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Moreover, the researcher who falsifies the data is prone to legal action as has been the case in the past when researchers have falsified research results (Normile C, 2006). Therefore, in order to deal with this grave issue, it is important to ensure that the data being incorporated in the research paper has been properly handled and it is being reported correct. Ensuring this would satisfy the ethical standards of scientific research to a very high extent, as there would then be no repercussions for the author of the research paper (CA & GL, 2000).
Mistakes and Negligence
Each research study is susceptible to error. The errors in scientific research are either caused by mistake or negligence. There are various factors that contribute to these mistakes during the research process. The prime reason being that the researchers are basically humans. They are bound by limitations such as limited resources and…
Allen, T.D. (2007). Mentoring relationships from the perspective of the mentor. In B.R. Ragins, & K.E. Kram, The handbook of mentoring at work: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 123-147). SAGE Publications, Inc. .
Bird, S.J. (2001). Mentors, advisors and supervisors: Their role in teaching responsible research conduct. Science and Engineering Ethics (7), 455-468.
CA, M., & GL, L. (2000). Research ethics: ethical issues of data reporting and the quest for authenticity. Acad Emerg Med. 7(6), 691-4.
Franklin G. Miller, P. a. (2008). Quality-Improvement Research and Informed Consent. N Engl J. Med (358), 765-767.
B. The Impact of ocietal Norms
All businesses function within and serves a society during any given time in history. ince as early as Aristotle, and even earlier, ethical codes and standards have dictated not only business, but also society as a whole. Aristotle's concept of "the good life" provided a starting point for ethical codes during Ancient Greek times and afterwards. The first articulated codes of ethics were then created to apply to society as whole rather than just to business. With the development of business practices, such codes of ethics also became necessary in this sector, and were intertwined with the ethics of conduct for society.
A business that serves society must have standards of conduct that relate to that society and are acceptable within the social context. This is even so if the business does not particularly focus on social or humanitarian services. Two common ethical standards…
American Sociological Association (2005, Oct 28). Ethics. http://www.asanet.org/cs/root/leftnav/ethics/ethics
Freeman, Stephen J., Engels, Dennis W. And Altekruse, Michael K. (2004, 1 April). Foundations for ethical standards and codes: the role of moral philosophy and theory in ethics.(Research and Theory). Counseling and Values. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4721448/Foundations-for-ethical-standards-and.html
ole of Ethical Standards and Codes in Psychology
One may wonder why it is so important to have an ethical code of behavior for psychologists. After all, psychologists are highly trained professionals who would not seem to need a rigid code to dictate how to behave in their professional lives. However, it is critical to keep in mind that, by the very nature of their work, psychologists become involved in the personal lives of their clients. Moreover, clients come to rely upon the advice of their psychologists, and oftentimes even the most legitimate advice can be painful or difficult for the client. Therefore, it can be very hard for clients to tell when a psychologist's behavior is outside of ethical norms. Furthermore, because psychologists are oftentimes helping people establish better interpersonal relationships, it can be very difficult for them to establish the appropriate boundaries. Because of the personal and vulnerable…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Kafka, P. (2008). Psychologist code of ethics. Retrieved September 27, 2011 from Suite 101
Scientific research facilitates acquisition of true knowledge, whose highest level is being able to examine scientific issues (Glickman et.al 2009). If knowledge constitutes a universal human property thus greatly impacting overall societal development and wellbeing, the key goal of science will clearly be the truth. Moreover, science’s credibility with the masses is reliant on upholding the highest standards of ethicality when conducting research. Sticking to such guidelines helps prevent deviation from acceptable ethical practices in research, besides facilitating the prevention of acute deviations which are considered misconduct on the part of the researcher (Baumrind, 1971). Researcher misconduct implies including untruths, distortions, or breach of copyright, which include credential misrepresentation, within research proposals, performance, reviews, and result reporting (Kruk, 2013).
The foremost step of a research project is to structure what and how to draft a report which would make the ideal scientific manuscript, as the report constitutes the chief means…
Baumrind, D. (1971). Principles of ethical conduct in the treatment of subjects: Reaction to the draft report of the Committee on Ethical Standards in Psychological Research. American Psychologist, 26(10), 887.
Christensen, L. B., Johnson, B., Turner, L. A., & Christensen, L. B. (2011). Research methods, design, and analysis.
Emanuel, E. J., Wendler, D., & Grady, C. (2000). What makes clinical research ethical?. Jama, 283(20), 2701-2711.
Glickman, S. W., McHutchison, J. G., Peterson, E. D., Cairns, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., & Schulman, K. A. (2009). Ethical and scientific implications of the globalization of clinical research.
Harriss, D. J., & Atkinson, G. (2013). Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research: 2014 update·. International journal of sports medicine, 34(12), 1025-1028.
Harriss, D. J., & Atkinson, G. (2015). Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research: 2016 update. Int J Sports Med, 36(14), 1121-1124.
Kruk, J. (2013). Good scientific practice and ethical principles in scientific research and higher education. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 1(1), 25-29.
Lawson, D. H., Sherman, V., & Hollowell, J. (1998). The General Practice Research Database. Scientific and Ethical Advisory Group. QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians, 91(6), 445-452.
policy guidelines and information about ethical responsibilities at the U.S. Naval Academy
Throughout its history, the U.S. Naval Academy has subscribed to the highest levels of ethical practice (HPP Section I: Guiding principles and applicability, 2011).
The Naval Academy's current honor code for midshipmen students specifically stipulates that:
Midshipmen are persons of integrity: They stand for that which is right.
They tell the truth and ensure that the full truth is known. They do not lie.
They embrace fairness in all actions. They ensure that work submitted as their own is their own, and that assistance received from any source is authorized and properly documented. They do not cheat.
They respect the property of others and ensure that others are able to benefit from the use of their own property. They do not steal (Honor concept, 2015, para. 2).
