommend following a different course of action, then an ethical dilemma exists in such a case a nurse would be not be sure of which value takes precedence (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2009). This specific case involves a 6-year-old who is by law a minor and thus a physician must obtain informed consent from their legal guardian. However, the child's primary guardian is his non-biological mother who is citing her religious reason to refuse medical treatment, while the biological father who resides in another state wants the kid to be treated, a situation that leaves the…
American Counseling Association (2005). Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. College of Nurses of Ontario (2009). PRACTICE Standard: ethics. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from https://www.cno.org/Global/docs/prac/41034_Ethics.pdf
Forester-Miller H. & Davis T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from http://www.alabamacounseling.org/pdf/acaguide.pdf
Forester-Miller, H. & Rubenstein, R.L. (1992). Group Counseling: Ethics and Professional Issues. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds.) Introduction to Group Counseling (307-323). Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.
Haas, L.J. & Malouf, J.L. (1989). Keeping up the good work: A practitioner's guide to mental health ethics. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
Ethical treatment of prisoners is a complex question, involving the nature of the prison system in the U.S. And the nature of those incarcerated in it, as well as ethical obligations that individuals owe to society as well as those that society owes to those who are imprisoned. Deontological ethics might hold, for example, that those who have violated the law and the basic moral norms of society deserve to be punished but at the same time even those convicted and imprisoned have certain basic human rights. For example, they have the right to food, clothing, shelter and medical care, and cannot be tortured, abused or brutalized. Another problem from a deontological perspective would be to criticize a society where blacks and Hispanics are a minority of the population but also the majority of the prison population, including those on death row. Indeed, they are more likely to be profiled,…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Prison Inmate Characteristics (2009). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
" The code also states when communicating investment information care must be taken to ensure that it is fair, accurate and complete as well as make full and fair disclosure of all matters that could reasonably be expected to impair their independence and objectivity or interfere with respective duties to their clients, prospective clients, and employer.
Evidence indicates Lehman's senior financial executives knew of the Repo 105 transactions and certified the accuracy of Lehman's financial statements and disclosures despite having full knowledge that the company had engaged in the use of these transactions to hide their toxic assets and make their financial statements appear to be in good health when, in reality, they were not. These executives were fully aware that the financial statements were misleading and did not fairly present the true position of the company.
Hiding toxic assets and releasing favorable financial statements to investors each quarter clearly…
Ahrens, Frank. "Lehmann Brothers, the Evil Repo 105s and the Danger of Off-
Balance-Sheet Deals." Washingtonpost.com, 20 April 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
"Code of Ethics and Professional Standards" CFA Institute, Vol. 2010, No. 14, June 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
Jeffers, Agatha E. "Lehman Brother -- the Thin Line between Aggressive Accounting and Unethical Behavior." European Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Issue 4, Winter 2011. Web. 18 March 2013.
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…
Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case
4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.
50 had been stolen out of the $1,000 in his drawer. The police interviewed Jones and after he admitted that he had ended his friendship over an unpaid $157 debt, they arrested him believing the neighbor's claim to have seen Jones climb out his window when he thought he was dreaming.
You have determined from interviewing several mutual friends of Jones and the neighbor that Jones was indeed owed the $157, and that Jones did commit the burglary, but you can easily subpoena the EZ-Pass records to prove that Jones' car was an hour out of town at the time he claimed to have been sleeping at home when the burglary occurred. The American Bar Association (ABA) Model Rules of Professional Conduct also allows you to use this witness who provided the information about the neighbor's habits during the discovery process to impeach the credibility of the neighbor as well…
If you allow Jones to take this plea, the consequences will be comparatively harmless: he will have to return $157.50 that was rightfully his in the first place and he will have to avoid any criminal conduct for six months to avoid jail time on the burglary charge. Jones could still sue the neighbor in civil court and recoup his debt by proving his case with the witnesses to the debt that you already interviewed. If you tell Jones about the neighbor's affair and you introduce that information in court, his family will be devastated. Your dilemma is whether or not to allow Jones to take the guilty plea or advise him to go to trial and then use the neighbor's lies to prove that he could not have witnessed the crime and that he is of questionable character in terms of his truthfulness as a witness. You know that Jones is guilty because he admitted it and you also know that the neighbor did owe Jones the exact amount that Jones stole from his drawer.
Implementing Cooper's Analysis:
This situation illustrates Cooper's definition (1998) of a complex ethical issue that involves multiple perspectives. You can prove the neighbor lied about witnessing Jones in his apartment even though you know that Jones did, in fact, steal the money that night while the neighbor was with his girlfriend. From the point-of-view of general equitable principles, Jones was morally and ethically entitled to the money that he stole from the neighbor. From the legal perspective, Jones did commit the exact crime of which he stands accused because he resorted to theft to recoup his debt. You use of the witness to impeach the
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
Summarize briefly the organization's background / history.
The World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1948. This was in response to the need for an entity which could address issues impacting various countries and their overall quality of health. They began cataloguing and analyzing how communicable diseases can be prevented over the long-term through effective coordination. Since this time, they have achieved a number of milestones through this approach to include: working to develop a vaccine for polio, helping to conduct the first heart transplant, focusing on effective vaccinations (in order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases), providing essential drugs to over 156 countries, the eradication of small pox and working to coordinate with various stakeholders around the globe. ("An Introduction to the World Health Organization," 2007)
Its primary mission is continuing to evolve with a focus on a number of objectives. The most notable include:
An Introduction to the World Health Organization. (2007). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/about/brochure_en.pdf
Health Ethics. (2011). WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/ethics/publications/ETX_Newsletter_May2011.pdf
How Culture Influences Health Beliefs. (2012). Euro Med Info. Retrieved from: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/how-culture-influences-health-beliefs.html/
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.
Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…
Describe in detail
Teleological, deontological, and virtue ethics: A comparison
Teleological ethics are also called consequence-based ethics. Teleological ethical systems emphasize the results of ethical decisions, versus the moral principles behind such decisions. Utilitarianism is an excellent example of teleological ethics. The stress in utilitarianism is doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, versus setting a precedent for all ethical actions. "It denies that moral rightness depends directly on anything other than consequences, such as whether the agent promised in the past to do the act now" (Armstrong 2011). What is good for the greatest number of people one day may not be the case several years from now, or even to morrow.
For example, no one would state that as an abstract moral principle, having to fire competent employees is a 'good thing.' However, bosses are often forced to do so, because of the…
Alexander, Larry & Michael Moore. (2007). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Armstrong, Walter. (2011). Consequentialism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Without seeing the wording of the consent form, there is little evidence to support the rejection of the study. The British Psychological Society's guidelines on informed consent can be found on page 12 of the Code of Ethics and Conduct. They are attached in Appendix A. There is no evidence in the one-paragraph case write-up that the proposed study does not give ample opportunity for participations to understand the nature of the study (i). The consent form should explain this and the researchers also have the opportunity on multiple occasions to explain the nature and consequences of the study.
Line (ii) is adhered to, as all volunteers will be required to sign the consent form. The wording of the paragraph is "asked to sign," and this should be amended to clarify: volunteers will be required to sign, and they will sign immediately prior to the interview.
Bans save cash. It is costly to encourage smoking in prisons. Smoke-harmed detainees and staff require costly medical care, for different tobacco impacts. Citizens pay, both by expanded duties, and by expanded insurance rates. The prison authorities must raise the issue with government officials and ask them how much smoking costs citizens. When inmates smoke in jail, more bills, hospital expenses, come to citizens: for the smokers' conditions, and for those of the nonsmokers around, being unconstitutionally pushed to inhale contaminated air (Ducat, 2009).
Approximately 50% of smokers die from tobacco related ailments (World Health Organization, 2007). Available evidence confirms that prisoners die from cancers related to smoking at higher rates than the public. Further, second hand smoking is also threatening lives of non-smokers within the system of prisons. They include workers, visitors, prison officers and other inmates. The ban on smoking in prison will dramatically reduce the…
Ducat, C.R. (2009). Constitutional interpretation. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Hendrick, J. (2010). Law and ethics in nursing and health care. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.
McWay, D.C., & McWay, D.C. (2010). Legal and ethical aspects of health information management. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
World Health Organization (2007). Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke: Policy recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice developed as a cohesive field in the late twentieth century, with the establishment of the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Journal, in 1998. The theory therefore represents a culmination of scholarly thought and analysis in the fields of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. As a cross-disciplinary theory, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice reveals the increasing hybridization of fields that relate to normative ethics.
Because Ethical Theory and Moral Practice is a relatively new field of scholastic inquiry, the field is currently "undergoing change," ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008). Changes reflect shifting social, economic, and political realities. Without falling pray to the traps of ethical relativism, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice remains heterogeneous and diverse.
The roots of the theory are difficult to trace because of the "disciplinary cross-pollination" that has occurred ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008).…
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links/special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
"What Makes Us Moral?" (2011). VU University Amsterdam. Retrieved online: http://www.ph.vu.nl/nl/onderzoek/secties/praktische-filosofie/conference-what-makes-us-moral/index.asp
Te profiled organization is Yout LifeLine America, ttp://www.youtlifelineamerica.com. Te organization is a not-for-profit 501 c3 tax-exempt status and domiciled in O'Fallon Missouri, United States. Yout LifeLine America (YLA) operates in multiple cities trougout America providing services targeted to te adolescent. Specifically, YLA coordinate efforts to influence yout via suc mediums as te arts, entertainment, sports and celebrities, to teac ways to be productive and encourage a mindset of sustained development.