SLIDE NO. 2: Existing policy guidelines and information about ethical responsibilities…
Blume, H. (2009, May 13). Judge prohibits L.A. teachers strike: He grants a restraining order against the walkout planned for Friday, saying it defies the United Teachers union contract. Los Angeles Times, p. A4. Retrieved http://articles.latimes.com/2009/may / 13/local/me-lausd-strike13.
Edney, B. (2009, November 28). Ethics and the next century's Navy. The Washington Times, 5.
History of USNA. (2015). U.S. Naval Academy. Retrieved from
Health Care System
health care system received a boost with the introduction of the ObamaCare Medical Insurance Scheme. In this scheme, American citizens are given a chance to access high-quality medical care at a cheaper rate than before. In this scheme, the government has chipped in to subsidize the cost of medication to all the medical facilities in the country (Stavans, 2010). With the introduction of the Medicare program, more people can now access medication. This has translated to an increased health status in the country. Consequently, the life span in the country has gone up.
Given the state of health care in the U.S. currently, there is no need to have an improvement or additional measures. The present status is much appropriate. They are sufficient and meet the desired need. In the American medical program, there are enough medical facilities to meet the need. Americans also encounter a…
Kuriansky, J. (2011). The complete idiot's guide to a healthy relationship. New York: Alpha Books.
Standards, E. (2013). Ethical standards in law enforcement. Paperback.
Stavans, I. (2010). Healthcare. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood.
globe demonstrate that globalization has had significant influence in the development of a global set of accounting standards. This paper examines the role globalization has played in this process, especially in how it has contributed to the increased need for a global set of ethical standards. The discussion incorporates an evaluation of this need in light of recent accounting scandals attributed to unethical practices. The efforts taken by the United States and the international community towards establishing these standards are also discussed. In addition, challenges experienced by these two governing bodies in this process are also evaluated.
Globalization in Accounting Ethics:
Over the last several years, countries and capital markets across the world have become increasingly interdependent. Consequently, recent events have shown that a shock in one area or region may affect the other markets or regions. The increased interdependence of countries and capital markets has been characterized by increased…
Irvine, H.J. & Lucas, N. (2006). The Globalization of Accounting Standards: the Case of the United Arab Emirates. Retrieved from University of Wollongong website: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1229&context=commpapers&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3DGlobalization%2520In%2520Accounting%2520Ethics%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D3%26cad%3Drja%26uact%3D8%26ved%3D0CFMQFjAC%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fro.uow.edu.au%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1229%2526context%253Dcommpapers%26ei%3DWQ6eU4-XBurP0AXmk4GoCA%26usg%3DAFQjCNF8Zxzh3UMvhc3DfwvqGmW5tfYyyg%26sig2%3DF5VJBDVvbtoEtcf-Qrd_8g%26bvm%3Dbv.68911936%2Cd.d2k
Mitchem, C.E. (2009, January). Analysis of International Ethical Standards in Accounting.
International Business & Economics Research Journal, 8(1), 41-50. Retrieved June 15, 2014, from http://journals.cluteonline.com/index.php/IBER/article/download/3086/3134
Sadowski, S.T. & Thomas, J.R. (2012, May). Toward a Convergence of Global Ethics Standards:
Psychology and Ethical Standards
Ethical standards are indeed fluid and generally change as the values and needs of society change. The example of how it was permissible in society to discriminate against someone on the basis of their sexual orientation (viewing homosexuality as a psychiatric disorder) is indeed perfect in demonstrating that as society evolves there conceptions of right and wrong, moral and immoral are indeed fluid as well. I think that many of the codes and principles which are currently in place which relate to sex will be adjusted and adapted in time. One should not forget that America was one a group of Puritan colonies; how America and Americans relate to sex can often be traced to that Puritanical mindset at times. As one NBC anchor asserted, "we're a very puritanical country and so we're a little bit sexually repressed. So on the one hand we like hearing…
Apa.org. (2013). Standard 7: Education and training. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=9
Brennan, K. (2011, June 9). Nbc: 'puritanical' americans must become 'anesthetized' to sex scandals read more. Retrieved from http://newsbusters.org/blogs/kyle - drennen/2011/06/09/nbc-puritanical-americans-must-become-anesthetized-sex-scandals
What is a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order?
First used about fifty years ago, the do not resuscitate (DNR) order continues to elicit questions and discussion among medical experts and patients. The do not resuscitate order is a directive from a patient who specifically refuses consent for certain forms of medical interventions related to life-saving actions by hospital personnel. The presence of the DNR order makes it important that informed discussions between a specific patient, family, and physicians and staff are made regarding their medical conditions. In the modern day world, advances made in medical therapy that include end-of-life treatments, have made the presence of a DNR order even more crucial.
Epidemiological research has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the different forms and outcomes of resuscitation. However it is the physicians, patients, and institutional (hospital) policies that greatly influence the occurrence of DNR orders (Loertscher, Reed, annon, &…
Barlow, C. (2014). What does DNR/DNI really mean? Nursing, 65. Retrieved from: http://journals.lww.com/nursing/Citation/2014/08000/What_does_DNR_DNI_really_mean_.20.aspx
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (1994). Principles of biomedical ethics (4th ed). New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goel, V. (2008). Euthanasia - A dignified end of life! International NGO Journal, 224. Retrieved from: http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380895703_Goel.pdf
Hanson LC, Danis M, Garrett J. (1997). What is wrong with end-of-life care? Opinions of bereaved family members. J Am Geriatr Soc; 45: 1339-44
The concept of organs as commodities is one that sets a dangerous precedent for humankind. It turns people into potential banks that can be robbed at a moment’s notice—and indeed some are. With organs being viewed as so much in demand, it makes organ harvesting into a lucrative career for some who do not have the ethical restraints needed to keep one from viewing humans as mere means to wealth. Organs should not be allowed to be sold, because it cheapens the value of one’s existence. As no price can be put on one’s life or one’s existence, no price should be allowed to be put on one’s organs. Doing so only opens the door to abuses and sets a precedent that will eventually lead to everyone’s life being in danger of being stolen so that another might profit from the organs that one has.
Indeed, as Caplan and Parent…
Al Jazeera English. (2016). Asia’s kidney black market—101 East. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6yRKosE2MI&feature=youtu.be
Caplan, A., Parent, B. (n.d.). Organ transplantation. Retrieved from https://www.thehastingscenter.org/briefingbook/organ-transplantation/
Fowler, M. (2010). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Silver Spring, MD: ANA.
Jonsen, A. et al. (2010). Clinical Ethics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
National Geographic. (2015). Black market kidney transplant. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6mM_Yt7Iy7Q&feature=youtu.be
Organ Trafficking Prices and Kidney Transplant Sales. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.havocscope.com/black-market-prices/organs-kidneys/
Several ethical issues, dilemmas, and problems apply to various aspects of psychology, including educational and scientific practices. The expansive body of literature on ethical issues shows that ethical issues are normally multifaceted and usually pose societal, interpersonal, professional, emotional, and intellectual challenges to psychologists. Furthermore, every psychologist can act unethically and harm their clients. In brief, ethics is important in the field of psychology, for it guides psychologists and various aspects of the field they are married to.
Ethics, as a field, emerged from the inquiries about moral life by ancient Greek philosophers. The term ethics is now described as a set of principles or a system that can significantly alter previous considerations regarding choices and actions. Philosophers argue that ethics is a sub-discipline of philosophy that deals with the dynamics of what is right and what is wrong when making decisions. Concerning research, ethics is an evolving field;…
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…
Encyclopedia of Unethical Failure. (2007). Department of Defense.
Bruce, A. (1998). Motivating Employees. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Nemeth, C. (2011). Private Security and the Law. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.
Is it ethical to encourage Hindus to eat beef-containing McDonald's products, even if the consumer is free to choose to do so? Is it ethical to alter the healthy French relationship to food, to sell quickly consumed 'food on the go' burgers in that nation? Or to market beauty products in Asia that stress the loveliness of the wider estern eye-shape that Asian women cannot attain, without plastic surgery? If the marketing campaign is fully effective, the culture of the nation will be changed, even though stockholders may profit.
Any business boss can make a strong case for the view that agonizing over the impact of one's business decisions on the health of a competitor weakens your effectiveness," scoffs one industry analyst. (Parry, 2003) but while behaving unethically in the short run may reap rich marketing rewards, one could counter that a culturally exploitative and damaging campaign could generate such…
Boyd, Stephen. (Feb 2005) "Word of Mouth -- Marketing Code of Ethics." (Parry, 2004) Get Real. Retrieved 26 Mar 2005 at http://www.corante.com/getreal/archives/2005/02/09/word_of_mouth_marketing_code_of_ethics.php
Parry, Mike. (2004) "Moral Philosophy and Business." Philosophos. Retrieved 26 Mar 2005 at http://www.philosophos.com/philosophy_article_45.html
Sriniva, Tulasi. (3 April 2004) "When food defines culture: The gastronomic landscape that we inhabit is shifting." Deccan Herald. Retrieved 26 Mar 2005 at http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/apr302004/liv3.asp
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…
Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
Harvey, William. Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy: An Annotated Translation of Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis. Trans C.D. O'Malley, F.N.L. Poynter, and K.F. Russell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961.
Jecker, Nancy S. "Knowing When to Stop: The Limits of Medicine." The Hastings Center Report 21.3 (1991): 5.
Marble, Annie Russell. The Nobel Prize Winners in Literature. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.
The mall in Shanghai is not representative of all shopping experiences in China, and the questionnaire and its use of imagery and descriptions lack clarity and precision needed for more extrapolative results. The study however does underscore the role of ethicacy as a key determinant in defining if a person is going to purchase a counterfeit product or not.
Analysis of Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online:
An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions
One of the most rapidly expanding selling channels for counterfeit products are websites and e-commerce sites. On the Internet a counterfeiter can be up and running within a day or less, selling counterfeit items globally using PayPal and other well-known payment processing systems to manage transactions. This area of counterfeit luxury products selling is the subject of the study Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online: An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions (adon, 2012). The methodology is loosely defined as those customers who have…
Kozar, J.M., & Marcketti, S.B. (2011). Examining ethics and materialism with purchase of counterfeits. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(3), 393-404.
Ian Phau, Marishka Sequeira, Steve Dix, (2009) "To buy or not to buy a "counterfeit" Ralph Lauren polo shirt: The role of lawfulness and legality toward purchasing counterfeits," Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, Vol. 1 Iss: 1, pp. 68 -- 80
Phau, I., & Teah, M. (2009). Devil wears (counterfeit) Prada: A study of antecedents and outcomes of attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(1), 15-27.
Anita Radon (2012). Counterfeit luxury goods online: An investigation of consumer perceptions. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(2), 74-79.
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…
Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.
Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.
Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Ethical behavior of a person or a corporation greatly affects the stakeholders with which that person is involved. Often, people and companies take serious consideration when it comes to those stakeholders, and they work to take good care of the people who are involved with them (Keller, 2002). There have been cases, though, where ethical behavior has been ignored in the name of profit. Eventually, most companies and people who ignore their ethics are caught and punished, but not before they end up harming the financial and emotional lives of many of their stakeholders. Plato once said that the nature and the origin of justice was that men who were capable of doing wrong to other people would often do so. He also said that men who did not have enough strength to keep themselves from being harmed by others would not do harm to other people.
In other words,…
Anderson, A.A. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program.
Keller, K.W. (2002). What does a business owe the community? The Signal.
The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.
The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.
It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.