YLA is a small business employing below ten employees. Te Founder & CEO is Roland Williams, Director of Development & Programs is Cedric Cobb, Katryn Vasconcellos is Event Guru, and Angela Castelli is Vice President of Operations. According to Angela Castelli, YLA as a very targeted approac to assisting te yout population.
"Tis organization as identified te gaps tat exist in our yout's culture today, educates and empowers tem to develop te skills tat allow tem to reac…
Dismal Ethics. Economist; 1/8/2011, Vol. 398 Issue 8715, p76-76, 1p, 1 Color Photograph
Thomson, G.S. 2010, "Taxonomy of Business Ethics Theories," SSRN Working Paper Series,, pp. n/a.
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…
1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.
2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
Leaving the Chinese market would mean, that company could take a major loss and it may affect the competitiveness of the firm in the global marketplace. That being said, this action would deal with the ethical dilemma, but at a high price. Working behind the scenes with the Chinese government, could mean that company officials, can slowly influence public policy on human rights. Where, government officials will not feel the public pressure to change. This could help to address the ethical dilemma. However, if these concerns are addressed in the wrong way, this could outrage the government. At which point, they could impose severe restrictions on the company.
Select the most appropriate action and justify it.
The most appropriate action that the company could take would be to: work from behind the scenes with the Chinese government. Where, there would be an emphasis on addressing this issue in non-confrontational way.…
Censorship in China. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/business-and-human-rights/internet-censorship/page.do?id=1101572
Who We Are. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/who-we-are
Maloney, L. (2008). Globe Trekkers. Multi-Family Executive. Retrieved from http://www.multifamilyexecutive.com/development/globe-trekkers-us-firms-expand-overseas.aspx
S. (Levine, 2008).
One of the paradoxes of modern medical science and technology is the blurring of the line between life and death, something that was never an issue before modern medicine (Griniezakis, 2007; Levine, 2008). That was the case even before the most recent revelations in 2009 that many patients previously diagnosed as being in long-term persistent vegetative states actually remained conscious throughout their ordeal and that several patients considered to be brain dead according to accepted criteria eventually recovered consciousness (Halpern, az, Kohn, et al., 2010). The obvious concern is that inaccurate diagnoses of persistent vegetative states and the premature declaration of death could result in the procurement of organs for transplant from patients who could still recover from their medical predicament. That issue, unlike religious objections to scientific research remains a valid bioethics concern.
The other principal ethical issue in relation to organ transplantation is in connection…
Griniezakis AM. "Legal and ethical issues associated with brain death." Issues in Law & Medicine (September 22, 2007).
Harrison TR, Morgan, SE, and Di Corcia MJ. "Effects of information, education, and communication training about organ donation for gatekeepers: clerks at the Department of Motor Vehicles and organ donor registries" Progress in Transplantation (December 1, 2008).
Halpern SD, Raz a, Kohn R, Rey M. Asch DA, and Reese P. "Regulated Payments for Living Kidney Donation: An Empirical Assessment of the Ethical Concerns"
Annals of Internal Medicine (March 16, 2010).
According to research, "Each man deserves respect because only he has had those exact life experiences and understands his emotions, motivations, and body in such an intimate matter," (ainbow 2010). Thus, Broadway was respecting the individual decisions of its players to decide whether or not the game was ok to play.
However, this was only followed outside of the United States. The decision locally was much different. Because of the nature of the young audience, there was the moral dilemma for the insertion of such sexually explicit references. And so, Broadway was not acting ethically when they failed to uphold local ethics abroad. According to research, "A winking tolerance of other's unethical behavior is in itself unethical," (Jennings 2007:14). ather than acting out of ethical obligation to others as they did to their own, Broadway let it slide and moved sales elsewhere, where they knew they could get away with…
Alexander, Larry & Moore, Michael. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Jennings, Marianne Moody. (2007). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage Learning Publishing.
Newton, Lisa H. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Business Ethics and Society. 10th ed. McGraw Hill.
Rainbow, Catherine. (2010). Descriptions of ethical theories and principles. Davidson College. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm
So long as the employees are aware of the potential on-the-job dangers, which they must be simply by having been hired, they have the right to choose whether or not to work long hours or to wear protective gear. A person who enters an automobile does so knowing that highway accidents are common; a bicycle rider who does not wear a helmet makes s similar choice. To deny the rights of individuals insults their intelligence
In fact, the rules and regulations that strangle personal freedoms also squelch the individual's intellect because when told what to do, a person is likely to follow the rules blindly without investigating the real risks involved. Mandating protective gear might, in fact, lead to a false sense of security among workers who believe that their hard hats will protect them in any situation when in fact, they will not. Libertarianism respects the rights and abilities…
Ethical Scenarios in Nursing Education
The scenario chosen for this analysis is one in which a colleague failed to conduct a class as was planned allowing students to leave early and not following instructions for the class. The problem that resulted is that only two groups presented in person and the other two groups posted their presentations on the Web. This content is scheduled on the next exam and no time is left for the student presentations.