During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark
Ethical Analysis -- Strategy for Palliative Care
The sector for healthcare has, in the last 50 years, improved in its efforts towards cost minimization and service delivery enhancement. Some elements of improvement (such as automation) ensued from technological advances. However, other elements (such as strategy application) owe their establishment in the health sector to endeavors on the part of intelligent, like-minded people who understand life's worth, and that of minimal suffering when it comes to illness. Palliative care represents one such effort. It denotes a system targeted at delivering respite from painful, disturbing symptoms through the affirmation of life and considering death to be a process. Palliative care, as defined by the World Health Organization, is an approach, which enhances quality of life (QOL) of patients, suffering from life-threatening ailments, and their family via prevention and symptom relief. This, they achieve through early diagnosis, and proper assessment and pain treatment,…
Chambers, M. (2015) The Strategic Importance of Palliative Care Within the Irish Heath Service, The Irish Hospice Foundation, http://hospicefoundation.ie/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/The-strategic-importance-of-palliative-care-within-the-Irish-health-service-Perspectives-on-future-service-delivery.pdf (Retrieved;13,12,2015)
Fromme, E., Smith, M. (2015) Ethical Issues in Palliative Care, UptoDate, http://www.uptodate.com/contents/ethical-issues-in-palliative-care (Retrieved;13/11/2015)
Gabel, S. (2010) Ethics and values in Clinical practice: Whom do they help?, Mayo Foundation and Licence Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084645 / (Retrieved, 13/11/2015)
Policy Directive, (2010) Palliative Care Strategic Framework 2010-2013, Ministry of Health, NSW, http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2010/pdf/PD2010_003.pdf (Retyrieved:13/11/2015)
Ethical behavior is essential to conduct in business. In that business executives employ ethical behavior, relationships are predicated on trust and the maintenance of standards. However, the standards that are agreed to by a business are not established in a vacuum; they must be grounded in commonly held social principles in order to be valid in the context of a business environment. Many communities in the United States are predicated on a Christian value system. Even when community residents do not profess faith in the teachings of Christ, the residual effect of centuries of Christianity creates an intuitively Christian world-view in America and many other countries.
However, common perceptions about Christianity and the perceived adverse effects of 'fundamentalism' within Christian communities has resulted in a re-questioning of Christianity in the workplace; active measures have already been taken to eradicate it from many schools. However, the manager is still able to…
Whereas Hess implies that individual and social interests are in accordance, Burkett points out that certain businesses consistently act unethically and are able to get away with it. He likens this to a personal struggle with vice and a test of the Christian's faith; we see that Burkett assumes that his audience is Christian and that they are faced with temptations to engage in un-Christian behavior that may seem financially or socially amenable. Ultimately, Christianity is more than just a methodology of business conduct as are the conventional ethics of business. It is fortunate that the latter, in principle, attemps to accommodate the former.
Larry Burkett. Business by the Book. Thomas Nelson; 1998.
Peter Hess. Management: Responsibilities for Performance. McGraw-Hill; 1996.
On the subject of shareholders and adverse publicity, in the book Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance, the authors mention how much investors / shareholders "hate" surprises, in particular when the surprises are caused by the "unethical behavior of senior managers…" (Zimmerli, et al., 2007, p. 155). In today's mass media environment it is a sure thing that some blogger, local newspaper reporter or national cable news talking head is going to find out that company X has hired a lobbying firm to basically bust the competition. hen this story hits the 24-hour news cycle -- and the media today is extremely competitive, so it is a given that several media outlets will dig deeper into the story and be less than objective in their reports -- the shareholders will be hit with the surprise they did not want to be hit with.
An embarrassing public relations disaster like this…
Baglini, Norman a. (2001). Ethical Behavior, Corporate Culture and Financial Services. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, 26(3), 367-372.
Zimmerli, Walther Christoph, Zimmerli, Walther C., Richter, Klaus, and Holzinger, Markus.
(2007). Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance. New York: Springer.
Ethical Issues in Marketing Field
Ethics can be defined as standards employed by people to choose the right course of action amongst diverse, often conflicting possibilities. Ethics are reliant on a logical and rational set of principles to arrive at a decision, which in essence, is a cognitive procedure or practice. Ethical standards are an imperative element for any company or organization, especially in contemporary times, where a progression of the internet and information is accessible to any individual and as such individuals are prone to being online for extended periods (Sandilands, 2016). Ethics impact a business in various ways. One of the ways is the manner in which organizations carry out their advertising. Majority of the businesses will need to advertise their products or services with the principal aim of increasing their customer base, and thereby, their revenues. Businesses are obligated to undertake such activities ethically. Ethical advertising is…
Anastasia. (2015). Social Responsibility & Ethics in Marketing. Retrieved from: https://www.cleverism.com/social-responsibility-ethics-marketing/
Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2012). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. Cengage Learning.
McKenzie, N., Baker, R. (2016). Surf clothing label Rip Curl using 'slave labour' to manufacture clothes in North Korea. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 June 2016 from: http://www.smh.com.au/business/surf-clothing-label-rip-curl-using-slave-labour-to-manufacture-clothes-in-north-korea-20160219-gmz375.html
Sandilands, T. (2016). Marketing Issues That Have Ethical Implications. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/marketing-issues-ethical-implications-24089.html
For example, a nurse or physician may come across a patient that is near death due to pregnancy complications and the only way to save the mother is ostensibly to abort the fetus. That is the medical standard but many doctors and nurses would stay far away from ever involving themselves in an abortion even if there is an over-arching reason behind it that does not involve improper or non-use of birth control before the fact.
The article makes note that the moral standing and views of the patient should always override that of the medical professional according to 75% of respondents. It is noted that when a conflict arises, it is usually due to religious convictions. Complicating things greatly is the fact that freedom of religion is in the Bill of ights but many argue that this right is waived when speaking of life and death or even the…
Davis, S. (2012). Influencers of ethical beliefs and the impact on moral distress and conscientious objection. Nursing Ethics, 19(6), 738-749.
Stegman, M.S. (2008). Standards of Ethical Coding: Why everyone should be aware of them. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 10(1), 59-81.
BRIBERY AS AN ETHICAL ISSUE
Bribery is fundamentally unethical because it is inherently unfair. Regardless of the situation, bribery means that someone is transferring some form of compensation that is not permitted and that necessarily undermines the fair efforts of competitors or the purpose of rules and regulation. Where bribery occurs in connection with gaining an unfair advantage over others (such as bribing a college professor for a good grade), the ethical violation is a function of the fundamental right of others competing for the same goal to achieve it through only legitimate means. The student who bribes a college professor and receives a grade for it harms the other students by lowering the grading curve for everybody. In the long run, many instances of bribery of this kind would also diminish the value of the educational degree from an institution whose reputation as lowered by unqualified graduates who perform…
Ethical Business Behavior at CVS
CVS is a pharmaceutical health care company that engages in the provision of mail order pharmacy, specialty pharmacy, retail pharmacy and retail clinic care. The company has a wide range of network outlets and a customer base that requires strict adherence to the industry's laws and regulations. The company has a set of guidelines to facilitate ethical business practice in operation across all its branches.
The corporation has in place a program on compliance and integrity owing to the vastness of its operations. The integrity and compliance program seek to ensure that the company's operations are responsive to the dynamics of the environment. The integrity and compliance program provide a code of conduct, procedures, policies and training regarding ethical behaviors. The company requires all its employees and branches to cooperate with investigations relating to compliance and regulations. The integrity and compliance program also provide incentives…
This is dangerous for both clients and workers. When this becomes an issue in the human service field is when an organization is charged with a client that cannot be left alone. At this point in time, certain managers may desire to force employees to stay on the clock or to work while off the clock, but making such workplace violations can lead to an unsafe environment in which both client and worker are at risk. In addition, safety and OSHA workplace violation are an ethical problem that put many at risk, especially when one is working in a dangerous or medical field. Thus, workplace violations on the part of both workers and managers can be dangerous for all involved.
In conclusion, the field of human services is reserved for those who wish to provide care to others. Although this field is the perfect fit for those who genuinely have…
Department of Transportation. (2001). Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Fact Sheet For
Employees. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/complaint/Preventing_Sexual_Harassment.htm
National Organization for Human Services (1996). Ethical Standards of Human Services
Professionals. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/%5Btitle%5D-22
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
ethical issues have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a variety of challenges are impacting the way executives and employees are behaving inside the workplace. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tyco. What happened is Dennis Kozlowski was the CEO of the company from the early 1990s until 2002. This is when a wide scale fraud was reported, as he used the company's funds to live a lavish lifestyle. (Hitt, 2009)
To help support the fraud he encouraged some of his closet executives to participate in covering up these issues. At the same time, he had a seat on the board of directors and was effective at preventing them from independently investigating these events. This helped him to live a celebrity lifestyle by showing to the world how he was new generation of CEOs. They were focused on creating large…
Wall Street's Role. (2008). PBS News Hour. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec08/econtrouble_08-20.html
Barr, A. (2007). Subprime Crisis. Market Watch. Retrieved from: http://articles.marketwatch.com/2007-04-10/finance/30757552_1_mortgage-brokers-broker-home-loans-harry-dinham
Bryce, R. (2004). Pipe Dreams. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Goodwin, W. (2010). Previous BP Accidents. NPR. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126564739&ft=1&f=2&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+NprProgramsATC+%28NPR+Programs%3A+All+Things+Considered%29
ethical or unethical ground rules manifested in the situation (ethical theory that is broken) as well as which ethics theories should be applied to remedy the situation.
The Murdoch incident involved various leading British newspapers, specifically the 'News of the World' but also other tabloids all published by News International, all of which were a subsidiary of News corporation .The owner of News corporation was upert Murdoch hence the alias The Murdoch phone hacking scandal. Essentially, employees of the corporation were accused of employing improper means in their endeavor to gain new stories such as telephone hacking and bribing police officers during the years 2005-2007, and their targets for these stories almost always involved celebrities, members of the oyal family, and politicians. On 6 July, British prime minister David Cameron announced that a special investigation commission would investigate the incident. Lord Justice Levesonas named chairman of the inquiry on 13…
Davies, N. (8 July 2009). Trail of hacking and deceit under nose of Tory PR chief. The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/jul/08/murdoch-newspapers-phone-hacking . Retrieved 8/23/2011
O'Carroll, L. (20 July 2011). Phone-hacking inquiry extended to include broadcasters and social media. The Guardian (UK). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/jul/20/phone-hacking-inquiry-broadcasters-social-media .
Straubhaar, Joseph, LaRose, R., & Davenpor, Lt. (2010). Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology. 6th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth
Heawood, J. (13 July 2011). A new manifesto for media ethics.. The Guardian. UK. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jul/13/media-ethics-investigation-david-cameron .
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…
An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has
Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2¬Found=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Business operations are deemed viable of they succeed in establishing conditions that guarantee safety for its product consumers. Specified standards are applied by business entities to attain such viability. These considerations are critical in product safety, intellectual property, and marketing in general. If a company or business entity violates any of the aspects mentioned, it stands a high risk being caught in a web of ethical and legal complications that might destroy it. PhamaCARE finds itself in such a precarious predicament owing to its blatant violation of a number of legal and ethical standards. There were both ethical and legal problems that impacted on its clients and businesses. Investigating behavior is paramount in uncovering issues related to legal and ethical problems of any business entity.
Pursuant to the scenario above, identify three (3) legal issues and problems PharmaCARE has in relation to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of…
Johnson and Johnson have a written ethical policy that mandates the patient's welfare and well being to be the highest priority in the business.
n addition the policy calls for the fair and ethical treatment of physicians that will recommend and prescribe their products.
t is our fundamental responsibility to place the well-being of the patient first by appropriately balancing risks and benefits and to ensure that the best interests of patients and physicians who use our products receive utmost consideration (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm).
t is our responsibility to help ensure access to our products in the communities where we develop them (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm)
t is our responsibility to ensure all Company-based, medically relevant product information is fair and balanced, accurate and comprehensive, to enable well-informed risk-benefit assessments about our products (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm)."
The responsibly to challenge each other with regard to things such as ethical concerns and medical concerns.
In Johnson and Johnson employees are encouraged to come forward any time they feel something is being done that does not put the best interest of the client first. At Dow Jones they had top company management show up every three years to ask if there was anything suspicious going on.
If Dow Jones wanted to act more ethically they should have provided a much more open and more often evaluation of the company ethics position and practice. Instead of waiting three years for discussions on ethics there should have been monthly meetings in which employees were encouraged to come forward without fear of reprisal.
In addition it would have behooved the company to come forward in the 1970's when it was first aware of the possible problems with the implants. Instead the company waited until health issues did arise and then tried to claim there was not enough proof that the implant had caused them.
At which point, the attorney could face ethics charges because of this ethical conflict. To prevent such situations from occurring, it is advisable that all attorneys become passionately involved in their clients cases. This will ensure that they are always following the most ethical standards, by looking out for their client's best interests first. These points are significant, because the literature that was reviewed highlights the challenges that all attorneys are constantly grappling with, in regards to the issue of ethics. In some cases, the attorney may not be aware that they are in violation of an ethical standard, because of the delusion of impunity that exists. As a result, those attorneys who are constantly aware of the role that their ethics will play in this field will avoid such issues. This is why it is imperative that all attorneys understand their ethics, so that they can augment them to…
Graham, R. (2004 ). Legal Ethics. Toronto, on: Montgomery.
Luban, D. (1999). Reason and Passion in Legal Ethics. Stanford Law Review. 51 (9), 122 -- 129.
Rhode, D. (2000). Ethics in Practice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rubin, P. (1994). The Changing Role of Lawyers in Changing the Law. Journal of Legal Studies, 23 (2), 807 -- 831.
Professional Issues and Ethics in Counseling
Dr. Aaron Lieberman
Ethics and law are two concepts that are intertwined in the field of mental health though they have their own differences. According to Corey, Corey, Corey & Callahan (2014), law is a term that refers to the basic standards that will be tolerated by the society and imposed by government while ethics refers to the ideal standards that are established and imposed by professional associations. Medical professionals are faced with the need to be aware of any unethical behavior and practice since they can generate legal repercussions and affect licensure. This is an extremely important consideration for medical professionals, especially mental health practitioners who deal with situations that are likely to generate legal and ethical issues. An example of such as situation is Monique's situation, which has multiple relevant ethical and legal issues that need to be…
Corey, G., Corey, S. C, Corey, C., and Callahan, P. (2014). Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions (9th ed.). Stamford, CT.: Brooks/Cole.
Counseling Connection. (2013, March). Ethical Issues in Counseling. Retrieved November 26, 2016, from http://www.counsellingconnection.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Legal-and-Ethical-Issues-11.pdf
Did he have the right to make such promises knowing that the company may be moving to Mexico? The simple answer is no. It was unethical to make such promises knowing full well that the company may be moving to Mexico. However, it is not always simple. He made the promises knowing that the company MIGHT move to Mexico. The negotiations are still ongoing so at the time the promises were made he had no concrete knowledge that a move would be taking place. Because he had no knowledge of an actual move being planned, and only knew it was being negotiated he was under no legal obligation to not make those promises. Luckily ethical obligations and legal obligations are often two different things. Ethical obligations are not as concrete nor do they require proof beyond the shadow of a doubt. It is without question that the promises this company…
ERWIN, WESLEY J. Supervisor Moral Sensitivity. Counselor Education and Supervision; 12/1/2000;
Kensicki, Peter R. 'Utmost Good Faith' Implies Good Ethics. National Underwriter Property & Casualty-Risk & Benefits Management; 7/31/2000;
Reamer, Frederic G.,the Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.
Social Work; 7/1/2000;
Ethically, the social worker did everything in the correct manner. The NASW Code of Ethics states that "when social workers provide counseling services to families, couples or groups, social workers should seek agreement among the parties involved concerning each individual's right to confidentiality" (Code of Ethics, 2014). In this case, the social worker accomplished that by requesting confidentiality agreements before the group sessions began. Actions to be taken now include the fact that the social worker should speak with the party that leaked the information as well as the injured party. Legally speaking, the court system would not likely take kindly to a case such as this nature. Ethically speaking however, the case is a good example of just how careful the social worker has to be. Excluding the patient that leaked the information from participation in the group setting would be a good first step. The rationale for these…
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be…
Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.
Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.
Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.
Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
Ethics in Practicing Nursing
Nursing ethics is an important part of treating patients. It is important for nurses to understand and abide by the nursing ethical code of conduct. The Health Information Privacy Act (HIPAA) protects the patients' rights, and it protects their privacy. Health care professionals must adhere to the rules of HIPAA to ensure the rights of patients are not violated and their privacy is protected. In this paper I will discuss some strategies that can be employed to help nurses stay current in their practices. I will also discuss ethical practices in nursing, including confidentiality and privacy.
According to Silva & Ludwick (2006) ethics is one of the most important issues in nursing. Nurses should consider their ethical responsibilities when working with each patient in every aspect of practice. The fundamentals for practicing nursing are their social responsibility, their respect for the person, their commitment to do…
Erickson, J. & Millar, S. (2005). Caring for Patients While Respecting Their Privacy: Renewing Our Commitment. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 10 No. 2, Manuscript 1. Retrieved on Jan 20, 2011 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume102005/No2May05/tpc27_116017.aspx
Silva, M. & Ludwick R., (2006). Ethics: Is the Doctor of Nursing Practice Ethical? OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 11 No. 2. Retrieved on Jan 20, 2011 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Ethics/DNPEthical.aspx
Accounting: Ethical Issues in Budgeting
What should an employee do when he or she discovers that there is an error in a projection?
Accounting professionals have a duty to observe high standards of conduct and integrity in order to uphold the reputation of the accounting profession. For instance, if an error occurs in sales projections, the accountant has a duty to correct the error immediately and inform the head of the department or manager of the company. Sales projections are crucial to a company's budget because they give an idea of the amount of revenue the company intends to generate in future. Since they help determine the health of the company, majority of the decisions the company makes will based on the projected figures. If an accountant chooses to conceal errors in the projections, therefore, wrong decisions will be made and the overall performance of the company will be affected…
Business Ethics and Corporate Social esponsibility Page |
Outside Evaluation elated to Corporate Governance and Business Ethics
Corporate social responsibility is the corporate conscience of the company that provides corporate self-regulation combined with business models (D Wood, 1991). The CS policy framework provides guidelines for businesses to have active compliance with the corporate laws, ethical standards and international norms if the company is doing business globally. The objective of CS policy guideline is to encourage company towards activities that supports positive work environment, consumer care, employee development, community responsibility, stakeholders concerns and external public affair. CS proactively augment the public interest (PI) by encouraging community growth and development, and voluntarily eliminate actions that harm the public interest, regardless of legality (Saether, Kim T. & uth V. Aguilera, 2008). The corporate social responsibility is the model of Creating Shared Value. The shared value model is built on the idea…
D Wood, (1991). Corporate Social Performance Revisited. The Academy of Management Review
Gray, R.H. Owen D.L. & Maunders, K.T. (1987) Corporate Social Reporting: Accounting and accountability, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall, 1987
Heiman, Frederick D. (2008). Designing effective incentive bonus programs
Retrieved on 20th Oct 2011 through:
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Quinn, J. (1997) "Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical…
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The topic of spiritual transformation will be grounded upon the ethics presented within the Holy Bible and the teachings of the Apostle Paul. There must be a solid foundation to build ethical principles on for a true transformation to occur. When the training up is unrecognized, the transformation process will ultimately fail in its attempt. With this in mind, there will be a question to be answered in delivery of the thesis and its corresponding evidence of argument. The question will be "What is the foundational source to ground spiritual formation on?" The ethical ground of the Pauline ethics will consist of such things as moral instructions, passion, love, community formation, and virtues. The ultimate goal of Christian ethics is the fulfillment of being Christ-like. The character of Jesus Christ is the greatest goal to strive for. The thesis statement is "A Christians ethical foundation must be centered…
Giannet, S.M. (2002). The Radical Ethics of Jesus. The American Journal of Biblical Theology. Retrieved from http://www.biblicaltheology.com/Research/GiannetS02.html
Hartog, P. (2011). The Integrative Role of the Spirit in the Ethics of Galatians. Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal, 16, 19-39.
Harrison, N.V. (1996). The Holy Spirit and Ethics: A Response to Philip S. Keane. CTSA Proceedings, 51, 114-119.
Pettegrew, L. (2000). Theological Basis of Ethics. The Master's Seminary Journal, 11(2), 139-153.
Counseling is a highly sensitive profession that depends on maintaining boundaries and solidifying trust. The establishment of clear ethical codes helps counselors to understand their roles and responsibilities to clients and to their colleagues. Laws at the state and federal level may provide additional protection to both clients and counselors and determine penalties for ethical violations. However, counselors inevitably encounter ethical dilemmas. Ethical dilemmas can arise when there is a conflict between two or more moral standards, or between the law and an ethical standard. Likewise, a counselor’s personal moral code could sometimes conflict with the law or the ethical code guiding their professional practice. This paper outlines some of the most common ethical and legal dilemmas counselors are likely to face, and how counselors can rightfully and safely resolve those conflicts.
The counseling profession is governed by a set of ethical standards similar to those used in…
Ectopic Pegnancy and the Jehovah's Witness
It is impotant to be awae of cultual and eligious beliefs within a community, especially as a health cae povide, because when dealing with patients fom within that community thee can be tensions that aise if the teatment violates a pinciple of the cultual/eligious community. This would be the case wee a membe of Jehovah's Witness community to come into the hospital with the symptom descibed in the case study in which the woman has ectopic pegnancy. Because it is a tenant of the Jehovah's Witness community to eject blood tansfusion, it is impotant that a hospital have a back-up plan fo such cases so as to be able to pactice "bloodless medicine" in ode to save the lives of patients like the 25-yea-old woman in the case scenaio (Ratcliffe, 2004). This pape will discuss the impact of teating Jehovah's Witnesses when the teatment…
references and the Right to Forgo Life-Saving Treatments. Social Theory and Practice, 41(4): 716-733.
International medical Laboratories, acronymed as IML, is one of the largest manufacturers of biomedical equipments. The unique selling point of IML is completing heart surgeries using high class equipments. John Cannon is the man behind the structure of the German section of the company (Morris, 1997). John now aims to increase his market reach by approaching surgeons based in Germany. He targets all the clinics and hospitals of this area. John is also the marketing manager of this line of product so it is his responsibility to increase yhe company's reach in international lands. As John plans to expand the company's reach, he will need to address issues of quality, reliability and economic nationalism (Morris, 1997).
In order to establish the credibility of IML, John sets up a meeting with the known cardiovascular surgeon of the region, Dr. Hans ombach. John is sure that if Mr. ombach agrees to go…
1) Morris, T. (1997). The Prominent Dr. Rombach. Case Research Journal, 117-121. (Case Study File Provided By Customer)
2) Dyck, B., & Neubert, M. (2008). Management: Current Practices and New Directions. Cengage Learning.
3) Writer Thoughts
4) Williams, J. (n.d.). Business Ethics Policies & Procedures. Retrieved February 18, 2015, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/business-ethics-policies-procedures-2728.html
Nursing a Profession?
The world of work is a daily reality for many people. Indeed, any physically and mentally healthy adult is expected to find some form of employment to support him- or herself and any dependents there may be. It follows that there are many professions and jobs to choose from. Some of these can be categorized as unskilled labor, such as working as a sales clerk at a fast-food outlet. Others require a degree of skill or study. These can be referred to as professions, since they tend to be chosen for their long-term possibilities and their fit to the personality or specific passions of the professional. On a slightly higher level, there are those professions that can be considered a calling. Ministers of religion, for example, tend to regard themselves as "called." In my view, nursing is therefore not only a profession, but also a calling. Professional…
American Nurses Assocation. (2014). Professional Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/nursingstandards
Board of Registered Nursing (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.rn.ca.gov/about_us/whatisbrn.shtml
Like any other business, multinationals face a myriad of challenges that hamper ideal growth and development of such organizations. The increasingly competitive landscape has made these multinational companies (MNCs) strive hard to survive in the market. egulatory, cultural differences and the uncertain market outlook elucidates these challenges in MNCs. Organizational theorists have established a number of challenges that affect these firms, some which are different from those of domestic firms. Cross-cultural differences have emanated as a major hurdle concerning MNCs. Market liberalization and globalization have fueled a number of risks, some which are unique to MNCs (Cullen & Parboteeah, 2009).
The dynamic and turbulent business environment has presented several challenges, some that were never experienced before. The developing nations have upgraded their productive capabilities as they can now offer technologically sophisticated products and services. In this case, they have increased competition unlike in the previous years. In the…
Cullen, P.P. & Parboteeah, K.P. (2009). International Business: Strategy and the Multinational Company. New York: Routledge
Halbert, T. & Ingulli, E. (2014). Law and Ethics in the Business Environment. New York: Cengage Learning
Ethical Values and Behavior
Moral Leadership: Batson vs. Tyler
Batson (Chapter 8, hode, 2006) is of the view that moral leadership is about getting people to uphold moral standards and to always act ethically. The underlying assumption is that when everyone acts within their moral capacities, the organization and society as a whole is deemed to benefit. Acting morally, according to Batson, means looking out for the needs and well-being of others, and acting in their favor whenever our interests and theirs are in conflict. Moral leadership is about getting the people around you to look out for others, and to always put the needs of others before their own. It is about motivating people to care for the needy, promote justice in society, conduct their businesses within ethical boundaries, pay their taxes, vote, recycle harmful substances, and contribute to charity programs, not because they derive benefit from doing so,…
Hill, J.L. (1996). The Case for Vegetarianism: Philosophy for a Small Planet. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield.
Mackinnon, B. & Fiala, A. (2014). Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues (concise, 8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral Leadership: The Theory of Practice and Power, Judgment and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
In the article Ethical Issues in Information Technology, author Richard T. DeGeorge points out the existence of five interrelated ethical issues: issues in the usage of technology in business, issues in the it business, issues related to the Internet, issues in e-business and issues affecting the social background. Each of the five categories presents several ramifications. The article has a general coverage, an informal writing and throughout its 24 pages presents reduced details. The article merely highlights the existence of ethical problems and concerns in the information technology sector and poses questions as to how could these problems be best resolved. The academician also gives short but relevant examples as to how it procedures are being improperly used to deceive and cause harm. Among these examples, DeGeorge includes shortcoming of the medical systems, within organizations and individual usage of the Internet, mentioning at all times the inappropriate legislature.…
Anderson, James G., Goodman, Kenneth, 2002, Ethics and Information Technology: A Case-Based Approach to Health Care System in Transition (Health Informatics), 1st Edition, Springer
DeGeorge, Richard T., 2002, Ethical Issues in Information Technology, Blackwell Publishers
Hongladaram, Soraj, Ess, Charles, 2006, Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives, IGI Global
Johnson, Doug, 2007, Information Technology Ethics, Doug Johnson Website, Creative Commons License, http://www.doug-johnson.com/ethics/,last accessed on December 7, 2007
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
Ethical subjectivism could also be called 'relativism,' or the notion that there is no external, objective moral authority. We as humans create our ethical norms, and ethics are culturally contextual. Ethical subjectivism stands in contrast to objectivism, which holds that there are objective moral standards by which all moral actions should be judged. "Moral statements are made true or false by the attitudes and/or conventions of the observers, and any ethical sentence just implies an attitude, opinion, personal preference or feeling held by someone" (Ethical subjectivism, 2012, Philosophy Basics).
A good example of this can be seen in the pragmatic philosophy of William James. In his Varieties of eligious Experience, James argued that all faiths were effectively divided into two categories: that of the 'religion of healthy-mindedness' and the 'sick soul. "We have all known or met people who seem happy all the time, who are…
Agler, David. (2012). Lecture 3: Ethical subjectivism and emotivism.
Ethical subjectivism. (2012). Philosophy Basics. Retrieved:
" The code also states when communicating investment information care must be taken to ensure that it is fair, accurate and complete as well as make full and fair disclosure of all matters that could reasonably be expected to impair their independence and objectivity or interfere with respective duties to their clients, prospective clients, and employer.
Evidence indicates Lehman's senior financial executives knew of the Repo 105 transactions and certified the accuracy of Lehman's financial statements and disclosures despite having full knowledge that the company had engaged in the use of these transactions to hide their toxic assets and make their financial statements appear to be in good health when, in reality, they were not. These executives were fully aware that the financial statements were misleading and did not fairly present the true position of the company.
Hiding toxic assets and releasing favorable financial statements to investors each quarter clearly…
Ahrens, Frank. "Lehmann Brothers, the Evil Repo 105s and the Danger of Off-
Balance-Sheet Deals." Washingtonpost.com, 20 April 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
"Code of Ethics and Professional Standards" CFA Institute, Vol. 2010, No. 14, June 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
Jeffers, Agatha E. "Lehman Brother -- the Thin Line between Aggressive Accounting and Unethical Behavior." European Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Issue 4, Winter 2011. Web. 18 March 2013.
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…
Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.
Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.
Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.
Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.