This problem is one that should be handled in a manner that retains due respect for the colleague who instructed the class during the absence of the individual who was the instructor for this class. One of the principles in the statement of ethics for nursing education states as follows:
"As colleagues, professors have obligations that derive from common membership in the community of scholars. Professors do not discriminate against or harass colleagues.…
Statement on Professional Ethics (2012) American Association of University Professors. Retrieved from: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/statementonprofessionalethics.htm
From the utilitarian perspective, it can be assumed that the use of spyware will reduce the private use of computers and restore the lost work hours, which is a benefit for the company. Employee relationships with the company will be damaged, however, perhaps irrevocably, and this could also affect productivity. Managing the data from the spyware will also require company resources, which can be seen as a detriment. Deontologically speaking, it is generally considered wrong to spy, but it is also wrong to waste company time when an employee is accepting money in an agreement to work, not take care of private business. The two wrongs do not cancel each other out, but either decision leaves one side wronged, so neither system provides a direct answer to the problem.
A combination of the two approaches is not impossible, and in fact makes a great deal of sense in this scenario.…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). "Deontological ethics." Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Accessed 24 January 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/ #DeoThe
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2008). "Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach to Ethics." Markula center for applied ethics. Accessed 24 January 2010.
Mautner, T., ed. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of philosophy. New York: Penguin.
The placebo drink smells and tastes like alcohol. Everyone (regardless of condition) believes that they are getting alcohol. He then videotapes each person's communication behavior in a group setting with 10 other people (who are also randomly assigned to the placebo or alcohol condition). Participants sign an informed consent form saying that they are getting alcohol and that they will be participating in a group setting to get to know other people who are also drinking alcohol. They are not told that some of them will think they get alcohol when they are really sober.
There are no ethical issues or problems presented by this case either. Deception was necessary to conduct research in this cases but the type of deception involved in serving placebos instead of alcohol would not present any risk of emotional or other harm to participants. Since the nature of the deception would not cause emotional…
Ethical behavior of a person or a corporation greatly affects the stakeholders with which that person is involved. Often, people and companies take serious consideration when it comes to those stakeholders, and they work to take good care of the people who are involved with them (Keller, 2002). There have been cases, though, where ethical behavior has been ignored in the name of profit. Eventually, most companies and people who ignore their ethics are caught and punished, but not before they end up harming the financial and emotional lives of many of their stakeholders. Plato once said that the nature and the origin of justice was that men who were capable of doing wrong to other people would often do so. He also said that men who did not have enough strength to keep themselves from being harmed by others would not do harm to other people.
In other words,…
Anderson, A.A. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program.
Keller, K.W. (2002). What does a business owe the community? The Signal.
But the main question being asked by the people interested in this issue is if the fortunes play any significant role to the employees in Wuhan. This is quite unfair and unethical since the employees are the ones who make it possible for the products to be available in the market for Apples customers so they should enjoy the benefits the company gets.
The financial strength of Apple is not in question but the position that apple takes in ethical issues such as workers welfare at its suppliers is what many people have growing interest in. The continued highlighting and emphasis by media houses on the working conditions at some of Apples suppliers may start to influence and alter how customers perceive the brands fro Apple Inc. This might in the long run have an impact of the economic success that Apple has been boosting of in the recent years.…
Hinks, P. (2012). Leaders we Deserve. Apple's new leader faces ethical dilemmas at Foxconn. Retrieved December 3, 2012 from http://leaderswedeserve.wordpress.com/2012/01/31/apples-new-leader-faces-ethical-dilemmas-at-foxconn/
This is when insurance companies will charge more for premiums based upon someone coming from a particular ethnic group. In the past, many of these practices were utilized to give some kind of advantage to people who were from non-indigenous backgrounds. This focus is taking a similar approach, by showing how someone is a higher risk because of their ethnicity. These views are not considering the lifestyle choices they are engaging in such as: physical activities, their diet, if the person is a smoker or drinks alcohol. (Bombak 2012)
Instead, they will use this category to automatically rate indigenous people higher largely based upon this variable. From an ethical perspective, one could argue that insurance companies are discriminating against this segment of the population without taking into consideration other factors. This makes it difficult for this demographic to locate and obtain affordable life insurance because of these views. When this…
2012 Indigenous Report, 2012, Productivity Commission. Available from: [30 April 2013].
Genetic Discrimination, 2012, NHMRC. Available from: